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Sample records for potato infection courts

  1. Role of Antibiosis in Competition of Erwinia Strains in Potato Infection Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrood, Paige E.; Rella, Manuela; Schroth, Milton N.

    1988-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum strains produced a bactericidal antibiotic in vitro that inhibited a wide spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The optimum temperature for production was 24°C, and the addition of glycerol to culture media enhanced antibiotic production. Antibiotic production by these strains in the infection court of potato was the principal determinant enabling it to gain ascendancy over competing antibiotic-sensitive Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strains. There was a complete correlation between antibiotic production by E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum in vitro and inhibition of competing E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains in planta. Inhibition of the latter by the former was apparent after 10 h of incubation in potato tuber wounds. Population densities of sensitive E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains in mixed potato tuber infections with E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum were approximately 106-fold lower after 48 h of incubation than in corresponding single sensitive strain infections. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora were not inhibited in tuber infections that were incubated anaerobically. This correlated with the absence of antibiotic production during anaerobic incubation in vitro. Antibiotic-resistant strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora were not inhibited in planta or in vitro by E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum. Moreover, isogenic antibiotic-negative (Ant−) mutant E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum strains were not inhibitory to sensitive E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains in tuber infections. PMID:16347633

  2. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  3. Infection of potato mesophyll protoplasts with five plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, H; Harrison, B D

    1982-12-01

    Methods are described for preparing potato mesophyll protoplasts that are suitable for infection with inocula of virus nucleoprotein or RNA. The protoplasts could be infected with four sap-transmissible viruses (tobacco mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot and tomato black ring viruses) and with potato leafroll virus, which is not saptransmissible. No differences were observed in ability to infect protoplasts with potato leafroll virus strains differing either in virulence in intact plants or in aphid transmissibility.

  4. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  5. Localization of potato leafroll virus in leaves of secondarily-infected potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Blank, de C.M.; Peters, D.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) antigen was localized by immunogold labelling in semi-thin leaf sections of secondarily-infected potato plants cv. Bintje. Viral antigen was present in all cell types of the phloem tissue. but occurred most abundantly in the companion cells. Detectable amounts of PLRV

  6. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  7. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

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    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  8. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  9. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  10. Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... solanacearum in potato tuber seed certification schemes more so in screening for presence of R. solanacearum in seed ... Bacterial wilt is, after late blight, the most important ... with respect to tuber-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and those ... The potato crop was preceded by maize. Bacterial wilt ...

  11. Comparison between Proteome and Transcriptome Response in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaves Following Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-07-06

    Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.

  12. The influence of Potato virus Y infection on the ultrastructure of Pssu-ipt transgenic tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnablová, Renáta; Synková, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 5 (2005), s. 713-721 ISSN 1058-5893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ultrastructure * viral infection * Potato virus Y-NTN Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2005

  13. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    Potato crop as a food staple takes a fourth place in the world by impotence after wheat, maize, and rice. Under present-day conditions, the role of this crop will invariably grow up, as fighting hunger is a number one problem in the 21st century. Planting material quality is very important for profitable potato production, and this quality is determined by the absence of disease-including organisms in tubers. Viral diseases cause much damage to crop production. Planting material tubers infected with viruses are an important source of the primary inoculum and infection is transferred in a mechanical way. Without effective methods of viral disease control, the losses of yield are considerable, as well as potato quality determination, so the obtaining of virus free planting material is a primary task for the planting material producers. During the last decades, the progress in potato viral disease control is connected with tissue culture research activities, as a result of which it became possible to obtain virus -free tabers from the varieties formerly completely infected. The use of meristem-tip culture for the obtaining of virus free plants has been based on the assumption that viruses were not able to penetrate the meristem tissues of the buds. Later on, it was found out that viruses penetrated into the meristems but the remediation of plants occurs in the process of tissue culture in vitro. Up to date hypotheses of remediation from the viruses occurring in the process of in vitro culture show that an interrelation in the system “virus - host plant” is affected by many factors, but some intensive redox processes take place in the meristems, creating an environment in which viral replication becomes suppressed. An important part in phytoviral pathogenesis is played by abiotic environmental factors. Gravity is a necessary condition for the growth and spatial orientation of plants, whereas the disturbances of g-vector change the structure of plant organism, its

  14. Development of on-line sorting system for detection of infected seed potatoes using visible near-infrared transmittance spectral technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeun [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun Soon [Dept. of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, an online seed potato sorting system using a visible and near infrared (40 1100 nm) transmittance spectral technique and statistical model was evaluated for the nondestructive determination of infected and sound seed potatoes. Seed potatoes that had been artificially infected with Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which is known to cause a soil borne disease infection, were prepared for the experiments. After acquiring transmittance spectra from sound and infected seed potatoes, a determination algorithm for detecting infected seed potatoes was developed using the partial least square discriminant analysis method. The coefficient of determination(R{sup 2}{sub p}) of the prediction model was 0.943, and the classification accuracy was above 99% (n = 80) for discriminating diseased seed potatoes from sound ones. This online sorting system has good potential for developing a technique to detect agricultural products that are infected and contaminated by pathogens.

  15. Selection of maintaining, method for keeping of biologial purity, patternship and health, regarding viruses infection of distinguished potato breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines disappeared as an effect of nonfavourable climatically conditions and especially by viruses diseases, as well as other biological and viruses degeneration. To avoid the negative effect of degeneration on potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines, the method of selection for maintaining and multiplication of potato is applying in Romania in the frame of National Center for Maintaining of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines Apa Rosie, Covasna County, which belong to the Station for Research and Development of Potato, Targu Secuiesc, Covasna County.In this center are maintained and multiplied all distinguished varieties and breeding centers from Romania (National Institute for research and Development of Potato and Sugar beet Brasov, Research and Development Station for Agriculture Suceava, Research and Development Station for Potato Targu Secuiesc, Research and development Station for Potato Miercurea Ciuc.Using the method of selection for maintaining it is possible an early identification of somatic mutations, disease (especially viruses infection by visual elimination or by serological testing.The viruses’ infection of potato leads to disturbed the metabolism of plants and produces anatomical – morphological alters as: mosaic, crinkle, rolling, browning of leaves and plants deformation.The disturbing of plant metabolism has as negative effect the reduction of vegetation period, decreasing the yield capacity, depreciation of physical and chemical quality of tubers.The genetically complex structure of cultivated potato (2n = 4x = 48 and strong segregation of long – expected characters in the obtained future progeny by sexual hybridization, complicated many times by nonfavourable linkage, are the backgrounds for initiation of maintain selection.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy and histopathological observations of Beauveria bassiana infection of Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulin; Wu, Hui; Ma, Zhiyan; Yang, Liu; Ma, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis. After 48 h, the conidia invaded the larvae with germ tubes and began to enter the haemocoel. By 72 h, hyphae had covered the host surface and had colonized the body cavity. The dermal layer was dissolved, muscle tissues were ruptured and adipose tissue was removed. The mycelium had damaged the intestinal wall muscles, and invaded into intestinal wall and midfield cells resulting in cell separation and tracheal deformation. After 96 h of inoculation, the internal structure of the larvae was destroyed. The research shows that B. bassiana NDBJJ-BFG surface inoculation resulted in a series of histopathological changes to the potato beetle larvae that proved lethal within 72 h. This indicated that this fungus has a high pathogenicity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Natural co-infection of Solanum tuberosum crops by the Potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in Colombia

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    Angela Villamil-Garzón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.

  18. Determining Specific Window Period for Common Scab Disease Infection in Potato Tubers

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    Bhim Bahadur Khatri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments was conducted under glasshouse and hydroponic conditions to determine the specific window period for common scab disease infection in potato tubers. The study was performed in a glasshouse system where separate tubers from the root zone were inoculated at different intervals during plant growth along with a novel hydroponic system to inoculate individual tubers at specific times of development growth allowing non-destructive observations of common scab symptoms developing. The window of tuber susceptibility to common scab disease infection was shown to vary with the season or conditions under which the plants were grown. Different internodes on tubers were found susceptible to infection at different times during tuber development. Basal internodes, which are the first sections of the tuber to expand, were susceptible to infection in the beginning of tuber development, whereas apical internodes only became susceptible later in tuber growth when the basal internodes were no longer susceptible.

  19. Salicylic acid is an indispensable component of the Ny-1 resistance-gene-mediated response against Potato virus Y infection in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baebler, Š; Witek, K; Petek, M; Stare, K; Tušek-Žnidarič, M; Pompe-Novak, M; Renaut, J; Szajko, K; Strzelczyk-Żyta, D; Marczewski, W; Morgiewicz, K; Gruden, K; Hennig, J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of salicylic acid (SA) signalling in Ny-1-mediated hypersensitive resistance (HR) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y (PVY). The responses of the Ny-1 allele in the Rywal potato cultivar and transgenic NahG-Rywal potato plants that do not accumulate SA were characterized at the cytological, biochemical, transcriptome, and proteome levels. Analysis of noninoculated and inoculated leaves revealed that HR lesions started to develop from 3 d post inoculation and completely restricted the virus spread. At the cytological level, features of programmed cell death in combination with reactive oxygen species burst were observed. In response to PVY infection, SA was synthesized de novo. The lack of SA accumulation in the NahG plants led to the disease phenotype due to unrestricted viral spreading. Grafting experiments show that SA has a critical role in the inhibition of PVY spreading in parenchymal tissue, but not in vascular veins. The whole transcriptome analysis confirmed the central role of SA in orchestrating Ny-1-mediated responses and showed that the absence of SA leads to significant changes at the transcriptome level, including a delay in activation of expression of genes known to participate in defence responses. Moreover, perturbations in the expression of hormonal signalling genes were detected, shown as a switch from SA to jasmonic acid/ethylene signalling. Viral multiplication in the NahG plants was accompanied by downregulation of photosynthesis genes and activation of multiple energy-producing pathways.

  20. Potato virus Y (PVY) Isolates from Physalis peruviana are Unable to Systemically Infect Potato or Pepper and Form a Distinct New Lineage Within the PVYC Strain Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelsie J; Chikh-Ali, Mohamad; Hamasaki, Randall T; Melzer, Michael J; Karasev, Alexander V

    2017-11-01

    Poha, or cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), is a plant species cultivated in Hawaii for fresh fruit production. In 2015, an outbreak of virus symptoms occurred on poha farms in the South Kohala District of the island of Hawaii. The plants displayed mosaic, stunting, and leaf deformation, and produced poor fruit. Initial testing found the problem associated with Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Six individual PVY isolates, named Poha1 to Poha6, were collected from field-grown poha plants and subjected to biological and molecular characterization. All six isolates induced mosaic and vein clearing in tobacco, and three of them exhibited O-serotype while the other three reacted only with polyclonal antibodies and had no identifiable serotype. Until now, PVY isolates have been broadly divided into pepper or potato adapted; however, these six PVY isolates from poha were unable to establish systemic infection in pepper and in four tested potato cultivars. Whole-genome sequences for the six isolates were determined, and no evidence of recombination was found in any of them. Phylogenetic analysis placed poha PVY isolates in a distinct, monophyletic "Poha" clade within the PVY C lineage, suggesting that they represented a novel, biologically and evolutionarily unique group. The genetic diversity within this poha PVY C clade was unusually high, suggesting a long association of PVY C with this solanaceous host or a prolonged geographical separation of PVY C in poha in Hawaii.

  1. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  2. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...

  3. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  4. Dynamics in the tomato root transcriptome on infection with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Magdalena; Filipecki, Marcin; Lont, Dieuwertje; Van Vliet, Joke; Qin, Ling; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes infect roots and trigger the formation of specialized feeding sites by substantial reprogramming of the developmental process of root cells. In this article, we describe the dynamic changes in the tomato root transcriptome during early interactions with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism-based mRNA fingerprinting (cDNA-AFLP), we monitored 17 600 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected and uninfected tomato roots, 1-14 days after inoculation with nematode larvae. Six hundred and twenty-four TDFs (3.5%) showed significant differential expression on nematode infection. We employed GenEST, a computer program which links gene expression profiles generated by cDNA-AFLP and databases of cDNA sequences, to identify 135 tomato sequences. These sequences were grouped into eight functional categories based on the presence of genes involved in hormone regulation, plant pathogen defence response, cell cycle and cytoskeleton regulation, cell wall modification, cellular signalling, transcriptional regulation, primary metabolism and allocation. The presence of unclassified genes was also taken into consideration. This article describes the responsiveness of numerous tomato genes hitherto uncharacterized during infection with endoparasitic cyst nematodes. The analysis of transcriptome profiles allowed the sequential order of expression to be dissected for many groups of genes and the genes to be connected with the biological processes involved in compatible interactions between the plant and nematode.

  5. Potato leafroll virus structural proteins manipulate overlapping, yet distinct protein interaction networks during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Johnson, Richard; Sweeney, Michelle M; Karasev, Alexander; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) produces a readthrough protein (RTP) via translational readthrough of the coat protein amber stop codon. The RTP functions as a structural component of the virion and as a nonincorporated protein in concert with numerous insect and plant proteins to regulate virus movement/transmission and tissue tropism. Affinity purification coupled to quantitative MS was used to generate protein interaction networks for a PLRV mutant that is unable to produce the read through domain (RTD) and compared to the known wild-type PLRV protein interaction network. By quantifying differences in the protein interaction networks, we identified four distinct classes of PLRV-plant interactions: those plant and nonstructural viral proteins interacting with assembled coat protein (category I); plant proteins in complex with both coat protein and RTD (category II); plant proteins in complex with the RTD (category III); and plant proteins that had higher affinity for virions lacking the RTD (category IV). Proteins identified as interacting with the RTD are potential candidates for regulating viral processes that are mediated by the RTP such as phloem retention and systemic movement and can potentially be useful targets for the development of strategies to prevent infection and/or viral transmission of Luteoviridae species that infect important crop species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of Potato virus X (PVX) infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo A; Alzate, Juan F; Montoya, Mauricio Marín

    2015-06-01

    Transcriptome analysis of a Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) plant with leaf symptoms of a mild yellow mosaic typical of a viral disease revealed an infection with Potato virus X (PVX). The genome sequence of the PVX-Physalis isolate comprises 6435 nt and exhibits higher sequence similarity to members of the Eurasian group of PVX (~95 %) than to the American group (~77 %). Genome organization is similar to other PVX isolates with five open reading frames coding for proteins RdRp, TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and CP. 5' and 3' untranslated regions revealed all regulatory motifs typically found in PVX isolates. The PVX-Physalis genome is the only complete sequence available for a Potexvirus in Colombia and is a new addition to the restricted number of available sequences of PVX isolates infecting plant species different to potato.

  7. Lipopolysaccharides of Rhizobium etli strain G12 act in potato roots as an inducing agent of systemic resistance to infection by the cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M; Rudolph, K; Schröder, I; Hoffmann-Hergarten, S; Hallmann, J; Sikora, R A

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that living and heat-killed cells of the rhizobacterium Rhizobium etli strain G12 induce in potato roots systemic resistance to infection by the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. To better understand the mechanisms of induced resistance, we focused on identifying the inducing agent. Since heat-stable bacterial surface carbohydrates such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are essential for recognition in the symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium and legumes, their role in the R. etli-potato interaction was studied. EPS and LPS were extracted from bacterial cultures, applied to potato roots, and tested for activity as an inducer of plant resistance to the plant-parasitic nematode. Whereas EPS did not affect G. pallida infection, LPS reduced nematode infection significantly in concentrations as low as 1 and 0.1 mg ml(-1). Split-root experiments, guaranteeing a spatial separation of inducing agent and challenging pathogen, showed that soil treatments of one half of the root system with LPS resulted in a highly significant (up to 37%) systemic induced reduction of G. pallida infection of potato roots in the other half. The results clearly showed that LPS of R. etli G12 act as the inducing agent of systemic resistance in potato roots.

  8. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasan Thangavel

    Full Text Available Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate.

  9. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate.

  10. RNA Interference towards the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, Is Induced in Plants Infected with Recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuriyanghan, Hada; Falk, Bryce W.

    2013-01-01

    The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (B. cockerelli), is an important plant pest and the vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum), which is associated with the zebra chip disease of potatoes. Previously, we reported induction of RNA interference effects in B. cockerelli via in vitro-prepared dsRNA/siRNAs after intrathoracic injection, and after feeding of artificial diets containing these effector RNAs. In order to deliver RNAi effectors via plant hosts and to rapidly identify effective target sequences in plant-feeding B. cockerelli, here we developed a plant virus vector-based in planta system for evaluating candidate sequences. We show that recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) containing B. cockerelli sequences can efficiently infect and generate small interfering RNAs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, and more importantly delivery of interfering sequences via TMV induces RNAi effects, as measured by actin and V-ATPase mRNA reductions, in B. cockerelli feeding on these plants. RNAi effects were primarily detected in the B. cockerelli guts. In contrast to our results with TMV, recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) did not give robust infections in all plants and did not induce detectable RNAi effects in B. cockerelli. The greatest RNA interference effects were observed when B. cockerelli nymphs were allowed to feed on leaf discs collected from inoculated or lower expanded leaves from corresponding TMV-infected plants. Tomatillo plants infected with recombinant TMV containing B. cockerelli actin or V-ATPase sequences also showed phenotypic effects resulting in decreased B. cockerelli progeny production as compared to plants infected by recombinant TMV containing GFP. These results showed that RNAi effects can be achieved in plants against the phloem feeder, B. cockerelli, and the TMV-plant system will

  11. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences

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    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L. are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, Sweet potato virus C (SPVC, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV, have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95% incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.

  12. Characterization of viruses infecting potato plants from a single location in Shetland, an isolated scottish archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, R.J.; Shen, Xinyi; Reid, Alex

    2010-01-01

    , as were 29 Scottish mainland isolates of the same four potato virus species, and these 58 isolates were compared to previously published sequence data. This has allowed the characterization of viruses from a relatively isolated location, where there is little production of ware potatoes and no seed potato...... production. Phylogenetic homogeneity of the Shetland isolates of PVS and PVV was apparent. PVX was more heterogeneous, and Shetland isolates cluster with the Scottish isolates in a group which includes Asian and European isolates. For PVA, the majority of the Shetland and Scottish mainland isolates formed...... a predominantly Scottish grouping, with the remaining Shetland and Scottish mainland isolates clustering with a previously characterized Scottish isolate. There were three main groups of PVA, of which the Scottish grouping was the only one which did not have a fully characterized representative. To extend...

  13. Molecular characterization of the sweet potato peroxidase SWPA4 promoter which responds to abiotic stresses and pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-04-01

    Previously, the swpa4 peroxidase gene has been shown to be inducible by a variety of abiotic stresses and pathogenic infections in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To elucidate its regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level under various stress conditions, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (2374 bp) of swpa4 (referred to as SWPA4). We performed a transient expression assay in tobacco protoplasts with deletions from the 5'-end of SWPA4 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The -1408 and -374 bp deletions relative to the transcription start site (+1) showed 8 and 4.5 times higher GUS expression than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, respectively. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GUS under the control of -2374, -1408 or -374 bp region of SWPA4 promoter were generated and studied in various tissues under abiotic stresses and pathogen infection. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that nuclear proteins from sweet potato cultured cells specifically interacted with 60-bp fragment (-178/-118) in -374 bp promoter region. In silico analysis indicated that four kinds of cis-acting regulatory sequences, reactive oxygen species-related element activator protein 1 (AP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha element, ethylene-responsive element (ERE) and heat-shock element, are present in the -60 bp region (-178/-118), suggesting that the -60 bp region might be associated with stress inducibility of the SWPA4 promoter.

  14. Functionality of resistance gene Hero, which controls plant root-infecting potato cyst nematodes, in leaves of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, H L Cabrera; López, R H Manzanilla; Kanyuka, K

    2006-07-01

    The expression of host genomes is modified locally by root endoparasitic nematode secretions to induce the development of complex cellular structures referred as feeding sites. In compatible interactions, the feeding sites provide the environment and nutrients for the completion of the nematode's life cycle, whereas in an incompatible (resistant) interaction, the host immune system triggers a plant cell death programme, often in the form of a hypersensitive reaction, which restricts nematode reproduction. These processes have been studied in great detail in organ tissues normally infected by these nematodes: the roots. Here we show that host leaves can support a similar set of programmed developmental events in the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis life cycle that are typical of the root-invading nematodes. We also show that a gene-for-gene type specific disease resistance that is effective against potato cyst nematodes (PCN) in roots also operates in leaves: the expression of the resistance (R) gene Hero and members of its gene family in leaves correlates with the elicitation of a hypersensitive response only during the incompatible interaction. These findings, and the ability to isolate RNA from relevant parasitic stages of the nematode, may have significant implications for the identification of nematode factors involved in incompatible interactions.

  15. Potato Cyst Nematode in East Java: Newly Infected Areas and Identification

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    Happy Cahya Nugrahana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN, Globodera rostochiensis has noted to be a devastated pest on potato in Indonesia. It is listed as the A2 pest by Plant Quarantine of Republik Indonesia, and it was also being a highly concerned plant parasitic nematode species worlwide. Therefore, both intensive and extensive surveys should be done to monitor the spread of PCN, especially in East Java as one of the centre of potato plantations in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of PCN in four potato plantations in East Java, i.e. Batu, Magetan, Probolinggo, and Pasuruan which were located between 1,205 to 2,063 m above the sea level. Extraction and isolation of cysts from soil samples was done using Baunacke method, and it was followed by identification of the nematodes using morphological and molecular approaches according to Baldwin and Mundo-Ocampo. The results showed that PCN was found on all sampling sites, i.e. Batu (Sumber Brantas, Jurang Kuali, Tunggangan, Junggo, Brakseng; Magetan (Dadi, Sarangan, Singolangu; Probolinggo (Tukul, Pandansari, Ledokombo, Sumberanom, Wonokerto, Ngadas, Pasuruan (Wonokerto, Tosari, Ledoksari, Ngadiwono. Magetan and Pasuruan were noted as new infested areas in East Java. Both morphological and molecular methods showed that the species found on all sites was Globodera rostochiensis.   Intisari Nematoda Sista Kentang (NSK, Globodera rostochiensis telah tercatat sebagai hama yang menghancurkan tanaman kentang di Indonesia. NSK terdaftar sebagai Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina golongan A2 oleh Badan Karantina Pertanian Republik Indonesia, dan juga merupakan spesies nematoda parasit tanaman yang sangat merugikan di seluruh dunia. Oleh karena itu, baik survei intensif maupun ekstensif harus dilakukan untuk memantau penyebaran NSK, terutama di Jawa Timur sebagai salah satu sentra tanaman kentang di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari distribusi NSK pada empat daerah sentra

  16. Autophagy induction in tobacco leaves infected by potato virus Y{sup O} and its putative roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dabin; Park, Jaeyoung [Department of Life Science & BK21-Plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seonhee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedics, School of Medicine, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyunsook, E-mail: hscheong@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Life Science & BK21-Plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Autophagy plays a critical role in the innate immune response of plants to pathogen infection. In the present study, we examined autophagy induced by potato virus Y ordinary strain (PVY{sup O}) infection in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the number of virus particles in the plant peaked at 2 weeks post-inoculation and then gradually decreased. Additionally, the amount of virus increased significantly in the 3rd and 4th leaves distal to the inoculated leaf and decreased slightly in the 5th leaf. Within 2 weeks of PVY{sup O} inoculation, the tobacco leaves showed typical symptoms of Potyvirus inoculation, including mottling, yellowing, a mosaic pattern, and necrotic tissue changes at the inoculated site. Based on an ultrastructural analysis of the PVY{sup O}-infected tobacco leaves, virus aggregates appeared as longitudinal and transverse arrays and pinwheels, which are typical of Potyvirus inoculation. Moreover, PVY{sup O} infection caused changes in the number, size, and shape of chloroplasts, whereas the number of plastogranules increased markedly. Furthermore, double-membrane autophagosome-like vacuoles, including electron-dense materials, laminated structures, and cellular organelles, were found. The induction of autophagy after the PVY{sup O} infection of tobacco leaves was further confirmed by the expression of lipidated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, an autophagy marker and p62, an autophagy adaptor protein. The LC3-II levels increased daily over the 4-week period. Although virus inoculation was performed systemically on the basal leaves of the plants, LC3-II was expressed throughout the leaves and the expression was higher in leaves distal to the inoculated leaf. Moreover, PVY{sup O} infection caused the activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinases. Therefore, PVY{sup O} infection-induced autophagy was positively correlated with the virus content

  17. Root morphology of several potato varieties - infected Meloidogyne spp. and addition of organic matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.

  18. Initial infection of roots and leaves reveals different resistance phenotypes associated with coat protein gene-mediated resistance to Potato mop-top virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Anna; Sandgren, Maria; Barker, Hugh; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2002-05-01

    Resistance to the pomovirus Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) was studied in potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Saturna) and Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the coat protein (CP) gene of PMTV. The incidence of PMTV infections was reduced in tubers of the CP-transgenic potatoes grown in the field in soil infested with the viruliferous vector, Spongospora subterranea. However, in those tubers that were infected, all three virus RNAs were detected and virus titres were high. The CP-transgenic N. benthamiana plants were inoculated with PMTV using two methods. Following mechanical inoculation of leaves, no RNA 3 (the CP-encoding RNA homologous to the transgene) was detected in leaves, but in some plants low amounts of RNA 3 were detected in roots; RNA 2 was readily detected in leaves and roots of several plants. Inoculation of roots using viruliferous S. subterranea resulted in infection of roots in all plants and the three PMTV RNAs were detected. However, no systemic movement of PMTV from roots to the above-ground parts was observed, indicating a novel expression of resistance. These data indicate that the CP gene-mediated resistance to PMTV specifically restricts accumulation of PMTV RNA 3, and is more effective in leaves than roots. Furthermore, expression of resistance is different depending on whether leaves or roots are inoculated. Data do not exclude the possibility that both a protein-mediated and an RNA-mediated resistance mechanism are involved.

  19. Genome-wide identification of potato long intergenic noncoding RNAs responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies brasiliense infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Stanford; Birch, Paul R J; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2016-08-11

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that are implicated in regulation of gene expression in both mammals and plants. While much progress has been made in determining the biological functions of lncRNAs in mammals, the functional roles of lncRNAs in plants are still poorly understood. Specifically, the roles of long intergenic nocoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in plant defence responses are yet to be fully explored. In this study, we used strand-specific RNA sequencing to identify 1113 lincRNAs in potato (Solanum tuberosum) from stem tissues. The lincRNAs are expressed from all 12 potato chromosomes and generally smaller in size compared to protein-coding genes. Like in other plants, most potato lincRNAs possess single exons. A time-course RNA-seq analysis between a tolerant and a susceptible potato cultivar showed that 559 lincRNAs are responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense challenge compared to mock-inoculated controls. Moreover, coexpression analysis revealed that 17 of these lincRNAs are highly associated with 12 potato defence-related genes. Together, these results suggest that lincRNAs have potential functional roles in potato defence responses. Furthermore, this work provides the first library of potato lincRNAs and a set of novel lincRNAs implicated in potato defences against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense, a member of the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae phytopathogens.

  20. Characterizing zebra chip symptom severity and identifying spectral signatures associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infected potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes, which is associated with the bacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). Lso is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ZC reduces yield and quality, as it results in discoloration of the vascular ...

  1. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  2. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  3. Electromagnetic Field Effects on Production of Salicylic Acid and Phenylalanine ammonia lyase in Tobacco Infected with Potato Virus X (PVX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amin radmard titkanlo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato virus x (PVX is one of the most devastating viruses in the fields of tobacco and no effective method to control the virus has been provided yet. Magnetism is known as one of the environmental stresses that can directly or indirectly affect the plants, especially plants under stress. The magnetic fields can have beneficial affects plants. Materials and Methods: In the present study to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on PVX control, an experiment based on completely randomized design with eleven treatments (10, 50 and 90 mT in a period of 60, 90 and 120 minutes on tobacco seedlings infected with the virus and two control, and the other one is free from analog infected with the virus in tobacco seedlings carried on six repeats.. After inoculation at the four-leaf stage and after 14 days, the amount of turbidity virus infection rate is calculated and then ensure equality of tobacco seedlings, where the electromagnetic device. 30 days after applying an electromagnetic field analysis of the results of ELISA test two samples were tested with antisera Chndhmsanh of PVX. The amount of salicylic acid and the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia in systemic acquired resistance and plant defense mechanisms are involved, the treatments were measured, for evaluation of HPLC as salicylic acid and phenylalanine ammonia-based assessment of trans-cinnamic acid was used. Results and Discussion: Statistical analysis ELISA test results revealed that there is a significant difference between treatments 0/05. So that the treatment was a no pollution treatment and 11 who were infected but had not been exposed to the electromagnetic field had a significant difference compared to other treatments, among the treatments that were exposed to the electromagnetic field treatment 8 (100 mT, 120 minutes showed the lowest OD in ELISA and later treatment 7 (50 mT and 60 minutes was the lowest OD, the two treatments were observed in less than two OD

  4. Tissue printing technique in nitrocelullose membranes: a rapid detection technique for estimating incidence of PVX, PVY, PVS and PLRV viruses infecting potato (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guzmán

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The ELISA serological technique has been used since the 1970s as a quantative technique for the detection of many groups of virus which infect plants. The immune-impression (IMI in nitrocelullose membrane qualitative technique has been implemented more recently for the detection of different viral groups. In this work, the IMI technique has been adapted for the detection of PVX, PVY PVS and PLRV viruses which attack different species and varieties of potato crop (Solanum spp., such as Egg yolk, Capiro, Morita, Pastusa, Monserrate, Tuquerreña, ICA Puracé and ICA Nariño, all from the Nariño department. The four viruses mentioned above can cause 30% and 60% losses in production, be they acting alone or synergistically. This means that they can easily reduce the economic benefits of a country like Colombia, characterised as being a great potato producer (i.e. more than 2.8 million tons per year. The IMI technique was compared with the ELISA technique (Enzymne Linked Immunosorbent Assay using the same samples, leading to confirmation of the test's sensitivity for detecting the virus. From a total of 800 samples analyzed by IMI from different areas in the Nariño department, 72% incidence for PVY, 38.7% for PVX, 85.6% for PVS and 91.1% for PLRV was found; these estimates were similar or greater than those obtained using ELISA. These results are new for Colombia in terms of imple-menting the easy and sensitive IMI technique for detecting these four viral groups infecting the potato as well as estimating their incidence in Nariño, one of Colombia's most important potato-producing departments. The opportune and flexible detection of virus leads to an effective response to eradicating contaminated material, both material in the field as well as that from in vitro culture. Results lead to it being suggested that implementing IMI could bringing wide benefits for potato seed certification programmes, as they maintain sensitivity and specificity, they

  5. Zebra Chip disease and potato biochemistry: Tuber physiological changes in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about host tuber physiological changes that result in ZC symptom formation. This study exp...

  6. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  7. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  8. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  9. At the Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…

  10. Effect of infection by Phytophthora infestans and treatment with its zoosporial components on uptake of 3H-leucine and protein synthesis potato tuber tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1978-01-01

    Both sides of aged disks of potato tubers were inoculated with incompatible race 0 or compatible race 1 of P. infestans. The uptake of radioactivity from 3 H-leucine into the disks was greatly reduced by the infection with the incompatible race, but the ratio of incorporated radioactivity in the acid soluble fraction of the disks to total radioactivity in the 20,000 x g supernatant was increased by the infection with the incompatible race 0. In case of the compatible race 1, the infection had less effect on the incorporation ratio of the radioactivity into the acid insoluble fraction than the case of the race 0. The results suggested that the reduction in 3 H-leucine uptake may be due to alteration of the physiological activity of host plasma membrane, instead of the reduction of metabolic activity. The treatment of tuber disks with the insoluble fraction of the zoosporial homogenate of race 0 or race 1 greatly reduced the uptake of 3 H-leucine by the disks. The supernatant fraction of the zoosporial homogenate also reduced the uptake, but the effect was lost by dialysis. The results suggest that some substances in the insoluble components of the zoosporial homogenate of P. infestans may be at least one cause of the reduction in the uptake of 3 H-leucine which begins to occur at very early period of the inoculation with race 0 or race 1 while penetration has not yet occurred. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Distribution of rishitin and lubimin in potato-tuber tissue infected by an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans and the site where rishitin is synthesized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Kinukawa, Masaru

    1975-01-01

    Cut surface of potato tuber (R 1 -cultivar) was inoculated with an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans. Then the slices prepared from the infected tissue were analyzed for their rishitin and lubimin content. Most of rishitin and lubimin was found in a zone in which the cells became brown with only a trace in the healthy tissue adjacent to the brown zone. However, the amount of lubimin was very low as compared with that of rishitin. In the inoculation fluid within the hole made in the tuber tissue, a large amount of rishitin and lubimin was found. In this case, lubimin was found in greater amount than rishitin during the early period of infection, but later the amount of rishitin exceeded that of lubimin. It was demonstrated by incorporation of acetate-2- 14 C into rishitin that rishitin was synthesized mostly in the adjacent healthy tissue which had not been invaded by the parasite. Rishitin synthesis was especially active in the first several healthy cell layers neighbouring the brown tissue. Since, at this time, hyphal development has already stopped, these cells were never invaded by the parasite and did never turn brown. Rishitin seemed not to be synthesized in the browned tissue. It is concluded that the rishitin sythesized in the adjacent healthy cells is transported to the brown cells and accumulates there. It also diffuses and accumulates outside the brown cells. (auth.)

  12. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Velvis, H; Zachow, C; Berg, G; Van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  13. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Velvis, H.; Zachow, C.; Berg, G.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  14. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  15. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  16. Genomic characteristics of vB_PpaP_PP74, a T7-like Autographivirinae bacteriophage infecting a potato pathogen of the newly proposed species Pectobacterium parmentieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanova, Anastasia; Shneider, Mikhail; Bugaeva, Eugenia; Ha, Vo Thi Ngoc; Miroshnikov, Kirill; Korzhenkov, Aleksei; Kulikov, Eugene; Toschakov, Stepan; Ignatov, Alexander; Miroshnikov, Konstantin

    2018-02-08

    Bacteriophage vB_PpaP_PP74 (PP74) is a novel virulent phage that infects members of the species Pectobacterium parmentieri, a newly established species of soft-rot-causing bacteria in the family Pectobacteriaceae, derived from potato-specific Pectobacterium wasabiae. vB_PpaP_PP74 was identified as a member of the family Podoviridae by transmission electron microscopy. The phage has a 39,790-bp dsDNA genome containing 50 open reading frames (ORFs). Because of the absence of genes encoding toxins or lysogeny factors, PP74 may be considered a candidate phage for pathogen biocontrol applications. The genome layout is similar to genomes of T7-like phages within the subfamily Autographivirinae, and therefore, functions can be attributed to most of ORFs. However, the closest nucleotide sequence homologs of phage PP74 are unclassified Escherichia phages. Based on phylogenetic analysis, vB_PpaP_PP74 is a sensu lato T7-like phage, but it forms a distant subgenus group together with homologous enterobacterial phages.

  17. The suppression of tomato defence response genes upon potato cyst nematode infection indicates a key regulatory role of miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Święcicka, Magdalena; Skowron, Waldemar; Cieszyński, Piotr; Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Filipecki, Marcin; Koter, Marek Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is an obligate parasite of solanaceous plants, triggering metabolic and morphological changes in roots which may result in substantial crop yield losses. Previously, we used the cDNA-AFLP to study the transcriptional dynamics in nematode infected tomato roots. Now, we present the rescreening of already published, upregulated transcript-derived fragment dataset using the most current tomato transcriptome sequences. Our reanalysis allowed to add 54 novel genes to 135, already found as upregulated in tomato roots upon G. rostochiensis infection (in total - 189). We also created completely new catalogue of downregulated sequences leading to the discovery of 76 novel genes. Functional classification of candidates showed that the 'wound, stress and defence response' category was enriched in the downregulated genes. We confirmed the transcriptional dynamics of six genes by qRT-PCR. To place our results in a broader context, we compared the tomato data with Arabidopsis thaliana, revealing similar proportions of upregulated and downregulated genes as well as similar enrichment of defence related transcripts in the downregulated group. Since transcript suppression is quite common in plant-nematode interactions, we assessed the possibility of miRNA-mediated inverse correlation on several tomato sequences belonging to NB-LRR and receptor-like kinase families. The qRT-PCR of miRNAs and putative target transcripts showed an opposite expression pattern in 9 cases. These results together with in silico analyses of potential miRNA targeting to the full repertoire of tomato R-genes show that miRNA mediated gene suppression may be a key regulatory mechanism during nematode parasitism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  19. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  1. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  2. Genetic mapping and pyramiding of resistance genes in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, M.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous pathogens can infect potato, but late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) and potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are most damaging. Several species of root knot nematodes (RKN) are an emerging threat. Breeders have successfully deployed disease

  3. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  4. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  5. Genetics in the courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  6. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  7. Supreme Court Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  8. Characterization of potato and tobacco isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus from Syria and the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad CHIKH ALI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV has been reported from potato production areas in Europe, USA, Japan and more frequently in regions with warm climates such as Egypt, India, Saudi Arabia and Syria. As it is considered as an uncommon virus in potato, the characterization of potato isolates of CMV is far behind those from other hosts. In addition to potato, CMV is a common virus infecting many crops in Syria, but nothing is known about its molecular characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize Syrian CMV isolates collected from potato and neighboring tobacco fields. All potato isolates of CMV (total of four co-infected potato plants with Potato virus Y (PVY which is the most frequent potato virus in Syria. According to the sequence analyses of the coat protein (CP coding region, three potato and three tobacco CMV isolates were found to be closely related regardless of the host species or geographic origin, and all belonged to the IA strain subgroup of CMV. A potato CMV isolate, PoCMV7-5, readily infected solanaceous plants in which it induced systemic infection, but was less infectious to other hosts including those of Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae. When inoculated on potato plants, PoCMV7-5 alone or with various PVY strains was able to cause local but not systemic infection in all potato cultivars inoculated. PoCMV7-5 contained heterogeneous variants of satellite RNA which varied in length due to A or/and T deletion/insertion at approximate nucleotide position 225‒240. This is the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato.

  9. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  10. Presence and Distribution of Economically Important Potato Viruses in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zindović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out, in the period 2002-2004 in order to determine the presence and distribution of potato viruses at 12 different locations and on 9 different potato varieties grown in Montenegro. The research included collecting of samples in seed potato crops and testing of six economically important potato viruses: Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus A (PVA i Potato virus M (PVM. Using the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA and commercial antisera specific for six potato viruses, it was found that PVY was the most frequent virus during the three-year research period. The second frequent virus was PVS, followed by PVA, PLRV, PVM and PVX. Single and mixed infections were detected, and the most prevalent were the single infections of PVY. Also, in the period 2002-2004, PVY had the highest distribution and the number of present viruses was different at different localities and on different potato varieties. Further investigations were related to detailed characterization of the most prevalent virus (PVY, which is at the same time economically the most important one. Serological characterization of PVY was performed utilizing DAS-ELISA kit with commercial monoclonal antibodies specific for detection of the three strain groups of PVY, and the two straingroups - necrotic (PVYN/PVYNTN and common (PVYO, were identified. Necrotic strains were prevalent in 2002 and 2004, while in 2003 PVYO was the most frequent strain in virus population. The presence of stipple streak strain (PVYC was not detected in any of the testedsamples.

  11. Potato spindle tuber viroid infection triggers degradation of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like and Ribosomal protein S3a-like mRNAs in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Iyer, Pavithran Sridharan; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-21

    It is well established that viroid derived small RNA (vd-sRNA) induces RNA silencing of endogenous mRNA. However, it remains not clear how exactly viroid infections can lead to severe symptom induction given the fact that fewer vd-sRNAs binding the specific target mRNAs were recovered from the infected plants. To answer this question, the two least expressed (+) and (-) strand vd-sRNAs of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) binding to both the 3' UTR and the coding region of tomato mRNAs were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd. As products of these putative target mRNAs are involved in plant phenotype, the effect of this viroid on these genes were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd. The direct interaction between the vd-sRNAs and putative mRNAs was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Parallel analysis of RNA ends of viroid infected plants revealed the widespread cleavage of the target mRNAs in locations other than the vd-sRNA binding site during the viroid infection implying the viroid-infection induced vd-sRNA independent degradation of endogenous mRNAs during viroid infection.

  12. The miRNAome dynamics during developmental and metabolic reprogramming of tomato root infected with potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koter, Marek D; Święcicka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Pacak, Andrzej; Derebecka, Natalia; Filipecki, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are pests threatening many crops. By means of their secretions cyst nematodes induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming of host cells that lead to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. The in depth micro RNA (miRNA) dynamics in the syncytia induced by Globodera rostochiensis in tomato roots was studied. The miRNAomes were obtained from syncytia covering the early and intermediate developmental stages, and were the subject of differential expression analysis. The expression of 1235 miRNAs was monitored. The fold change (log 2 FC) ranged from -7.36 to 8.38, indicating that this transcriptome fraction was very variable. Moreover, we showed that the DE (differentially expressed) miRNAs do not fully overlap between the selected time points, suggesting infection stage specific regulation by miRNA. The correctness of RNA-seq expression profiling was confirmed by qRT-PCR (quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction) for seven miRNA species. Down- and up-regulated miRNA species, including their isomiRs, were further used to identify their potential targets. Among them there are a large number of transcription factors linked to different aspects of plant development belonging to gene families, such as APETALA2 (AP2), SQUAMOSA (MADS-box), MYB, GRAS, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF). The substantial portion of potential target genes belong to the NB-LRR and RLK (RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE) families, indicating the involvement of miRNA mediated regulation in defense responses. We also collected the evidence for target cleavage in the case of 29 miRNAs using one of three alternative methods: 5' RACE (5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends), a search of tasiRNA within our datasets, and the meta-analysis of tomato degradomes in the GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) database. Eight target transcripts showed a negative correlation with their respective miRNAs at two or three time points. These

  13. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated…

  14. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  16. Effect of wound healing period and temperature, irradiation and post-irradiation storage temperature on the rot incidence of potatoes, after infection with Fasurium sulfurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, D.I.; Wolters, T.C.; Quan, V.H.; Oularbi, S.; Tayeb, Y.; Vroomen, L.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Losses during star age in potatoes are mainly due to sprouting and rotting. It has indicated that irradiation by low dose (50 to 100 Gy) during the dormancy period is most e ffective for sprout inhibition. Some investigators, however , stated an increase of storage rot after an irradiation

  17. The Effects of Curcuma longa L., Purple Sweet Potato, and Mixtures of the Two on Immunomodulation in C57BL/6J Mice Infected with LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeung; Lee, Dasom; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Han-Ol; Kim, Hyesook; Park, Jeongjin; Jeon, Woojin; Cha, Minseok; Jun, Suhwa; Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2018-06-04

    The immune response is stimulated to protect the body from external antigens and is controlled by several types of immune cells. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa L., purple sweet potato, and mixtures of the two (CPM) were investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Mice were divided into seven groups as follows: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of C. longa L. (C; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of C 189 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of purple sweet potato (P; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of P 1811 mg/kg body weight), CPM Low (CPL; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 2 g/kg body weight), and CPM High (CPH; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 5 g/kg body weight). Dietary supplementation lasted for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of CPM inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and inhibited reduction of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II. Moreover, CPM reduced the decrease in T- and B cell proliferation, reduced the population of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, and remedied the unbalanced production of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. In addition, CPM inhibited reduction of phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). These results suggest that CPM had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia retrovirus infection.

  18. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  19. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  20. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  1. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  2. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  3. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  4. [Information and consensus for an appropriate medical-legal management of nosocomial infections, also in the light of the recommendations of the Joint Commission International Accreditation and the directions of the Supreme Court].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The author, underlined the general importance of the information towards the persons who receive hospital assistance and recalled also the historical bases and the international inquiry upon this matter, precises the reasons that need particular information procedure regarding the hospital infections, because the problems raised by these infections and the safety measures against them request to involve also all people entering the hospital as visitors. On the basis of some specific items fixed by the Joint Commission International Accreditation in order of the duties of the hospital directions, well applicable on this matter, the author suggests that the material impossibility to zeroing occurrence of the hospital infections, in case of litigations between hospitals and patients needs alternative dispute solutions. In this respect the author mentions the opportunities created by law in France and, very recently, in Italy too. Finally, the author points out the pretentions of the Italian Supreme Court about the completeness and the precision that must caractherize the procedure of informed consent about all risks of every medical activity, otherwise the liability of the hospitals and the members of their care staffs is quite presumed--even from the point of view of the penal aforethought--while the medical performance has been proper.

  5. Chromium in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations

  6. Characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to potato cyst nematode (Globodera spp.) infection of tomato lines in the absence and presence of the broad-spectrum nematode resistance Hero gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Miroslaw; Avrova, Anna; Jupowicz, Justyna; Phillips, Mark S; Ernst, Karin; Kumar, Amar

    2005-02-01

    The tomato Hero A gene is the only member of a multigene family that confers a high level (>80%) of resistance to all the economically important pathotypes of potato cyst nematode (PCN) species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Although the resistance levels of transgenic tomato lines were similar to those of the tomato line LA1792 containing the introgressed Hero multigene family, transgenic potato plants expressing the tomato Hero A gene are not resistant to PCNs. Comparative microscopy studies of in vitro infected roots of PCN-susceptible tomato cv. Money Maker, the resistant breeding line LA1792, and transgenic line L10 with Ro1 pathotype have revealed no statistically significant difference in the number of juveniles invading roots. However, syncytia (specialized feeding cells) induced in LA1792 and L10 roots mostly were found to have degenerated a few days after their induction, and a few surviving syncytia were able to support only the development of males rather than females. Thus, the ratio between males and females was biased towards males on LA1792 and L10 roots. A series of changes occur in resistant plants leading to formation of a layer of necrotic cells separating the syncytium from stellar conductive tissues and this is followed by degradation of the syncytium. Although the Hero A gene is expressed in all tissues, including roots, stems, leaves, and flower buds, its expression is upregulated in roots in response to PCN infection. Moreover, the expression profiles of the Hero A correlates with the timing of death of the syncytium.

  7. Supreme Court Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 2008-2009 term, Justice David Souter's decision to return to New Hampshire and President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to replace him on the bench had taken over the Supreme Court news cycle. In the end, the consensus has been that, with the possible exception of criminal justice issues, swapping out Souter for Sotomayor…

  8. Molecular variation in the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, in relation to virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, V C; Pylypenko, L; Phillips, M S

    2006-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida poses a challenge for potato growers. The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida cause damage valued at over pounds 50m per annum in the U.K. and problems in controlling PCN are growing due to the increase in populations and spread of G. pallida, the lack of many commercially attractive cultivars with resistance to this species and the pressure to reduce nematicide use. Over 60% of potato fields in the U.K. are infected with G. pallida (Minnis et al. 2000). The Scottish Agricultural Science Agency (SASA) figures show that the incidence of both species of PCN on Scottish seed potato land, though low, has been increasing. The proportion of potato land in ware production in Scotland is also increasing and now represents 50% of the potato growing area. This situation potentially increases the risk of the spread of PCN unless it is very carefully monitored and managed.

  9. You Say Potato!

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Elgy

    2001-01-01

    "If we are what we eat, as they are forever telling, then we're mostly potato" sayd travel writer, journalist and enthusiastic cook Elgy Gillespie Now Elgy has drawn on her travel experiences and her love of food to gather over 100 potato recipes from Ireland and around the world" Taken from the back cover. Published by Wolfhound Press Ltd., 68 Mountjoy Square, Dublin in 2001. Illustrated by Rebecca Wildsmith. Cover illustration Eva Byrne, cover photograph Richard Gibson, cover design W...

  10. Supremely Hot Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Joseph L.; Walz, Monte

    1983-01-01

    Supreme Court decisions about fund-raising by Political Action Committees, prayer in public schools, and disclosure of political campaign contributors are reviewed. Cases before the Court involving solicitation of funds by charities, unsolicited mailed advertisements for contraceptives, aliens, the exclusionary rule, and sex discrimination issues…

  11. Biological and biochemical studies on irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.F.M

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study and overcome two important diseases which attacks potato plant, using some chemical and physical treatments. The first disease was pre harvest brown rot caused by ralstonia solanacearum and the second was post harvest dry rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. The results are summarized as follows: firstly brown rot : 1- Foliar treatment of salicylic acid or calcium chloride on potato plants leads to increasing in plant height and number of potato tubers, since salicylic acid give the highest value of plant height and also calcium chloride give the highest number of potato tubers. Also, this treatment leads to insignificant decreasing in number of potato tubers infected by brown rot. 2- The bacteria ralstonia solanacearum isolated from infected tubers obtained from the project of brown rot, Ministry of agriculture, Egypt, added with irrigate water to the pots this bacteria could infect healthy potato plant and the symptoms of brown rot observed on tubers also pathogenicity test was carried out using seedling of tomato cultivar Gs plants and wilting of tomato plant observed after 10-15 days from injection with R.solanacearum. 3- Concerning D 10 -value determined from the relation between dose rate of gamma ray (k-rad) and log count of bacterial number it was found that the D 10 -value for R.solanacearum was 0.25 kGy

  12. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  13. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...

  14. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  15. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  16. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures, similar to galls developing on potato roots infected by the powdery scab pathogen S. subterranea, were observed on roots of hairy nightshades (Solanum physalifolium, formerly S. sarrachoides) collected from commercial potato fields in Washington State where populations of S. subterranea ...

  17. Efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven bacterial isolates from faba bean (Vicia faba L. root-nodules were screened for their antagonistic activity against eight Rhizoctonia solani strains isolated from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers. Two bacterial strains (designated as Kl.Fb14 and S8.Fb11 gave 50% in vitro inhibition of R. solani mycelial growth. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain Kl.Fb14 exhibited 99.5% identity with Pseudomonas moraviensis, and that S8.Fb11 exhibited 99.8% identity with Pseudomonas reinekei. Greenhouse trials in soil showed that strain S8.Fb11 reduced the percentage of sclerotia on potato tubers and amounts of tuber infection for the potato cultivars Spunta and Nicola. In a field trial conducted in South Tunisia, infection with R. solani reduced potato yield by approximately 40% for ‘Spunta’ and 17% for ‘Nicola’; about 20% of the total tuber production was severely infected. However, when potato tubers were treated with strain S8.Fb11 prior to sowing, disease incidence was reduced to 6% of total production with low infection levels; potato yield was enhanced by about 6 kg per 10 m row in comparison to R. solani infected plants. The second selected Pseudomonas sp. (strain Kl.Fb14 did not affect either the levels of sclerotia on tubers or potato yield.

  18. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  19. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  20. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  2. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  3. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  4. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  5. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  6. Guide to Alabama Court Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Administrative Office of Courts, Montgomery.

    Designed to assist the public in understanding the judicial system and judicial process in Alabama, this handbook (1) presents an overview of Alabama's courts and their jurisdictions, (2) identifies the officers of the courts and the contributions each makes to the judicial process, and (3) narrates in general terms the procedures most common to…

  7. International Justice through Domestic Courts:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2015-01-01

    In April 2010, the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal, or STF) controversially decided to uphold the country’s amnesty law, which currently prevents prosecutions for violations of human rights committed during the military dictatorship. However, the Inter-American Court...

  8. Supervisory Control and Court Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Court management is an essential precondition for guaranteeing the adjudication of cases. At the same time, court administration is the key focus of supervisory control. Management instruments and structures, caseload management and other elements of quality assurance including the certification of judicial authorities must therefore be accorded considerable constitutional importance.

  9. An Ever More Powerful Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    on the basis of a careful examination of how judicial–legislative interactions determine the scope and limits of European integration in the daily EU decision-making processes. The legislative impact of Court rulings is traced by the use of original data over time from 1957 to 2014 and through three case......Scholars generally agree that courts are powerful authorities in settling disputes between parties, but the broader political impact of such resolution is disputed. Are courts powerful generators of political change? This book examines the ability of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU......) to foster political change for a European Union (EU) social policy, including healthcare. The conventional assumption is that a strong causal link exists between legal and political integration in the EU, in which Court rulings progress and shape European integration. The book challenges this view...

  10. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  11. Court orders on procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Naira R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically evaluate judgments entered from 1913 to 2013 in the matters of compulsory sterilization. Holdings and dispositions at the U.S. Appellate and Supreme courts are randomly located in LexisNexis using Shepard's symbols. Continuous variables are processed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. Court orders are used as units of analysis. The majority of cases (56.4 %) concern minors at a mean age of 11.7 years. Forty-four (80 %) petitions are filed by the parents or guardians; 11 (20 %) are parens patriae. Petitions for female sterilization are denied in 56.4 % cases under the Federal Laws (2 U.S.C. 431; 28 U.S.C; 29 U.S.C; 42 U.S.C; 424 U.S.), Procedural due process clause of the 14th Amendment, statutes, and common law precedents. Petitions for female sterilization are granted in 36.4 % cases under the statutory penal codes, the Law of the land, precedents, and the dicta. No significant associations are found between the parity and degree of mental impairment (r = 0.342). Substantial correlations are met between the gender, degree of impairment (r (2) = 0.724), and dispositions (r (2) = 802). The mean age of women is 20.78 years; the mean age of men is 30.25 years. Correlations fail to establish reasoning between the age of the subjects and the entered judgments (r (2) = 0. 356). (1) The female/male ratio (8:1) and age gap of the respondents indicate on a disproportionate impact of the statutes. (2) The procedure of sterilization in itself is incommensurate with equality, as the volume of surgery is uneven in males and females. (3) The case law is instructive with respect to which arguments have not been advanced. (4) Lastly, due to the etiological intricacy of mental impairment, with genetic transmission strikingly different in men and women, expert-witnesses ought to act in a medical vacuum because there is no mathematical certainty as to the transmission mode of the traits in question (exon and intron mutations, triplet repeat

  12. The courts in Renaissance Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Del Bo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the issue of the courts in Renaissance Italy along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  13. ECHR and national constitutional courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprising fundamental rights and freedoms and establishing the effective control system, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR encroaches upon the area that is traditional reserved for constitutional law. Although built on the doctrine reserved for international treaty law, the Convention goes beyond the traditional boundaries that exist between international and constitutional law. It has gradually infiltrated into the national legal systems. Constitutional courts have had the crucial role in this process. This paper will focus on the applicability of the ECHR in proceedings before national constitutional courts. Having in mind the jurisdiction of the national constitutional court, the ECHR may be applied in two ways: first, in the process of constitutional review by national constitutional courts and, second, in the process of deciding on constitutional complaints.

  14. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  15. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  16. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  17. Attorney Argumentation and Supreme Court Opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between argumentation advanced by attorneys in four Supreme Court cases and the reasoning proffered by the Court in its decisions in those cases. Finds attorney argumentation sometimes irrelevant to the Court's reasoning and sometimes adopted by the Court. Offers a perspective on argumentation and decision making to…

  18. 25 CFR 11.908 - Court records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.908 Court records. (a) A record of all hearings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part shall be made and preserved. (b) All children's court records shall be confidential and shall not be...

  19. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  20. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  1. Effect of irradiation on the potato tubers rotting during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Z.; Fiszer, W.

    1991-01-01

    The potato tubers subjected to irradiation in autumn were found dry and soft rotting more numerous than non-irradiated ones for the whole period of storage and especially in April and May. The above mentioned phenomenon brought about a little quicker elimination of tubers naturally infected by pectinolytic bacteria. Susceptibility of both kinds of tubers was similar to Fusarium sulphureum introduced under a cover tissue. The irradiation of potato tubers in autumn 1986 led to the appearance of some hard tubers with brown ring spots in spring 1987

  2. The reorganization of root anatomy and ultrastructure of syncytial cells in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. infected with potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Woll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of anatomical and ultrastructural events leading to the syncytium development in tomato roots infected with Globodera rostochiensis was examined. The syncytia were preferentially induced in cortical or pericyclic cells in the elongation zone of root. They developed towards the vascular cylinder by incorporation of new cells via local cell wall breakdown. After surrounding primary phloem bundle and reaching xylem tracheary elements syncytia spread along vascular cylinder. Roots in primary state of growth seemed to be the best place for syncytium induction as syncytia formed in the zone of secondary growth were less hypertrophied. At the ultrastructural level syncytial elements were characterized by strong hypertrophy, breakdown of central vacuole, increased volume of cytoplasm, proliferation of organelles, and enlargement of nuclei. On the syncytial wall adjoining vessels the cell wall ingrowths were formed, while the syncytial walls at interface of phloem were considerably thickened. They lacked of functional plasmodesmata and did not form any ingrowths. Using immunofluorescent-labelling and immunogold-labelling methods tomato expansin 5 protein was localized in nematode infected roots. The distribution of LeEXP A5 was restricted only to the walls of syncytia. The protein distribution pattern indicated that LeEXP A5 could mediates cell wall expansion during hypertrophy of syncytial elements.

  3. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  4. Potatoes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  5. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  6. Protein profiling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf tissues by differential centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyun; Chisholm, Kenneth; Coffin, Robert H; Peters, Rick D; Al-Mughrabi, Khalil I; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Pinto, Devanand M

    2012-04-06

    Foliar diseases, such as late blight, result in serious threats to potato production. As such, potato leaf tissue becomes an important substrate to study biological processes, such as plant defense responses to infection. Nonetheless, the potato leaf proteome remains poorly characterized. Here, we report protein profiling of potato leaf tissues using a modified differential centrifugation approach to separate the leaf tissues into cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. This method helps to increase the number of identified proteins, including targeted putative cell wall proteins. The method allowed for the identification of 1484 nonredundant potato leaf proteins, of which 364 and 447 were reproducibly identified proteins in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. Reproducibly identified proteins corresponded to over 70% of proteins identified in each replicate. A diverse range of proteins was identified based on their theoretical pI values, molecular masses, functional classification, and biological processes. Such a protein extraction method is effective for the establishment of a highly qualified proteome profile.

  7. Companion cropping with potato onion enhances the disease resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng eFu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping could alleviate soil-borne diseases, however, few studies focused on the immunity of the host plant induced by the interspecific interactions. To test whether or not intercropping could enhance the disease resistance of host plant, we investigated the effect of companion cropping with potato onion on tomato Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae. To investigate the mechanisms, the root exudates were collected from tomato and potato onion which were grown together or separately, and were used to examine the antifungal activities against V. dahliae in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression pattern of genes related to disease resistance in tomato companied with potato onion compared to that in tomato grown alone, under the condition of infection with V. dahliae. The results showed that companion cropping with potato onion could alleviate the incidence and severity of tomato Verticillium wilt. The further studies revealed that the root exudates from tomato companied with potato onion significantly inhibited the mycelia growth and spore germination of V. dahliae. However, there were no significant effects on these two measurements for the root exudates from potato onion grown alone or from potato onion grown with tomato. RNA-seq data analysis showed the disease defense genes associated with pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, hormone metabolism and signal transduction were expressed much higher in the tomato companied with potato onion than those in the tomato grown alone, which indicated that these defense genes play important roles in tomato against V. dahliae infection, and meant that the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae was enhanced in the companion copping with potato onion. We proposed that companion cropping with potato onion could enhance the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae by regulating the expression of genes related

  8. Potato seed dressing with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 enhances yield and reduces black scurf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhizospheric strain RZ9 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed for in-vitro growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and effectiveness to control black scurf on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. of the cultivars Spunta and Nicola, in greenhouse and field experiments. The strain RZ9 inhibited R. solani mycelial growth by more than 60% and completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia from infested potato tubers in in-vitro tests. In greenhouse assays, seed potato treatment with RZ9 cell suspension increased stem length, decreased the relative weight of infected potato tubers (by 67%, and increased the potato yield (by 16% compared to pathogen-inoculated plants for both potato cultivars. In field trials conducted on sandy soils during 2012 and 2013, strain RZ9 reduced black scurf incidence and increased potato yield by an average of 5.3 t ha-1 for ′Spunta′ and 5 t ha-1 for ′Nicola′. This study showed that the selected strain of P. aeruginosa is an efficient bacterium for enhancing yield and reducing black scurf of field-grown potatoes.

  9. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  10. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  11. English as a Court Language in Continental Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kern (Cristoph)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Most recently, several countries on the European continent have admitted, or are discussing to admit, English as an optional court language. This article provides some information about the background of these recent initiatives, projects and reforms, clarifies the

  12. Detection of Methylobacterium radiotolerans IMBG290 in potato plants by in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirttila A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A new bacterial strain of pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph (M. radiotolerans IMBG290 which was previously isolated from in vitro grown potato plantlets after their inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens IMBG163 was detected in tissues by in situ hybridization method (ISH/FISH. The presence of Methylobacterium rRNA was observed in leaves and stems of potato plantlets, whereas no signal was detected in potato roots. The signal was less abundant in the untreated plants than in the plantlets infected with M. radiotolerans IMBG290.

  13. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  14. Appeals court reverses verdict favoring drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    An appeals court reversed a verdict favoring drug companies after the widow of a hemophiliac, whose death was linked to HIV-tainted blood products, sued four pharmaceutical companies to pay damages. The four companies, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Miles Laboratories Inc., Armour Pharmaceutical Co., and Baxter Travenol Laboratories Inc., provided Factor VIII, a clotting concentrate, to [name removed] [name removed], the plaintiff's husband, from 1972 until his death in 1987. [Name removed]'s wife sued the companies, alleging that the defendants negligently solicited blood plasma from paid donors who had a high risk of having HIV, failed to determine whether any lots of Factor VIII contained plasma from an at-risk donor, failed to warn consumers of possible risks, and failed to heat-treat HIV and other viruses in Factor VIII, despite industry-wide knowledge of the risk of infection. The three-judge panel said the trial judge's decision to avoid ruling on the antigenic stimulation theory, based on insufficient evidence, was improper. In addition, the appeals court said a retrial is necessary because of improper remarks made by Alpha's attorney.

  15. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  16. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  17. The Camera Comes to Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  18. Results with Open Court Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.

    This publication tells the stories of eight schools from around the nation that have used the Open Court Reading program, describing the history of the schools, the challenges they faced, and their attempts to meet those challenges. The schools are located in California, Florida, Texas, and New York. Each of the school stories includes a focus on…

  19. Freer markets, more court rulings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The governance of economic sectors in Europe has over the past decades been characterized by several important shifts. Two of the most notable shifts are those from state to market governance and from state to court governance. The first shift is the result of a coherent set of policies that have

  20. Regional Courts as Judicial Brakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalf Katrin Nyman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how regional integration courts can act as judicial brakes, at a time when “constitutional coups” – leaders staying in power past constitutional time limits or other forms of actions against the spirit if not always the letter of the constitution – are alarmingly common. The article discusses how regional courts can be used to modify or protect national rule of law and the constitutional order from the outside (i.e. from the regional integration aspect and the extent to which this can be valid particularly to promote a uniform interpretation and application of human rights. Although this trend is visible in Europe, it is more striking, because less expected, on other continents, in particular Africa and the Americas, where the developments take place in less than perfect democratic environments. The article contains evidence from cases dealt with in the various regional courts, supporting that a system of political and judicial oversight, especially in regions with weak or fragile democratic systems, can be a useful addition to national judicial or other mechanisms of protection of rule of law and control of the executive. Action by regional courts helps defeat perceptions of majoritarian politics, which in many countries allow for the winner to take all. Under a system of regional oversight, states become aware of the limits they themselves have set and citizens become aware of their possibilities to challenge political power.

  1. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...

  2. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

      This paper reports on an on-going investigation of conversational implicature in triadic speech events: Interpreter-mediated questionings in criminal proceedings in Danish district courts. The languages involved are Danish and English, and the mode of interpreting is the consecutive mode. The c...

  3. Court decisions on medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Jan-Paul; Parzeller, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies on court cases dealing with medical malpractice are few and far between. This retrospective study, therefore, undertakes an analysis of medical malpractice lawsuits brought before regional courts in two judicial districts of the federal state of Hesse. Over a 5-year period (2006-2010), 232 court decisions on medical malpractice taken by the regional courts (Landgericht) of Kassel and Marburg were evaluated according to medical discipline, diagnosis, therapy, relevant level of care, charge of neglect of duty by the claimant party, outcome of the lawsuit, and further criteria. With certain overlaps, the disciplines most frequently confronted with claims of medical malpractice were accident surgery and orthopedics (30.2%; n = 70), dentistry (16.4%; n = 38), surgery (12.1%; n = 28), and gynecology and obstetrics (7.8%; n = 18), followed by the remaining medical disciplines (38.8%; n = 90). Malpractice allegations were brought against the practice-based sector in 35.8 % (n = 83) of cases, the hospital-based sector in 63.3% (n = 147) of cases, and other sectors in 0.9% (n = 2) of cases. The allegation grounds included false administration of treatment (67.2%; n = 156), false indication of treatment (37.1%; n = 86), false diagnosis (31.5%; n = 73), and/or organizational negligence (13.8%; n = 32). A breach of duty to inform was given as grounds for the claim in 38.8% (n = 90) of cases. A significant majority of 65.6% (n = 152) of cases ended in a court settlement. Of the cases, 18.9% (n = 44) were concluded by claim withdrawal, 11.2% (n = 26) by claim dismissal and 2.6% (n = 6) by criminal sentence. Of the cases, 1.7% (n = 4) were for purposes of securing evidence. Although there was no conclusive evidence of malpractice, two thirds of the cases ended in a court settlement. On the one hand, this outcome reduces the burden on the courts, but on the other, it can in the long term give

  4. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor

  5. Explaining African Participation in International Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo; Brett, Peter

    2018-01-01

    constructivist and liberal institutionalist International Relations theories. International court creation did not reflect the pursuit of national interests or a response to normative NGO pressures. Making this argument, the article analyses the design and ratification of two new international courts: the SADC...... Tribunal and International Criminal Court. Using the case studies of Zimbabwe and Kenya, it shows how global scripts were repeated by even those states which have, in recent years, most vocally asserted their national interests against these courts....

  6. Ralstonia solanacearum – a New Threat to Potato Production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ware potatoes (a total of 1127 samples from localities in Serbia during two consecutive years resulted in detection and identification of R. solanacearum in 17 tuber samples. The monitoring detected the causal agent of bacterial wilt and brown rot of potato in three districts of Vojvodina province. In 2011, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 7 samples of ware potato tubers (varieties – Saturna, Pirol, Hermes, Panda in West Bačka and South Bačka Districts. In 2012, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 10 potato tuber samples (Lady Claire, Desiree, Panda, Red Fantasy and Vineta varieties from two districts: South Bačka and Central Banat. Bacterial strains obtained from positive samples were identified as R. solanacearum biovar 2 using PCR/RFLP analysis, pathogenicity test on tomato transplants, and nutritional, enzymatic and biovar determination tests. To our best knowledge, these are the only findings of R. solanacearum infection in ware potatoes in Serbia. R. solanacearum was not detected in tomato or any other host plant tested in this study. Furthermore, the bacterium was not found in any of the water samples tested, including those originating from areas in which the bacterium was found in ware potato samples.

  7. Trial Courts in the Judicial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, R. Neal

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course which examines the organizational and behavioral characteristics of trial courts in the American judicial process. A major course objective is to help students understand the trial court process as a political process by showing how trial court organizations are involved in the allocation of social values. (RM)

  8. The Court in the Homeric Epos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The research investigates the court system in Homeric Greece. This period was characterized by a declining culture and scarce works that described those times. Hence, the court procedures of those times remains understudied; therefore, the purpose of this research is to reconstruct theoretically the court procedure in Homeric Greece. Homer's and…

  9. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  10. USA SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE AND EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE (COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The US Supreme Court and the European Court of Justice are coordinating constitutional review. Although the European Union does not have a constitution, the European Court often engages in what functionally amounts to constitutional review, particularly in relation to the quasi-federal structure of the EU. Both courts have engaged in the constitutionalization of politics and seem in risk of politicizing the constitution. The threats to their respective powers and legitimacy are different. The US Supreme Court is vulnerable to internal forces (the President, Congress, national public opinion whereas the European Court is vulnerable to external forces (the member states and, in particular, theirs constitutional courts.

  11. THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE COURT AND COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosilja Britvić Vetma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dialogue judges between administrative court and Court of Justice of the European Union, and determines the most important elements of this cooperation. Special attention was given preliminary ruling procedure and position of Croatian administrative courts in it. In the following paper, the relationship between tha national administrative courts, the Courts of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights after the Treaty of Lisbon. This paper also discusses the solutions adopted in other countries, special attention was paid to the influence of French administrative law on cooperation (dialogue between the courts due to a strong influence on the development of that cooperation.

  12. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  13. Detection of irradiated potatoes by conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherz, H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows that the conductivity of irradiated potatoes measured by a sticking electrode depend on the irradiation dose and is independent on the potato variety. The measured values remain constant over a six month storage period

  14. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  15. Virus Incidence of Sweet Potato in Korea from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaedeok; Yang, Jung Wook; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Chung, Mi-Nam; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Kyeong-Bo; Nam, Sang Sik; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2017-10-01

    A nationwide survey was performed to investigate the current incidence of viral diseases in Korean sweet potatoes for germplasm and growing fields from 2011 to 2014. A total of 83.8% of the germplasm in Korea was infected with viruses in 2011. Commercial cultivars that were used to supply growing fields were infected at a rate of 62.1% in 2012. Among surveyed viruses, the incidence of five Potyvirus species that infect sweet potato decreased between 2012 and 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Representatively, the incidence of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) was 87.0% in 2012, 20.7% in 2013 and then increased to 35.3% in 2014. Unlike RNA viruses, DNA viruses were shown to decrease continuously. The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) was 5.5% in 2003, 59.5% in 2011, and 47.4% in 2012. It then decreased continuously year by year to 33.2% in 2013, and then 25.6% in 2014. While the infection rate of each virus species showed a tendency to decline, the virus infection status was more variable in 2013 and 2014. Nevertheless, the high rate of single infections and mixed infection combinations were more variable than the survey results from 2012. As shown in the results from 2013, the most prevalent virus infection was a single infection at 27.6%, with the highest rate of infection belonging to sweet potato symptomless virus-1 (SPSMV-1) (12.9%). Compared to 2013, infection combinations were more varied in 2014, with a total of 122 kinds of mixed infection.

  16. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  17. Does Europe need two Courts of Human Rights? On the Relationship between the Strasbourg and Luxembourg Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2003-01-01

    Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol, European Court of Human Rights, EF-Domstolen, European Court of Justice......Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol, European Court of Human Rights, EF-Domstolen, European Court of Justice...

  18. Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno

    2013-01-01

    Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...

  19. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  20. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tooth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  1. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  3. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  4. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  5. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  6. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  7. Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labib, A.I.

    1962-01-01

    Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein

  8. ECHR and national constitutional courts

    OpenAIRE

    Nastić, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Comprising fundamental rights and freedoms and establishing the effective control system, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) encroaches upon the area that is traditional reserved for constitutional law. Although built on the doctrine reserved for international treaty law, the Convention goes beyond the traditional boundaries that exist between international and constitutional law. It has gradually infiltrated into the national legal systems. Constitutional courts have had the cruc...

  9. Potential Use of Insecticides and Mineral Oils for the Control of Transmission of Major Aphid-Transmitted Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses occurring in Serbia and other countries in the region are a huge problem constrainingseed potato production. At lower altitudes, in lowland and hilly regions, wheretable potato production is widely distributed, more than 50% of healthy plants becomeinfected with potato virus Y during one growing season. Under these conditions, seed potatoproduction is hindered due to a high infection pressure of potato virus Y which spreads farmore rapidly compared to leaf roll virus, virus S and other viruses hosted by this plant species.This study tended to clarify a frequent dilemma regarding the use of insecticides in preventingthe infection of healthy plants with potato virus Y and leaf roll virus, given the oraland written recommendations from pesticide manufacturers, agronomists and scientistsin the field of crop protection arising from a logical conclusion that aphid vector controlresults in virus transmission control.The present findings, which are in agreement with reports of authors from other countries,show that the use of insecticides is ineffective in preventing potato virus Y which isnonpersistently transmitted by aphids from an external source of infection.However, insecticides can exhibit efficacy in preventing potato virus Y transmissionfrom infected plants to healthy plants within a crop, which can have an overall positiveeffect only if seed potato is grown in areas that have no external source of infection.The present results and those of other authors show that insecticides are effective inpreventing the infection of healthy plants with persistently transmitted leaf roll virus.Mineral oils provide effective control of potato virus Y by preventing the infection ofpotato plants with the virus. They can be combined with other management practices toprotect seed potato crops against the virus.Given the fact that the initial first-year infection of healthy potato plants with virus Y inrelation to leaf roll virus is approximately 10

  10. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  11. Novel receptor-like protein kinases induced by Erwinia carotovora and short oligogalacturonides in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, M; Kõiv, V; Mäe, A; Palva, E T

    2001-11-01

    summary Identification of potato genes responsive to cell wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for four related receptor-like protein kinases. One of the putative serine-threonine protein kinases might have arisen through alternative splicing. These potato receptor-like kinases (PRK1-4) were highly equivalent (91-99%), most likely constituting a family of related receptors. All PRKs and four other plant RLKs share in their extracellular domain a conserved bi-modular pattern of cysteine repeats distinct from that in previously characterized plant RLKs, suggesting that they represent a new class of receptors. The corresponding genes were rapidly induced by E. carotovora culture filtrate (CF), both in the leaves and tubers of potato. Furthermore, the genes were transiently induced by short oligogalacturonides. The structural identity of PRKs and their induction pattern suggested that they constitute part of the early response of potato to E. carotovora infection.

  12. Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the top twenty countries where potato contributes substantially for the human diet. Enhancing adoption of improved potato varieties could impact on farmer’s income, household food and nutritional security. As such, using a multistage sampling procedure, a study was conducted to assess the determinants of improved potato varieties adoption in Nepal covering 180 samples in four districts, two in hills and two in Tarai region. The study revealed that; Kavre and Bardiya districts in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by improved potato varieties adoption. On the other hand, Dhankuta and Jhapa in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by local potato varieties adoption. The informal seed sources followed by agro-vet and market were the major sources for improved varietal adoption. Farmers’ accesses to training and formal seed sources were important factor determining improved potato varietal adoption. However, households with larger farm size were less likely to allocate more area for improved potato varieties as many of farmers were reluctant to take potato cultivation as agri-business and still follow subsistence farming. Potato R&D programs, therefore, need to strengthen formal seed system to enhance access to quality potato seeds and build producer’s capacity through regular training and exposer visits in order to improve adoption of improved potato varieties in Nepal.

  13. Molecular characterization of potato virus X : development of detection probes and identification of the resistance-breaking capacity of strain HB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querci, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the principal threats to potato production is the high susceptibility of this food crop to diseases, the causal agents including bacteria, fungi, mycoplasmas, nematodes, viruses and viroids. In particular, close to 30 different viruses, and one viroid, are known to infect potato

  14. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Tariq; Horton, David R.; Cooper, W. Rodney; Swisher, Kylie D.; Zack, Richard S.; Pappu, Hanu R.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern). All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato (“inoculation access period”, or IAP) to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in exploring

  15. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mustafa

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc (Hemiptera: Triozidae, is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern. All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato ("inoculation access period", or IAP to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in

  16. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  17. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  18. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  19. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  20. Shihoro irradiation plant for potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kenji

    1985-01-01

    There have been rapid moves toward the commercialization of food irradiation around the world since November, 1980, when a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO expert committee made a recommendation on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. The bold US move toward the commercialization has had a great impact. Ahead of these move around the world, Japan built a commercial irradiation plant in 1974, which has been operated for inhibiting the sprouting of potatoes. This plant was built in Shihoro, Hokkaido, and two thirds of the 400 million yen construction cost was provided by the Government and Hokkaido authorities for five agricultural cooperative associations of four local townships. Since then, the plant has been under the joint management of these cooperatives. The aim and circumstance of the plant construction are described. The mechanism of the plant with conveyors, a turntable and a Co-60 source of 300,000 Ci is shown. The plant processes 15 tons of potatoes per hour with the dose from 60 to 150 Gy. Potato bruise and irradiation effect, irradiation time and effect, and post-irradiation storage temperature and potato quality are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Production and requirements for pre-basic seed potato material in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-basic seed potato material is used for basic seed (elite and certified seed potato production. At this moment all basic seed material is imported into Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, despite the fact that the method of in vitro tissue culture production of virus-free seed potato has been developed in both countries and there is a continuous demand for pre-basic and basic seed potato. Current total production is significantly lower than actual requirements. In the 80s and 90s of the previous century two modern facilities for production of virus-free seed potato and certified seed were built in Sokolac (Republic of Srpska and Guča (Republic of Serbia. Although facilities were well-equipped, seed potato production was permanently ceased in 2000. The presence of high infection pressure dominated by potato virus Y is shown in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska. This paper gives an overview of pre-basic seed potato material production in both countries over the last two decades.

  2. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  3. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  4. Administrative court control in taxation matters

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Zunić Kovačević

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the current organisation of administrative court control in taxation matters, this paper, after a brief overview of the normative legal framework of control in such matters, provides an analysis of certain indicators of administrative and administrative court control implementation in taxation matters. The experience of the application of administrative control in taxation matters and an analysis of accessible indicators of recent administrative court control in taxation matters...

  5. Detection of DNA specific sequences of Spongospora subterranea in soil and potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oswaldo Saavedra Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A test has been developed for early identification of the casual agent for potato powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea fs subterranea. Identification was carried out in seeds and soil where this tuber is grown. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR was set up for detecting 372, 390 and 391 bp ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS in the S. subterraneagenome. A method for extracting and purifying DNA from infected plant material (potato root nodes and pustules on the potato was standardised. Plant tissue was obtained by potato tuber propagation using an inoculum from the pathogen in greenhouse conditions. After the PCR had been optimised and its sensitivity determined, a molecular methodology was validated by examining plant material infected with S. subterranea and soil samples infested with the pathogen obtained from the departments of Cundinamarca and Nariño. The PCR detected S. subterranea DNA from infected material and soil samples (all thirty samples from the experimental area analysed proved PCR positive. These results show that this molecular method was not just useful for the early detection of the pathogen in soil samples but as a tool for detecting or determining the possible presence of this micro-organism in places that have been declared f ree of S. subterranea and an effective form of quality control in producing the certif ied potato seed. Key words: Powdery scab, cystosori, internal transcribed spacer, PCR, plasmodiophorid.

  6. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  7. Victimological aspects of court judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačanović Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the review of the results of the research: „Analysis of judgments form the victimological aspect“ of the Basic court Skopje I in Skopje. It is the first research of it’s kind in the Republic of Macedonia, conducted by the project team of the Faculty of Security in Skopje in the period from January to April 2011. By using the content analysis (for this purpose a special instrument was developed 172 irrevocable court judgment brought in the period 2005-2010 were analyzed, for the following criminal offences: murder, crimes against sexual freedom and sexual morality (sexual assault, severe bodily injuries and insult. The aim of the research was to highlight the victimological dimensions of mentioned criminal offences, while special attention was paid to the role of a victim in a crime, victim‘ s interaction with the perpetrator, individual characteristics of the victim, as well as the characteristics of the time when and the space where the crime occurred.

  8. Importance of court practice review in Russian arbitration (commercial) court proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Solovyev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article concerns the matters of court practice review in terms of participation in arbitration (commercial) court proceedings. The author gives general description of the system of the arbitration courts administering business and economic justice in the Russian Federation, covered the key areas and worked out the practical recommendations concerning the focal points of arranging the appropriate work in respect of review of law enforcement practice of such courts.

  9. 25 CFR 11.912 - Contempt of court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.912 Contempt of court. Any willful disobedience or interference with any order of the children's court constitutes contempt of court which may be punished in accordance...

  10. Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes and associated damage to potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, J.

    1993-01-01

    Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globoderarostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida Stone) and their interactions with potato plants are insufficiently understood to explain variations of population

  11. Status of Court Management in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, and in particular in the Anglo-American region, there is a long tradition of scientific study of court management. Thus in Australia there has for quite some time been the Australasian Institution of Judicial Administration (AIJA, which concerns itself with every aspect of court administration. In the USA too, research and education in the field of court management has been institutionalized for a long time, in particular by the National Center for State Courts (NCSC and the related Institute for Court Management (ICM. In Europe, a working group known as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ deals with issues of court management as part of the activities of the Council of Europe. The fact that court management is also increasingly becoming an important topic in the European area was demonstrated by the establishment, in 2008, of a new professional journal that focuses on court management, the International Journal for Court Administration (IJCA. In Switzerland, the issue of court management was discussed for the first time in the course of the New Public Management (NPM projects in the cantons, but was often limited to the question of whether to include the courts in the relevant cantonal NPM model. Generally speaking, court management was a matter that was only sporadically raised, such as at a symposium of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences (SSAS in 2003 or more recently in an article in which theses on good court management are formulated. In Switzerland even today there is a general dearth of empirical and other theoretical findings on the mode of operation of the justice system and its interaction with society, or with specific social target groups. For example, it was only in 2009 that the first indications were obtained of how cases in various categories were handled by the highest administrative and social insurance courts in Switzerland. In the fields of criminal and civil

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ali, M. E.; Khan, A. A.; Akanda, A. M.; Uddin, Md. Kamal; Hashim, U.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5% antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7% of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  14. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato ... Viable, commercial seed schemes and appropriate low cost storage methods are ..... national Potato Centre (CIP), Lima, (Peru). In-.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Urek; S Širca; Stare Geric; B Dolničar; P Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultiva...

  16. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  17. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  18. 78 FR 14017 - Courts of Indian Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... process of establishing, tribal courts; and are therefore no longer in need of an extra-tribal judicial... Health Hospital, and the Albuquerque Indian School Property (land held in trust for the 19 Pueblos of New... have courts to administer justice on land under their jurisdiction. Prior notice and comment are...

  19. Editorial Coverage of Reagan Supreme Court Nominees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, F. Dennis

    To measure the editorial advocacy of influential newspapers concerning the membership of the Supreme Court, a study analyzed editorials from such newspapers concerning the last five Supreme Court nominees of President Ronald Reagan (William Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Robert Bork, Douglas Ginsburg, and Anthony Kennedy). A telephone survey of 100…

  20. Court supervised institutional transformation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions ...

  1. Educational Malpractice: Why the Courts Say No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The courts have refused to award damages to litigants claiming educational malpractice. This article discusses recurring themes in the courts' rationale for their decisions. Discussion focuses on elements of negligence: the duty of care, the breach of duty, injury and proximate cause. (IAH)

  2. Sociomateriality at the Royal Court of IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    understanding of the notion of sociomateriality and its use in the IS discipline. We invite the reader to attend a prolonged monologue – characterized by honesty, frank observations and wit – at the royal court of IS. The monologue is delivered by the court jester and directed to the two sovereigns who, based...

  3. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  4. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...

  5. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1987-01-01

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  6. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Sugiyama, Junnichi; Otobe, Kazuki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1993-01-01

    The impedance ratio at 5kHz to 50kHz (Z 6K /Z 50K ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of potato tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radian treatment. Irradiated potatoes of 10 cultivars could be detected with this method, and potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at Shihoro could be distinguished from unirradiated 'Danshaku'. (author)

  7. Hygiene assessment of irradiated potato mutagenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uralova, M.; Grunt, J.; Patzeltova, N.

    1977-01-01

    Albino rat males were fed on gamma-irradiated potatoes for one month and mated with two intact female rats each. The dominant lethal mutation method was then used for the study of possible mutagenic activity of the irradiated potatoes. No statistically significant differences were observed and no mutagenic activity was found. Thus, the test showed that potatoes irradiated with a dose of 10 krad of gamma radiation does not present genetic hazards for albino rats. (L.O.)

  8. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedniece, Vivita; Spalvins, Kriss; Ivanovs, Kaspars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-12-01

    The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  9. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priedniece Vivita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  10. The constitutional court review of judicial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dragan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, the constitutional precepts envisage that judicial decisions are not subject to extrajudicial control. However, in the course of deciding on constitutional complaints, the Constitutional Court reviews the compliance of individual legal acts and actions of state authorities with the Constitution, including court decisions on cases involving the constitutionally guaranteed rights. Hence, in order to eliminate tension or even contradiction between the constitutional precepts, the constitutional review of judicial decisions should be considered as a special form of judicial control, regardless of the fact that the Constitutional Court is not part of the judicial structure in the strict organizational sense. Thus, unlike the cases where the Court is involved in the normative control of the applicable law, in the process of reviewing judicial decision of lower courts the constitutional judiciary acts in the capacity of a specific judicial authority. According to another possible interpretation of the aforementioned constitutional norms, the direct constitutional protection of the constitutionally guaranteed rights may only be pursued in the process of reviewing individual legal acts and actions of state authorities, but not by pursuing a judicial review of court decisions which the Constitutional Court has no jurisdiction to decide upon. Thus, the dogma of judicial independence would prevail over the dogma of direct protection of fundamental rights. The third interpretation of this relationship maintains that that judicial decisions may be subject to control but, in this specific case, the Constitutional Court may only issue an opinion (a statement rather than a binding decision which would cancel the lower court judgment. Then, it is up to the judicial authorities of the lower instance to adjust their judicial decision, which in the opinion of the Constitutional Court constitutes a violation of the constitutionally guaranteed rights

  11. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr. [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  12. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards

  13. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jr, Thomas G [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  14. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  15. Circuit courts clash over HIV in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-19

    Some of the major differences of opinions between the circuit courts on issues affecting HIV and employment are examined. In the seven years since the passing of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), there has been disagreement among the circuits relative to the interpretation of the law. At the heart of the debate is whether or not HIV infection, without symptoms of AIDS, actually qualifies for a disability under the meaning and intent of the ADA. Another fundamental issue is whether or not reproduction is considered a major life activity under the ADA. Federal circuit courts have also considered what happens to patients in the latter stages of HIV diseases, when symptoms are so pronounced that he or she qualifies for disability benefits including Social Security or private disability plans. There is disagreement among the circuits as to whether insurance products, including those provided through an employee benefit program, are covered under the ADA. As of this date, the U.S. Supreme Court has not intervened on any of the HIV/ADA-related cases.

  16. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, Helena P; Orílio, Anelise F; Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  17. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  18. Should the District Courts Have Jurisdiction Over Pre-Award Contract Claims? A Claim for the Claims Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, John J

    1987-01-01

    This thesis briefly examines the jurisdiction of the federal district courts and the United States Court of Claims over pre-award contract claims before the Federal Courts Improvement Act of October 1...

  19. Genetic transformation in two potato cultivars with T-DNA from disarmed Agrobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Burrell, M.M.; Karp, A.; Bevan, M.; Hille, J.

    1987-01-01

    Derivatives of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv.'s 'Maris Bard' and 'Desiree') transformed with disarmed T-DNA from genetically engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains were isolated. The transformed plants were recovered from shoot-forming tumours induced by infection of wounds with mixed-cultures

  20. Assessment of transformability of bacteria associated with tomato and potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Ray, J.L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation of plant-associated bacteria by plant DNA has never been demonstrated in agricultural fields. In total 552 bacterial isolates from stems of Ralstonia solanacearum-infected and healthy tomato plants and from stems and leaves of healthy potato plants were tested for natural genetic

  1. The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production

  2. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  3. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  4. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  5. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  6. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  7. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  8. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)

  9. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  10. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  11. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in potato plants with zebra chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Abad, Jorge A; French-Monar, Ronald D; Rascoe, John; Wen, Aimin; Gudmestad, Neil C; Secor, Gary A; Lee, Ing-Ming; Duan, Yongping; Levy, Laurene

    2009-07-01

    The new Liberibacter species, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) recently associated with potato/tomato psyllid-transmitted diseases in tomato and capsicum in New Zealand, was found to be consistently associated with a newly emerging potato zebra chip (ZC) disease in Texas and other southwestern states in the USA. A species-specific primer LsoF was developed for both quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) to detect and quantify Lso in infected samples. In multiplex qPCR, a plant cytochrome oxidase (COX)-based probe-primer set was used as a positive internal control for host plants, which could be used to reliably access the DNA extraction quality and to normalize qPCR data for accurate quantification of the bacterial populations in environment samples. Neither the qPCR nor the cPCR using the primer and/or probe sets with LsoF reacted with other Liberibacter species infecting citrus or other potato pathogens. The low detection limit of the multiplex qPCR was about 20 copies of the target 16S rDNA templates per reaction for field samples. Lso was readily detected and quantified in various tissues of ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas. A thorough but uneven colonization of Lso was revealed in various tissues of potato plants. The highest Lso populations were about 3x10(8) genomes/g tissue in the root, which were 3-order higher than those in the above-ground tissues of potato plants. The Lso bacterial populations were normally distributed across the ZC-affected potato plants collected from fields in Texas, with 60% of ZC-affected potato plants harboring an average Lso population from 10(5) to 10(6) genomes/g tissue, 4% of plants hosting above 10(7) Lso genomes/g tissue, and 8% of plants holding below 10(3) Lso genomes/g tissue. The rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable multiplex qPCR showed its potential to become a powerful tool for early detection and quantification of the new Liberibacter species associated

  12. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  13. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  14. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  15. Congressional Authority Over the Federal Courts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Elizabeth B; Killian, John; Thomas, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    .... While Congress has broad power to regulate the structure, administration and jurisdiction of the courts, its powers are limited by precepts of due process, equal protection and separation of powers...

  16. National New Court Cases Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset creates a collection of reports for the national total of new court case (NCC) receipts, dispositions, and pending at the Appeals Council level in the...

  17. National Court Remand Activity Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset creates a collection of reports for the national total of court remand receipts, dispositions, and pending cases at the Office of Hearings Operations...

  18. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  19. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  20. T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M Adriaenssens

    Full Text Available The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics.

  1. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  2. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor beslechting van internationale handelsgeschillen in de Engelse taal, waarbij de belangen van snelheid, efficiëntie en goede financierbaarheid centraal staan. Dit artikel verkent de positieve aspecten van ...

  3. Federal Constitutional Court - report on Court decisions 1984 no. 40-56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkemann, J.

    1985-01-01

    The decision deals with the question to which extent administrative courts have to examine the case in summary proceedings against licences pursuant to Atomic Energy Law. The Federal Constitutional Court examines the question if the administrative court has, in checking the chances, misjudged the importance of the appellant's fundamental rights and thus infringed his constitutionally protected position. In this case, the Court comes to the result that after having adjusted the determined interests, the confirmation of immediate execution did not infringe the fundamental rights of the appellant. (HP) [de

  4. How do the Constitutional Courts decide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Pasquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the mode of production of judicial sentences drafted by constitutional courts in Europe. The natural object of study of the constitutional theory is the analysis of this final product of judicial creation of Law by Constitutional Courts. However, the doctrine has not given sufficient attention –from a comparative law perspective– to the mechanisms and procedures that lead to the decisions of these institutions. Thus, this document will classify the different types of decision-making processes in the courts, analyzing the stages that make up the «mode of production», from the study of the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, the Constitutional Council of the French Republic, The Constitutional Court of Italy and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. At the end of the paper, some conclusions are made about the period of the magistrates, their party affiliation, the temporary restrictions of deliberation and institutional factors such as the number of attendees or the personalization of its members.

  5. Past and Future for Management of Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Maan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is written from the perspective of a court president in The Netherlands, a so called civil law country. In theory, in a civil law country, judges and lawyers in civil and commercial cases base their actions on the application of the law and its interpretation. Moreover, in criminal matters, the courts use inquisitorial procedures which differ from the adversarial procedures used in common law countries. The field of court management is not highly developed because of the tension between the need for judicial independence and judicial organization. There are many examples of this tension, including the fact that courts may be subject to budgetary limits which themselves may intrude upon judicial independence. For instance, suppose that a judge believes it necessary to appoint an expert to answer a certain scientific question, but the expert is expensive and budgetary considerations preclude the appointment. When I was involved in the process of the budgets of prosecutors’ offices and courts, this question frequently arose. In an effort to deal with this problem, part of the courts’ budgets were treated as open-ended even though courts rarely spent these open-ended budgets lavishly.

  6. Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    Separation of Powers Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Eliminating Federal Court Jurisdiction Where There Is No State Court Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 1 542 U.S. 466 (2004). Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court In Rasul v. Bush,1 a divided Supreme Court declared that “a state

  7. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting...

  8. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  10. Image recognition on raw and processed potato detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-nan; Lü, Cheng-xu; Zhang, Jun-ning; Li, Ya-shuo; Zeng, Zhen; Mao, Wen-hua; Jiang, Han-lu; Yang, Bing-nan

    2018-02-01

    Objective: Chinese potato staple food strategy clearly pointed out the need to improve potato processing, while the bottleneck of this strategy is technology and equipment of selection of appropriate raw and processed potato. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advanced raw and processed potato detection methods. Method: According to consult research literatures in the field of image recognition based potato quality detection, including the shape, weight, mechanical damage, germination, greening, black heart, scab potato etc., the development and direction of this field were summarized in this paper. Result: In order to obtain whole potato surface information, the hardware was built by the synchronous of image sensor and conveyor belt to achieve multi-angle images of a single potato. Researches on image recognition of potato shape are popular and mature, including qualitative discrimination on abnormal and sound potato, and even round and oval potato, with the recognition accuracy of more than 83%. Weight is an important indicator for potato grading, and the image classification accuracy presents more than 93%. The image recognition of potato mechanical damage focuses on qualitative identification, with the main affecting factors of damage shape and damage time. The image recognition of potato germination usually uses potato surface image and edge germination point. Both of the qualitative and quantitative detection of green potato have been researched, currently scab and blackheart image recognition need to be operated using the stable detection environment or specific device. The image recognition of processed potato mainly focuses on potato chips, slices and fries, etc. Conclusion: image recognition as a food rapid detection tool have been widely researched on the area of raw and processed potato quality analyses, its technique and equipment have the potential for commercialization in short term, to meet to the strategy demand of development potato as

  11. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  12. Identification of irradiated potatoes by impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Antaryami; Wadhawan, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical impedance of potatoes irradiated at 60, 90, 150 and 1000 Gy was measured using various frequencies of alternating current. The impedance of the irradiated potatoes was higher than the unirradiated potatoes particularly in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The ratio of the impedance at 5 kHz to that at 50 Hz (Z5k/Z50) was found to be the best indicator for detection of radiation treatment. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. Initiating genomic selection in tetraploid potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen

    Breeding for more space and resource efficient crops is important to feed the world’s increasing population. Potatoes produce approximately twice the amount of calories per hectare compared to cereals. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however......, the completion of the genome sequence of potato has enabled the application of genomics-assisted breeding technologies. Genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops as the genotyping costs continue to reduce and it is thus an attractive breeding alternative...... selection, can be obtained with good prediction accuracies in tetraploid potato....

  14. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  15. Mental health court outcomes: a comparison of re-arrest and re-arrest severity between mental health court and traditional court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marlee E; Hiday, Virginia Aldigé

    2006-12-01

    Mental health courts have been proliferating across the country since their establishment in the late 1990's. Although numerous advocates have proclaimed their merit, only few empirical studies have evaluated their outcomes. This paper evaluates the effect of one mental health court on criminal justice outcomes by examining arrests and offense severity from one year before to one year after entry into the court, and by comparing mental health court participants to comparable traditional criminal court defendants on these measures. Multivariate models support the prediction that mental health courts reduce the number of new arrests and the severity of such re-arrests among mentally ill offenders. Similar analysis of mental health court completers and non-completers supports the prediction that a "full dose" of mental health treatment and court monitoring produce even fewer re-arrests.

  16. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  17. Jurisdiction of courts with a focus on the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Sabri Halili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal solution offered by the Law establishing the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court of Kosovo is rather challenging for practical implementation. Due to this fact, the decisions of the Special Chamber contain various dilemmas of judges on the jurisdiction of the Chamber on the matters related to natural persons sued by the PAK, which are related to various liabilities of these persons to socially-owned enterprises, namely to the PAK. Since the PAK administers and represents socially owned property in general, it is naturally bound to seek for legal resolutions for all legal contests before a competent court. Naturally, the PAK would seek for such a solution before the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court of Kosovo on PAK-related matters, which is already bound by the title itself, “on PAK-related matters”. Comparisons of remedies by various laws related to subject competence are based on legal literature used in higher education in Kosovo. Analysis of subject competences of regular and special courts is two-fold: the Commercial Court and the Military Court, while the competence of the Special Chamber is only analysed in relation with the Law on Courts, and the Law on the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court, comparing it with the Law on Contested Procedure and the Law on the PAK. The Special Chamber has before and still continues to avoid jurisdiction of this Court, which is sanctioned by Articles 4 and 5 of the Law on the Special Chamber, due to the fact that in cases in which the PAK has sued a natural or legal person, due to debts, occupation of socially owned property, or any other disputed matter, which is directly related to socially owned properties, the Special Chamber proclaims itself incompetent, and transfers the case to regular courts, although the Special Chamber adjudicates “on PAK-related matters”, but in this case only when the PAK is respondent, not when it is claimant.

  18. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  19. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  20. physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    of deep dormancy, during which potato seeds do not germinate after ... dormancy period and sprouting behaviour are major criteria ... develop once sprouting begins; such as changes ...... an example of plant information processing. Plant Cell ...

  1. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  2. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...... was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which...

  3. Stock indexing and Potato virus Y elimination from potato plants cultivated in vitro Indexação de matrizes e eliminação do Potato virus Y em plantas de batata cultivadas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. have shown degeneration or run out caused by viruses after several cycles of propagation using seed tubers from commercial fields. This work reports the occurrence of single and mixed infections of four potato viruses in Paraíba-Brazil and presents a method for Potato virus Y (PVY elimination, by using thermo-and chemotherapies. Plants of potato cv. Baraka were tested by direct antigen coating ELISA. Antisera against PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV were used. Materials with positive reaction to PVY were treated for virus elimination. Single node cuttings (1.0 cm length were excised and inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (MS medium, supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 of kinetin, 0.001 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3. The thermotherapy at approximately 37ºC, during 30 and 40 days, resulted in 20.0 and 37.5% PVY elimination, respectively. Chemotherapy was undertaken with Ribavirin (RBV, 5-Azacytidine (AZA, and 3-Deazauridine (DZD. The RBV showed the highest rate of virus eradication, with 55.5% virus-free plants. Simultaneous thermo and chemotherapy had higher efficiency for the elimination of PVY, reaching rates of healthy plants of 83.3% with RBV, 70.0% with AZA, and 50.0% with DZD.Cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. têm mostrado degenerescência causada por vírus após ciclos sucessivos do uso de tubérculos de campos comerciais como material propagativo. Este trabalho verifica a ocorrência de infecção simples e mista de quatro vírus da batata na Paraíba e apresenta adequação da técnica de cultivo in vitro para obtenção de material livre de Potato virus Y (PVY, incluindo uso de microestacas, termo e quimioterapia. Plantas de batata do cv. Baraka foram submetidas à indexação sorológica pelo teste "direct antigen coating" ELISA. Utilizaram-se antissoros contra o PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus

  4. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangryeol Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP, tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1 protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2 protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato.

  5. Illinois court seeks new course in AIDS phobia cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-25

    The Illinois Court of Appeals ruled that plaintiffs cannot be compensated for negligent infliction of emotional distress unless there is a substantial, medically-verifiable possibility of contracting HIV. The new standard will impact a growing body of case law requiring plaintiffs to show that the fear of AIDS was predicated on actual exposure to the virus. Under the actual exposure rule, a plaintiff who injures himself with a hypodermic needle that had been used on an HIV-positive hospital patient could recover damages; another plaintiff whose needle puncture cannot be traced to HIV contamination could not be compensated. In Doe v. Northwestern University, six plaintiffs who received dental care from a university dental student who tested positive for HIV antibodies sued the university, alleging negligence. Although the plaintiff's fears of HIV infection were reasonable, the court found that they were not severe enough to warrant tort compensation since the plaintiffs had nothing to support their claims. In the case of [name removed] v. [Name removed], a medical clinic office manager, cut herself on a bloodstained scalpel left in a trash can by Dr. [name removed]. Eight months following the incident, [name removed] died of AIDS-related causes. Mrs. [Name removed] would have been entitled to recover damages under the actual exposure test; however, the case would not have prevailed under the Northwestern standard because it was known that Mrs. [Name removed] tested negative twice prior to learning of [name removed]'s AIDS diagnosis. Controversy within the Illinois courts about the actual exposure rule continues.

  6. Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.

    2016-01-01

    The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)

  7. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...

  8. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must......Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... that ‘the involvement of the international community’ is at best an unhelpful criterion when it comes to resolving questions, e.g. regarding the immunity of state officials and the relevance of domestic law, that require a determination of the legal system in which the court operates. Instead, it is argued...

  9. Unwrapping Court-Connected Mediation Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Lin; Mykland, Solfrid

    2018-01-01

    Court-connected mediated agreements seem to both fulfil and fail the ideal of self-determination in mediation theory. In a study of 134 agreements from court-connected mediation, we found that the majority of agreements contain creative elements and display great variation in the provisions...... and understand them. The judicial language is well known for the drafters of the agreement but not the parties. Thus, court-connected mediation seems to fail aspects of self-determination when it comes to drafting agreements. We draw on new-institutional theory when we explore and explain this apparent...... they contain. These results indicate that the parties play an important role in crafting the substance of their agreements. However, we also found that the wording of the agreements is characterised by legal and bureaucratic language to the extent that people without legal training find it difficult to read...

  10. Employers liability to the international criminal court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yiseth Suárez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant changes in the social dynamics due to economic and technological development has brought along the need to dispose of a High Court, with competence over International Crimes. The above was the reason to establish the International Criminal Court, destined to prosecute and punish the maximum responsible for crimes of its jurisdiction. Nonetheless, despite the existence of individual criminal responsibility as an accomplice in the case of entrepreneurs who contribute to the crime, there is not an actual investigation or conviction as such in the Court fase for those individuals. Through a criminological study, the actions in the frame of the criminal policy in international law, in order to hold individual criminal responsibility towards entrepreneurs for international crimes, will be evaluated, from the dogmatic categories established in the international guidelines as well as from international doctrine.

  11. Effect of potato used as a trap crop on potato cyst nematodes and other soil pathogens and on the growth of a subsequent main potato crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment in which main-crop potatoes were grown every other year was conducted on a sandy soil from 1994 to 1999. The aim of the experiment was to control soil-borne pathogens of potato with ecologically sound methods. Potato grown as a trap crop from the end of April to the end of June (8

  12. Application of gamma irradiation for storage potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, M.; Almasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Since deficiency of controlled store in Iran and environmental problems of chemical material the use of gamma irradiation to control sprouting and increase the length of storage time of potatoes has been proposed as an alternative to cold storage or the use of chemical sprout suppressants. In this study potatoes of Agria Variety were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 KGY and stored along with the unirradiated controls at 12±3°C for a period of more than 6 month from October to April .After 4 month of storage the sprouting ranged from 5 to 12% in irradiated potatoes and 45 to 74% in unirradiated samples and after 6 month the unirradiated potatoes were discarded because of heavy sprouting and rotting. The rot attack was approximately double in unirradiated samples. It was found that losses through dehydration were 10.3 to 15.1 % in the irradiated potatoes. Also a comparative study of reducing and non-reducing sugars, vitamin-C content, total sugar, starch and protein was carried out between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The results suggested the efficacy of Gamma irradiation for ensuring availability of the storing quality of potato during lean periods from October to April. (author)

  13. Influence of γ-irradiation on drying of slice potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Chao Yan; Fu Junjie; Wang Jianping

    2001-01-01

    A new technology is introduced to dry food products by hot-air after pretreated by irradiation. The influence of different dosage of irradiation, temperature of hot air, thickness of the slice potato on the rate of dehydration temperature of irradiated potato were studied. A conclusion is reached that the 3 factors, irradiation dosage, hot-air temperature and thickness of slice potato, affect the rate of dehydration and temperature of slice potato. The higher the dosage is, the greater the rate of dehydration of potato becomes, and the higher the temperature of the slice potato gets. (authors)

  14. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that

  15. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  16. Symptom expression of Potato virus Y across all market classes of U.S. potato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) can cause a range of foliar and tuber symptoms that can lead to reduced yield and quality defects in the daughter tubers. Five strains of PVY were used to inoculate 70 potato varieties in aphid screened greenhouses in Idaho and New York. Three to five isolates per strain were ...

  17. Clerics and courtly love in Andreas Capellanus' The Art of Courtly Love and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    In both The Canterbury Tales and The Art of Courtly Love Geoffrey Chaucer and Andreas Capellanus deal with various aspects of courtly love. In particular, both of them focus to some degree on the question of clerical celibacy. The use of tale telling and imaginary dialogues result in a contemporary overview of the role of the cleric in courtly love, the church rules on the subject, and the opinions of the people on a subject that is ripe for exploration. My aim is to point out some of the ...

  18. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  19. Challenging international criminal tribunals before domestic courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Brölmann, C.; Reinisch, A.

    2011-01-01

    International courts, despite the wide-ranging means that have been put at their disposal, need the cooperation of various domestic actors. The cooperation of States with international criminal tribunals has not always been without difficulty, as these tribunals have been the object of various

  20. Push Characteristics in Wheelchair Court Sport Sprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Berger, Monique; Bregman, Daan; Veeger, Dirkjan

    2016-01-01

    Short sprints are important components of most wheelchair court sports, since being faster than the opponent often determines keeping ball possession or not. Sprinting capacity is best measured during a field test, allowing the athlete to freely choose push strategies adapted to their own wheelchair

  1. Push characteristics in wheelchair court sport sprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, Monique; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Helm, FCT; Jansen, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Short sprints are important components of most wheelchair court sports, since being faster than the opponent often determines keeping ball possession or not. Sprinting capacity is best measured during a field test, allowing the athlete to freely choose push strategies adapted to their own

  2. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  3. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  4. Supreme Court Deals Blow to Student Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynn, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Covers the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, which gave principals the right to censor school publications. In "One Student's Pursuit of Journalism," Alexandra Salas relates one student journalist's experience, including internships, from high school through the end of college. (LS)

  5. The Courts, Social Science, and School Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…

  6. The Courts and Student Rights -- Procedural Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phay, Robert E.

    This paper traces the evolution of student rights and the judicial protection of these rights through numerous court cases. The author outlines the minimum standards of due process required in disciplinary proceedings and discusses cases that point up (1) the required specificity of rules on student conduct, (2) the requirements of notice to…

  7. Resistance of genetically modified potatoes to Potato virus Y under field conditions Resistência de plantas de batata geneticamente modificadas ao Potato virus Y em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nepomuceno Dusi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of genetically modified clones of potato to Potato virus Y (PVY under field conditions. Genetically modified plants were compared with nontransformed plants of the same cultivar. The plots were flanked with potato plants infected with both PVYº and PVY N strains (spread lines, in order to provide the experimental area with the source of virus, which was naturally spread by the native aphid population. The experiment was weekly monitored by visual inspections and by DAS-Elisa in the plants produced from the harvested tubers, in order to evaluate the resistance of transgenic plants throughout the plant growth cycle. By the end of the third year, no infection symptoms were observed in the 1P clone; clone 63P showed 1% of infection, in contrast to about 90% of nontransformed plants infected. The stable expression of resistance to PVY provided by the coat protein gene was obtained in genetically modified clones of potato plants cultivar Achat under field conditions, during three consecutive years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de clones geneticamente modificados de batata ao Potato virus Y (PVY em condições de campo. As plantas geneticamente modificadas foram comparadas com plantas não modificadas da mesma cultivar. As parcelas foram delimitadas com plantas infectadas com as estirpes PVYº e PVY N (linhas disseminadoras, para tornar disponível, na área experimental, a fonte de inóculo de vírus, que foi naturalmente disseminada pela população nativa de afídeos. O experimento foi monitorado semanalmente por inspeção visual e por DAS-Elisa nas plantas produzidas a partir dos tubérculos colhidos, para avaliar a resistência de plantas transgênicas ao longo do ciclo de crescimento. Ao final do terceiro ano, nenhum sintoma de infecção foi observado no clone 1P; o clone 63P apresentou 1% de infecção, em contraste com cerca de 90% de plantas-controle infectadas

  8. Jurisdiction of the international Criminal Court: Analysis, loopholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jurisdiction of the international Criminal Court: Analysis, loopholes and challenges. ... Journal Home > Vol 3 (2012) > ... One of the most fundamental questions of law is whether a given court has jurisdiction to preside over a given case.

  9. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients’ Risk Status in Drug Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status hearings in court. In contrast, participants who were low risk performed equivalently regardless of the court hearings schedule. This study prospectively matches drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based on an assessment of their risk status and compares outcomes to clients randomly assigned to the standard hearings schedule. Results confirmed that participants who were high risk and matched to biweekly hearings had better during-treatment outcomes than participants assigned to status hearings as usual. These findings provide confirmation of the risk principle in drug courts and yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug courts. PMID:18174915

  10. UK: Welsh court reduces sentence, cites HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Emmanuelle

    2003-08-01

    A Welsh appeal court has reduced the sentence handed down to an offender because of his HIV status, despite his lengthy criminal record. The court reduced the sentence from five to three-and-a-half years' imprisonment.

  11. Parent Group Training Programs in Juvenile Courts: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.

    1977-01-01

    This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)

  12. The Supreme Court's Role in Defining the Jurisdiction of Military Courts: A Study and Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldrate, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    .... Rather than creating a consistent precedent, the Court's decisions have led to arbitrary results and an increased uncertainty about whether the military commissions at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, are constitutional...

  13. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 ... (2004), bulkiness and perishability affect post- ..... credit makes it possible for farmers to purchase .... Promotion of the Sweet Potato for the Food Industry.

  14. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  15. The International Criminal Court at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahab Biad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of the Statute of Rome in July 1998, the ICC has been confronted by a number of problems. One such problem is the disagreement which persists among the members of the Assembly of Member States as to whether the crime of Aggression is one over which the Court has competence pursuant to Article 5 of the Statute. Another diffi culty is the opposition of the United States of America which, since the Bush Administration, has deployed a juridical arsenal with the aim of impeding any type of collaboration with the ICC; the tools in the arsenal include the American Service Members’ Protection Act and bilateral immunity agreements which prevent the transfer of American citizens to the Court by State members of the Rome Statute. The entry into force of the of the Statute on 1 July 2002 allowed the Court Prosecutor to initiate the fi rst investigations and processes for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the confl icts which have devastated certain African States (D.R.C., The Central African Republic and Uganda. The arrest warrant against the Sudanese President Omar Al Bashir for atrocities committed in Darfur demonstrates the limitations of action on the Court which cannot carry out its mandate without the cooperation of the States. Above all, the Court must confront the criticism of “double standards” and that it is an instrument of “justice for the poor”, while the “powerful” escape. The answers to these problems can be contributed to, in part, through the revision process foreseen by the Statute nine years after its entry into force.

  16. [Cochlear implants in the social courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottner, A; Iro, H; Schützenberger, A; Hoppe, U

    2018-02-01

    Since the indication for receiving a cochlear implant (CI) has widened (single-sided deafness [SSD], electric acoustic stimulation [EAS], bilateral CI, CI for long-term deafness), more and more patients come into consideration for such a treatment. Hence, disputes increasingly arise between patients and their insurance companies concerning the question of whether surgery and follow-up treatment have to be paid for by statutory health insurance. This work provides an overview of judgments rendered by the German social courts. We investigated whether and in which cases it is advisable for a patient to go to court, and how long the proceedings may take. We looked for judgments in the two biggest commercial legal databases and in the database of the German social courts, using combinations of the search parameters "Cochlear," "Cochlea," "Implant," and "Implantat." Three verdicts were attained by directly contacting the court; another one was mentioned in an article. The reviewed judgements were issued between 2003 and 2017. A total of 12 judgments were found. The patients won in all but one of the main proceedings. The case that was lost concerned exceptional circumstances. One patient didn't get the desired interim measure, but won in the main proceedings. The proceedings took between 1 year and 8 months, and 9 years and 5 months. Despite the amount of time the patient has to invest, taking legal action is worthwhile. The proceedings at the social courts are generally exempt from charges. In most cases, the statutory health insurance is ordered to pay for a CI.

  17. Crop connectivity under climate change: future environmental and geographic risks of potato late blight in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelsey, Peter; Cooke, David E L; Lynott, James S; Lees, Alison K

    2016-11-01

    The impact of climate change on dispersal processes is largely ignored in risk assessments for crop diseases, as inoculum is generally assumed to be ubiquitous and nonlimiting. We suggest that consideration of the impact of climate change on the connectivity of crops for inoculum transmission may provide additional explanatory and predictive power in disease risk assessments, leading to improved recommendations for agricultural adaptation to climate change. In this study, a crop-growth model was combined with aerobiological models and a newly developed infection risk model to provide a framework for quantifying the impact of future climates on the risk of disease occurrence and spread. The integrated model uses standard meteorological variables and can be easily adapted to various crop pathosystems characterized by airborne inoculum. In a case study, the framework was used with data defining the spatial distribution of potato crops in Scotland and spatially coherent, probabilistic climate change data to project the future connectivity of crop distributions for Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of potato late blight) inoculum and the subsequent risk of infection. Projections and control recommendations are provided for multiple combinations of potato cultivar and CO 2 emissions scenario, and temporal and spatial averaging schemes. Overall, we found that relative to current climatic conditions, the risk of late blight will increase in Scotland during the first half of the potato growing season and decrease during the second half. To guide adaptation strategies, we also investigated the potential impact of climate change-driven shifts in the cropping season. Advancing the start of the potato growing season by 1 month proved to be an effective strategy from both an agronomic and late blight management perspective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  19. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2014-01-01

    induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots...

  20. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  1. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... delegation power or as an original power. This article explores how the state courts are adjudicating federal criminal matters, and how the criminal adjudicative jurisdiction of the federal courts and state courts is compartmentalized. Keywords: jurisdiction, criminal adjudication, compartmentalization, constitution, federalism ...

  2. High School Food Courts: A New Evolution in Student Dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, George

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how traditional high school cafeterias have changed in recent years into food courts and dining areas usually found in shopping malls. Areas examined include food court design, traffic patterns, safety and after-hours usage, and kitchens and serving areas. How one school district turned its food court system into a successful…

  3. Legal Bibliography for Juvenile and Family Courts. Supplement 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, William H.; Freer, Alice B.

    This bibliography provides a listing of journal articles on such topics as: the abused child, adoptions, case decisions, confessions, constitutional law, counsel, court administration and organization, courts, criminal law and procedure, custody, delinquency, domestic relations, due process for juveniles, evidence, family court and family law,…

  4. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  5. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  6. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  7. Melatonin Attenuates Potato Late Blight by Disrupting Cell Growth, Stress Tolerance, Fungicide Susceptibility and Homeostasis of Gene Expression in Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans. Exogenous melatonin significantly attenuated the potato late blight by inhibiting mycelial growth, changing cell ultrastructure, and reducing stress tolerance of P. infestans. Notably, synergistic anti-fungal effects of melatonin with fungicides on P. infestans suggest that melatonin could reduce the dose levels and enhance the efficacy of fungicide against potato late blight. A transcriptome analysis was carried out to mine downstream genes whose expression levels were affected by melatonin. The analysis of the transcriptome suggests that 66 differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid metabolic processes were significantly affected by melatonin. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes associated with stress tolerance, fungicide resistance, and virulence were also affected. These findings contribute to a new understanding of the direct functions of the melatonin on P. infestans and provide a potential ecofriendly biocontrol approach using a melatonin-based paradigm and application to prevent potato late blight.

  8. Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YDessalegn

    The prevailing average monthly maximum temperature is higher in the irrigated potato production system than in the rainfed system. The average monthly minimum temperature is low and causes frost injury to the plant during the irrigated potato production system. Therefore, irrigated potato production is affected both by the.

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...

  10. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)

  11. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  12. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  13. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  14. Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...

  15. Developmental dynamics of Globodera ellingtonae in field-grown potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globodera ellingtonae is a recently described nematode parasite of potato, which is closely related to the economically-significant potato cyst nematodes, G. rostochiensis and G. pallida. Because of the close relationship of G. ellingtonae to the potato cyst nematodes, a greater understanding of its...

  16. Increasing genetic gain by reducing ploidy in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato cultivars in major world production regions are tetraploid, wild and cultivated potatoes in the crop’s center of origin range from diploid to hexaploid. Landrace potato varieties cannot be distinguished based on ploidy. Contrary to popular belief, tetraploidy does not appear to be neces...

  17. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  18. Irradiation of potatoes for long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srapenjanz, R.

    1976-01-01

    In the USSR gamma irradiation of potatoes is used for extending the storage life. The properties of potatoes are not changed, and the irradiation procedure is lower in cost than chemical treatments for sprout inhibition. Finally, a brief outline is given of investigations on sprout inhibition of potatoes in other socialist countries

  19. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a...

  1. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that calcium soil amendments reduce blackleg and soft rot diseases under Zimbabwe's growing seasons in red fersiallitic soils. Compound S produces better results in potato production than compound D and farmers should be encouraged to use compound S when growing potatoes. Key words: potato ...

  2. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and... potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (Customs). This document also corrects Customs' name within...

  3. Reduction of greening in potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes which are exposed to light gradually turn green at the surface due to the formation of chlorophyll. Since these potatoes are unattractive to the consumer, various methods have been used to delay the rate of greening. This paper describes a method whereby potatoes were irradiated within one week of harvest and then exposed to continuous fluorescent light

  4. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  5. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in

  6. Pinpointing the weed sources of potato psyllid in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major challenge in controlling zebra chip disease of potatoes is our inability to predict what potato fields are likely to be colonized by potato psyllid, the vector of the pathogen that causes zebra chip. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA developed a novel method to identify w...

  7. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  8. biotechnological studies on the irradiated potato (solanum tuberosum) with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt or brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes extensive annual losses of different crops especially potato crop. It is considered as one of the limiting factors for potato production and exportation in Egypt. Therefore, the main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma rays on two potato cultivars (Diamant and Spunta). And, to obtain new genotypes of potato resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was carried out in the field and Biotechnology laboratory of the Plant Res. Dept., Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas, Egypt and Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agricultural., Cairo Univ., during 2008-2011. In the field experiment, dry tubers of potato cultivars were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays (20, 30 and 40 Gy) to study the effect of gamma rays on the vegetative and yield traits. The results showed that there are no significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits except a number of tubers per plant trait. Also, there are only highly significant and significant differences between treatments for weight of tubers per plant and number of tubers per plant traits, respectively. However, there are only significant differences between the interactions of cultivars and treatments for plant height and weight of tubers per plant traits. Six genotypes were selected from M 1 V 2 generation depending on high yield for RAPD analysis to determine their genetic variability from its parents at molecular level using 11 primers. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were considered as polymorphic. The similarity indices of six genotypes of potato and its parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D20 genotype and its parent D0 (Diamant control). On the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 70% was found between S30, S40 genotypes and its parent S0 (Spunta control). In the artificial infection experiment

  9. A simple kit for rapid field diagnosis of potato virus Y by latex serological test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarne Kurppa

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple kit for rapid detection of potato virus Y by latex serological test was developed. The test is carried out on a white cardboard sheet and the results can be read by naked eye in two minutes. A test card of 10 x 6 cm holds latex sensitized antibodies, buffers and other necessary ingredients as dry blue colored formulate on the ringed areas of the card. A test card includes space for six tests and positive and negative controls. The kit also includes disposable plastic sticks for mixing the samples with test reagents and a hand press with disposable plastic tips. For testing, dried reagents are dissolved in drops of sample and mixed. After gentle rotation, samples containing virus appear clearly granulated while samples from healthy plants remain unagglutinated. The testing of undiluted extracts of evenly developed tuber sprouts resulted in over 91 % identity with the results obtained with ELISA that was used as a control method. Testing of diluted leaf extracts reached the same reliability but undiluted leaf extracts from glasshouse grown potatoes were not well suitable as test samples because of their dark green color. No such problems occurred with field grown material and a complete identity with the ELISA readings was true when the samples included secondarily infected potato plants. No reaction to other potato viruses than PVY was obtained by the test kit.

  10. Prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooliyottil, Rinu; Dandurand, Louise-Marie; Knudsen, Guy R

    2017-05-01

    Seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of Globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in Shelley Idaho, USA and identified as Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium tricinctum, Microdochium bolleyi, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Their ability to reduce infection by G. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-ROCs). All fungi reduced G. pallida infection in potato, but greatest reduction was observed with C. globosum at an average reduction of 76%. Further non-destructive methods were developed to rapidly assess biological control potential of putative fungal strains by staining the infectious second stage juveniles of G. pallida with the live fluorescent stain PKH26. In comparisons between the standard, invasive acid fuchsin method and use of the live stain PKH26, no significant difference in infection level of G. pallida was observed whether roots were stained with PKH26 or acid fuchsin. For both methods, a similar reduction (77% for acid fuchsin, and 78% for PKH26 stain) in invasion of infectious stage of G. pallida was observed when potato plants were inoculated with C. globosum compared to non-inoculated potato. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  12. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....

  13. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  14. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  15. ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION OF PLANT GENOTYPE AND STRAIN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS IN BREEDING OF POTATO RESISTANCE TO COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis I Bogomaz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of potato transformation depends on plant genotype and bacterial strain. Genotypes with high regeneration ability have high transformation ability. It is shown, that transgenosis of Bt gene increases potato resistance to collorado potato beetle, transgenosis of ipt gene does not influence on resistance.

  16. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  17. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  18. Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)

  19. Trial by Jury in Russian Military Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Kovalev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.

  20. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due...... for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible deviant...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  1. Courts, Scheduled Damages, and Medical Malpractice Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the impact of the introduction of schedules of non-economic damages (i.e. tiered caps systems) on the behavior of insurers operating in the medical liability market for hospitals while controlling the performance of the judicial system, measured as court backlog. Using a difference......-in-differences strategy on Italian data, we find that the introduction of schedules increases the presence of insurers (i.e. medical liability market attractiveness) only in inefficient judicial districts. In the same way, court inefficiency is attractive to insurers for average values of schedules penetration...... of the market, with an increasing positive impact of inefficiency as the territorial coverage of schedules increases. Finally, no significant impact is registered on paid premiums. Our analysis sheds light on a complex set of elements affecting the decisions of insurers in malpractice markets. The analysis...

  2. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  3. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  4. Internal and External Dialogue: A Method for Quality Court Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hagsgård

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of quality court work is to maintain or improve public trust in the court as a vital part of a democratic society. Public confidence in the judicial system is affected by a number of factors, including speedy and judicially correct decisions which are generally understandable and a good treatment of parties and witnesses before and during court proceedings. In order to uphold and enhance public trust, courts need to work systematically to improve the quality of court functioning. But questions remain regarding how to institute quality court management, and how to achieve positive results. Although court managers in Sweden have shown an interest in starting systematic quality work, they have found it difficult to find a method for such work and systematically achieving results.

  5. PENGADILAN HIBRIDA (HYBRID COURT SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENANGANAN KEJAHATAN INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Siswanto

    2016-10-01

    Since the end of World War II, the international community witnessed the increasingly serious efforts to deal with the international crimes. Besides the domestic criminal courts and purely international tribunals, the forum that is also recently used to handle international crimes is the hybrid courts that have been established in several places such as in Cambodia, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. Hybrid courts are established from different political backgrounds, but as a legal institution, its establishment was necessarily based on legal instruments. This paper identifies that there are three patterns in the formation of hybrid court, which are: the establishment of a hybrid court based on an agreement between the UN and the relevant state, the establishment of a hybrid court by the UN or international administration and the establishment of a hybrid court by a country which later gains greater international support.

  6. The use of mental health court appearances in supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Steadman, Henry J; Callahan, Lisa; Robbins, Pamela Clark; Vessilinov, Roumen; Ozdoğru, Asil Ali

    2010-01-01

    A defining feature of mental health courts (MHCs) is the requirement that enrollees appear periodically for status review hearings before the MHC judge. Although the research base on these specialty courts is growing, MHC appearances have yet to be examined. In the present study, the authors followed more than 400 MHC clients from four courts. We examined the number of court appearances that were mandated versus attended, the number of bench warrants issued, and the proportion of court appearances that were made in-custody versus out-of-custody. Finally, we describe and report on the proportion of clients at each court who had graduated, had been terminated, or who were still in the court one year following enrollment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  8. Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food

  9. Studies on potato irradiation in the G.D.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, Th.; Huebner, G.; Grahn, Ch.; Doellstaedt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The studies of potato irradiation have been conducted in the framework of the National Food Irradiation Research Project for 4 years. Although in the G.D.R. the use of chemical sprout inhibitors is allowed, potato irradiation can be an alternative technique for potato processing. Before irradiation a wound healing period of approx. 2 weeks is absolutely necessary to protect the potatoes from Fusarium. The method that presents the minimum risk of damage is irradiation in containers. Economic evaluations for the irradiation of potatoes are also made. (author)

  10. Text Mining of Supreme Administrative Court Jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Feinerer, Ingo; Hornik, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decade text mining, i.e., extracting sensitive information from text corpora, has become a major factor in business intelligence. The automated textual analysis of law corpora is highly valuable because of its impact on a company's legal options and the raw amount of available jurisdiction. The study of supreme court jurisdiction and international law corpora is equally important due to its effects on business sectors. In this paper we use text mining methods to investigate Au...

  11. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  12. Behavioral Genetics in Criminal and Civil Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S

    Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics. We then explore the extent to which behavioral genetic evidence has-and should-affect determinations of criminal responsibility and sentencing, as well as the possible ramifications of introducing such evidence in civil courts, with a focus on tort litigation and child custody disputes. We also consider two ways in which behavioral genetic evidence may come to court in the future-through genetic theft or the subpoena of a litigant's biospecimen data that was previously obtained for clinical or research purposes-and the concerns that these possibilities raise. Finally, we highlight the need for caution and for approaches to prevent the misuse of behavioral genetic evidence in courts.

  13. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Court Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Verburg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judge's actions in this respect are both that the proceedings are fair and just and that parties perceive the way they are being treated during proceedings as fair and just.Within the New Approach we discern five procedural justice elements: (1 respect, (2 voice and due consideration, (3 some influence on how proceedings will continue, (4 an explanation of how the proceedings will continue and (5 direct interpersonal contact.The introduction of the New Approach shows two important bottlenecks in Dutch administrative court proceedings, which are (i the possible or supposed collision between legally right outcomes and  procedural justice and (ii the lack of uniformity and predictability.Although what we describe and discuss in this paper focuses on the Dutch situation, many of these considerations apply to administrative court proceedings in other countries. The themes and difficulties that face the administrative law judge seem to be common to many countries.

  14. Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rutolo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a commonly occurring potato tuber disease that each year causes substantial losses to the food industry. Here, we explore the possibility of early detection of the disease via gas/vapor analysis, in a laboratory environment, using a recent technology known as FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry. In this work, tubers were inoculated with a bacterium causing the infection, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and stored within set environmental conditions in order to manage disease progression. They were compared with controls stored in the same conditions. Three different inoculation time courses were employed in order to obtain diseased potatoes showing clear signs of advanced infection (for standard detection and diseased potatoes with no apparent evidence of infection (for early detection. A total of 156 samples were processed by PCA (Principal Component Analysis and k-means clustering. Results show a clear discrimination between controls and diseased potatoes for all experiments with no difference among observations from standard and early detection. Further analysis was carried out by means of a statistical model based on LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis that showed a high classification accuracy of 92.1% on the test set, obtained via a LOOCV (leave-one out cross-validation.

  15. Analysis of tomato gene promoters activated in syncytia induced in tomato and potato hairy roots by Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, A; Dąbrowska-Bronk, J; Szafrański, K; Fudali, S; Święcicka, M; Czarny, M; Wilkowska, A; Morgiewicz, K; Matusiak, J; Sobczak, M; Filipecki, M

    2013-06-01

    The potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) induces feeding sites (syncytia) in tomato and potato roots. In a previous study, 135 tomato genes up-regulated during G. rostochiensis migration and syncytium development were identified. Five genes (CYP97A29, DFR, FLS, NIK and PMEI) were chosen for further study to examine their roles in plant-nematode interactions. The promoters of these genes were isolated and potential cis regulatory elements in their sequences were characterized using bioinformatics tools. Promoter fusions with the β-glucuronidase gene were constructed and introduced into tomato and potato genomes via transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes to produce hairy roots. The analysed promoters displayed different activity patterns in nematode-infected and uninfected transgenic hairy roots.

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  17. Salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways are necessary for defence against Dickeya solani as revealed by a novel method for Blackleg disease screening of in vitro grown potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, D D; Mühlenbock, P; Andreasson, E

    2015-09-01

    Potato is major crop ensuring food security in Europe, and blackleg disease is increasingly causing losses in yield and during storage. Recently, one blackleg pathogen, Dickeya solani has been shown to be spreading in Northern Europe that causes aggressive disease development. Currently, identification of tolerant commercial potato varieties has been unsuccessful; this is confounded by the complicated etiology of the disease and a strong environmental influence on disease development. There is currently a lack of efficient testing systems. Here, we describe a system for quantification of blackleg symptoms on shoots of sterile in vitro potato plants, which saves time and space compared to greenhouse and existing field assays. We found no evidence for differences in infection between the described in vitro-based screening method and existing greenhouse assays. This system facilitates efficient screening of blackleg disease response of potato plants independent of other microorganisms and variable environmental conditions. We therefore used the in vitro screening method to increase understanding of plant mechanisms involved in blackleg disease development by analysing disease response of hormone- related (salicylic and jasmonic acid) transgenic potato plants. We show that both jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid pathways regulate tolerance to blackleg disease in potato, a result unlike previous findings in Arabidopsis defence response to necrotrophic bacteria. We confirm this by showing induction of a SA marker, pathogenesis-related protein 1 (StPR1), and a JA marker, lipoxygenase (StLOX), in Dickeya solani infected in vitro potato plants. We also observed that tubers of transgenic potato plants were more susceptible to soft rot compared to wild type, suggesting a role for SA and JA pathways in general tolerance to Dickeya. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  19. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  20. The potential of soil fungi associated with potato rhizosphere to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin

    2018-02-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.

  1. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  2. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  3. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  4. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  5. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  6. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  7. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection

  8. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  9. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, Carl E

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics

  10. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, Carl E [Physics Department, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5002 (United States)], E-mail: mungan@usna.edu

    2009-05-15

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.

  11. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,

  12. Responses of potatoes plants inoculated with arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was set to examine the impact of the foliar litter (Hardwickia binata and Azadirachta indica) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the development of two varieties of potato plants (Aida, Atlas). Three litter doses (0, 25 and 50 g) were applied to the pots after bedding plantlets. The plants were ...

  13. Comparing methods of ploidy estimation in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploidy manipulation and the resulting need for rapid ploidy screening is an important part of a potato research and breeding program. Determining ploidy by counting chromosomes or measuring DNA in individual cells is definitive, but takes time, technical skills and equipment. We tested three predi...

  14. Pink eye in potato is problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall of 2017 was a challenging harvest season for potato growers in Central Wisconsin because of the less-than-ideal patterns of temperature and precipitation. Late September had several days with high temperatures above 85'F that shut down most harvest operations. Early October brought in quite a f...

  15. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  16. Use of induced mutations for potato improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, H.; Das, B.; Subramanyam, K.N.; Chandra, R.; Upadhya, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations aim at the utilization of induced mutations for potato improvement. The effect of γ-rays was tested on selfed seeds and hybrid seeds as well as on tubers of several potato varieties. Chemical mutagens have been successfully employed to produce daylength neutral clones. An attempt to induce resistance against Pseudomonas solanacearum did not give conclusive results. Potato improvement in relation of yield and other characters of economic significance like maturity and attributes of tubers has been handicapped by several technical considerations world over. The crux of the problem lies in the narrow genetic base (variability) for potato breeders to work with. The use of mutation breeding, therefore, offers a good tool for this. Improvement by mutation breeding for the quantitative characters besides the resistance to disease and pest has been demonstrated in other crops like white mustard variety Primex (Anderson and Olsson, 1954), barley (Gustafsson, 1965) and peanut (Gregory, 1956). Keeping these in view and the success we had in isolating photoperiod insensitive types (Upadhaya et al, 1973, 1974) study was enlarged to use mutagens to increase as wide a spectrum as possible of the variability for quantative and qualitative characters. (author)

  17. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  18. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  19. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  20. Time Standards as a Court Management Tool: The Experience in American State and Local Trial Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steelman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a public institution, the courts must be accountable for their use of a nation’s resources. The institutional independence of the judiciary from political influences and the decisional independence of individual judges in specific cases are intended not for the personal benefit of judges, but for the benefit of the society as a whole and of all those who come before the courts. Indeed, the very legitimacy of government as a whole can be powerfully reinforced by the effective operation of an independent judiciary.

  1. Time Standards as a Court Management Tool: The Experience in American State and Local Trial Courts

    OpenAIRE

    David Steelman

    2010-01-01

    As a public institution, the courts must be accountable for their use of a nation’s resources. The institutional independence of the judiciary from political influences and the decisional independence of individual judges in specific cases are intended not for the personal benefit of judges, but for the benefit of the society as a whole and of all those who come before the courts. Indeed, the very legitimacy of government as a whole can be powerfully reinforced by the effective operation of a...

  2. Distribution of potato spindle tuber viroid in reproductive organs of petunia during its developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yosuke; Tsuda, Shinya

    2014-09-01

    Embryo infection is important for efficient seed transmission of viroids. To identify the major pattern of seed transmission of viroids, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in each developmental stage of petunia (flowering to mature seed stages). In floral organs, PSTVd was present in the reproductive tissues of infected female × infected male and infected female × healthy male but not of healthy female × infected male before embryogenesis. After pollination, PSTVd was detected in the developed embryo and endosperm in all three crosses. These findings indicate that PSTVd is indirectly delivered to the embryo through ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis but not directly through maternal tissues as cell-to-cell movement during embryogenesis.

  3. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Soleimani-Delfan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668 and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669. Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

  4. Economic viability and commercial experience with shihoro potato irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.

    1985-01-01

    A commercial potato irradiation plant was established in 1973 at Shihoro in Hokkaido, Japan, with a capacity of about 10,000 tons per month using large baskets containing 1.5 tons of potatoes. For twelve seasons potatoes have been irradiated and marketed by the plant. The paper will discuss the experience with the Shihoro potato irradiator from the technical and economic viewpoints. From the technical viewpoint, the following are the main factors that have contributed to the success of potato irradiation. First, the Japanese government initiated research on food irradiation as a national project and provided financial support. Second, the presence of the Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association which handles a large amount of potatoes; and third, the mock-up test for the conceptual design of irradiation was conducted using large baskets for storage and transportation. The cost of the irradiation plant was about 389 million yen, of which 253 million yen was provided by the government. The irradiation plant processes about 15,000 tons of potatoes a year and the costs are 2,000 to 4,500 yen per ton. This accounts for 2 to 3% of the potato price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price fluctuations during the off-season

  5. Antiviral Activity of Sukomycin Against Potato Virus Y And Tomato Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Petrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato virus Y (PVY and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV are one of the most important plant viruses that strongly influence the quality and quantity of vegetable production and cause substantial losses to farmers. The most convetional and common method of pest and disease control is trough the use of pesticides. Unfortunately, most of them are synthetic compounds without antiviral activities and possess inherent toxicities that endanger the health of the farm operators, consumers and the environment. In order to carry out a control of viral infections in plants and to reduce the loss of production it is necessary the search for alternative and environmentally friendly methods for control. Sukomycin is a complex of substances with antimicrobial and antiviral activities produced from Streptomyces hygroscopicus isolated from soil. This natural complex reduces significantly symptoms and DAS-ELISA values of Potato virus Y and Tomato mosaic virus in tobacco plants.

  6. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  7. Performance Assessment in Courts - The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Performance assessments have become commonplace in management, even in the public sector. With the increasing pressure on courts to perform while making efficient use of resources, performance assessments in the justice system are also gaining in importance. However, the need for judicial independence poses special challenges for performance assessments in courts. Against this background, this article conducts a constitutional appraisal, and contrasts the need for judicial independence with the principles governing effectiveness and efficiency, self-government and supervision, and appointment and re-appointment. A duty to guarantee justice can be derived from this that does not in principle exclude the performance assessment of judges, but even renders it essential, subject to compliance with certain requirements. In these circumstances, it seems hardly surprising that numerous countries conduct performance assessments of judges and also that various international institutions have developed principles for this purpose, a summary of which is presented – in Switzerland’s case based on a recently conducted survey. In the field of conflict between the guaranteeing justice and protecting the judiciary, the following key questions arise in particular: What is the purpose of performance assessments and what are the consequences?What is subjected to a performance assessment and what are the assessment criteria?How is performance recorded as the basis for the performance assessment?Who is subjected to a performance assessment, and must a distinction be made between judges in higher and lower courts?Who carries out the performance assessment and what methods of protecting one’s rights are available?Who should receive the results of the performance assessment?The contribution sketches out possible answers to these key questions and aims to encourage academics and practitioners to give further consideration to this subject.

  8. Real-time data helps in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlahan, T.

    2000-01-01

    An operating facility with approval to undertake aluminium reprocessing activities at a site in NSW had commenced reprocessing scrap lead into lead debris for re-use. The local council had not been notified of the change in activity from aluminium to lead and the operators had not sought development approval. Council subsequently served a notice of closure on the facility, based on the potential health risks associated with migration of lead dust from the facility. The operators objected to the notice and the matter was brought before the NSW Land and Environment Court for judgement. Twenty-four hours before the court proceedings, lawyers representing the council concluded that for their case to succeed, scientific data vas required to provide evidence that the facility was contributing to elevated lead concentrations in soil off-site. Consequently a consultant was commissioned by council to undertake a preliminary lead contaminated soil screening survey around the perimeter of the subject property. The survey was required to be completed within 24 hours, with the results to be presented before the court at 9am the following day. The samples were placed in plastic bags and screened for total lead, using Niton field portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyser- model 703A, in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines and USEPA method 6200. Test time ranged from 20-120 seconds. Several areas were found to contain surface soil lead levels above the proposed site criteria (1500 mg/kg). The XFR data presented in this case demonstrated excellent correlation with NATA-accredited laboratory results

  9. First experience of programming a court decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Polyakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Consideration of the computer program model for making a lawful and wellgrounded judicial act in order to reduce the times for making the court decision. Methods universal dialecticmaterialistic method which removes the contradictions of the professional training of judges and procedural controls the formal legal method for transferring the requirements of the law and jurisprudence for the lawenforcement activity into programs for judges and case participants the objectoriented modeling objectoriented programming methodology. Results a computer program was created that allows to adjudicate in a civil case if the claim is recognized by the defendant. The program does not resolve the judge from the decisionmaking process but creates conditions to move along the stages of lawenforcement procedure and legal reasoning in accordance with the requirements of the law and of legal science. Therefore filling forms manually in the trial should be simultaneous with writing the decision judgment sentence assessment. The program includes the following sections preparation of forms common to certain types of proceedings certain categories of cases courts in the above forms determination of the order to establish the actual circumstances the burden of proof distribution types of evidence methods of law interpretation characteristics of collisions and gaps in legislation and ways to overcome them the standard wording in the judicial act templates and in the forms mandatory and optional information in the form. Based on the above the article concludes that by analogy with the presented program it is possible to create software for making a lawful wellgrounded and fair judicial act for other categories of cases and as a consequence to reduce the period of making judicial decisions. Scientific novelty the first computer program is created for rendering and production of judicial decisions. Practical significance the model is made to create a mass tool of

  10. THE RIGHT TO AN INDEPENDENT COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN-GHEORGHE GAVRILESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The independence of the court is essential of state of rule, to maintain the stability in juridical intercourse, for the existence of a constitutional democracy achieved through a warranty of the necessary objectivity for the steady and legal settlement of the causes deducted to the trial and the achievement of a fair trial. The article emphasizes the main international juridical tools in which independence of justice is reflected, achieving an examination of judicial practice of European instance as well as an analysis of this principle as it is regulated by Romanian justice.

  11. The CISG in Denmark and Danish Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author explores key aspects of Denmark’s reception and implementation of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods (CISG). Placing the treaty within its larger private law context, the author explains the complexity and confusion...... the problematical relationship between these international obligations and the Danish judicial tradition of formulating premises so brief that they shed little light on the decision’s underlying rationale ( ratio decidendi ). Following analysis and critique of three Danish CISG court judgments which help illustrate...... these propositions, the author proposes corrective steps designed to further a more international (and less parochial) approach to the CISG....

  12. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  13. Constitutional Court's Crisis Management of Akil Mochtar's Case

    OpenAIRE

    Uli Mediana, Cipta; Naryoso, S.Sos, M.Si, Agus

    2016-01-01

    The Constitutional Court is one of the state institutions that conduct independent judicial power to hold a court in order to enforce law and justice in Indonesia that became a proof of state agencies was also not spared from the crisis. The Chairman of the Constitutional Court in 2013, Akil Mochtar caught red-handed by the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) for allegedly receiving bribe money for handling election disputes Gunung Mas, Central Kalimantan and elections Lebak, Banten. Sinc...

  14. First instance competence of the Higher Administrative Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    (1) An interlocutory judgement can determine the admissibility of a legal action, also with regard to single procedural prerequisites (following BVerwG decision 14, 273). (2) The first instance competence for disputes about the dismantling of a decommissioned nuclear installation lies with the administrative courts and not with the higher administrative courts. Federal Administrative Court, decision of May 19, 1988 - 7 C 43.88 - (VGH Munich). (orig.) [de

  15. Court Interpreting in Denmark - the role of court interpreters in Danish courtrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    1999-01-01

    Court interpreters in Denmark are expected to follow the guidelines laid down in the document Instructions for Interpreters, which was published in 1994, and which deals with four principal areas: accuracy and completeness, impartiality, confidentiality and conflict of interest. This paper contends...

  16. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  17. The reasonable woman standard: effects on sexual harassment court decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elissa L; Kulik, Carol T; Bourhis, Anne C

    2004-02-01

    Some federal courts have used a reasonable woman standard rather than the traditional reasonable man or reasonable person standard to determine whether hostile environment sexual harassment has occurred. The current research examined the impact of the reasonable woman standard on federal district court decisions, controlling for other factors found to affect sexual harassment court decisions. Results indicated that there was a weak relationship between whether a case followed a reasonable woman precedent-setting case and the likelihood that the court decision favored the plaintiff. The implications of our findings for individuals and organizations involved in sexual harassment claims are discussed.

  18. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  19. Historical context of the Albanian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravesa Nano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian legal tradition is based mostly on the traditional and customary laws. The Ottoman Empire ruled Albania for nearly five centuries and applied some of its translation of Sharia law together with its own rules and procedures. However, the Albanian population, especially in the north was governed by its own customary laws that were included in the Kanun of Lek Dukagjini. For a long period of time, these customary laws were unwritten and were learned generation aft er generation. The Kanun of Lek Dukagjini had very few rules and procedures regarding penal law. They were not arranged properly and there were some repetition for different cases. The National Court was implemented by a popular gathering of the oldest man of the village called Pleqnia. It used to decide on issues immediately, and there was no review of their issues. The rules were clear, simple and strict. There are some ideas from different Albanian researchers that the communist system although exported as an idea from abroad, based its laws and rules very much on the Albanian tradition as for example the creation also People’s Court. There was no institution of judicial review. These researchers point out that it was for this reason that the communist system in Albania lasted for nearly fifty years.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Urek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultivar Desiree, the resistant cultivars White Lady, Miranda, Aladin, Sante and Adora, and the clone KIS 94-1/5-14. The yield of cv. White Lady was the highest and that of susceptible cv. Desiree the lowest. The influence of several resistant and one susceptible potato cultivars on population dynamics of G. rostochiensis was also determined. The total number of cysts/100 cm3 and the number of eggs and juveniles per cyst increased in the susceptible cv. Desiree and decreased in the resistant cultivars White Lady, Sante and Adora.

  1. with a comparative view at the jurisdiction of the U.S.- Supreme Court and the German Federal Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Kinga

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about the connection between the constitutional ownership guarantee and the political-philosophical conception of property. I portray and analyze the jurisdiction of the Hungarian Constitutional Court since the fall of Communism in 1989 in light of these two aspects and venture a comparison with the jurisdiction of the U.S.- Supreme Court and the German Federal Constitutional Court. In political and philosophical terms, there are - roughly speaking - two opposing conceptio...

  2. Effect of an alternate weed host, hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the biology of the two most important potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Novy, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner), is a ubiquitous weed in potato agro-ecosystems and nonagricultural lands of southeastern Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. This weed increases the complexity of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polervirus)-potato pathosystem by serving as aphid and virus reservoir. Previous field studies showed higher densities of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the two most important vectors of PLRV, on S. sarrachoides compared with potato plants in the same fields. Some of the S. sarrachoides plants sampled in these surveys tested positive for PLRV. Viral infections can alter the physiology of plant hosts and aphid performance on such plants. To understand better the potential effects of S. sarrachoides on the PLRV-potato-aphid pathosystem, the life histories of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae were compared on virus-free and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato. Individual nymphs of each aphid species were held in clip cages on plants from each treatment to monitor their development, survival, and reproductive output. Nymphal survival for both aphids across plant species was higher on S. sarrachoides than on potato, and, within plant species, it was higher on PLRV-infected plants than on noninfected plants. With a few exceptions, similar patterns occurred for fecundity, reproductive periods, adult longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase. The enhanced performance of aphids on S. sarrachoides and on PLRV-infected plants could alter the vector population dynamics and thus the PLRV-disease epidemiology in fields infested with this weed.

  3. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Yoshiharu; Hogetsu, Daisuke; Okuyama, Norio; Manabe, Takashi; Sasagawa, Tatsuru.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes of the ''Danshaku'' variety and their chemical aspects were studied. The final concentrate of alcohol extracts from potatoes showed pH values of 3 -- 4. The o-quinones or ''radiotoxins'' reported by Kuzin, et al. were not detected in the alcohol extracts from potatoes of this variety by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, paper chromatography and the model enzymatic experiment. (author)

  4. Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...

  5. Study on the cytogenetic activity of freshly irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, A.N.; Osipova, I.N.

    1978-01-01

    Cytogenetic activity of potatoes, subjected to gamma irradiation in the dose of 10 Krad, feeding the animals in a day after irradiation, has been investigated. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice, who obtained newly irradiated raw or baked potatoes, has no substantial difference from the analogous mutageneity index of mice from the control group. The data obtained are of practical importance when considering the problem of using gamma-irradiated potatoes in the people nourishment

  6. Combination processes for improving storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, P.; Nair, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Various combined treatments of harvested potatoes to reduce microbial spoilage of irradiated potatoes in storage were studied. Treatments studied were irradiation in conjunction with hot water dip, cold or hot salicylic acid dip, dusting with salicylic acid powder, and sodium hypochlorite wash followed by storage in well aerated containers. Microbial spoilage in irradiated potatoes was found to be greatly reduced by storage at 10deg or 15degC in well aerated containers. (M.G.B.). 9 refs., 1 tab

  7. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabash, M; Orabi, I O [National Center for research and radiation Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eloksh, I I; Abd-Alia, M A [Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs.

  8. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.; Orabi, I.O.; Eloksh, I.I.; Abd-Alia, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs

  9. The anti-Phytophthora effect of selected potato-associated Pseudomonas strains: from the laboratory to the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk eGuyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late blight is controlled by repeated applications of copper-based products, which negatively impact the environment. To find alternative solutions for late blight management, we have previously isolated a large collection of bacteria from the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potatoes. Here we report the antagonistic potential of these strains when co-cultivated with P. infestans as well as with other potato pathogens. We then focused on three Pseudomonas strains and compared their protective impact against late blight to that of well-known biocontrol strains in planta using a high-throughput leaf disc assay with automated picture analysis. When sprayed on the leaves of potatoes in the greenhouse, the strains were able to survive for at least 15 days. Under field conditions, populations decreased faster but all tested strains could still be retrieved after 8 days. The most active strain in vitro, P. chlororaphis R47, was also the best protectant on leaf discs from plants grown in the greenhouse experiment, but its protection potential could not be verified in the field due to unfavourable infection conditions. However, its protective effect against P. infestans in planta, its survival in the phyllosphere as well as its ability to colonise the potato rhizosphere in very high population densities, suggest a potential for field application, e.g. in the form of tuber treatment or leaf spray.

  10. A method for estimating the contribution of seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare in field infestations with potato cyst nematodes on a national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries.

  11. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  13. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK; Taşkın POLAT

    2017-01-01

    Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified...

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es

  15. The Relevance of Criminal Courts in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leandro Ciocchini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature on comparative law has a long and robust tradition, but studies comparing courts and judicial systems are scarce. Comparative studies in the Global South, following Shapiro’s institutional approach, have aimed to measure the involvement of courts in politics by assessing the power of the judiciary in society, the level of judicial independence, and their role in the context of the judicialization of politics. The focus was on the high courts, including either Constitutional or Supreme Courts. Criminal courts have not received similar attention despite the influence of their everyday decisions on people’s lives and their perception of the judicial system. This article argues that developing a comparative approach for criminal courts in the Global South is needed to help understand the role they play in the development of the rule of law and democratic life. This comparative study helps understand the impact of judicial reform programmes in the Global South. These reforms, inspired by a neoliberal paradigm, have focused on improving the efficiency of the courts. The reforms have promoted managerial techniques detrimental to the standards of due process. Any assessment of the impact of the reforms on the courts in the Global South should start by recognising the widely differing settings under which they operate. This context is characterised by serious economic constraints, such as a lack of material and human resources, and a democratic deficit legacy from the past authoritarian regimes, including widespread police abuse and corruption. Given this context, the role of the courts in ensuring due process and the legality of police procedures is crucial. The impact of the judicial reforms promoting managerial rationality in recent decades must be analysed. To examine the role courts are playing in criminal matters, two cases were explored where courts have undergone extensive judicial reforms, Argentina and the Philippines.

  16. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The

  17. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Chao, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn; Chao, Y

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes.

  20. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  1. THE STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF POTATO PRODUCED IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BULARCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed and interpreted the main statistical indicators of potato produced in Romania. First of all, we start by presenting some information about potatoes: origin and appearance, their importance and necessity in the life of people and animals. Then on the basis of the specific statistical indicators, it was interpreted the evolution of the cultivated area, the percentage of the main counties in the cultivated area with potatoes, the average yield per hectare, as well as the import and export of potatoes in a given period. Each indicator was analyzed and corresponding remarks and conclusions have been drawn.

  2. Storage of irradiated potatoes under artificially humidified conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Thomas, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes of the BPI, Up-to-Date, and Pimpernel varieties have been irradiated and stored for sixteen weeks at a relative humidity of 69 per cent to counteract shrinkage caused by low humidity. Moisture loss is reduced by approximately one-quarter compared with storage at ambient humidity (average 42 per cent), and the appearance of the potatoes is considerably improved. The higher humidity causes very few changes in either chemical or physical properties of the potato, except for a slight increase in reducing sugars which is not sufficiently large to preclude the use of the potatoes for processing

  3. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  4. Mutation breeding on potato by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Potato breeding is one of the most frequent cases in terms of production and growing distinct after cultivation of cereals. The utilization of potato increases everyday since the nodes of potato are available for using fresh food and also chipping, producing starch, alcohol as well as animal feed. At the present day, potatoes are more significant as a result of uses of them. The most productive country in potato is china. According to data 2007, Turkey produces 4280 million ton potatoes every year. Potato is in the group of nodule plants. Even though potato production is frequent every place in Turkey, the most productive place is Central part of Turkey especially Nigde and Nevsehir. 43.2% of production is obtained in these cities. According to 2007 data, potato production area 158.500 ha in Turkey. The most significant input is seed for potato since potatoes are reduced by nodes as being vegetative. Even though amount of used seed is predicated on aim, ecologic circumstances, breed, is 200-300 kg/da. Seed registration certification system have been started since 1972 in potato. Until 2007, 68 variety breed were registered but all of them except. Pasinler and Nif are brought from abroad. Pasinler and Nif which are cultivated in Turkey does not hold a place among seed program. There is no domestic breed in potato - seed. For that reason, mutant diversities, which are highly acclimatized to adapt, fertile, substantial against diseases, pests and substantial for storage, are aimed to grow to provide them for farmers. These diversities also must have different elaboration periods and highly weedy starch to being useful for industries. In this study, we used Marfona potato variety which has been grown in large areas for a long time in Turkey. Marfona potato which is registered in 1991 in our country is in middle-early maturity growing group, also it has light yellow as well as peel with its white bloom and big node. Marfona which is highly substantial against virus

  5. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  6. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees. ...

  9. Assisted Reproduction and the Courts: The Case of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Linda S.; Schmid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze appellate court cases heard in California between 1960 and 2000 that focus on the status of children conceived through reproductive technology in an effort to examine the role of the courts in defining parentage and family in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In the absence of legislation, the primary…

  10. K-12 Implications Seen in Some Cases before High Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Arizona's variation on government vouchers for religious schools and California's prohibition on the sale of violent video games to minors present the top two cases with implications for education in the U.S. Supreme Court term that formally begins Oct. 4. New Justice Elena Kagan brings to the court extensive education policy experience as a…

  11. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer’s speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States. PMID:27737008

  12. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  13. Establishing an effective dialog between courts and agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphery-Jenner, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between courts, administrators, and legislators. The goal is to improve the operation of judicial review in the United States and provide suggestions on how to enhance emerging doctrines of judicial review in the EU. The thesis focuses on how courts, agencies,

  14. 20 CFR 405.515 - Application of circuit court law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 405.515 Section 405.515 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Judicial Review § 405.515 Application of circuit court law. We will...

  15. Court Culture during the Reign of Christian IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    Court culture can be defined as a range of cultural forms (festival culture, painting, literature, music, architecture) employed for the enhancement of princely status and the communication of political messages. Christian IV evidently set great store on court culture beginning with his magnificent...

  16. The Equal Pay Act: Higher Education and the Court's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Swanson, Austin D.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 for college and university employees are reviewed through an examination of trends in court decisions and legal treatment of the issues. It is concluded that case law has been evolutionary, with concepts of "equal,""work," and others not altered drastically by the courts in recent years.…

  17. USTC & TBA Guidelines for Tennis Court & Running Track Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    Guidelines are presented on tennis court and track and field construction that reflect the latest developments in construction technology, methodology, and practice. Based on contributions from experienced certified tennis court and track builders, material suppliers and design professionals, this manual examines each of the critical areas of…

  18. Abused and Neglected Children in Court: Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in…

  19. Finding Vredo: the Dutch Supreme Court decision on escitalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoutsanis, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the pharma patent litigation sparked by Lundbeck's blockbuster drug for escitalopram. The article focuses on the trials and tribulations before the Dutch Patent Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court, while also briefly contrasting and comparing this with the decisions in

  20. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…

  1. Questions of legal responsibility for Srebrenica before the Dutch courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Otto

    This contribution provides an overview of the litigation in the Dutch civil and criminal courts concerning the Srebrenica massacre. The author maps out the Dutch courts' divergent approaches to immunity of United Nations peacekeepers, state responsibility and individual criminal responsibility for

  2. Licensing procedure by steps, indemnity precaution, control by administrative courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes three problems of the Wyhl-judgement of the Federal Administrative Court. The terms 'licensing procedure by steps', 'indemnity precaution pursuant to sec. 7, para. 2, No. 3 Atomic Energy Act', and 'control density of administrative courts' are concretized. The author chooses these terms because they have important impulses even for other fields than Atomic Energy Law. (CW) [de

  3. 16 CFR 1.62 - Ancillary court orders pending review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillary court orders pending review. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.62 Ancillary court orders pending review...

  4. 22 CFR 19.6-2 - Qualifying court order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... principal's Foreign Service retirement benefit or survivor benefit. If a court directs or implies that a... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN... the Secretary of State. A qualifying court order must— (1) Be consistent with the terms of the Act and...

  5. legal pluralism, sharia courts, and constitutional issues in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of sharia courts. These laws include the Proclamation to Consolidate Federal. Courts of ... This is found in the statement of the Prophet: 'leave the ...... some support (which may be financial or enforcement).81 To this end, the state may, as in ...

  6. Environment Protection (Northern Territory Supreme Court) Act 1978, No.30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act relates to the enforcement by the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory of certain provisions for protecting the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region; it provides that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to make orders concerning enforcement of provisions relating to the environmental effects in the Region of uranium mining operations. (NEA) [fr

  7. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status…

  8. 28 ATTITUDE OF NIGERIAN COURTS TO THE ENFORCEMENT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Both the 1958 Ordinance and the 1990 Act stipulate the time period within which a foreign judgment may be registered in Nigeria. Section 3(1) of the 1958 Ordinance provides that where a judgment has been obtained in the High Court in England or Ireland, or in the Court of Session in Scotland, the judgment creditor may ...

  9. Introduction. National Courts vis-à-vis EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    National Courts and EU Law examines both how and why national courts and judges are involved in the process of legal integration within the European Union. As well as reviewing conventional thinking, the book presents new legal and empirical insights into the issue of judicial behaviour...

  10. 16 CFR 1502.44 - Review by the courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review by the courts. 1502.44 Section 1502.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR FORMAL EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Judicial Review § 1502.44 Review by the courts...

  11. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chen

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer's speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States.

  12. 8 CFR 337.8 - Oath administered by the courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Form N-646, that the applicant has been determined by the Attorney General to be eligible for admission... ALLEGIANCE § 337.8 Oath administered by the courts. (a) Notification of election. An applicant for... election to have the oath of allegiance administered in an appropriate court having jurisdiction over the...

  13. Improving Labour Courts in Mexico: The Case of Cuautitlan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In a case study of a large court in Cuautitlan in the State of Mexico, ... Research results are also expected to inform the operations of other Mexican courts, as well as ... in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

  14. Smells Like Teen Spirit: Evaluating a Midwestern Teen Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Michael; Twill, Sarah; Kim, Chigon

    2011-01-01

    Teen courts have grown rapidly in the United States despite little evidence of their effectiveness. A survival analysis of 635 teen court and 186 regular diversion participants showed no significant differences in recidivism, although program completers were half as likely to reoffend as noncompleters. Older offenders survived significantly better…

  15. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    in each plot in 2011. At the harvest time tuber yield and also percent and severity of infection was determined. All data was analyzed statistically and Duncan test was used for comparison of means. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance results showed that, potato tuber yield was affected by the crop rotation, the rate of returning residues, and also interaction between rotation × returning residues statistically (P≤0.01.When 1000 tuber was considered, analysis of variance results showed, crop rotation had a very significant effect (P≤0.01 on number and percent of infected tubers to wireworm and its holes. The most infected tubers ie.42.34 and holed i.e. 61.4 and totally 4.24% of tubers were belonged to the rotation 2, where in the rapeseed crop was preceding plant. The least one was achieved in rotation 1, with the rates of 27, 37 and 2.8% where in potato crop was not planted previously. The most infection to wireworm was found in 100% residue returning to the soil with 3.8% and the least one in no residue returning to the soil, i.e. 3.4 %. Results showed with increasing residue returning to the soil, the damage of wireworms is increased too. Conclusion: Generally applying crop rotation using different crops and residue returning to the soil is resulted in higher potato tuber yield. This increasing rate for tuber yield was 116% and 57 % when the preceding crops were wheat and rapeseed respectively compared to the mean of rotations 3 and 4. For the aim of sustainable production of potato and reducing of wireworm damage it is necessary we focus on other crop rotation and the importance of C:N ratio and the rate of residue returning to the soil. So we need to conduct new experiments with these purposes.

  16. Rifkin and NIH win in court ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M

    1985-03-15

    On 27 February 1985 Judge J. Skelly Wright of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that experiments involving the release of genetically altered organisms into the environment can proceed, provided that their potential ecological effects have been properly evaluated. The ruling has been hailed as a victory by both the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin brought suit against NIH in 1983, charging that the agency had failed to evaluate adequately the environmental impact of some deliberate release experiments. Sun discusses the implications of the judge's ruling. She also describes a move by private companies to submit their recombinant DNA experiment proposals to the Environmental Protection Agency rather than to NIH, which has regulatory authority only over academic researchers.

  17. Who can monitor the court interpreter's performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    and the conflict about her competence was negotiated. Because of this unusual constellation, combined with a multi-method approach, this single case study can shed some light on the question of the participants' ability to monitor the interpreter's performance. Legal professional users of interpreters tend......  Who can monitor the court interpreter's performance? Results of a case study This paper presents the results of a case study of an unusual interpreting event in a Danish courtroom setting. During the trial, the interpreter's non-normative performance was explicitly criticised by the audience...... are far less transparent for the legal participants than they normally assume. This problem, in turn, stresses the importance of a) the interpreter's competence and self-awareness and b) the use of check interpreters.  ...

  18. Regulatory behaviour under threat of court reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderberg, Magnus; Menezes, Flavio; Santolino, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    , (ii) inexperienced regulators care more about not having their decisions overturned than experienced regulators, and (iii) experienced regulators also care about consumer surplus. The theoretical implications are tested using a database of Swedish regulatory decisions from the electricity distribution...... sector. We provide empirical evidence that inexperienced regulators are more likely to set higher regulated prices than experienced regulators, and as the complexity of the case increases, there are on averagemore overturned decisions and higher prices for inexperienced regulators. The links between...... experience, complexity and regulatory outcomes are both statistically and economically significant. Simulations show that if those decisions that were not appealed had been appealed, then the court would have lowered the prices by 10% on average....

  19. Field evaluation of the nematicide fluensulfone for control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norshie, Patrick M; Grove, Ivan G; Back, Matthew A

    2016-10-01

    Three field experiments evaluated the performance of the nematicide fluensulfone against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida in Shropshire, England. Experiments 1 and 2 showed reduced root infection and lowered multiplication of G. pallida following fluensulfone (Nimitz 15G(®) ) soil treatments at five rates (1.95, 3.00, 4.05 (full rate), 5.05 and 6.00 kg AI ha(-1) ) and Nimitz 480EC(®) at the full rate. Experiment 3 demonstrated a positive interaction between the full rate of Nimitz 15G and the potato variety Santé in the reduction of G. pallida. The fluensulfone treatments at the full rate had more consistent effects than the lower rates, and there were no greater effects for the treatments higher than this full rate. Generally, fluensulfone was less efficacious than oxamyl or fosthiazate, which suggests that the treatment may not be reliably integrated within shorter potato rotations. The data suggest that fluensulfone soil application could make a useful addition to the few available nematicide treatments for the control of G. pallida rather than be a substitute for these treatments.© 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Biological, serological and molecular typing of potato virus Y (PVY) isolates from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayahi, M; Gharsallah, C; Khamassy, N; Fakhfakh, H; Djilani-Khouadja, F

    2016-10-17

    In Tunisia, potato virus Y (PVY) currently presents a significant threat to potato production, reducing tuber yield and quality. Three hundred and eighty-five potato samples (six different cultivars) collected in autumn 2007 from nine regions in Tunisia were tested for PVY infection by DAS-ELISA. The virus was detected in all regions surveyed, with an average incidence of 80.26%. Subsequently, a panel of 82 Tunisian PVY isolates (PVY-TN) was subjected to systematic biological, serological and molecular typing using immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and a series of PVY OC - and PVY N -specific monoclonal antibodies. Combined analyses revealed ~67% of PVY NTN variants of which 17 were sequenced in the 5'NTR-P1 region to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of PVY-TN against other worldwide PVY isolates. To investigate whether selective constraints could act on viral genomic RNA, synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates and their ratio were analyzed. Averages of all pairwise comparisons obtained in the 5'NTR-P1 region allowed more synonymous changes, suggesting selective constraint acting in this region. Selective neutrality test was significantly negative, suggesting a rapid expansion of PVY isolates. Pairwise mismatch distribution gave a bimodal pattern and pointed to an eventually early evolution characterizing these sequences. Genetic haplotype network topology provided evidence of the existence of a distinct geographical structure. This is the first report of such genetic analyses conducted on PVY isolates from Tunisia.

  1. Activist Infighting among Courts and Breakdown of Mutual Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    had itself created it out of nowhere. In turn this appeared to be an implicit reference to the widely criticized interpretative approach of the CJEU, resulting in a far-reaching willingness to espouse judicial activism. But in acting as it did, it seems ironic that the Danish Supreme Court itself......, in this article the judgments are analysed in depth and placed into their wider context. Among other matters, we have considered how the courts should strike a sensitive balance, which has to exist in the relationship between the national courts and the CJEU, requiring mutual trust or, at the least, judicial......In its combative Ajos judgment recently rendered by the Danish Supreme Court, the court openly and controversially challenged the authority of the CJEU. By the same token, in the preliminary ruling by the CJEU preceding it, the CJEU had continued to develop the controversial general principle...

  2. Enrollment in mental health courts: voluntariness, knowingness, and adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Hoover, Steven; Summers, Alicia; Steadman, Henry J

    2010-04-01

    Mental health courts (MHCs) are rapidly expanding as a form of diversion from jails and prisons for persons with mental illness charged with crimes. Although intended to be voluntary, little is known about this aspect of the courts. We examined perceptions of voluntariness, and levels of knowingness and legal competence among 200 newly enrolled clients of MHCs at two courts. Although most clients claimed to have chosen to enroll, at the same time, most claimed not to have been told the court was voluntary or told of the requirements prior to entering. The majority knew the "basics" of the courts, but fewer knew more nuanced information. A minority also were found to have impairments in legal competence. Implications are discussed.

  3. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  4. Limits of verification by the Federal Constitutional Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The court of administration of Baden-Wuerttemberg passed a resolution on October 27,1983 - 10 S 1102/83 - dismissing the application to revoke the immediate implementation of the first partial construction permit for the joint nuclear power plant Neckar II. As the plaintiff thereupon lodged a complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court the resolution did not become effective immediately. However, the Federal Constitutional Court on October 1, 1984 decreed unanimously in accordance with the section 93a subsection 3 of the law on the Federal Constitutional Court - 1 BvR 231/84 -: ''The constitutional complaint lodged is not taken up for decision because its chances of success are nil.'' Thus the original decision of the court of administration of Baden-Wuerttemberg passed on October 27, 1983 was confirmed by the endorsement of its immediate implementation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. High court asked to review differing definitions of 'disability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-21

    [Name removed] applied for and received Social Security benefits after losing his job at The Disney Stores, Inc. [Name removed], who has AIDS, alleges he was fired in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said [name removed] could not sue [name removed] because of a discrepancy between his statements on the disability application and in the lawsuit. The Court said he had to choose between suing and accepting disability benefits. The court would not accept [name removed]'s argument that the definitions of disability under the Social Security Act and the ADA differed significantly. The U.S. Supreme Court has been asked to overturn this ruling. In a related case, the Michigan Court of Appeals invoked judicial estoppel to bar a worker from suing his employer under the State Handicappers' Civil Rights Act.

  6. Future problems on the storage of potatoes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masato

    1981-01-01

    The effects of different storage methods on the composition, and the properties of potatoes and their suitability for processing were examined using 3 early and 3 late cultivars. When potatoes were stored at room temperature, although the results varied slightly with the cultivars, there was from 3 to 6% decrease in weight by the next spring, the content of starch decreased strikingly from the beginning of storage to around the end of February, the content of total free sugars increased rapidly from around December to the end of February, the amino acid content tended to increase during the storage period, and 65% of the total ascorbic acid in potatoes still remained early in April. Potatoes lost their shape during cooking more easily as they were stored longer. When potatoes were stored at constant temperature of 5 deg C, the decrease in weight occurred more slowly than that at 2 or 10 deg C. As the storage temperature was lower, the amount of both reduced and non-reduced sugars accumulated more, which make fried potatoes brownish. The potatoes stored at 10 deg C had the best color when they were fried, but began to sprout in mid-December. Thus, to ensure long-term supply for making good fried potatoes, potatoes should be stored at 5 deg C, then be kept at 20 - 25 deg C for 1 - 2 weeks to reduce the sugar content before processing. The sprouting of potatoes was inhibited prominently when MH-30 was given during the intermediate stage of tuber enlargement. The potatoes 40 days after harvest, irradiated with 7 or 15 krad and stored at normal temperature lost less weight than those which were not irradiated. (Kaihara, S.)

  7. Sprout inhibition of potatoes by electron irradiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Junichiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio; Hori, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Sprouting of potatoes are inhibited usually by the gamma-ray irradiation. The buds of potatoes exist in a very thin layer near surface of each tuber. So the inhibition will be performed sufficiently by surface irradiation using electron beams. To irradiate all surfaces of each potato uniformly, the authors prepare a new apparatus which is a conveyer passing under an electron beam scanner of accelerator rotating the potatoes by many rotating rollers. The sprout inhibition experiment of potatoes was performed by following three methods to obtain the performance of this apparatus, and the results were compared. 1) turn over irradiation method --- potatoes were arranged in one layer in plastic baskets and were irradiated on the conveyor. After irradiation, the potatoes were turned over and were irradiated again. 2) rotating irradiation method --- potatoes were rotated on the rotating roller apparatus set on the conveyer and were passed under the electron beam scanner. 3) rotating irradiation method with an improved rotating roller apparatus --- the rotating rollers have many protuberances on their surface to irradiate all of potato surface more uniform. 550 keV electron beams by Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator were used for the irradiation and the irradiated dose was 5 to 20 krad. 40 pieces of potates, ''Danshaku'' variety yielded in June 1981, were irradiated for each dose in the beginning of August. Prior to these irradiation experiments, the dose and dose uniformity were checked by the agar color dosimeters. After the irradiation, potatoes were stored in natural condition and their sprouting was observed. The potatoes irradiated by the improved rotating roller apparatus were almost completely sprout-inhibited by 20 krad irradiation. (author)

  8. Naturally Induced Secretions of the Potato Cyst Nematode Co-stimulate the Proliferation of Both Tobacco Leaf Protoplasts and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.; Rouppe van der voort, C.; Kavelaars, A.; Smant, G.; Schots, A.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    1999-01-01

    Naturally induced secretions from infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis co-stimulate the proliferation of tobacco leaf protoplasts in the presence of the synthetic phytohormones α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). With the use of a

  9. Multimodel Inference for the Prediction of Disease Symptoms and Yield Loss of Potato in a Two-Year Crop Rotation Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Vos, J.; Grasman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The second order Akaike information criterion was used for the assessment of 139 regression models for three responses of potato test crops: (a) incidence of Spongospora subterranea on the harvested tubers, (b) percentage of haulms infected with Verticillium dahliae, and (c) tuber yield. Six

  10. The behaviour of certain potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the behaviour of some potato varieties and lines towards the attack of the Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary fungus under the field conditions of the Potato Research and Development Station, Targu-Secuiesc. During the observed period (2001-2003 the appearance of new forms of attack was registered, for example the attack on the stem, on the leaf petioles, as well as a greater number of infected tubers. The greatest number of blighted stems belonged to the varieties Sante and Ostara, and the smallest one was registered in the case of the variety Lady Roseta, followed by Desiree and Nemere. The results prove that there is a direct relationship between the frequency of the attack on the stems and that of the blighted tubers in the case of every variety, except for the varieties Lady Roseta and Nemere at which the smallest number of infected tubers was registered.

  11. The Modernization of the Audit Courts of Brazil: PROMOEX deployment assessment in Audit Courts subnational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Gomes da Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mainly since the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988, the Brazilian Courts of Accounts (TC had expanded its expertise to carry out the control of management of public entities on different perspectives, such as operational, accounting, budgetary and financial. The differences between these institutions in terms of economic, technological and human resources were factors that made it difficult to adapt these institutions to the new acquired competences. The Promoex then emerged as a solution for modernization of Brazilian subnational Courts of Accounts. Such solution had funds of US $ 64.4 million dollars. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to assess the implementation of this program by 33 TCs. The evaluation was conducted from documents collected from web pages of MPOG, ATRICON, IRB and the Portal of Brazil Courts of Accounts. The Loan Agreement 1628-OC / BR, Object Compliance Report, Progress Reports of the 1st and 2nd semesters of 2013 (final report, and surveys conducted by the FIA and FGV also were scrutinized. The results indicate that the Promoex was less than expected; the modernization proposals were more focused on solving administrative problems, as well as by the low impact of Promoex over the actions developed by the TCs.

  12. A People’s Court? A Bottom-up approach to litigation before the Euopean Court of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, J.

    2018-01-01

    Each year the European Court of Justice delivers over a thousand decisions on the basis of EU law that affect the Members States as well as the lives of their citizens. Most of these decisions are the result of requests for a preliminary ruling sent by national courts and tribunals seeking an

  13. The Hellenistic Royal Court. Court Culture, Ceremonial and Ideology in Greece, Egypt and the Near East, 336-30 BCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strootman, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Hellenistic empires of Alexander the Great and his successors in Greece, Egypt and the Near East, new forms of court culture and political ideology developed during the last three centuries BCE. Appropriated by Parthian kings and Roman emperors alike, the culture of these Macedonian courts

  14. A Standing Investment Court under TTIP from the Perspective of the Court of Justice of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This article critically assesses the feasibility of the recently proposed Investment Court System (ICS) under the envisaged Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), from the perspective of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). It is argued that an ex ante assessment of the

  15. Molecular identification and characterization of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 isolates causing black scurf of potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidy, M.E.; Othman, M.R.; Mahmoud, M.

    2018-01-01

    Twenty-six isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 were collected from four potato growing area of Saudi Arabia. Yield damages due to this infection is reported to range from 7-64% (average of 35%), depending on many factors. Molecular identification of R. solani AG-3 isolates by ITS-regions and characterization was done by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Twenty-six isolates of R. solani used in the current study were isolated from potato fields in four major potato-producing regions of Saudi Arabia. All isolates were inoculated on potato and observations on the percentage of disease incidence were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction of R. solani AG-3 isolates was used by A specific and sensitive PCR and ISSR primers. A single splinter of nearly 500 bp was only amplified once genomic DNA from R. solani AG-3 isolates. Amplicon size of three ISSR primers ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 Kb in isolates. Using the three primers, the tested isolates were separated on the basis of genetic similarity coefficients (GSC). The range of the GSC was beginning at 0.62 and ending at 1.00. In unweighted pair-group method arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis, the R. solani isolates grouped into five clusters. The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of R. solani AG-3 isolates. Molecular characterization have great genetic variation in the R. solani AG-3 population, without any correlation between aggressiveness, geographical regions and genetic variation based on ISSR markers. (author)

  16. Prospects and Potential Uses of Genomic Prediction of Key Performance Traits in Tetraploid Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic prediction is a routine tool in breeding programs of most major animal and plant species. However, its usefulness for potato breeding has not yet been evaluated in detail. The objectives of this study were to (i examine the prospects of genomic prediction of key performance traits in a diversity panel of tetraploid potato modeling additive, dominance, and epistatic effects, (ii investigate the effects of size and make up of training set, number of test environments and molecular markers on prediction accuracy, and (iii assess the effect of including markers from candidate genes on the prediction accuracy. With genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP, BayesA, BayesCπ, and Bayesian LASSO, four different prediction methods were used for genomic prediction of relative area under disease progress curve after a Phytophthora infestans infection, plant maturity, maturity corrected resistance, tuber starch content, tuber starch yield (TSY, and tuber yield (TY of 184 tetraploid potato clones or subsets thereof genotyped with the SolCAP 8.3k SNP array. The cross-validated prediction accuracies with GBLUP and the three Bayesian approaches for the six evaluated traits ranged from about 0.5 to about 0.8. For traits with a high expected genetic complexity, such as TSY and TY, we observed an 8% higher prediction accuracy using a model with additive and dominance effects compared with a model with additive effects only. Our results suggest that for oligogenic traits in general and when diagnostic markers are available in particular, the use of Bayesian methods for genomic prediction is highly recommended and that the diagnostic markers should be modeled as fixed effects. The evaluation of the relative performance of genomic prediction vs. phenotypic selection indicated that the former is superior, assuming cycle lengths and selection intensities that are possible to realize in commercial potato breeding programs.

  17. A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella

  18. Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...

  19. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  20. A century of potato breeding: improvement, diversification, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding within potato has relied almost entirely on phenotypic selection and little is known of the underlying genetic elements being acted upon. To characterize the effects of this selection on phenotypic and genotypic diversity within cultivated potato, the SolCAP 8300 Infinium SNP chip was utili...

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  2. Mapping genetic factors controlling potato - cyst nematode interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera

  3. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  4. Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of.

  5. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  6. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  7. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  8. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  9. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  10. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.

  11. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato...

  12. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  13. Removing potatoes from children's diets may compromise potassium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 200...

  14. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  15. New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... According to estimates, farmers spend about 6% of their potato crop income on chemicals to control late blight and other diseases — a high cost that also has environmental ... The project also aims to produce a more nutritious potato by selecting cultivars that can store more minerals, such as zinc and iron.

  16. Bacterial microbiome and nematode occurrence in different potato agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 gr of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to ...

  17. Potato landraces: description and dynamics in three areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteros, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of on-farm

  18. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  19. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  20. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...