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Sample records for potassium alkaline lamproite-carbonatite

  1. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  2. Oxidative degradation of Boltysh shale by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pobul, I Ya; Fomina, A S

    1974-01-01

    This reaction proceeded in stages at 47 to 48/sup 0/C with a 3 percent solution of potassium permanganate in a 1 percent alkaline solution. The products were separated into groups and identified by gas-liquid chromatography. Small amounts of monocarboxylic acids were identified, with normal and branched chains, from acetic to lauric acid. Dicarboxylic acids were mainly of normal structure, or methyl substituted, from succinic to hexadecanedicarboxylic acid. No tricarboxylic acids were detected. For products of primary oxidation insoluble in acid media, a high content of C/sub 10/-C/sub 16/ acids was characteristic, and for the final degree of oxidation C/sub 11/-C/sub 18/ acids. The organic portion of shale consists of structural units, differing in mass and in stability to alkaline permanganate.

  3. Kinetics studies of oxidation of niacinamide by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipsingh Gour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of niacinamide in alkaline media is carried out using potassium permanganate as a oxiding agent. The reaction was monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 525 nm. It was found to be zero order with respect to oxidant,, fractional order with respect to hydrogen ion concentration and first order with respect to substrate. The thermodynamic parameters(were determinied . The average (?G# was found to be 87.60 KJ/mol. The values ?S# was found to be -0.2132 KJ/mole and energy of activation was found to be 23.95 KJ/mole. A suitable mechanism is proposed based on the experimental conditions.

  4. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lack of genotoxicity of potassium iodate in the alkaline comet assay and in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Comparison to potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, J M; Huet, S; Godard, T; Sanders, P

    2004-02-01

    Iodine could be added to the diet of human population in the form of iodide or iodate but iodate had not been adequately tested for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, genotoxic effects of potassium iodate were evaluated in vitro using the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on CHO cells and compared to halogenate salt analogues potassium bromate and chlorate and also to their respective reduced forms (potassium iodide, bromide and chloride). The results showed that the comet assay failed to detect the presence of DNA damage after a treatment of cells by potassium iodate for concentrations up to 10 mM. This absence of primary DNA damage was confirmed in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. In the same way, results showed that potassium chlorate as well as potassium iodide, bromide and chloride did not induced DNA damage in the alkaline comet assay for doses up to 10 mM. By contrast, potassium bromate exposure led to an increase in both DNA damage and frequency of micronucleated cells. The repair of bromate-induced DNA damage was incomplete 24 h after the end of treatment. These results seem to indicate that potassium bromate would induce DNA damage by several mechanisms besides oxidative stress.

  6. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  7. Magmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium-alkaline-carbonatitic complex of Ipanema São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Brotzu, Pietro; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Melluso, Leone; Morbidelli, Lucio; Ruberti, Excelso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Brilli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    The Ipanema alkaline-carbonatitic complex is part of the Meso-Cenozoic alkaline magmatism located within the southeastern part of the Brazilian Platform. Drill-core and field sampling have indicated the occurrence of glimmerites, with subordinate shonkinites (mela-syenites), clinopyroxene-bearing glimmerites, diorites and syenites. The glimmerites are cross-cut by lamprophyric dykes and calciocarbonatites. Fenitization has deeply affected the country rocks, originating dioritic and syenitic rocks. The Ipanema rocks show a distinct potassic affinity. The initial Sr-Nd- isotopic composition of the Ipanema rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70661-0.70754 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51169-0.51181) is similar to that of tholeiitic and potassium-rich-alkaline rocks of the Eastern Paraguay. Stable isotope data for the Ipanema calciocarbonatite suggest interaction with fluids at temperatures typical of hydrothermal stages, as hypothesized for other carbonatite complexes from southeastern Brazil. The chemical differences between the lamprophyre, glimmerites, carbonatites, apatitites and magnetitites, and the absence of marked REE enrichment in the evolved lithologies, all indicate that fractional crystallization and accumulus of liquidus phases in a magma reservoir, likely coupled with liquid immiscibility processes, may have played an important role in the genesis of the Ipanema rocks.

  8. Ketone deprotonation mediated by mono- and heterobimetallic alkali and alkaline earth metal amide bases: structural characterization of potassium, calcium, and mixed potassium-calcium enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuyang; Noll, Bruce C; Beatty, Alicia; Mulvey, Robert E; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2004-06-23

    Potassium, calcium, and mixed potassium-calcium amide combinations have been shown to be efficient reagents in enolization reactions, and a set of representative intermediate mono- and heterobimetallic enolates have been successfully isolated and crystallographically characterized.

  9. Distribution of uranium, thorium and potassium in the alkaline rocks of Pocos de Caldas massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas massif, with area about 800 Km 2 , represents the greatest complex of alkaline rocks existent in the American continent. Although values of U and Th are well Known in the mineralized areas, few has been registered with respect to the distribution of those elements outside the ore deposits. The rocks of the massif, in general, present high contents of U and Th when confronted with the surrouding country rocks. The distribution of the U and Th appoint a relevant additional data in the discussion on the hypothesis of nepheline syenites bodies formation in Pocos de Caldas by crystal fractionation processes. In this work are provided results of the U, Th and K distribution in the main petrographic facies occurring in the several studies places of the massif, yielded by gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of the samples. Those analysis disclose that khibinites present average values about 38 ppm U and 120 ppm Th; lujavrites, about 14 ppm U and more than 70 ppm Th; U-Th depleted nepheline synites, about 12 ppm U and 38 ppm Th, Th/U ratios are close to 3,0 in the nepheline syenites, about 3,7 in the phonolites, reaching values close to 4,0 in the khibinites. These values are comparable with others Th/U ratios of selected series of alkaline rocks reported in the international literature. Uranium and Th comparative data, attained by delayed neutron counting activation analysis also are given. The results obtained for the fluorimetric analysis show loss of U leaching is greater in the fine-grained rocks (phonolites) than coarse-grained ones (lujavrites, Khibinites). The autoradiographic studies reveal that radioactive elements are found concentrated in mineral phases. A new assessment of the radiogenic heat production it is also available. (Author) [pt

  10. Luminescence behaviors of Eu- and Dy-codoped alkaline earth metal aluminate phosphors through potassium carbonate coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chen-Jui, E-mail: cjliang@fcu.edu.tw; Siao, Hao-Yi

    2016-07-01

    An electronic energy mechanism of activator and sensitizer was established to describe the luminescence behaviors of Eu- and Dy-codoped M(II)Al{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M(II) = Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) phosphors through potassium carbonate coprecipitation. Experimental results demonstrated that the prepared phosphors exhibited superior crystallinity at a temperature lower than 950 °C. The phosphors are ordered according to emission intensity as follows Ca- > Ba- > Sr- > Mg-containing phosphors. The energy level for Eu{sup 2+} 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} → 4f{sup 7}, Eu{sup 3+4}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F, and Dy{sup 3+4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H transitions and the effects of nephelauxetic and crystal field in Ba-, Sr-, and Ca-containing phosphors were discussed. The energy gap, (hv){sub em}, between 5d and 4f of Eu{sup 2+} ion is strongly affected by host composition, crystal field strength, and nephelauxetic effect. The infrared emission of 4f{sub 9/2} → 6h for Dy{sup 3+} is merely depend on the transfer of energy from Eu{sup 2+} upon excited. Ca-containing phosphor with maximum (hv){sub em} is attributed to the lowest bond length of Ca−O and highest ionization potential of Ca{sup 2+} ion, which leads to the effects of crystal field and nephelauxetic greater than that in the other phosphors. - Highlights: • The list of the collected figure captions: • Develop a new coprecipitation method to prepare high efficiency phosphors. • Obtain superior crystallinity with lower calcination temperature. • Luminescence behavior of Eu- and Dy-codoped on aluminate phosphors is discussed. • Investigate the effects of alkaline earth metal containing on crystal field and nephelauxetic.

  11. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Javier A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Valenzuela B, José [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) , km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Cao Milán, R. [Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Herrera, José [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Farías, Mario H. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) , km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Hernández, Mayra P., E-mail: mayrap@fisica.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • New phases of sulfur on gold: hexamer and (√(2)×√(2)) were observed by STM. • Hexamers and (√(2)×√(2)) structures coexist with well-known octomers. • Formation of sulfur multilayer by K{sub 2}DTC{sub 2}pz hydrolysis under alkaline condition. • Top octomer layer have dynamic behavior while (√(2)×√(2)) and hexamer were static. • A model is presented to explain sulfur multilayer formation on Au(100). - Abstract: Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K{sub 2}DTC{sub 2}pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S{sub 6} phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S{sub 4} phase, tetramer with (√(2)×√(2)) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S{sub 8} phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√(2)×√(2)) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√(2)×√(2)) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  12. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela B, José; Cao Milán, R.; Herrera, José; Farías, Mario H.; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New phases of sulfur on gold: hexamer and (√(2)×√(2)) were observed by STM. • Hexamers and (√(2)×√(2)) structures coexist with well-known octomers. • Formation of sulfur multilayer by K 2 DTC 2 pz hydrolysis under alkaline condition. • Top octomer layer have dynamic behavior while (√(2)×√(2)) and hexamer were static. • A model is presented to explain sulfur multilayer formation on Au(100). - Abstract: Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K 2 DTC 2 pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S 6 phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S 4 phase, tetramer with (√(2)×√(2)) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S 8 phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√(2)×√(2)) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√(2)×√(2)) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer

  13. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis ... released. This may cause a falsely high result. Alternative Names Hypokalemia test; K+ Images Blood test References Mount DB. Disorders of potassium balance. ...

  14. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain other liquids including low-fat white or chocolate milk, flat soda, orange juice, raspberry syrup, or ... Potassium iodide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: swollen glands metallic taste in the ...

  15. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low potassium (hypokalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Low potassium (hypokalemia) refers to a lower than normal potassium level ... 2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 mmol/L) ...

  16. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  17. Penicillin V Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other ... heart valves and other symptoms) from coming back. Penicillin V potassium is in a class of medications ...

  18. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:This study investigated maldistribution of concentrated 15% potassium chloride after injection into .... and latter experiments referred to for example as “Control 1” ..... be further investigated as a reliable, simple method of potassium.

  19. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  20. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  1. Reaction of lithium, sodium and potassium polyphosphates with potassium permanganate at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paderova, L.V.; Onuchina, T.V.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made on destruction of molten polyphosphates of alkaline metals by potassium permanganate during change of KMnO 4 content, test time and temperature. Ortho-, di, tri- and tetraphosphate-anions, as well as manganese compounds with different oxidation degree were revealed in products of component interaction. Empirical equations of the dependence of the value of average molecular mass on change of melt temperature were derived. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Handling of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.; Komurka, M.

    1983-03-01

    As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author) [de

  3. Potassium and Your CKD Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetable in your diet, leach them before using. Leaching is a process by which some potassium can be pulled out ... out of my favorite high-potassium vegetables? The process of leaching will help pull potassium out of some high- ...

  4. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Potassium, Serum; 426–27 p. Lab ...

  5. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat and prevent low level of potassium. These foods include: Avocados Baked potato Bananas Bran Carrots Cooked lean beef Milk Oranges Peanut butter Peas and beans Salmon Seaweed Spinach Tomatoes Wheat germ

  7. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  8. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  9. Lithuanian Quarry Aggregates Concrete Effects of Alkaline Corrosion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Rutkauskas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate alkaline corrosion of cement in concrete is going to respond in sodium and potassium hydroxide (lye with active SiO2 found in some aggregates. During this reaction, the concrete has resulted in significant internal stresses which cause deformation of the concrete, cracking and disintegration. The reaction is slow and concrete signs of decomposition appear only after a few months or years. The study used two different aggregates quarries. Studies show that Lithuania gravel contaminated with reactive particles having amorphous silicon dioxide reacting with cement in sodium and potassium hydroxide and the resulting alkaline concrete corrosion. It was found that, according to AAR 2 large aggregates include Group II – potentially reactive because of their expansion after 14 days, higher than 0.1%.

  10. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  11. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Chernyak, A.S.; Kostromina, O.N.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Shpeyzer, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  12. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  13. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  14. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  15. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, V G; Gorokhovsky, A V; Gorshkov, N V; Fedorov, F S; Tretychenko, E V; Sevrugin, A V

    2015-09-01

    Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni(2+) ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiO x . This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH.

  16. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Goffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni2+ ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiOx. This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH.

  17. Response to Fenton and Fenton: evidence does not support the alkaline diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the space available in this broad review, we focused on large trials published since the 2011 Fenton meta-analysis. This included two trials published in 2013 and one in 2015. These trials found favorable effects of supplementation with alkaline salts of potassium, in amounts of 60 mmol/day and h...

  18. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution of potassium hydroxide with excess carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate; (3) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce potassium bicarbonate, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food...

  1. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  3. Electrodialysis recovery of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from eluates of SWC facilities at NPP with VVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, S.N.; Virich, P.M.; Kramskikh, E.Y.; Masanov, O.L.; Turovsky, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    To extract boric acid and potassium hydroxide from regenerates of SWC-2-46 facilities, an electrodialysis-sorption process has been devised consisting of the following operations: separation of boron-alkaline regenerate solution into desorbate and wash water; filling of desalination and concentration chambers, respectively, with desorbate and was water of electrodialysis equipment; production of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from desorbate by electrodialysis; removal of chloride-ion from boric acid solution on ion-exchange filter AB-17-18. The flow-sheet was tested and boron containing alkaline regeneration solutions were recovered from Novovoronezh NPP

  4. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  5. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  6. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  7. Potassium iodide stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    After examination by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other federal agencies of federal policy on the use and distribution of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid-blocking agent for use in off-site preparedness around commercial nuclear powerplants, FEMA believes the present shelf life of KI is too short, that the minimum ordering quantities are an obstacle to efficient procurement, and that the packaging format offered by the drug industry does not meet the wishes of state and local government officials. FEMA has asked assistance from the Food and Drug Administration in making it possible for those states wishing to satisfy appropriate requirements to do so at the minimum cost to the public. Given an appropriate packaging and drug form, there appears to be no reason for the federal government to have further involvement in the stockpiling of KI

  8. Potassium-argon technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, Charles; Cornette, Yves; David, Benjamin; Gillot, P.-Y.

    1978-04-01

    The main features of the method of processing rocks and minerals and measuring the extracted argon, for the purpose of potassium-argon dating are described. It differs in several respects from the conventional one, as described, f.i., in Dalrymple and Lanphere's monography. Principally it was established that the continual purification of the gases in the mass spectrometer cell during the measurement, stops the peaks of current drift, and renders them representative of the introduced argon. This allows on the one hand to improve the reliability and accuracy of measurements, on the other hand to get rid of the isotopic dilution method, with 38 A as a spike. Moreover the reliability of the radiogenic argon is improved by taking into account the mislinearness of the M.S. response. All this results in a higher performance of the K/Ar dating method, especially in the recent ages range. The technological side of the problem was only dealt with [fr

  9. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  10. Effect of Alkaline Stress on Some Morphophysiologic Characteristics of Two Varieties of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Bemany Golnabadi

    2016-12-01

    , shoot and root dry weight, Fv/Fm, PI, proline, total carbohydrate, malondialdehyde content, cha, chb, total chlorophyll, cartonoied content, potassium, sodium content and sodium to potassium rate were measured. Results and Discussion Result showed that with increasing alkaline stress, decreased shoot and root height, shoot and root dry weight. A similar result had observed previously in sugar beet. Researches have indicated that plants respond to elevated NaHCO3 concentrations in soil or in growing medium solution with decreased shoot and root growth. This could be due to either HCO3− or Na+. Many of the data test showed high pH as a key factor in limiting plant growth and development under alkaline conditions. 411 variety showed superiority compared to Sofeh cultivar in mentioned characteristics. Also, Fv/Fm and PI decreased under alkaline stress condition, whereas proline, total carbohydrate and malondialdehyde content increased. Also, the increases in proline and total carbohydrate content were reported in wheat under alkaline stress condition. Baghre and Roosta (2012 reported that Fv/Fm values and PI reduced under alkalinity stress. In the present experiment, alkaline stress decreased cha, chb and total chlorophyll whereas it increased cartonoied content. Yang et al., (2009a concluded that in alkalinity stress, the contents of Chl and Car in the barley plants decreased sharply with increased stress in comparison to salinity stress. They also stated that high pH might decrease contents of photosynthetic pigments. Potassium content decreased under alkaline stress condition whereas sodium and sodium to potassium rate increased. Also, Zhang and Chun-Sheng (2009 reported that with increasing alkaline stress, potassium content decreased in Lathyrus quinquenervius whereas, sodium content and sodium to potassium rate increase. In wheat stems, a decrease in potassium content and potassium to sodium rate and an increase in sodium content were also observed. A high

  11. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  13. Oral potassium supplementation in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A

    2008-08-01

    Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  17. Potassium distribution in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth in two different conditions. In the first one the sugarcane soil was prepared with natural fertilizers, using sugarcane bagasse and, in another plantation the soil was prepared with commercial fertilizer NPK with a proportion of 10-10-10. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma ray spectrometry techniques have been used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40 K present in the sugarcane samples. The concentration of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured periodically. The results for sugarcane cultivated in soil with natural fertilizer show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. The results for the plant grown in soil with NPK fertilizer, indicate that the potassium concentration is higher in the stem at the beginning of cultivation and remained practically constant over time in various parts of the plant, with higher values in the leaves and stem than at the root. On the other hand, the results obtained using fertilizer NPK shows a lower potassium concentration, since the fertilizer provoked a much higher growth rate. (author)

  18. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Rust, J; Tome, F C

    1980-10-18

    A study is proposed for supplementing potassium loss from diarrhea in rehydration therapies with fresh fruit and other naturally potassium-rich foods. Bananas contain .1 mol of potassium per gm. Freshly squeezed lemon or orange juices were tested for potassium and sodium content and found to have very low potassium concentration. Therefore, the banana was chosen for an upcoming study that will determine if infants and children suffering from diarrhea can ingest the amounts of the fruit necessary to elevate the potassium level sufficiently. Bananas as the potassium source are thought to be well-accepted in developing areas.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate. It occurs as transparent crystals or a white... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS...

  20. Study of radium extraction mechanisms from scales by leaching in different acidic and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Gafar, M.; Al-Kurdi, H.

    2002-07-01

    The present report shows the results of leaching experiments for scales containing naturally occuring radioactive materials using different acidic and alkaline media. The obtained result can be used for defining the method of safe disposal of such waste. Leaching solutions used in this study were distilled water, mineral acids (sulpharic acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid), sodium, potassium hydroxides, ammonium oxalate EDTA, sodium carbonate, potassium acetate, and a mixture of potassium chloride and hydrochloric acid. The results have shown that the extraction ratio of radium-226, the most abundant isotope in scales, is very low and even negligible using all different media. This indicates that all scales produced in Syrian oil fields do not require any chemical preparation before disposal. In addition, the effect of both stirring time of phrases and concentration of leaching media that may affect the radium transfer process from solid phase to aqueous phase have been investigated were no measurable amount being observed in the leachate. (author)

  1. Characterization of potassic materials of Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, P.; Navarro, F.C.; Roveri, C.D.; Bergerman, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium, which has featured in Brazil's agricultural sector and in the world's in the application of fertilizers, is present in magmatic rocks, such as nepheline syenite and phonolite, found in the Alkaline Massif of Pocos de Caldas (AMPC). The rare earth elements (REE), in turn, also occur in this region and have important uses in various industrial fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of potassic rocks of AMPC in the fertilizer and rare earths industry. Five samples were collected and characterized. It was observed that there was no preferential concentration by granulometric range of potassium oxide, alumina, silica and iron oxide. Feldspathic mass, potash feldspar, and muscovite were found in all samples. The samples show REE with amounts greater than those found in the earth's crust, except for lutetium and scandium and possessed average content of potassium oxide from 8.70 to 14.40%. (author)

  2. Sample preparation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Joaquim A.; Santos, Mirian C.; Sousa, Rafael A. de; Cadore, Solange; Barnes, Ramon M.; Tatro, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tertiary amines and strongly alkaline reagents for sample treatment involving extraction and digestion procedures is discussed in this review. The preparation of slurries is also discussed. Based on literature data, alkaline media offer a good alternative for sample preparation involving an appreciable group of analytes in different types of samples. These reagents are also successfully employed in tailored speciation procedures wherein there is a critical dependence on maintenance of chemical forms. The effects of these reagents on measurements performed using spectroanalytical techniques are discussed. Several undesirable effects on transport and atomization processes necessitate use of the method of standard additions to obtain accurate results. It is also evident that alkaline media can improve the performance of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and accessories, such as autosamplers coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers

  3. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using 86 Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of 86 Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium

  4. Impacts of priming with silicon on the growth and tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ِArafat eAbdel Latef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has been known to augment plant defense against biotic and abiotic pressures. Maize (Zea maize L. is classified as a Si accumulator and is relatively susceptible to alkaline stress. In this work, grains of maize were grown in pots and exposed to various concentrations of Na2CO3 (0, 25, 50 and 75 mM with or without 1.5 mM Si in the form of sodium metasilicate Na2O3Si.5H2O for 25 days. Alkaline-stressed plants showed a decrease in growth parameters, leaf relative water content (LRWC, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total phenols and potassium ion (K+, as well as potassium/sodium ion (K+/Na+ ratio. By contrast, alkaline stress increased the contents of soluble proteins, total free amino acids, proline, Na+ and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD in stressed plants. On the other hand, application of Si by grain priming improved growth of stressed plants, which was accompanied by the enhancement in LRWC, levels of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids, K+ and activities of SOD, CAT and POD enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplement resulted in a decrease in the contents of proline, MDA and Na+, which together with enhanced K+ level led to a favorable adjustment of K+/Na+ ratio, in stressed plants relative to plants treated with alkaline stress alone. Taken together, these results indicate that Si plays a pivotal role in alleviating the negative effects of alkaline stress on the maize growth by improving water status, enhancing photosynthetic pigments, accumulating osmoprotectants rather than proline, activating the antioxidant machinery, and maintaining the balance of K+/Na+. Thus, our findings demonstrate that seed priming with Si is an efficient strategy that can be used to boost tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aggravated by eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes ...

  6. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium.

  7. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  8. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  9. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALKALINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    There was no clear decrease in the yield seen in the bands and the loss of enzyme was not observed with the gel analysis. It may ... The native gel results show clear distinct bands for the 3 alkaline phosphotase isoenzymes ..... British Medical.

  10. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Despite durability in several environments, ceramics and refractories can not endure alkaline environments at high temperature. An example of such an environment is when burning biofuel in modern heat and power plants in which the demand for increasing efficiency results in higher combustion temperatures and content of alkaline substances in the flue gas. Some experiences of these environments has been gained from such vastly different equipment as regenerator chambers in the glass industry and MHD-generators. The grains of a ceramic material are usually bonded together by a glassy phase which despite it frequently being a minor constituent render the materials properties and limits its use at elevated temperature. The damage is usually caused by alkaline containing low-melting phases and the decrease of the viscosity of the bonding glass phase which is caused by the alkaline. The surfaces which are exposed to the flue gas in a modern power plant are not only exposed to the high temperature but also a corroding and eroding, particle containing, gas flow of high velocity. The use of conventional refractory products is limited to 1300-1350 deg C. Higher strength and fracture toughness as well as durability against gases, slag and melts at temperatures exceeding 1700 deg C are expected of the materials of the future. Continuous transport of corrosive compounds to the surface and corrosion products from the surface as well as a suitable environment for the corrosion to occur in are prerequisites for extensive corrosion to come about. The highest corrosion rate is therefore found in a temperature interval between the dew point and the melting point of the alkaline-constituent containing compound. It is therefore important that the corrosion resistance is sufficient in the environment in which alkaline containing melts or slag may appear. In environments such as these, even under normal circumstances durable ceramics, such as alumina and silicon carbide, are attacked

  11. Obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarova, M.A.; Solojenkin, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate. By means of exchange reaction between silver nitrate and potassium cyanide the potassium dicyan-argentate was synthesized. The analysis of obtained samples was carried out by means of titration and potentiometry.

  12. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  16. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on 137Cs uptake by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of 137 Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The 137 Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K + ) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K + concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K + for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of 137 Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The 137 Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. - Highlights: • Potassium application reduced 137 Cs uptake by rice grown in pot experiments. • Readily available K fertilizer more effectively decreased brown rice 137 Cs concentration. • Potassium should be applied before heading to reduce brown rice 137 Cs concentration.

  17. Preparation of potassium-reduced tantalum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosov, V.N.; Miroshnichenko, M.N.; Orlov, V.M.; Prokhorova, T.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of tantalum powders prepared by reduction of molten potassium heptafluorotantalate with liquid potassium are studied in a temperature range of 750 - 850 deg C using potassium chloride as a flux at a ratio of K 2 TaF 7 : KCl = 1, 2, and 3. The use of potassium as a reducing agent facilitates washing of tantalum powders for impurity salt removal, reduces sodium content and leakage currents in the anodes. As compared to sodium process, the potassium reduction results in a high yield of sponge material, a decrease in the specific surface area and yield of tantalum powder suitable for manufacture of capacitor anodes [ru

  18. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  19. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  20. Chemical composition of sublates (difficultly soluble substances) which form on interaction of polyvalent metal ions with potassium alkylcarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Skryleva, T.L.; Sazonova, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    The pH value is considered for its effect on chemical composition of sublates which form on interaction of fatty acid collectors (potassium alkylcarboxylate) with polyvalent ions of Ni, An, Cu and Be. It is shown that interaction of these ions with fatty acid collectors in weakly acid, neutral and weakly alkaline solutions is accompanied by formation of medium soaps. Acid soaps are formed in more acid solutions, while in more alkaline-basic soaps. Domains of stability for medium soaps of Ni, Zn, Cu and Be are determined. 17 refs.; 4 figs

  1. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  3. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  4. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Electrochemical characterizations on MnO2 supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide gel polymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin

    2009-11-01

    MnO2·nH2O supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide (PAAK-co-PAAM) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) having the weight compositions of polymer:KCl:H2O = 9%:6.7%:84.3% have been characterized for their electrochemical performance. Compared with the liquid electrolyte (LE) counterpart, the GPE cells exhibit remarkable (∼50-130%) enhancement in specific capacitance of the oxide electrode, and the extent of the enhancement increases with increasing amount of the carboxylate groups in the polymers as well as with increasing oxide/electrolyte interfacial area. In situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis indicates that the oxide electrodes of the GPE cells possess higher Mn-ion valences and are subjected to greater extent of valence variation than that of the LE cell upon charging/discharging over the same potential range. Copolymerization of PAAK with PAAM greatly improves the cycling stability of the MnO2·nH2O electrode, and the improvement is attributable to the alkaline nature of the amino groups. Both GPEs exhibit ionic conductivities greater than 1.0 × 10-1 S cm-1 and are promising for high-rate applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical characterizations on MnO2 supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide gel polymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2009-01-01

    MnO2·nH2O supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide (PAAK-co-PAAM) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) having the weight compositions of polymer:KCl:H2O = 9%:6.7%:84.3% have been characterized for their electrochemical performance. Compared with the liquid electrolyte (LE) counterpart, the GPE cells exhibit remarkable (∼50-130%) enhancement in specific capacitance of the oxide electrode, and the extent of the enhancement increases with increasing amount of the carboxylate groups in the polymers as well as with increasing oxide/electrolyte interfacial area. In situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis indicates that the oxide electrodes of the GPE cells possess higher Mn-ion valences and are subjected to greater extent of valence variation than that of the LE cell upon charging/discharging over the same potential range. Copolymerization of PAAK with PAAM greatly improves the cycling stability of the MnO2·nH2O electrode, and the improvement is attributable to the alkaline nature of the amino groups. Both GPEs exhibit ionic conductivities greater than 1.0 × 10-1 S cm-1 and are promising for high-rate applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusion listlessness tingling, prickling, burning, tight, or pulling sensation of arms, hands, legs, or feet heaviness or weakness of legs cold, pale, gray skin stomach pain unusual stomach bulging ...

  8. Operating experience with potassium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.F.

    1984-04-01

    In an international cooperation R and D work for the realization of potassium topping cycles to increase the conversion efficiency of thermal power stations is going on. Feasibility studies show that the realization of such a process can be achieved under economic considerations with existing materials and today's technology. Nevertheless, it has to be shown that the assumptions with respect to material behaviour and component reliability are based on sound technical premises. Therefore, in continuation of design studies, a hardware programme has been initiated in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. First results with respect to component and material behaviour are described. (Author) [de

  9. Potassium adsorption ratios as an indicator for the fate of agricultural potassium in groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fertilization of agricultural land in groundwater infiltration areas often causes deterioration of groundwater quality. In addition to nitrogen and phosphorous, potassium deserves attention. The fate of potassium in the subsurface is controlled mainly by cation-exchange. Use of the Potassium

  10. Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 30% in 45% potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 25% in 40% sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half-cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite-size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

  11. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  12. The effect of alkaline cations on the Intercalation of Carbon Dioxide in Sepiolite Minerals: a Molecular Dynamics Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Francesco; Pedone, Alfonso

    2018-03-01

    The ability of the sepiolite mineral to intercalate CO2 molecules inside its channels in the presence of different alkaline cations (K+, Na+ and Li+) has been studied by classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. Starting from an alkaline-free sepiolite crystalline model we built three models with stoichiometry Mg320Si440Al40O1200(OH)160X+40•480H2O. On these models, we gradually replaced the water molecules present in the channels with carbon dioxide and determined the energy of this exchange reaction as well as the structural organization and dynamics of carbon dioxide in the channels. The adsorption energy shows that the Li-containing sepiolite mineral retains more carbon dioxide with respect to those with sodium and potassium cations in the channels. Moreover, the ordered patterns of CO2 molecules observed in the alkaline-free sepiolite mineral are in part destabilized by the presence of cations decreasing the adsorption capacity of this clay mineral.

  13. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a)...

  14. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  15. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China. SUMMARY: The... on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  16. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to...

  17. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be...

  18. Ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the binary phase diagram for the system ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate has been determined from -55/sup 0/C to 185/sup 0/C. Results are presented for the ammonium-nitrate-rich end of the system up to 30 wt% potassium nitrate.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections and...) of this chapter 0.25 Do. All other food categories 0.01 Do. (d) Prior sanctions for potassium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food...

  20. Leaching of potassium in a lysimeter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    Leaching of potassium was studied in the lysimeter plant in Seibersdorf/Austria (Pannonian climate). Averaged over three years, gravitational water amounted to 15.7% of the sum of precipitation (mean 485 mm) and irrigation (mean 138 mm). Differences between the four soils with respect to drainage were explained by the specific percentage of the soil skeleton. The average yearly potassium leaching ranged from 3.64 kg K/ha·yr (Dystric-Cambisol) to 22.7 kg K/ha·yr (drained Gleysol). Correlation between gravitational water volume and potassium leaching were only significant for one out of four soil types. No correlation was observed between extractable potassium in the soil profiles and potassium leaching. (author)

  1. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  2. Investigation on the electrochemical properties and crack growth rates of stainless steels in BWR alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.H.; Hsu, T.Y.; Huang, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing pH of reactor water to mildly alkaline is considered as one of the mitigating water chemistry strategies to reduce the activity release of radioactive oxides and suppress the growth rate of stress corrosion cracking. However, only limited experimental data are currently available in the published literature, it is imperative to perform additional tests to verify the effectiveness of slightly alkaline reactor water. Because the electrochemical behavior and SCC are intricately related, this study will attempt to investigates the electrochemical properties and measures the crack growth rates (CGRs) of type 304 stainless steel (SS) in both normal water chemistry (200 ppb O 2 , neutral pH 25 ) and alkaline chemistry (200 ppb O 2 , pH 25 = 8.0). The additive for pH control is potassium hydroxide (KOH). The crack growth rate was monitored by reversing DC potential drop technique. The electrochemical measurements include AC impedance measurement and potential pulsing test to measure the repassivation behavior. The characteristics of electrochemical properties and its effect on stress corrosion crocking in BWR alkaline environments have been further examined. (author)

  3. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Lawrence J; Rounds, Caleb; Hepler, Peter K

    2016-12-30

    Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily ( Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN) and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  4. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Winship

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  5. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  6. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  7. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  8. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  9. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  11. On the fusibility of potassium heptafluorotantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Bessonova, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Phase transformations of potassium heptafluorotantalate near the liquidus temperature have been studied. Thermograms and polytherm of the electric condUctivity of potassium heptafluorotantalate, thermogram of the mechanical mixture 0.5 K 2 TaF 7 +0.5 KF and thermogram of K 3 TaF 8 crystallization are plotted. The phase diagram of the K 2 TaF 7 -KF system is presented. In the temperature range 746 to 778 deg, i.e. above K 2 TaF 7 melting point, the melt is shown to remain heterogeneous. A portion of the phase diagram rich in potassium heptafluorotantalate is qualified as an ordinary eutectics

  12. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  13. Surface engineering of titanium with potassium hydroxide and its effects on the growth behavior of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaiyong; Lai, Min; Yang, Weihu; Hu, Ran; Xin, Renlong; Liu, Qing; Sung, K L Paul

    2010-06-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance and biological performance of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) substrates, potassium hydroxide was employed to modify the surfaces of titanium substrates, followed by biomimetic deposition of apatite on the substrates in a simulated body fluid. The morphologies of native and treated titanium substrates were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Treatment with potassium hydroxide led to the formation of intermediate layers of potassium titanate on the surfaces of titanium substrates, while apatite was subsequently deposited onto the intermediate layer. The formation of potassium titanate and apatite was confirmed by thin-film X-ray diffraction and FE-SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the formed potassium titanate layer improved the corrosion-resistance properties of titanium substrates. The influence of modified titanium substrates on the biological behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including osteogenic differentiation, was investigated in vitro. Compared with cp-Ti substrates, MSCs cultured onto alkali- and heat-treated titanium substrates and apatite-deposited titanium substrates displayed significantly higher (P<0.05 or P<0.01) proliferation and differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in 7 and 14day cultures, respectively. More importantly, our results suggest that the modified titanium substrates have great potential for inducing MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. The approach presented here may be exploited to fabricate titanium-based implants. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  15. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  16. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Toens, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations [af

  17. Beneficial reuse of precast concrete industry sludge to produce alkaline stabilized biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, C; Seth, R; Biswas, N

    2008-01-01

    The precast concrete industry generates waste called concrete sludge during routine mixer tank washing. It is highly alkaline and hazardous, and typically disposed of by landfilling. This study examined the stabilization of municipal sewage sludge using concrete sludge as an alkaline agent. Sewage sludge was amended with 10 to 40% of concrete sludge by wet weight, and 10 and 20% of lime by dry weight of the sludge mix. Mixes containing 30 and 40% of concrete sludge with 20% lime fulfilled the primary requirements of Category 1 and 2 (Canada) biosolids of maintaining a pH of 12 for at least 72 hours. The heavy metals were below Category 1 regulatory limits. The 40% concrete sludge mix was incubated at 52 degrees C for 12 of the 72 hours to achieve the Category 1 and 2 regulations of less than 1000 fecal coliform/g solids. The nutrient content of the biosolids was 8.2, 10 and 0.6 g/kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively. It can be used as a top soil or augmented with potassium for use as fertilizer. The study demonstrates that concrete sludge waste can be beneficially reused to produce biosolids, providing a long-term sustainable waste management solution for the concrete industry.

  18. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... study the effect of potassium on yield and internal leaf tissues composition of cotton ... Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were applied at 150 mg N/kg soil and 75 mg ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: Polyphenol.

  19. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  20. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-02-18

    Feb 18, 2014 ... particularly vitreous potassium has received most attention. It is known that ... respect to different age and sex at different death intervals. The details regarding the ... Analyser by the Ion selective method. The reagents used ...

  1. Photoconductivity and dielectric studies of potassium pentaborate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal of potassium pentaborate (KB5) has been grown by solution growth ... equipped with the Gunn Oscillator guided with rectangular wave-guide. ... its dielectric behaviour with the change of frequency has also been investigated.

  2. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  3. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  4. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  5. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  7. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  8. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newrock, R.S.; Maxfield, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 9 0 K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH 2 , where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A 0 + A 1 T 3 , while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A 0 is dependent on the RRR, while A 1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A 0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  9. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  10. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of copper in alkaline solutions and evaluation of some hydroxy-substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines as chromogenic reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, W E; Schilt, A A

    1972-09-01

    Seven new hydroxy-substituted 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives have been evaluated as chromogenic reagents for the determination of copper in strongly alkaline solution. The most sensitive of these, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline, has proven to be highly effective in a simple, rapid procedure for determining trace amounts of copper in sodium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, sodium phosphate or ammonium hydroxide.

  12. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V.; Kompan, M.M.; Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V.; Fedorov, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10 4 –10 5 . • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10 −2 to 10 −6 –10 −7 Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10 −2 Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10 −6 –10 −7 Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10 4 –10 5 . This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures

  13. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  14. Potassium cardioplegia: early assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.J.; Born, M.; Feit, T.; Ebert, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by single pass /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide ventriculography when potassium cardioplegia was combined with hypothermia. In 35 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization (3 CABG/patient) in which potassium cardioplegia at 4 0 C was used, no patient developed a myocardial infarction either by electrocardiogram or /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate imaging in the postoperative period. In 22 patients, aortic cross-clamp time was greater than 60 min, and the ejection fraction by the single pass radionuclide technique was 50% preoperatively and 53% postoperatively (NS). Wall motion in the single RAO view was not worse postoperatively. No patient required any inotropic agents in the immediate postoperative period. It appears that no significant ventricular impairment occurred in the immediate postoperative period (48 to 72 hours) when potassium cardioplegia combined with hypothermia was used for a 60-minute period

  15. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  16. Characterization of potassic materials of Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, Southeastern Brazil; Caracterizacao de materiais potassicos do macico alcalino de Pocos de Caldas (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, P.; Navarro, F.C.; Roveri, C.D. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), MG (Brazil); Bergerman, M.G., E-mail: pattypgpatty@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Potassium, which has featured in Brazil's agricultural sector and in the world's in the application of fertilizers, is present in magmatic rocks, such as nepheline syenite and phonolite, found in the Alkaline Massif of Pocos de Caldas (AMPC). The rare earth elements (REE), in turn, also occur in this region and have important uses in various industrial fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of potassic rocks of AMPC in the fertilizer and rare earths industry. Five samples were collected and characterized. It was observed that there was no preferential concentration by granulometric range of potassium oxide, alumina, silica and iron oxide. Feldspathic mass, potash feldspar, and muscovite were found in all samples. The samples show REE with amounts greater than those found in the earth's crust, except for lutetium and scandium and possessed average content of potassium oxide from 8.70 to 14.40%. (author)

  17. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  18. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  19. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  20. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing the opera......Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing...

  1. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  2. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  3. PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ENHANCEMENT OF RARE-EARTH DOPED-POTASSIUM SODIUM NIOBATE (KNN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Mat Harttat Maziati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline niobate mainly potassium sodium niobate, (KxNa1-x NbO3 (abreviated as KNN has long attracted attention as piezoelectric materials as its high Curie temperature (Tc and piezoelectric properties. The volatility of alkaline element (K, Na is, however detrimental to the stoichiometry of KNN, contributing to the failure to achieve high-density structure and lead to the formation of intrinsic defects. By partially doping of several rare-earth elements, the inherent defects could be improved significantly. Therefore, considerable attempts have been made to develop doped-KNN based ceramic materials with high electrical properties. In this paper, these research activities are reviewed, including dopants type and doping role in KNN perovskite structure.

  4. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical aspects of alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite associations from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Beccaluva, L.; Brotzu, P.; Conte, A. M.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

    1995-12-01

    A general description of Mesozoic and Tertiary (Fortaleza) Brazilian alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite districts is presented with reference to mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology. It mainly refers to scientific results obtained during the last decade by an Italo-Brazilian research team. Alkaline occurrences are distributed across Brazilian territory from the southern (Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul State) to the northeastern (Fortaleza, Ceará State) regions and are mainly concentrated along the borders of the Paraná Basin generally coinciding with important tectonic lineaments. The most noteworthy characteristics of these alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite suites are: (i) prevalence of intrusive forms; (ii) abundance of cumulate assemblages (minor dunites, frequent clinopyroxenites and members of the ijolite series) and (iii) abundance of evolved rock-types. Many data demonstrate that crystal fractionation was the main process responsible for magma evolution of all Brazilian alkaline rocks. A hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of carbonatite liquids by immiscibility processes. The incidence of REE and trace elements for different major groups of lithotypes, belonging both to carbonatite-bearing and carbonatite-free districts, are documented. Sr and preliminary Nd isotopic data are indicative of a mantle origin for the least evolved magmas of all the studied occurrences. Mantle source material and melting models for the generation of the Brazilian alkaline magma types are also discussed.

  5. Determination of Acidity and Alkalinity of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    三浦,芳助; 福永,祐子; 瀧川,裕里子; 津田,真美; 渡辺,陽子; 瀨山,一正

    2006-01-01

    The acidity and alkalinity of food materials in various menus was determined to clarify the influence of food on physiological functions. Menus mainly containing alkaline food materials (alkaline menu) and acid ones (acid menu) were compared. Determination of acidity and alkalinity was performed for each food material in the alkaline menu and acid menu, and acidity and alkalinity of one meal and a day's one were estimated. 1. Most of food materials in acid menu were assessed to be...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases conditions characterized by low or high blood potassium levels. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  7. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  8. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline ph Diet Benefits Health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalfenberg, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pub med was searched looking for articles on ph, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine

  9. The existence of the potassium dioxodifluorobromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantot, Georges; Bougon, Roland

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of liquid bromine pentafluoride with potassium bromate allows the formation of an oxyfluorinated complex ion of bromine V: the dioxodifluorobromate ion BrO 2 F 2 - . From Raman spectroscopy data this ion has a structure related to those of the chlorine and iodine corresponding ions [fr

  10. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  11. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  12. Computational study on potassium picrate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Xue-Hai; Lu, Ya-Lin; Ma, Xiu-Fang; Xiao, He-Ming [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2006-08-15

    DFT calculation at the B3LYP level was performed on crystalline potassium picrate. The frontier bands are slightly fluctuant. The energy gap between the highest occupied crystal orbital (HOCO) and the lowest unoccupied crystal orbital (LUCO) is 0.121 a.u. (3.29 eV). The carbon atoms that are connected with the nitro groups make up the narrow lower energy bands, with small contributions from nitro oxygen and phenol oxygen. The higher energy bands consist of orbitals from the nitro groups and carbon atom. The potassium bears almost 1 a.u. positive charge. The potassium forms ionic bonding with the phenol oxygen and the nitro oxygen at the same time. The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be -574.40 kJ/mol at the B3LYP level determined with the effective core pseudopotential HAYWSC-31G basis set for potassium and 6-31G** basis set for other atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Altered potassium homeostasis in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Bosaller, C.; Lehr, L.

    1983-01-01

    The total body potassium (TBK), serum potassium, and the number of red blood cell ouabain-binding sites was studied in 94 patients with Crohn's diease. TBK was measured by counting the endogenous 40 K in a whole body counter. TBK was 87%+-13% in 94 patients was Crohn's disease, while in control subjects, it was 97%+-12% (n=24). This significant reduction in TBK was accompanied by normal serum potassium levels (4.4+-0.5 mM). TBK was significantly correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (r=0.79, n=113, P 3 H-ouabain showed a significant increse in the number of Na-K pumps in Crohn's disease (396+-65, n=27) compared with the control group. 290+-45 (n=24). These results support the suggestion that changes in TBK may regulate the synthesis of Na-K pump molecules. The total body potassium depletion and the need for a preoperative nutritional support in Crohn's disease are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  15. Rheological properties of potassium barium borate glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwejda, K.A.; Vogel, D.L.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Several series of potassium barium borate glasses have been investigated as to their rheological properties. It has been found, that all these glasses show deviations from ‘Newtonian’ behaviour below temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 1010 poises. The activation energies of viscous flow

  16. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  17. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental Potassium Bromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is a commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles particularly bread, a staple food worldwide, yet its accidental poisoning has hitherto, not been documented in Nigeria. We report an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ...

  18. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  19. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY USING LOCAL ALKALINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the discovery of new oil producing fields and the ever increasing ... followed by water flooding is between 35 to 50% of the ... involved and lack of scale up and is considered among ... carbonate alkaline chemical reacts with certain types of ... reservoirs because of the profusion of calcium and the ... damage the formation.

  20. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the.

  1. Alkaline fuel cell technology in the lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) was the first fuel cell successfully put into practice, a century after William Grove patented his 'hydrogen battery' in 1839. The space program provided the necessary momentum, and alkaline fuel cells became the power source for both the U.S. and Russian manned space flight. Astris Energi's mission has been to bring this technology down to earth as inexpensive, rugged fuel cells for everyday applications. The early cells, LABCELL 50 and LABCELL 200 were aimed at deployment in research labs, colleges and universities. They served well in technology demonstration projects such as the 1998 Mini Jeep, 2001 Golf Car and a series of portable and stationary fuel cell generators. The present third generation POWERSTACK MC250 poised for commercialization is being offered to AFC system integrators as a building block of fuel cell systems in numerous portable, stationary and transportation applications. It is also used in Astris' own E7 and E8 alkaline fuel cell generators. Astris alkaline technology leads the way toward economical, plentiful fuel cells. The paper highlights the progress achieved at Astris, improvements of performance, durability and simplicity of use, as well as the current and future thrust in technology development and commercialization. (author)

  2. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  3. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Kompan, M.M. [Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Fedorov, F.S., E-mail: fedorov_fs@daad-alumni.de [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10{sup −2} to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10{sup −2} Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures.

  4. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  5. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  6. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    torulosa and of nine proteins in Escherichia coli. These were termed potassium deficiency-induced proteins or. PDPs and constitute hitherto unknown potassium deficiency–induced stimulons. Potassium deficiency also enhanced the synthesis of certain osmotic stress-induced proteins. Addition of K+ repressed the ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors. See...

  8. Relationship between potassium intake and radiocesium retention in the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, D.F.; Luick, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dietary potassium on radiocesium retention was studied in reindeer fed winter diets of lichens. Potassium added to the diet markedly decreased radiocesium retention; this suggests that seasonal changes in cesium retention observed earlier in reindeer might be caused largely by nutritional factors. Data indicate that a 20-fold increase in dietary potassium results in a 2-fold decrease in radiocesium retention

  9. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... Key words: Production, alkaline protease, Bacillus subtilis, animal wastes, enzyme activity. ... Generally, alkaline proteases are produced using submerged fermentation .... biopolymer concentrations were reported to have an influence ... adding nitrogenous compounds stimulate microorganism growth and ...

  10. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  11. MnO2/MCMB electrocatalyst for all solid-state alkaline zinc-air cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, X.G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured MnO 2 /mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) composite has been prepared successfully for use in zinc-air cell as electrocatalyst for oxygen reaction. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the MnO 2 nanorods were formed and covered on the surface of MCMB in bird's nest morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the MnO 2 has the hollandite structure with a composition approximating KMn 8 O 16 . By the cathodic polarization curve tests, the nanostructured material demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic activity as a kind of oxygen electrode electrocatalyst compared with electrolytic MnO 2 . An all solid-state zinc-air cell has been fabricated with this material as electrocatalyst for oxygen electrode and potassium salt of cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) as an alkaline polymer gel electrolyte. The cell has good discharge characteristics at room temperature

  12. Application of Alkaline Ionic Liquids in the Pretreatment Process of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potential application of green solvent ionic liquids (ILs in the kraft pulping process, eucalyptus wood was pretreated by [Mmim]DMP before normal pulping. The results showed that materials pretreated shortly by the ionic liquid had a higher yield and viscosity coupled with a lower potassium permanganate value and residual lignin content in the pulp, as a result of the cooking process. It was also inferred that alkaline [Mmim]DMP pretreatment could dissolve lignin effectively from fiber to result in a stronger binding force and more entangled properties. Paper tensile and burst strength were improved by about 40% and 60%, respectively. These results provide a new way for eucalyptus to be utilized in the kraft pulping process.

  13. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  14. Micelle formation during extraction of alkali elements from strongly alkaline mediums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apanasenko, V.V.; Reznik, A.M.; Bukin, V.I.; Brodskaya, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of potassium, rubidium and cesium by phenol reagents in hydrocarbon solvents from strongly alkakine solutions was considered. Tendency of prepared alkali metal phenolates to form micelles in aqueous and organic phases was revealed. Phenolates tendency to form micelles is dictated mainly by the size and position of hydrocarbon substituent in molecule. It is shown that when micelles form in organic phase, alkali elements can be extracted both according to cation-exchange mechanism and according to micellar one. It is noted that alkai element extraction from strongly alkaline media requires the correct choice of extractant: alkali metal phenolate shouldn't form micelles in aqueous solution. n-Alkyl- and arylphenoldisulfides and polysulfides are most preferable for solvent extraction among considered phenol derivatives

  15. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  16. Multistability in a neuron model with extracellular potassium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Experiments show a primary role of extracellular potassium concentrations in neuronal hyperexcitability and in the generation of epileptiform bursting and depolarization blocks without synaptic mechanisms. We adopt a physiologically relevant hippocampal CA1 neuron model in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the function of extracellular potassium in neuronal seizurelike activities. The model neuron is surrounded by interstitial space in which potassium ions are able to accumulate. Potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion are regulatory mechanisms of extracellular potassium. We also consider a reduced model with a fixed potassium concentration. The bifurcation structure and spiking frequency of the two models are studied. We show that, besides hyperexcitability and bursting pattern modulation, the potassium dynamics can induce not only bistability but also tristability of different firing patterns. Our results reveal the emergence of the complex behavior of multistability due to the dynamical [K+]o modulation on neuronal activities.

  17. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Potassium on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, Daniel; Leroy, Brian; Yankowitz, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the effect of charged impurities on the electronic properties of large single crystal CVD grown graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy. Mono- and multilayer crystals were prepared by transferring graphene from copper onto exfoliated boron nitride flakes on 300 nm SiO2 substrates. The boron nitride provides an ultra flat surface for the graphene. Potassium atoms are controllably deposited on the graphene at low temperature by heating a nearby getter source. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and transport measurements were performed in ultra high vacuum at 4.5 K. Transport measurements demonstrate the shifting of the Dirac point as the samples are doped, while STM measurements demonstrate the size, arrangement and local electronic influence of the potassium atoms.

  18. Potassium tetracyanidoaurate(III monohydrate: a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Matsushita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title metal complex salt, K[Au(CN4]·H2O, has been redetermined using X-ray diffraction data at 173 K in order to improve the precision. The previous determination was based on neutron diffraction data [Bertinotti & Bertinotti (1970. Acta Cryst. B26, 422–428]. The title compound crystallizes in the space group P212121 with one potassium cation, one [Au(CN4]− anion and one water molecule in the asymmetric unit. The AuIII atom lies on a general position and has an almost square-planar coordination sphere defined by four cyanide ligands. Interactions between the potassium cation and N atoms of the complex anion, as well as O—H...N hydrogen bonds, lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework structure.

  19. Behaviour of potassium hexabromoruthenate (4) in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, O.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pichkov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Behaviour of potassium hexabromoruthenate in HBr, H 2 O-acetone, dimethylformamide, dimetnylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions is investigated by means of absorption and ESR specroscopy. Complex is shown to be labile, interacts easily with solvents forming ruthenium complexes in more low oxidation degrees. Hexabromoruthenate-ion is formed in concentrated HBr, while in DMSO the formation of ruthenium (3) and (2) bromide-dimethylsulfoxide complexes occurs gradually, final product is trans-[Ru(DMSO) 4 Br 2

  20. Study of niobium corrosion in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.H. de.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of niobium electrochemical behaviour in NaOH and KOH solution, with concentrations between 0,5 and 6,1M is presented. The studies were done through electrochemicals assays, consisting in the corrosion potential and anodic and cathodic polarization curves, complemented by loss of mass experiments. The niobium anodic behaviour in alkaline medium is characterized by passivation occurrence, with a stable film formation. The Na oH solution in alkaline medium are more corrosible to niobium than the KOH solution. The loss of mass assays showed that the corrosion velocit is more dependente of hydroxide concentration in KOH medium than the NaOH medium. (C.G.C.) [pt

  1. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  2. Potassium sensing histidine kinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Gontang, Erin A; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The soil-dwelling organism Bacillus subtilis is able to form multicellular aggregates known as biofilms. It was recently reported that the process of biofilm formation is activated in response to the presence of various, structurally diverse small-molecule natural products. All of these small-molecule natural products made pores in the membrane of the bacterium, causing the leakage of potassium cations from the cytoplasm of the cell. The potassium cation leakage was sensed by the membrane histidine kinase KinC, triggering the genetic pathway to the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells within the biofilm. This chapter presents the methodology used to characterize the leakage of cytoplasmic potassium as the signal that induces biofilm formation in B. subtilis via activation of KinC. Development of novel techniques to monitor activation of gene expression in microbial populations led us to discover the differentiation of a subpopulation of cells specialized to produce the matrix that holds all cells together within the biofilm. This phenomenon of cell differentiation was previously missed by conventional techniques used to monitor transcriptional gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  4. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  5. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  6. Cesium immobilization into potassium magnesium phosphate matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayenko, S.Y.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Bereznyak, O.P.; Hodyreva, Y.S.; Tarasov, R.V.; Virych, V.D.; Ulybkina, E.A.; Pylypenko, O.V.; Kholomeev, G.O.; Zykova, A.V.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of isomorphous substitution of potassium ions by cesium ions in the structure of potassium magnesium phosphate KMgPO 4 centred dot 6H 2 O (PMP) was shown. It was established, that the Cs included into the PMP matrix does not transfer to the environment during high temperatures heating process (1176 deg C, 3 hours). Analysis of the IR absorption spectrum of the PMP sample has demonstrated that an increase in the amount of additive of the cesium chloride resulted in the shift of the main bands in the spectrum to the low-frequency region with average shift value 10 cm -1 , which indicates the strengthening of bonds in the crystal lattice of matter. The calculated degree of substitution of potassium by cesium during energy release process in the PMP matrix at the level of vitrified high level wastes is about 4%, i. e. the PMP matrix should correspond to the formula K 0.96 Cs 0.04 MgPO 4 centred dot 6H 2 O.

  7. Degradation of progestagens by oxidation with potassium permanganate in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Paul B; Zamyadi, Arash; Broseus, Romain; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the oxidation of selected progestagenic steroid hormones by potassium permanganate at pH 6.0 and 8.0 in ultrapure water and wastewater effluents, using bench-scale assays. Second order rate constants for the reaction of potassium permanganate with progestagens (levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone and progesterone) was determined as a function of pH, presence of natural organic matter and temperature. This work also illustrates the advantages of using a novel analytical method, the laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD-APCI) interface coupled to tandem mass spectrometry apparatus, allowing for the quick determination of oxidation rate constants and increasing sample throughput. The second-order rate constants for progestagens with permanganate determined in bench-scale experiments ranged from 23 to 368 M(-1) sec(-1) in both wastewater and ultrapure waters with pH values of 6.0 and 8.0. Two pairs of progestagens exhibited similar reaction rate constants, i.e. progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (23 to 80 M(-1) sec(-1) in ultrapure water and 26 to 149 M(-1) sec(-1) in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0) and levonorgestrel and norethindrone (179 to 224 M(-1) sec(-1) in ultrapure water and 180 to 368 M(-1) sec(-1) in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0). The presence of dissolved natural organic matter and the pH conditions improved the oxidation rate constants for progestagens with potassium permanganate only at alkaline pH. Reaction rates measured in Milli-Q water could therefore be used to provide conservative estimates for the oxidation rates of the four selected progestagens in wastewaters when exposed to potassium permanganate. The progestagen removal efficiencies was lower for progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (48 to 87 %) than for levonorgestrel and norethindrone (78 to 97%) in Milli-Q and wastewaters at pH 6.0-8.2 using potassium permanganate dosages of 1 to 5 mg L(-1) after contact times of 10 to 60 min. This

  8. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  9. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Sachin; Sandeep, K.C.; Bhanja, Kalyan; Mohan, Sadhana; Sugilal, G.

    2014-01-01

    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  10. Common window resonance features in K and heavier alkaline atoms Rb and Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Michi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nagata, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    A previous study of subvalence s-shell photoionization of potassium [Koide et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71 (2002) 1676] has been extended to the cases of heavier alkaline atoms Rb and Cs. We have measured the photoion time-of-flight spectra using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. Dual windows resonance structure previously observed in K was also found in Rb and Cs, suggesting that those structure are general features in alkaline atoms. We have observed also the Rydberg series of resonances that appear in dual windows. Our data analysis shows that the resonance widths are broad when compared with its rare gas neighbors. Based on multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations, the Rydberg series of resonances were assigned to the 4s 1 4p 6 5s5p excitations embedded in the 4p 5 5s continua for Rb and to the 5s 1 5p 6 6s6p excitations embedded in the 5p 5 6s continua for Cs. (author)

  11. A highly reversible anthraquinone-based anolyte for alkaline aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianyu; Tao, Meng; Chen, Hongping; Xu, Juan; Chen, Zhidong

    2018-05-01

    The development of electroactive organic materials for use in aqueous redox flow battery (RFB) electrolytes is highly attractive because of their structural flexibility, low cost and sustainability. Here, we report on a highly reversible anthraquinone-based anolyte (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, 1,8-DHAQ) for alkaline aqueous RFB applications. Electrochemical measurements reveal the substituent position of hydroxyl groups for DHAQ isomers has a significant impact on the redox potential, electrochemical reversibility and water-solubility. 1,8-DHAQ shows the highest redox reversibility and rapidest mass diffusion among five isomeric DHAQs. The alkaline aqueous RFB using 1,8-DHAQ as the anolyte and potassium ferrocyanide as the catholyte yields open-circuit voltage approaching 1.1 V and current efficiency and capacity retention exceeding 99.3% and 99.88% per cycle, respectively. This aqueous RFB produces a maximum power density of 152 mW cm-2 at 100% SOC and 45 °C. Choline hydroxide was used as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water-solubility of 1,8-DHAQ. 1,8-DHAQ has a maximum solubility of 3 M in 1 M KOH with 4 M choline hydroxide.

  12. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  13. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C., E-mail: ruiz.cs@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Skibsted, J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  14. Race, Serum Potassium, and Associations With ESRD and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Tin, Adrienne; Chang, Alex R; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Grams, Morgan E

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. Observational study. Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462). Associations between African ancestry and potassium level were investigated in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N=3,450). Race (African American vs non-African American and percent African ancestry) for cross-sectional analysis; serum potassium level for longitudinal analysis. Potassium level for cross-sectional analysis; mortality and end-stage renal disease for longitudinal analysis. The RCAV cohort was 18% African American (N=470,985). Potassium levels on average were 0.162mmol/L lower in African Americans compared with non-African Americans, with differences persisting after adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, and potassium-altering medication use. In the ARIC Study, higher African ancestry was related to lower potassium levels (-0.027mmol/L per each 10% African ancestry). In both race groups, higher and lower potassium levels were associated with mortality. Compared to potassium level of 4.2mmol/L, mortality risk associated with lower potassium levels was lower in African Americans versus non-African Americans, whereas mortality risk associated with higher levels was slightly greater. Risk relationships between potassium and end-stage renal disease were weaker, with no difference by race. No data for potassium intake. African Americans had slightly lower serum potassium levels than non-African Americans. Consistent associations between potassium levels and percent African ancestry may suggest a genetic component to these differences. Higher and

  15. Potential of potassium hydroxide pretreatment of switchgrass for fermentable sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajat; Palled, Vijaykumar; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Osborne, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively investigated for sugar generation and subsequent fuel production. Alkaline pretreatment has emerged as one of the popular chemical pretreatment methods, but most attempts thus far have utilized NaOH for the pretreatment process. This study aimed at investigating the potential of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a viable alternative alkaline reagent for lignocellulosic pretreatment based on its different reactivity patterns compared to NaOH. Performer switchgrass was pretreated at KOH concentrations of 0.5-2% for varying treatment times of 6-48 h, 6-24 h, and 0.25-1 h at 21, 50, and 121 °C, respectively. The pretreatments resulted in the highest percent sugar retention of 99.26% at 0.5%, 21 °C, 12 h while delignification up to 55.4% was observed with 2% KOH, 121 °C, 1 h. Six pretreatment conditions were selected for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with Cellic CTec2® for sugar generation. The pretreatment condition of 0.5% KOH, 24 h, 21 °C was determined to be the most effective as it utilized the least amount of KOH while generating 582.4 mg sugar/g raw biomass for a corresponding percent carbohydrate conversion of 91.8%.

  16. Effects of extracellular potassium diffusion on electrically coupled neuron networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Potassium accumulation and diffusion during neuronal epileptiform activity have been observed experimentally, and potassium lateral diffusion has been suggested to play an important role in nonsynaptic neuron networks. We adopt a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron network in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the influence of extracellular potassium dynamics on the stimulus-induced activity. The potassium concentration in the interstitial space for each neuron is regulated by potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion. In addition to potassium diffusion, nearby neurons are also coupled through gap junctions. Our results reveal that the latency of the first spike responding to stimulus monotonically decreases with increasing gap-junction conductance but is insensitive to potassium diffusive coupling. The duration of network oscillations shows a bell-like shape with increasing potassium diffusive coupling at weak gap-junction coupling. For modest electrical coupling, there is an optimal K+ diffusion strength, at which the flow of potassium ions among the network neurons appropriately modulates interstitial potassium concentrations in a degree that provides the most favorable environment for the generation and continuance of the action potential waves in the network.

  17. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  18. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Jan; Herzberg, Christina; Hertel, Dietrich; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Link, Hannes; Stülke, Jörg

    2017-07-05

    Potassium is the most abundant metal ion in every living cell. This ion is essential due to its requirement for the activity of the ribosome and many enzymes but also because of its role in buffering the negative charge of nucleic acids. As the external concentrations of potassium are usually low, efficient uptake and intracellular enrichment of the ion is necessary. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses three transporters for potassium, KtrAB, KtrCD, and the recently discovered KimA. In the absence of the high-affinity transporters KtrAB and KimA, the bacteria were unable to grow at low potassium concentrations. However, we observed the appearance of suppressor mutants that were able to overcome the potassium limitation. All these suppressor mutations affected amino acid metabolism, particularly arginine biosynthesis. In the mutants, the intracellular levels of ornithine, citrulline, and arginine were strongly increased, suggesting that these amino acids can partially substitute for potassium. This was confirmed by the observation that the supplementation with positively charged amino acids allows growth of B. subtilis even at the extreme potassium limitation that the bacteria experience if no potassium is added to the medium. In addition, a second class of suppressor mutations allowed growth at extreme potassium limitation. These mutations result in increased expression of KtrAB, the potassium transporter with the highest affinity and therefore allow the acquisition and accumulation of the smallest amounts of potassium ions from the environment. IMPORTANCE Potassium is essential for every living cell as it is required for the activity for many enzymes and for maintaining the intracellular pH by buffering the negative charge of the nucleic acids. We have studied the adaptation of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to life at low potassium concentrations. If the major high-affinity transporters are missing, the bacteria are unable to grow

  19. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  20. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  1. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion*

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, John S.; Little, Dustin J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Yuan, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ?5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose ...

  2. Hydrogen and helium adsorption on potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Mulders, N.; Hess, G.

    1995-01-01

    A previous quartz microbalance study of adsorption of helium on sodium indicates that the inert layer is surprisingly small. Similar experiments with hydrogen on sodium show layer by layer growth below a temperature of 7K. These results motivated the authors to extend the experiments to lower temperatures. A suitable apparatus, capable of reaching 0.45 K, while still enabling them to do in situ alkali evaporation, has been constructed. The authors will report on the results of microbalance adsorption experiments of helium and hydrogen on potassium

  3. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  4. Natural potassium as a teaching material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1993-07-01

    An experience of an educational experiment is presented with results and discussion. It was performed in the introductory course of nuclear energy in the Nuclear Education Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Purpose of the experiment is understanding disintegration rate (Bq, radioactivity or λN) through measurement of low radioactivity of natural potassium. It was accomplished through calculation of the radioactivity of a measuring known sample and counting efficiency during measurement. The students in the training course had great variety and most students did not have preliminary knowledge. But they said in the questionnaire having almost understood the experiment; and some students enjoyed it. (author)

  5. Alkali activated fly ash binders. A comparative study between sodium and potassium activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the effect of the nature of some alkaline activators in the microstructural development of thermal-alkali activated f/y ash systems. The alkaline compounds employed in this investigation were: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, sodium silicate and potassium silicate. Results confirm that the main reaction product of the activation process (throughout the studied systems is the amorphous alkaline aluminosilicate gel with a three-dimensional structure already observed in earlier research. It has been proved that the type of anion and cation involved in the activation reaction of the ashes not only affects the microstructural development of the systems but the Si/Al ratio of that prezeolitic gel too. For example, in the presence of soluble silicate ions the content of Si in the final structure is notably increased (Si/Al =2.7-3.0, however carbonate ions play a different role since the formation of Sodium or Potassium carbonate/bicarbonate acidifies the system and consequently the reaction rate is considerably slowed. Finally it is evident that; when all experimental conditions are equal, sodium has a greater capacity than potassium to accelerate the setting and hardening reactions of fly ash and also to stimulate the growth of certain zeolitic crystals (reaction by-products. In general it can be affirmed that OH- ion acts as a reaction catalyst; and the alkaline metal (M+ acts as a structure-forming element.Este trabajo muestra el efecto de la naturaleza del activador alcalino en el desarrollo microestructural de sistemas de ceniza volante, activados térmica y alcalinamente. Los componentes alcalinos empleados en esta investigación fueron: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, silicato sódico y silicato potásico. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el principal producto de reacción del proceso de activación (a través de los sistemas estudiados es un gel de aluminosilicato alcalino amorfo con estructura tridimensional ya observada en trabajos

  6. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  7. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  8. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  9. Alkaline erosion of CR 39 polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of erosion of CR 39 polymer in alkaline environments. We observed the kinetics of absorption of water and methanol into both unirradiated and γ-irradiated samples. We use a capillary model to interpret our results. We etched our samples in both KOH solutions, and KOH solutions doped with methanol. Etch rate was desensitizing to γ-irradiation when KOH concentration approached saturation, but KOH solutions doped with methanol were not desensitizing, unlike with nuclear tracks. We account for this difference

  10. Electrochemistry of Some New Alkaline Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    1NýT;7 ~~ AFAPI 4TR- 75)aI Electrochemistry of Somwý New Alkaline V CI RG, 0OTNME Dr/ David F., ’Pickett, IM Wayue ’,Hisb’q Mr. R ic ha rd A I Mid...adding ZnO to the electi-olyte (saturated) and usi .j the interc:ell conrec;tor d isr:ussed earlier ,itLh el4cc.roploated zinc ag inst. the silver fo

  11. Potassium-induced surface modification of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for high-efficiency solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Adrian; Reinhard, Patrick; Pianezzi, Fabian; Bloesch, Patrick; Uhl, Alexander R; Fella, Carolin; Kranz, Lukas; Keller, Debora; Gretener, Christina; Hagendorfer, Harald; Jaeger, Dominik; Erni, Rolf; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2013-12-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic devices based on chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers show excellent light-to-power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20%. This high performance level requires a small amount of alkaline metals incorporated into the CIGS layer, naturally provided by soda lime glass substrates used for processing of champion devices. The use of flexible substrates requires distinct incorporation of the alkaline metals, and so far mainly Na was believed to be the most favourable element, whereas other alkaline metals have resulted in significantly inferior device performance. Here we present a new sequential post-deposition treatment of the CIGS layer with sodium and potassium fluoride that enables fabrication of flexible photovoltaic devices with a remarkable conversion efficiency due to modified interface properties and mitigation of optical losses in the CdS buffer layer. The described treatment leads to a significant depletion of Cu and Ga concentrations in the CIGS near-surface region and enables a significant thickness reduction of the CdS buffer layer without the commonly observed losses in photovoltaic parameters. Ion exchange processes, well known in other research areas, are proposed as underlying mechanisms responsible for the changes in chemical composition of the deposited CIGS layer and interface properties of the heterojunction.

  12. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    exposure temperatures slowdown the deactivation. K2SO4 causes a lower rate of deactivation compared to KCl. This may be related to a faster transfer of potassium from the solid KCl matrix to the catalyst, however, it cannot be ruled out toalso be caused by a significantly larger particle size of the K2SO4...

  13. Modeling removal of accumulated potassium from T-tubules by inward rectifier potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Vliek, M.; Wienk, E.D.; Alberink, M.J.; Ypey, D.L.; Ypey, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The membrane models of Cannon et al. (1993) and Alberink et al. (1995) for mammalian skeletal muscle fibers are based upon Hodgkin-Huxley descriptions of sodium, potassium delayed rectifier and leak conductances and the capacitive current taking into account fast inactivation of sodium channels. Now

  14. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, John S; Little, Dustin J; Baker, Thomas P; Yuan, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion.

  15. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, John S.; Little, Dustin J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Yuan, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion. PMID:26064493

  16. Regulation of extrarenal potassium homeostasis by adrenal hormones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, M J; Tyler, K A; DeFronzo, R A

    1982-06-01

    The effect of chronic (7-10 days) adrenal insufficiency on extrarenal potassium tolerance was examined by infusing potassium into rats after acute nephrectomy. The increment in plasma potassium concentration was significantly higher in glucocorticoid-replaced adrenalectomized rats versus controls (max delta PK 3.59 +/-0.11 vs. 2.93 +/- 0.08 meq/liter; P less than 0.001). The impairment in extrarenal potassium tolerance in adrenalectomized rats could not be attributed to acidemia, hypotension, changes in plasma insulin or glucose concentration, or potassium retention prior to study. Acute replacement with aldosterone resulted in significant improvement in the rise in plasma potassium after KCl (max delta PK 3.18 +/- 0.06 meq/liter; P less than 0.005 compared with aldosterone-deficient adrenalectomized rats but higher than in controls, P less than 0.02). If given on a chronic basis, aldosterone replacement led to a complete correction of the defect (max delta PK = 2.89 +/- 0.08 meq/liter). Acute epinephrine replacement in adrenalectomized rats also returned potassium tolerance to normal (max delta PK = 3.02 +/- 0.10 meq/liter). The results demonstrate that extrarenal potassium tolerance is impaired in chronic adrenal insufficiency and suggest that both aldosterone and epinephrine deficiency may contribute to the defect, since replacement with either hormone returns potassium tolerance toward normal. Accordingly, both aldosterone and epinephrine have important extrarenal mechanisms of action.

  17. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.

    1981-01-01

    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  18. Role of hemolysis in potassium release by iodinated contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nakamura, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that an iodinated contrast medium (CM) causes release of potassium into blood vessel lumina, resulting in an increase in serum potassium. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether this potassium release is due to hemolysis. Fresh human blood was mixed in vitro with CM at a ratio of 10:2. Potassium release rates were determined, and serum haptoglobin and free hemoglobin were measured after 30 min of exposure to CM. To compare the potassium release curve between CM exposure and true hemolysis induced by distilled water, fresh human blood was also mixed with distilled water. The level of serum haptoglobin decreased due to hemodilution. Changes in haptoglobin were not correlated with potassium release rates. The serum free hemoglobin level did not increase significantly, and there was no correlation between changes in the free hemoglobin level and the rate of potassium release. Hemolysis caused by water occurred instantaneously, whereas potassium release caused by CM was a slow response, which was linearly correlated with exposure time. Potassium release from blood cannot be explained by hemolysis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  19. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  20. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  1. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO 2 , highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO 4 /2.5M H 3 PO 4 solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO 2 (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation

  2. Potassium nutrition on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburto-González, C.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn is a potential alternative crop for areas with subtropical climate. In Mexico, cv. ‘Brewster’ dominates 98 % in terms of established surface; however, it has many problems to maintain stable production through its production cycles. Worldwide, yield per hectare ranges from 1 to 15 t. In Mexico, yields also fluctuate in that range. Researches who have worked with it agree that much of the problem that leads to low yields is the lack of a proper nutrition program. All existing information regarding the fertilization of this crop has been generated in other countries, mainly India, USA and Australia. Its need for K+ is higher compared to N and P. Since K+ is a nutrient that has an impact on yield and fruit quality, this paper review focuses on studies that have been done on potassium nutrition on lychee and concludes that more research is needed to take correct decision about the amount and time for potassium application.

  3. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  4. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of alkaline earth uranyl carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amayri, Samer; Reich, Tobias; Arnold, Thuro; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2005-01-01

    A series of alkaline uranyl carbonates, M[UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].nH 2 O (M=Mg 2 , Ca 2 , Sr 2 , Ba 2 , Na 2 Ca, and CaMg) was synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after nitric acid digestion, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The molecular structure of these compounds was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystalline Ba 2 [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].6H 2 O was obtained for the first time. The EXAFS analysis showed that this compound consists of (UO 2 )(CO 3 ) 3 clusters similar to the other alkaline earth uranyl carbonates. The average U-Ba distance is 3.90+/-0.02A.Fluorescence wavelengths and life times were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The U-O bond distances determined by EXAFS, TRLFS, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy agree within the experimental uncertainties. The spectroscopic signatures observed could be useful for identifying uranyl carbonate species adsorbed on mineral surfaces

  6. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  7. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  8. Push-out Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Exposed to Alkaline Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Calcium hydroxide which is commonly used as an intracanal medicament, changes the pH of dentin and periradicular tissues to an alkaline pH. In some clinical situations, endodontic reparative cements like calcium enriched mixture cement are used after calcium hydroxide therapy. However, the alkaline pH may affect the physical properties of this cement. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of alkaline pH on the push-out bond strength of calcium enriched mixture. Materials and Methods: 80 root slices were prepared from single-rooted human teeth and their lumens were instrumented to achieve a diameter of 1.3mm. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instruction and introduced into the lumens of root slices. The specimens were then randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20 and wrapped in pieces of gauze soaked in synthetic tissue fluid (STF buffered in potassium hydroxide at pH values of 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, or 10.4. The samples were incubated for 4 days at 37°C. The push-out bond strengths were then measured using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were examined under a light microscope at ×20 magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Results: The greatest (1.41 ± 0.193 MPa and lowest (0.8 ± 0.06 MPa mean push-out bond strengths were observed after exposure to pH values of 7.4 and 8.4, respectively. There were significant differences between the neutral group and the groups with pH of 8.4 (p = 0.008 and 10.4 (p = 0.022. The bond failure was predominantly of cohesive type for all experimental groups. Conclusions: Under the condition of this study, alkaline pH adversely affected the Push-out bond strength of CEM cement.

  9. Perovskites As Electrocatalysts for Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; De La Osa Puebla, Ana Raquel; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2014-01-01

    such as X-ray diffraction, electrical conductivity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive microscopy (EDX) and rotating disk electrode. The perovskites tested in this work were both produced by a ball-milling technique and by an auto-combustion synthesis, which appeared to be a fast...... and robust method for synthesis of perovskites with various chemical compositions1. The electrochemical performance of the materials was tested through pellet pressing of the perovskite powders. This involved in some case a time consuming preparation process. Furthermore the technique should show...... the adequate reproducibility.2 In this work we show the development of the method, which was further used to compare the activity of various electrocatalysts (Figures 1,2). The electrocatalytic activity of all prepared perovskites was tested in 1M KOH at 80 °C, using an ink consisting of potassium exchanged...

  10. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  11. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review... potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4183 (September 2010), entitled Potassium Permanganate from...

  12. Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M; Isselstein, J

    Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In

  13. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  14. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D.

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO 3 , quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite

  15. Potassium sorbate-A new aqueous copper corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelev, Esta; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the novel nature of 2,4-hexadienoic acid potassium salt (potassium sorbate (KCH 3 CH=CHCH=CHCO 2 )) as an effective copper aqueous corrosion inhibitor. The influence of pH and potassium sorbate concentration on copper corrosion in aerated sulfate and chloride solutions is reported. Degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in potassium sorbate concentration; an optimum concentration of this inhibitor in sulfate solutions was found to be 10 g/L. Copper is highly resistant to corrosion attacks by chloride ions in the presence of potassium sorbate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that copper protection is achieved via the formation of a mixed layer of cuprous oxide, cupric hydroxide and copper(II)-sorbate at the metal surface

  16. Burning characteristics of potassium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, K.; Menzenhauer, P.; Peppler, W.

    1982-03-01

    A series of laboratory scale tests has been carried out in which lithium and potassium were burnt in trays in atmospheres of air and nitrogen. The test results are compared with those from literature. The maximum weight of metal in a test was 200 gram. The tests were carried out in a glove box which allowed the atomospheric composition to be varied to some extent. The initial temperature was varied to determine its effect on the course of the reaction. The temperature and the composition of the atmosphere were recorded during the tests. After each test the reaction products were weighed and chemically analysed. A good insight into the course of the reaction was obtained from the results. The main phases of the reaction are illustrated by a series of photographs. (orig.) [de

  17. Electron impact study of potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to measure the sum of the elastic, rotational and vibrational scattering of electrons by KOH at low impact energies (5 to 20 eV) at angles from 10 to 120 deg. Energy loss spectra taken in the 0 to 18 eV range using an electron impact spectrometer are used to identify the species contributing to electric scattering. At temperatures between 300 and 500 C, only inelastic spectral features belonging to water are detected, while at temperatures from 500 to 800 C strong atomic K lines, indicative of molecular dissociation, and H2 energy loss features become prominent. No features attributable to KOH, the KOH dimer, O2 or potassium oxides were observed, due to the effects of the dissociation products, and it is concluded that another technique will have to be developed in order to measure electron scattering by KOH.

  18. Potassium-argon dating in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    The potassium-argon (K-Ar) isotopic dating method can provide precise and accurate numerical ages on suitable rocks, especially igneous rocks, over a wide range of age from less than 100,000 years old, with no older limit. Together with its variants, the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar technique, the K-Ar method is very useful for the numerical age calibration of stratigraphic sequences, including those containing archaeological or fossil material, in cases where appropriate rocks for dating are present. This brief review of the basis of the K-Ar dating method and the underlying assumptions, concludes with an example of its application to the Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in the Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. By dating alkali feldspars separated from pumice blocks in tuffaceous beds, excellent age control has been obtained for the wealth of vertebrate fossils, including hominids, as well as archaeological materials that has been found in the sequence. (author).

  19. Electron coincidence spectroscopy of sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.

    1982-03-01

    The Na 3s and K 4s electron momentum distributions have been obtained using the noncoplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction at total energies of 800 eV and 1200 eV. They show excellent agreement with the results of plane wave impulse approximation calculations using Roothaan-Hartree-Fock functions, after small corrections are made for the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. The potassium valence s momentum profile is a little narrower than that for sodium, implying a correspondingly slightly larger spatial distribution of the outer valence electrons. The ratio between the (n-1)p and ns cross-sections at their respective maxima in q-space were measured to be 0.009 +- 0.003 and 0.019 +- 0.003 for Na and K respectively. These cross-section ratios are in agreement with the PWIA calculations

  20. Potassium Capture by Kaolin, Part 1: KOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    -capture level. The effect of reaction temperature,K-concentration in the flue gas, and, thereby, molar ratio of K/(Al+Si) in reactants, gas residence time, and solid particle size on K-capture reaction was systematically investigated. Corresponding equilibrium calculations were conducted with FactSage 7.......0. The experimental results showed that kaolin reached almost full conversion to K-aluminosilicates under suspension-fired conditions at 1100–1450 °C for a residence time of 1.2 s and a particle size of D50 = 5.47 μm. The amount of potassium captured by kaolin generally followed the equilibrium at temperatures above...

  1. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda de Cancio, E.M.; Munoz, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author) [es

  2. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  3. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, S.

    1980-06-01

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na 2 CO 3 /NaHCO 3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 70 0 C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  4. Ethylenediaminetetraacetates of neodymium and alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.V.; Pechurova, L.I.; Martynenko, K.I.; Popov, K.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities have been studied of the formation of polynuclear complexonates of alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba) based on neodymium derivatives EDTA of the composition NdA - . By pH-metry, electron spectroscopy, and derivatography it has been shown that the structure of complexes M 2 (NdA) 2 (where M- Ca, Sr, or Ba; A- EDTA) in the solution is not polynuclear. Hydroxopolynuclear complexes do not form under conditions studied. The data obtained agree with an assumption about polynuclear structure of the solid complex Ca(NdA) 2 x17 H 2 O and gradual weakening of the polynuclear nature upon substitution of Ca 2+ with Sr 2+ and Ba 2+

  5. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of ∼ pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu 2 O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool ( 2 available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O 2 will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl 2 - and of the reduction of O 2 . The development of anoxic conditions and an increase in pore-water sulphide concentration will

  6. Retention of alkaline earth elements in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.

    1990-06-01

    The data on human metabolism and long-term retention of alkaline earth elements ( 133 Ba injected into six healthy male volunteers at age 25-81 y and 45 Ca and 85 Sr received by one healthy male volunteer) are presented. Excreta were collected for 2-3 weeks after injection of the tracer into an antecubital vein. Activity in urine, ashed faeces and early samples of blood plasma was determined by gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry. Whole body retention has been assessed through serial measurements of body radioactivity. The injected 133 Ba apparently became mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP model. The whole-body retention at 32 d ranged from 5 to 14%, the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate. No age-related trends were identified in the metabolism of Ca and Sr. 2 refs, 2 figs

  7. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  8. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  9. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd., Calgary (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of {approx} pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool (<40 deg C), whilst there is still O{sub 2} available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O{sub 2} will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl{sub 2} - and of the reduction of O{sub 2}. The development

  10. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  11. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  12. Formation and structural characterization of potassium titanates and the potassium ion exchange property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Guo Zhanhu; Chung, Jong Shik

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, K 2 Ti 2 O 5 , K 2 Ti 4 O 9 and K 2 Ti 6 O 13 are synthesized by solid state method. Their structures and morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy. The binding energies of K, Ti and O in potassium titanates were then evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared with those in K/TiO 2 . Finally the corresponding K ion exchange properties are investigated by synthesizing NO oxidation catalysts with Co(NO 3 ) 2 precursor. It is found that the binding energy of K in K 2 Ti 2 O 5 is much higher than those in K 2 Ti 4 O 9 and K 2 Ti 6 O 13 , and because of which, it shows quite different catalytic performances. Compared with other potassium titanates, the K in K 2 Ti 2 O 5 is much easier to be exchanged out.

  13. Potassium recycling pathways in the human cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, P C; Cunningham, C D; Schulte, B A

    2001-07-01

    Potential pathways for recycling potassium (K+) used in the maintenance of inner ear electrochemical gradients have been elucidated in animal models. However, little is known about K+ transport in the human cochlea. This study was designed to characterize putative K+ recycling pathways in the human ear and to determine whether observations from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. A prospective laboratory study using an immunohistochemical approach to analyze the distribution of key ion transport mediators in the human cochlea. Human temporal bones were fixed in situ within 1 to 6 hours of death and subsequently harvested at autopsy. Decalcification was accomplished with the aid of microwaving. Immunohistochemical staining was then performed to define the presence and cell type-specific distribution of Na,K-ATPase, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the inner ear. Staining patterns visualized in the human cochlea closely paralleled those seen in other species. Anti-Na,K-ATPase stained strongly the basolateral plasma membrane of strial marginal cells and nerve endings underlying hair cells. This antibody also localized Na,K-ATPase to type II, type IV, and type V fibrocytes in the spiral ligament and in limbal fibrocytes. NKCC was present in the basolateral membrane of strial marginal cells as well as in type II, type V, and limbal fibrocytes. Immunoreactive carbonic anhydrase was present in type I and type III fibrocytes and in epithelial cells lining Reissner's membrane and the spiral prominence. The distribution of several major ion transport proteins in the human cochlea is similar but not identical to that described in various rodent models. These results support the presence of a complex system for recycling and regulating K+ homeostasis in the human cochlea, similar to that described in other mammalian species.

  14. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  15. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  16. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... After 72 h incubation in a shaker incubator ... different incubation times (0 to 72 h) were investigated. Alkaline .... of alkaline protease (75%) and 24% of total protein is precipitated. ... starches and wheat flour as carbon source on protease production .... JP 395, method of making and detergent composition.

  17. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  18. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  19. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... cereus and Bacillus polymyxa simultaneously with the start of sporulation phase as a ... microbial forms to inactivation by chemical or physical agents. .... alkaline pH, 9, 10 and 11 and the pH of the culture media was optimized with .... incubation temperature for alkaline protease production by Bacillus ...

  20. Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for immobilizing the new alkaline protease-producing bacteria strain Teredinobacter turnirae by entrapment in calcium alginate gel were investigated. The influence of alginate concentration (20, 25 and 30 g/l) and initial cell loading (ICL) on enzyme production were studied. The production of alkaline ...

  1. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... A new strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from alkaline soil, which was able to produce extracellular alkaline ... rice and dates (Khosravi-Darani et al., 2008), protein by- products from lather ..... Pigeon pea waste as a novel ...

  2. Comparative Detection of Alkaline Protease Production in Exiguobacterium acetylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.; EI Shafey, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline protease is one of the most important enzymes in industry, medicine, and research. In the present work, a comparative detection for alkaline protease activity was established for instant detection of enzyme activity. Eight different alkalophilic bacterial isolates were compared based on the clear zone they produced on skim milk agar. One strain gave an absolute clear zone in 16 hours and was used for alkaline protease detection. The result of Phenotypic identification using Biology Microlog 3 identified the isolate as Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate under study showed slightly different characteristics from a known Exiguobacterium acetylicum strain. The isolate tolerated alkaline conditions up to ph 11, while good growth was evident at ph 7, the maximum alkaline protease activity was observed at ph 9 which reached up to 109.01 U/ml. The alkaline activity assay using alkaline protease enzyme assay were coordinating with those obtained by conductivity; there was a relevant decrease in conductivity at the maximum increase in enzyme activity, which proved the cell membrane conductivity has a close relation to alkaline protease production. This isolate has tolerated gamma radiation, the increase in dose (up to 4 Gy) gave wider clear zones in terms of diameter and this was relevant to the conductivity measurements

  3. Partial purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline proteases from the digestive tract of anchovy were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and 4.49%, respectively. The optimum activities of partially purified alkaline proteases were observed at 60°C and at pH 11.0.

  4. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done

  6. Suitable alkaline for graphene peeling grown on metallic catalysts using chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamat, S., E-mail: shumailakaramat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 54000 (Pakistan); Sonuşen, S. [Sabancı Üniversitesi (SUNUM), İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Çelik, Ü. [Nanomagnetics Instruments, Ankara (Turkey); Uysallı, Y. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Oral, A., E-mail: orahmet@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene layers were grown on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition method and for the delicate removal of graphene from metal catalysts, electrolysis method was used by using different alkaline (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and barium hydroxide). • The delamination speed of PMMA/graphene stack was higher during the KOH and LiOH electrolysis as compare to NaOH and Ba(OH){sub 2}. Ba(OH){sub 2} is not advisable because of the residues left on the graphene surface which would further trapped in between graphene and SiO{sub 2}/Si surface after transfer. The average peeling time in case of Pt electrode is ∼6 min for KOH and LiOH and ∼15 min for NaOH and Ba(OH){sub 2}. • Electrolysis method also works for the Cu catalyst. The peeling of graphene was faster in the case of Cu foil due to small size of bubbles which moves faster between the stack and the electrode surface. The average peeling time was ∼3–5 min. • XPS analysis clearly showed that the Pt substrates can be re-used again. Graphene layer was transferred to SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates and to the flexible substrate by using the same peeling method. - Abstract: In chemical vapor deposition, the higher growth temperature roughens the surface of the metal catalyst and a delicate method is necessary for the transfer of graphene from metal catalyst to the desired substrates. In this work, we grow graphene on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) method and further alkaline water electrolysis was used to peel off graphene from the metallic catalyst. We used different electrolytes i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and barium hydroxide Ba(OH){sub 2} for electrolysis, hydrogen bubbles evolved at the Pt cathode (graphene/Pt/PMMA stack) and as a result graphene layer peeled off from the substrate without damage. The peeling time for KOH and Li

  7. Suitable alkaline for graphene peeling grown on metallic catalysts using chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamat, S.; Sonuşen, S.; Çelik, Ü.; Uysallı, Y.; Oral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene layers were grown on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition method and for the delicate removal of graphene from metal catalysts, electrolysis method was used by using different alkaline (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and barium hydroxide). • The delamination speed of PMMA/graphene stack was higher during the KOH and LiOH electrolysis as compare to NaOH and Ba(OH)_2. Ba(OH)_2 is not advisable because of the residues left on the graphene surface which would further trapped in between graphene and SiO_2/Si surface after transfer. The average peeling time in case of Pt electrode is ∼6 min for KOH and LiOH and ∼15 min for NaOH and Ba(OH)_2. • Electrolysis method also works for the Cu catalyst. The peeling of graphene was faster in the case of Cu foil due to small size of bubbles which moves faster between the stack and the electrode surface. The average peeling time was ∼3–5 min. • XPS analysis clearly showed that the Pt substrates can be re-used again. Graphene layer was transferred to SiO_2/Si substrates and to the flexible substrate by using the same peeling method. - Abstract: In chemical vapor deposition, the higher growth temperature roughens the surface of the metal catalyst and a delicate method is necessary for the transfer of graphene from metal catalyst to the desired substrates. In this work, we grow graphene on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) method and further alkaline water electrolysis was used to peel off graphene from the metallic catalyst. We used different electrolytes i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and barium hydroxide Ba(OH)_2 for electrolysis, hydrogen bubbles evolved at the Pt cathode (graphene/Pt/PMMA stack) and as a result graphene layer peeled off from the substrate without damage. The peeling time for KOH and LiOH was ∼6 min and for NaOH and

  8. Use of potassium-42 in the study of kidney functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M.

    1959-01-01

    Following an intravenous injection of potassium-42 as indicator, an analysis of the specific activity vs. time curve in arterial plasma, in venous plasma efferent from the kidney, in urine and in various regions of the kidney of rabbits reveals that: 1) The turnover rate of potassium in the cortex cells (proximal and distal convoluted tubes) is very large, being limited only by renal blood flow. 2) The turnover rate of potassium in deep regions (Henle loops and collector tubules) is much smaller. 3) Potassium in the urine comes from cells of the convoluted tubes and not from cells of Henle loops, collector ducts, or glomerular filtrate. 4) Any potassium filtered at the level of the glomerules would be entirely reabsorbed at the level of the proximal tube, while total potassium in the urine results from a process of excretion by cells of the distal tube. These results are comparable with the assumption that the movement of potassium between interstitial medium and convoluted tube cells results from entirely passive processes. (author) [fr

  9. Microinjection study on potassium transport of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Makoto

    1978-01-01

    Wister rate were divided into the following four groups. (A) control group (B) high-potassium diet group (C) low-potassium diet group (D) nephron population reduction (N.P.R.) group. Microinjection of the artificial solutions containing both 86 Rb and 3 H-inulin were performed into the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as cortical peritubular capillaries in rats undergoing mannitol diuresis. Excretory patterns of these substances were analyzed in successive urine samples. 3 H-inulin is entirely recovered in the urine of the experimental kidney following the injection into the proximal and distal tubules. 86 Rb is an adequate tracer for potassium and is absorbed into the potassium pool from either proximal tubular injections or peritubular capillaries. 86 Rb excreted with a time course similar to that of 3 H-inulin is termed as 'direct recovery' and that excreted more slowly, 'delayed recovery'. The 86 Rb recoveries which were obtained after proximal injections were independent of the injection site and averaged 9%. Secretion of 86 Rb into the urine was stimulate during enhanced K secretion and decreased during reduced K secretion along the distal nephron. Distal tubular injections gave 100% direct recovery in control, high-K diet, and N.P.R. rats. It was apparent that the 86 Rb recovery was significantly reduced, although not delayed, in animals deprived of dietary potassium for several weeks. At the collecting duct, the extensive net potassium reabsorption is observed in potassium depleted rats, whereas K absorption might be reduced or even secretion is seemingly taking place in potassium loading rats. In conclution, distal convolution and collecting duct play the major role in the regulation of urinary potassium excretion. (auth.)

  10. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljani Srie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  11. Quantum mechanical study of molecular collisions at ultra-low energy: applications to alkali and alkaline-earth systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, G.

    2006-10-01

    In order to investigate the collisional processes which occur during the formation of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates, a time-independent quantum mechanical formalism, based on hyperspherical coordinates, has been applied to the study of atom-diatom dynamics at ultra-low energies. We present theoretical results for three alkali systems, each composed of lithium, sodium or potassium atoms, and for an alkaline-earth system composed of calcium atoms. We also study dynamics at large and positive atom-atom scattering length. Evidence for the suppression of inelastic processes in a fermionic system is given, as well as a linear relation between the atom-diatom scattering length and the atom-atom scattering length. (author)

  12. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Potassium Fixation Capacity in Brown Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Yue; Gao, Tianyi; Yang, Jinfeng; Han, Xiaori

    2018-01-01

    This study concentrated on the research of features of fixation. The objective of this study was to provide theoretical foundation of rational application of potassium fertilizer along with improving fertilizer availability ratio. A 32 years long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on potassium changes and the factors affecting K fixation on brown soil by simulation in laboratory. When the concentration of exogenous potassium was in range of 400∼4000 mg·kg-1, potassium fixation capacity increased along with the rise of concentration of exogenous potassium, whereas K fixation rate reduced; Compared with no-potassium fertilizer, application of potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer reduced soil potassium fixation capacity. Potassium rate and fixation-release of potassium character in soil should be taken into comprehensive consideration for rational fertilization to maintain or improve soil fertility for increasing potassium fertilizers efficiency in agriculture.

  13. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Maia Leite, C. de; Froes, R.J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO 2 -enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na 2 +K 2 O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author) [pt

  14. Dielectric properties of a potassium nitrate–ammonium nitrate system

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Yu. Milinskiy; Anton A. Antonov

    2015-01-01

    Potassium nitrate has a rectangular hysteresis loop and is thought to be a promising material for non-volatile ferroelectric memory. However, its polar phase is observed in a narrow temperature range. This paper deals with an effect of ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 on the dielectric properties of potassium nitrate. Thermal dependencies of the linear dielectric permittivity ε and the third-harmonic coefficient g3 for potassium nitrate and polycrystalline binary (KNO3)1–x(NH4NO3)x system (x = 0.025, ...

  15. Influence of alkali and alkaline earth elements on the uptake of radionuclides by Pleurototus eryngii fruit bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.es [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Baeza, A.; Salas, A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    In the literature, there are many data available on radionuclide contents and their transfer to different species of mushrooms. There are some variables, however, which affect the transfer but are very difficult to observe in collected wild mushrooms. An example is the effect of different concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the soil. Modification of these concentrations in the soil solution has traditionally been used as a countermeasure to deal with radioactively contaminated areas. In the present work, fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii, a saprophytic mushroom, were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the content of alkali (potassium and caesium) and alkaline earth (calcium and strontium) elements. The transfer of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 60}Co (added to the cultures) and of natural {sup 210}Pb was analysed by increasing the content of each stable element considered. A significant, but nonlinear, enhancement of stable caesium and {sup 134}Cs was observed with increasing content of stable caesium in the substrate/mycelium. The transfer of {sup 85}Sr decreased with the addition of each stable cation, whereas the {sup 60}Co and {sup 210}Pb transfers were unaffected. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of stable potassium did not affect the uptake of radiocaesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of stable caesium increased the stable caesium and {sup 134}Cs content in the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of calcium reduced the content of calcium and {sup 85}Sr in the fruiting bodies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These countermeasures did not work properly in the case of {sup 60}Co and {sup 210}Pb, no effect was observed.

  16. Influence of alkali and alkaline earth elements on the uptake of radionuclides by Pleurototus eryngii fruit bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, J.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the literature, there are many data available on radionuclide contents and their transfer to different species of mushrooms. There are some variables, however, which affect the transfer but are very difficult to observe in collected wild mushrooms. An example is the effect of different concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the soil. Modification of these concentrations in the soil solution has traditionally been used as a countermeasure to deal with radioactively contaminated areas. In the present work, fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii, a saprophytic mushroom, were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the content of alkali (potassium and cæsium) and alkaline earth (calcium and strontium) elements. The transfer of 134 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co (added to the cultures) and of natural 210 Pb was analysed by increasing the content of each stable element considered. A significant, but nonlinear, enhancement of stable cæsium and 134 Cs was observed with increasing content of stable cæsium in the substrate/mycelium. The transfer of 85 Sr decreased with the addition of each stable cation, whereas the 60 Co and 210 Pb transfers were unaffected. - Highlights: ► The addition of stable potassium did not affect the uptake of radiocaesium. ► The addition of stable caesium increased the stable caesium and 134 Cs content in the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii. ► The addition of calcium reduced the content of calcium and 85 Sr in the fruiting bodies. ► These countermeasures did not work properly in the case of 60 Co and 210 Pb, no effect was observed.

  17. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  18. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  19. Reduction of proteinuria through podocyte alkalinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Wei, Changli; Möller, Clemens C; Flesche, Jan; Li, Jing; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Gödel, Markus; Huber, Tobias B; Preston, Richard A; Jiang, Jean X; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Sever, Sanja; Reiser, Jochen

    2014-06-20

    Podocytes are highly differentiated cells and critical elements for the filtration barrier of the kidney. Loss of their foot process (FP) architecture (FP effacement) results in urinary protein loss. Here we show a novel role for the neutral amino acid glutamine in structural and functional regulation of the kidney filtration barrier. Metabolic flux analysis of cultured podocytes using genetic, toxic, and immunologic injury models identified increased glutamine utilization pathways. We show that glutamine uptake is increased in diseased podocytes to couple nutrient support to increased demand during the disease state of FP effacement. This feature can be utilized to transport increased amounts of glutamine into damaged podocytes. The availability of glutamine determines the regulation of podocyte intracellular pH (pHi). Podocyte alkalinization reduces cytosolic cathepsin L protease activity and protects the podocyte cytoskeleton. Podocyte glutamine supplementation reduces proteinuria in LPS-treated mice, whereas acidification increases glomerular injury. In summary, our data provide a metabolic opportunity to combat urinary protein loss through modulation of podocyte amino acid utilization and pHi. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1977-11-01

    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  1. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  2. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  3. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  4. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  5. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  6. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzain, Ph.

    1967-06-01

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [fr

  7. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  8. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  9. Discovery of potassium salts deposits in colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Oviedo Leopoldo; Espinosa Baquero Armando

    2012-01-01

    The first potassium salts ores found in Colombia are presented and described; they are located in the Santander province, in La Mesa de los Santos area, between Los Santos village and the rio Chicamocha Canyon. From a geological point of view, the mineralization is associated to the sediments of the Paja Formation, Early Cretaceous in age, and is located near the base of the formation. In the study area the main structure is the Villanueva syncline which involves, from bottom to top, Los Santos, Rosablanca, Paja, Tablazo and Simiti formations.The mineralization consists of small veins where the main mineral is singenite (K 2 Ca[SO4] 2- H 2 O) with small amounts of carbonates and accidental minerals. In the host rock, minerals like langbeinite (K 2 Mg 2 [SO4] 3) andrinneite (K 3 Na[Fe,Cl] 6) are present; they show that the rock was formed in an evaporitic environment and that detailed studies of that sequence may lead to the discovery of other mineralizations of economic interest.

  10. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted

  11. Potassium-phosphorus relationships in cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.) as affected by potassium nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdum, M.I.; Ashraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Field studies were undertaken to determine the interrelationship between potassium (K+) concentration in various organs of plant and phosphorus (P) content as influenced by K-nutrition in cotton. The experiment was conducted on Miani soil series silt loam and classified as Calcaric Cambisols, fine silty, mixed Hyperthermic Fluventic Haplocambids. The treatments consisted .of (a) four cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (CI.M-448, CIM-IIOO, Karishma, S-12); and (b) four potassium fertilizer doses (0, 62.5, 125.0, 250.0 kg K ha-l). The design of experiment was split plot (main: cultivars, sub-plot: K-doses). The plant samples were collected at five stages of growth, i.e., first flower bud., first flower, peak flowering, first boll split and maturity. The various parts of plants were analyzed for phosphorus and potassium concentration at various stages of growth. Phosphorus concentration in leaves, stems, burs, seed and lint decreased with concurrent increase in K-doses. Crop maintained 0.22% phosphorus concentration in leaf tissues at first flower bud and dropped to 0.11% at maturity. Cultivars differed greatly amongst themselves in terms of maintaining P content in their different parts. Averaged across K-doses, cv. CIM-448 maintained the highest P content in all parts than other cultivars. There was a negative and significant correlation co-efficient between K and P concentration in various parts of the plant. The study demonstrated antagonistic interaction between K+ and P in cotton plant under irrigated conditions. (author)

  12. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  13. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  14. Synthesis and derivatographic investigation of potassium octacyanotungstate (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovbashin, V.I.; Dovgej, V.V.; Chernyak, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between the rated quantities of potassium cyanide and WO(OH) 3 hydroxide resulted in preparation of potassium dioxytetracyanotungstate (4), K 4 [WO 2 (CN) 4 ]X6H 2 O. The latter, while interacting with a saturated potassium cyanide solution in a carbon dioxide flow transforms to potassium octacyanotungstate (4). The process of K 4 [W(CH) 8 ]x2H 2 O compound thermolysis in argon atmosphere is studied. It is found that, after dehydration of the complex, there occurs thermal transformation of K 4 [W(CN) 8 ] to K 3 [W(CN) 7 ] and then to K 3 [W(CN) 6 ]. The thermolysis final product is tungsten carbide WC

  15. Effect of Metformin on Potassium-adapted and Non- adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determined. Results: The blood glucose of the potassium-adapted diabetic group was not significantly reduced on treatment ... whom dietary carbohydrate restriction has not controlled .... significantly different from the metformin-treated group.

  16. Studies on potassium chlorate as a primary oxidimetric reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, C R; Rao, G G

    1972-01-01

    Conditions have been established for the use of potassium chlorate as a primary oxidizing agent in the direct titration of vanadium(III), tin(II) and titanium(III) with visual or potentiometric end-points.

  17. Effects of different cavity‑disinfectants and potassium titanyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disinfectants and potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser on microtensile bond strength to primary dentin. Chlorhexidine (CHX), propolis (PRO), ozonated water (OW), gaseous ozone (OG) and KTP laser were used for this purpose. Methodology: ...

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of polyacrylamides in potassium montmorillonite clay hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junfang [CSIRO Petroleum Resources, Ian Wark Laboratory, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Rivero, Mayela [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 1130, Bentley, Western Australia, 6102 (Australia); Choi, S K [CSIRO Petroleum Resources, Ian Wark Laboratory, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2007-02-14

    We present molecular dynamics simulation results for polyacrylamide in potassium montmorillonite clay-aqueous systems. Interlayer molecular structure and dynamics properties are investigated. The number density profile, radial distribution function, root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), mean-square displacement (MSD) and diffusion coefficient are reported. The calculations are conducted in constant NVT ensembles, at T = 300 K and with layer spacing of 40 A. Our simulation results showed that polyacrylamides had little impact on the structure of interlayer water. Density profiles and radial distribution function indicated that hydration shells were formed. In the presence of polyacrylamides more potassium counterions move close to the clay surface while water molecules move away, indicating that potassium counterions are hydrated to a lesser extent than the system in which no polyacrylamides were added. The diffusion coefficients for potassium and water decreased when polyacrylamides were added.

  19. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  20. Intracellular mediators of potassium-induced aldosterone secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.; Chiou, S.; Davis, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular messengers of potassium in eliciting aldosterone secretion in calf adrenal glomerulosa cells since there were unresolved issues relating to the role of phosphoinositides, cAMP and protein kinases. We observed no evidence of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) in 3 H-inositol labeled alf adrenal cells or increase of cAMP in response to potassium. Addition of calcium channel blocker, nitrendipine after stimulating adrenal glomerulosa cells with potassium, markedly inhibited aldosterone secretion. A calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) produced greater reduction of aldosterone secretion than an inhibitor of protein kinase C (H-7). These results suggest that a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration through voltage-dependent calcium channel and calmodulin are the critical determinants of aldosterone secretion stimulated by potassium

  1. Inhibition of large conductance calcium-dependent potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductance, calcium and voltage- dependent potassium (BKCa) channels thereby promoting vasoconstriction. Our results show that the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, induced concentration-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric artery.

  2. Effect of phosphorus and potassium on seed production of berseem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... 1Department of Agronomy, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. ... Key words: Berseem, seed production, phosphorus, potassium. ... important forage legumes in Pakistan and India which belongs ...

  3. Potassium Ferrate: A Novel Chemical Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Russell; von Fahnestock, F. M; Monzyk, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    ..., and/or unsatisfactory CWA destruction efficiencies. Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) addresses all of these issues through its high oxidation potential, stable shelf life, and benign reduced state, namely iron oxide...

  4. Characterization of alkali-metal and alkaline-earth nitrates by vibrational spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, S.

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared spectra of sodium and potassium alkaline-metal nitrates and magnesium and calcium alkali-earth nitrates in solid phase had been recorded in order to assign the fundamental bands. The influence of the dispersal médium (alkaline halide, employed in the solid sample preparation have been discussed. The quantitative measurements of the band in ten sities at 1387 cm-1 (present in the I.R. spectra of the four nitrates in KBr médium allowed us to determine the Lambert-Beer law slopes for each compound. These values are differents (bearing in mind experimental random errors, so we have could to affirm the nonexistence of solid solution between the nitrate and the alkaline halide médium. The L-B law obtained by us can be used for the Identification differentiation and quantitative analysis of these nitrates in solid phase, even if they are present in a very low concentration.

    Se ha realizado la asignación de los espectros infrarrojo (IR de los nitratos alcalinos, sódico y potásico, y de los alcalinotérreos, magnésico y cálcico, en estado sólido. Se ha visto la influencia del medio dispersante (haluro alcalino, utilizado en la preparación de la muestra sólida. El estudio cuantitativo de la absorbencia de la banda a 1.387 cm-1 (presente en los espectros IR de los cuatro nitratos en medio KBr permite determinar las pendientes de la Ley de Lambert-Beer Se comprueba que dichas pendientes son diferentes lo que conduce a poder afirmar que no se produce disolución sólida entre el KBr y el nitrato alcalino o alcalinotérreo. La determinación de la ley de Lambert-Beer permite la identificación y el análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo por espectroscopia IR de estos nitratos cuando están presentes en bajas concentraciones en muestras sólidas.

  5. Coulomb interaction rules timescales in potassium ion channel tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De March, N.; Prado, S. D.; Brunnet, L. G.

    2018-06-01

    Assuming the selectivity filter of KcsA potassium ion channel may exhibit quantum coherence, we extend a previous model by Vaziri and Plenio (2010 New J. Phys. 12 085001) to take into account Coulomb repulsion between potassium ions. We show that typical ion transit timescales are determined by this interaction, which imposes optimal input/output parameter ranges. Also, as observed in other examples of quantum tunneling in biological systems, the addition of moderate noise helps coherent ion transport.

  6. Degradation behaviour of potassium K-phosphite in apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Matteazzi, Aldo; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Although potassium phosphite is not registered for organic fruit production in Europe, it has long been regarded as a potential alternative to sulphur- and copper-containing fungicides. In 2005/2006 a field trial was carried out to verify the presence of residues of phosphoric acid over time in apples after applications of potassium phosphite at different time-points. No residues were present on fruits if treatments were applied before flowering, whereas treatments after flower...

  7. Evaluating Status Change of Soil Potassium from Path Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenming; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K). Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K), the chemical index of alteration (CIA), Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM), Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN), and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3), Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK), Non-exchangeable potassium (neK) and water-soluble potassium (wsK) under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of , K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of , K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth. PMID:24204659

  8. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution......-subunit is contained within a pocket between transmembrane helices and seems to be a novel regulatory element controlling sodium affinity, possibly influenced by the membrane potential. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-13...

  9. Evaluating status change of soil potassium from path model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming He

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K. Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K, the chemical index of alteration (CIA, Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM, Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN, and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3, Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK, Non-exchangeable potassium (neK and water-soluble potassium (wsK under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth.

  10. Mechanism of cesium sorption on potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yongxia; Xu Shiping; Song Chongli

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of cesium sorption on potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate is described. The dependence of the sorption speed on temperature, particle granule size, and the stirring speed is studied. The results show that the sorption process is controlled by liquid film diffusion and particle diffusion. An exchange reaction occurs mainly between K + in the exchanger and Cs + in the solution, i.e. potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate, and Cs + of simulated high-level liquid waste

  11. Potassium-doped n-type bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Okigawa, Yuki; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    Potassium-doped n-type bilayer graphene was obtained. Chemical vapor deposited bilayer and single layer graphene on copper (Cu) foils were used. After etching of Cu foils, graphene was dipped in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions to dope potassium. Graphene on silicon oxide was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy. Both XPS and EDX spectra indicated potassium incorporation into the bilayer graphene via intercalation between the graphene sheets. The downward shift of the 2D peak position of bilayer graphene after the potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment was confirmed in Raman spectra, indicating that the KOH-treated bilayer graphene was doped with electrons. Electrical properties were measured using Hall bar structures. The Dirac points of bilayer graphene were shifted from positive to negative by the KOH treatment, indicating that the KOH-treated bilayer graphene was n-type conduction. For single layer graphene after the KOH treatment, although electron doping was confirmed from Raman spectra, the peak of potassium in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum was not detected. The Dirac points of single layer graphene with and without the KOH treatment showed positive.

  12. Parathyroid hormone impairs extrarenal potassium tolerance in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, A.; Kahn, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the extrarenal disposition of an acute potassium load was examined in acutely nephrectomized rats infused with KCl alone or in combination with PTH, with serial monitoring of plasma potassium every 10 min. The rise in plasma potassium concentration (ΔPK) in the PTH group was higher than control. PTH was then administered along with KCl to two groups of nephrectomized and acutely thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats in doses of 1 and 0.25 U · kg -1 · min -1 for 90 min. ΔPK with PTH in both groups was higher than TPTX control. The two higher doses of PTH resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure from their respective controls. A similar reduction in arterial pressure in three groups of nephrectomized rats by administration of hydralazine or nitroprusside or by acute blood loss did not change ΔPK subsequent to potassium infusion from that in control rats. Furthermore, the lowest dose of PTH did not lower arterial pressure from its respective control. Therefore, hypotension is not a cause for the PTH-induced potassium intolerance. Serum levels of insulin, aldosterone, catecholamines, calcium, plasma HCO 3 concentration, and pH were not different in PTH-infused vs. respective control rats. These data suggest that PTH impairs extrarenal potassium disposal in the rat. The effect of PTH may relate to enhanced calcium entry into cells

  13. Radiolysis of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo, Y; Ono, I [Industrial Research Inst. of Kanagawa Prefecture, Yokohama (Japan); Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    The dissolution state of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution is different according to the pH. The yellowish brown titanium complex produced by the reaction of titanium potassium oxalate and hydrogen peroxide seems to be different in its structure according to the pH. Considering these points, gamma-ray irradiation was carried out on the sample by dissolving titanium potassium oxalate in purified water under the conditions of oxygen saturation and nitrogen saturation, and the relation between irradiation dose and the production of titanium complex was determined. On the basis of the experimental result, the mechanism of forming hydrogen peroxide was presumed. The radiation source used was 2,000 Ci of /sup 60/Co. For photometric analysis, a 139 type photoelectric spectrophotometer of Hitachi Ltd. was used. From the experimental results, in neutral water, titanium potassium oxalate exists in the state that two oxalic acid ions are coordinated to titanyl ion, while in case of the pH lowered by the addition of sulfuric acid, it can exist in the state that one oxalic acid ion is coordinated to titanyl ion. The yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by irradiating titanium potassium oxalate aqueous solution with gamma-ray is the sum of the molecular product from water and the radiolysis product from titanium potassium oxalate.

  14. Variable Potassium Concentrations: Which Is Right and Which Is Wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparee, Talent; Benirschke, Robert C; Lee, Hong-Kee

    2017-05-01

    Reverse pseudohyperkalemia is a term used to describe in vitro, falsely elevated potassium concentrations in plasma specimens that occur in association with extreme leukocytosis and are commonly associated with hematologic malignant neoplasms. Tumor lysis syndrome is an in vivo lysis of tumor cells that leads to elevated levels of potassium, uric acid, phosphate, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as decreased calcium concentrations. Herein, we report a case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man with stage IV mantle-cell lymphoma who has elevated levels of potassium, uric acid, and phosphorus, as well as a white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100,000 cells per mm3. The patient initially was diagnosed as having tumor lysis syndrome. His subsequent potassium concentrations in whole blood remained elevated even after hemodialysis; however, his serum potassium concentrations were decreased. The patient then was diagnosed accurately as having reverse pseudohyperkalemia, and accurate potassium measurements were obtained via serum specimens. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. In-situ injection of potassium hydroxide into briquetted wheat straw and meadow grass - Effect on biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lu; Moset, Veronica; Li, Wanwu; Chen, Chang; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been intensively investigated but heavy water usage and environmental pollution from wastewater limits its industrial application. This study presents a pretreatment technique by in-situ injection of potassium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 10% (w/w) into the briquetting process of wheat straw and meadow grass. Results show that the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate was improved significantly with a higher impact on wheat straw compared to meadow grass. The highest biomethane yield from wheat straw briquettes of 353mL.g -1 VS was obtained with 6.27% (w/w) potassium hydroxide injection, which was 14% higher than from untreated wheat straw. The hydrolysis rates of wheat straw and meadow grass increased from 4.27×10 -2 to 5.32×10 -2 d -1 and 4.19×10 -2 to 6.00×10 -2 d -1 , respectively. The low water usage and no wastewater production make this a promising technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial alkaline proteases: Optimization of production parameters and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Miglani Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading proteins into small peptides and amino acids. They account for nearly 60% of the total industrial enzyme market. Proteases are extensively exploited commercially, in food, pharmaceutical, leather and detergent industry. Given their potential use, there has been renewed interest in the discovery of proteases with novel properties and a constant thrust to optimize the enzyme production. This review summarizes a fraction of the enormous reports available on various aspects of alkaline proteases. Diverse sources for isolation of alkaline protease producing microorganisms are reported. The various nutritional and environmental parameters affecting the production of alkaline proteases in submerged and solid state fermentation are described. The enzymatic and physicochemical properties of alkaline proteases from several microorganisms are discussed which can help to identify enzymes with high activity and stability over extreme pH and temperature, so that they can be developed for industrial applications.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The shapes of spectra are also changed with varying alkaline earth ions content. ... of manganese ion and electrical properties of glass contain- ing mobile ions like .... octahedral crystal field are located above the ground 6S state. Figure 2.

  19. Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic activity from the ... nitrogen sources and sodium chloride concentration for protease production by the ... exploited to assist in protein degradation in various industrial processes.

  20. Guest–host interactions in the alkaline bleaching of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cyclodextrin on the bleaching rates of triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet (CV), malachite green (MG) and rosaniline. (RA) have been investigated in alkaline medium with a view to understand the guest–host interaction in these system. 2.

  1. The Estimation Formation Alkaline In The Proses Desalination MSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah, Siti Nurul

    2000-01-01

    Already to go on estimation phenomena formation alkaline scale of a seawater. In desalination system seawater on MSF to go on scale by a thermal decomposition HCO sub.3- ion and hydrolysis carbonate ion with water on the temperature operation. The varieties alkaline scale in attached on tube surface, while reduced efficiency heat transfer and to raise corrosion attack to structure material is caused all this high cost. Estimation to take please which a sum step by step decomposition ion bicarbonate from then information scale which carbonate and hydroxyl ion. The various scale maximal is alkaline form is a calcium carbonate = 116,5 gram per meter cubic the various sedimentation is alkaline and magnesium hydroxide = 67,57 gram per meter cubic

  2. Suitable alkaline for graphene peeling grown on metallic catalysts using chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, S.; Sonuşen, S.; Çelik, Ü.; Uysallı, Y.; Oral, A.

    2016-04-01

    In chemical vapor deposition, the higher growth temperature roughens the surface of the metal catalyst and a delicate method is necessary for the transfer of graphene from metal catalyst to the desired substrates. In this work, we grow graphene on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) method and further alkaline water electrolysis was used to peel off graphene from the metallic catalyst. We used different electrolytes i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 for electrolysis, hydrogen bubbles evolved at the Pt cathode (graphene/Pt/PMMA stack) and as a result graphene layer peeled off from the substrate without damage. The peeling time for KOH and LiOH was ∼6 min and for NaOH and Ba(OH)2 it was ∼15 min. KOH and LiOH peeled off graphene very efficiently as compared to NaOH and Ba(OH)2 from the Pt electrode. In case of copper, the peeling time is ∼3-5 min. Different characterizations like optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were done to analyze the as grown and transferred graphene samples.

  3. Kinetics and Mechanistic Study of Permanganate Oxidation of Fluorenone Hydrazone in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of fluorenone hydrazone (FH using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium were measured at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm−3 and at 25°C using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. A first-order kinetics has been monitored in the reaction of FH with respect to [permanganate]. Less-than-unit order dependence of the reaction on [FH] and [OH−] was revealed. No pronounced effect on the reaction rate by increasing ionic strength was recorded. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The reaction mechanism describing the kinetic results was illustrated which involves formation of 1 : 1 intermediate complex between fluorenone hydrazones and the active species of permanganate. 9H-Fluorenone as the corresponding ketone was found to be the final oxidation product of fluorenone hydrazone as confirmed by GC/MS analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The expression rate law for the oxidation reaction was deduced. The reaction constants and mechanism have been evaluated. The activation parameters associated with the rate-limiting step of the reaction, along with the thermodynamic quantities of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated and discussed.

  4. Catalytic combustion of particulate matter Catalysts of alkaline nitrates supported on hydrous zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdeano, N.F.; Carrascull, A.L.; Ponzi, M.I.; Lick, I.D.; Ponzi, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore a method to remove particulate matter, catalysts of different alkaline nitrates (Li, K and Cs) supported on hydrous zirconium were prepared by the method of incipient humidity and tested as catalysts for particulate matter combustion. The catalytic activity was determined by using the temperature programmed oxidation technique (TPO), utilizing two equipments, a thermogravimetric reactor and other of fixed bed. In the first case the particulate matter/catalyst mixture was milled carefully in a mortar (tight contact) while in the second case more realistic operative conditions were used, particulate matter/catalyst mixture was made with a spatula (loose contact). All prepared catalysts showed good activity for the particulate matter combustion. The cesium catalyst was the one that presented higher activity, decreasing the combustion temperature between 200 and 250 deg. C with respect to the combustion without catalyst. The catalyst with lithium nitrate became active at higher temperature than its melting point and the same occurred with the potassium catalyst. This did not occur for the catalyst containing cesium nitrate that melts at 407 deg. C and became active from 350 deg. C

  5. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  6. Basic study of alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, A.; Kashiwase, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayashida, T.; Kato, A.; Hirao, K.; Shimomura, I.; Nagashima, I.

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize future hydrogen society, hydrogen production systems must meet the large demand of hydrogen usage. Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) would be one of the candidate technologies to produce hydrogen on a large scale from renewable energy. We have conducted basic research into AWE, trying to reveal technical issues under zero gap system in new cell technology. The zero gap system contributes lower cell voltage without causing any major operating problems compared with conventional finite gap cell. However, it was observed that Ni base electrodes showed corrosion phenomena in a number of test trials including steady operating conditions and several shut-downs. Activated Raney Ni alloy coating for anode material had an advantage for oxygen overvoltage. It showed a saving of around 100 mV at 40 A/dm 2 (0.4 A/cm 2 ) against Ni bare anodes. In the Chlor–Alkali (C/A) industry, thermal decomposition coating of mixed noble metal on Ni substrate is commonly used for advanced activated cathodes. It showed very low hydrogen over-potential of around 100 mV in AWE. To achieve better cell performance, separator selection is very important. We evaluated several separators including ion exchange membrane (IEM) to understand the basic function in AWE. IEM for C/A electrolysis showed high cell voltage (over 2.2 V) but low O 2 impurity in H 2 gas. Hydrogen purity was over 99.95%. Porous separators made of polypropylene showed 1.76 V at 40 A/dm 2 (0.4 A/cm 2 ), 80 °C. But there was a weakness on the durability for continuous operation. Proper selection of separator is important in an actual plant for effective and safe cell operation. The concept of safety operation is referred to by diffusion coefficient of hydrogen

  7. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  8. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  9. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm, E-mail: w.kuckshinrichs@fz-juelich.de; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Juelich (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  10. Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Edith; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-05-26

    This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse.

  11. Tomato yield and potassium concentrations in soil and in plant petioles as affected by potassium fertirrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONTES PAULO CEZAR REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara was grown on a silt clay soil with 46 mg dm-3 Mehlich 1 extractable K, to evaluate the effects of trickle-applied K rates on fruit yield and to establish K critical concentrations in soil and in plant petioles. Six potassium rates (0, 48, 119, 189, 259 and 400 kg ha-1 K were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil and plant K critical levels were determined at two plant growth stages (at the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering. Total, marketable and weighted yields increased with K rates, reaching their maximum of 86.4, 73.4, and 54.9 ton ha-1 at 198, 194, and 125 kg ha-1 K , respectively. At the first soil sampling date K critical concentrations in the soil associated with K rates for maximum marketable and weighted yields were 92 and 68 mg dm-3, respectively. Potassium critical concentrations in the dry matter of the petioles sampled by the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering time, associated with maximum weighted yield, were 10.30 and 7.30 dag kg-1, respectively.

  12. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  13. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  14. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  15. Isolation of radioactive strontium from natural samples. Separation of strontium from alkaline and alkaline earth elements by means of mixed solvent anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Z.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.; Kvastek, K.; Eskinja, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies which led to the procedures for the chromatographic separation of radioactive strontium from alkaline, earth-alkaline and other elements in natural samples, on columns filled with strong base anion exchangers using alcoholic solutions of nitric acid as eluents. It has been shown that potassium, caesium, calcium, barium, yttrium and strontium can be adsorbed on strong base anion exchangers of the Dowex and Amberlite type, which contain the quaternary ammonium group with nitrate as counter-ion, from solutions of nitric acid in alcohol. Adsorption strength increases in the order methanol 3 in methanol, while they are adsorbed from ethanol and propanol. The adsorption strength is influenced by the polarity of alcohol, by the concentration of nitrate and by pH. The strength with which strontium adsorbs on the exchangers increases in the interval from 0 to 0.25M NH 4 NO 3 in methanol, after which it starts to decrease. Strontium adsorbs to the exchangers from the alcoholic solution of ammonium nitrate twice as strongly as from the alcoholic solution of nitric acid, while a fraction of water in pure alcohol exceeding 10% prevents adsorption. In the mixture of alcohol and nitric acid, the adsorption strength for calcium and strontium increases with the increase of the volume fraction of alcohol with a lower dielectric constant. The rate and strength of adsorption of ions on the exchanger also increase in the series 0.25M HNO 3 in methanol 3 in ethanol 3 in 1-propanol for each individual ion, as well as in the Ca 3 in methanol, 0.25M HNO 3 in ethanol and 0.25M HNO 3 in propanol. Separation is also possible from alcohol mixtures. Strontium separation is most difficult from calcium, while the efficiency of separation increases with a decrease of the polarity of the used alcohol or alcohol mixture. The first group elements of the periodic table are not separated from each other in this way, while the elements of the second group are

  16. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Carter; J. R. Toggweiler; R. M. Key; J. L. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near ri...

  17. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    temperature fuel cells including proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) and alkaline fuel cell (AFC) with operation temperature usually lower than 120...advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) resulting in the popularity of AFCs in the US space program.[8-11] The primary benefit AFC...offered over PEMFC is better electrochemical kinetics on the anode and cathode under the alkaline environment, which results in the ability to use

  18. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  19. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  20. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  2. Study of rare gas plasmas seeded with an alkaline substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrigo, R

    1974-12-31

    Thesis. The transfer properties of a mixture of inert gases and potassium suitable for use in magnetohydrodynamic generators were determined. Hypotheses were put forward in order to define the interaction potential between two atoms of potassium. The transfer properties were subsequently evaluated. New experimental results have since been obtained. Special attention is given to those of Ivanovskii et al. which give the self-diffusion coefficient for potassium and the diffusion coefficient for helium-potassium. The results obtained differ by no more than 1% from those presented. The hypotheses put forward are thus valid and it is assumed that the transfer properties obtained for the complex mixture are realistic. Nevertheless, the properties connected with thermodiffusion necessitate supplementary verification. The interpretation of the preliminary experimental results in terms of the strengths of the Heierman oscillator led to the identification of a disequilibrium between the temperatures of the heavy and light species. In addition, the transfer properties were calculated for different values of the disequilibrium coefficient. New values are suggested for the oscillator strengths of the principal and diffuse series of potassium from experimental results obtained using two different installations, i.e., a helium-argon-potassium mixture and a flame seeded with potassium carbonate. In order to study recombination, a boundary layer was produced by circulating the plasma near to an externally cooled wall. The determination of the recombination coefficient in the central core yields results similar to those of Bates. This is not true, however, for the boundary layer. The excessively large values obtained in this case suggest the existence of a disequilibrium. (FR)

  3. Influence of Potassium on Sapric Peat under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Syafik Akmal Mohd; Rahman, Junita Abdul; Rahim, Nor Haakmal Abd; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Adel Ali, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Potassium is mainly present in soil in the natural form known as the K-bearing mineral. Potassium is also available in fertilizer as a supplement to plants and can be categorized as macronutrient. The application of potassium improves the texture and structure of the soil beside to improves plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of potassium in sapric peat under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of potassium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of potassium for flush condition at outlet 4 was 13.58 ppm. Similarly, sapric under rainwater condition recorded the highest value of 13.32 and 12.34 ppm respectively at outlet 4 for wet and dry condition. However, the difference in Sapric, rainwater and fertilizer category showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 2 with 13.99 ppm while highest value of 14.82 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 3. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of potassium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  4. Evaluating the effect of potassium on cellulose pyrolysis reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendewicz, Anna; Evans, Robert; Dutta, Abhijit; Sykes, Robert; Carpenter, Daniel; Braun, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes modifications to an existing cellulose pyrolysis mechanism in order to include the effect of potassium on product yields and composition. The changes in activation energies and pre-exponential factors due to potassium were evaluated based on the experimental data collected from pyrolysis of cellulose samples treated with different levels of potassium (0–1% mass fraction). The experiments were performed in a pyrolysis reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) performed on the collected data revealed that cellulose pyrolysis products could be divided into two groups: anhydrosugars and other fragmentation products (hydroxyacetaldehyde, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, acetyl compounds). Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was used to extract the time resolved concentration score profiles of principal components. Kinetic tests revealed that potassium apparently inhibits the formation of anhydrosugars and catalyzes char formation. Therefore, the oil yield predicted at 500 ° C decreased from 87.9% from cellulose to 54.0% from cellulose with 0.5% mass fraction potassium treatment. The decrease in oil yield was accompanied by increased yield of char and gases produced via a catalyzed dehydration reaction. The predicted char and gas yield from cellulose were 3.7% and 8.4%, respectively. Introducing 0.5% mass fraction potassium treatment resulted in an increase of char yield to 12.1% and gas yield to 33.9%. The validation of the cellulose pyrolysis mechanism with experimental data from a fluidized-bed reactor, after this correction for potassium, showed good agreement with our results, with differences in product yields of up to 5%

  5. Potassium isotope abundances in Australasian tektites and microtektites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, G. F.; O'D. Alexander, C. M.; Berger, E. L.; Delaney, J. S.; Glass, B. P.

    2008-10-01

    We report electron microprobe determinations of the elemental compositions of 11 Australasian layered tektites and 28 Australasian microtektites; and ion microprobe determinations of the 41K/39K ratios of all 11 tektites and 13 of the microtektites. The elemental compositions agree well with literature values, although the average potassium concentrations measured here for microtektites, 1.1 1.6 wt%, are lower than published average values, 1.9 2.9 wt%. The potassium isotope abundances of the Australasian layered tektites vary little. The average value of δ41K, 0.02 ± 0.12‰ (1σ mean), is indistinguishable from the terrestrial value (= 0 by definition) as represented by our standard, thereby confirming four earlier tektite analyses of Humayun and Koeberl (2004). In agreement with those authors, we conclude that evaporation has significantly altered neither the isotopic nor the elemental composition of Australasian layered tektites for elements less volatile than potassium. Although the average 41K/39K ratio of the microtektites, 1.1 ± 1.7‰ (1σ mean), is also statistically indistinguishable from the value for the standard, the individual ratios vary over a very large range, from -10.6 ± 1.4‰ to +13.8 ± 1.5‰ and at least three of them are significantly different from zero. We interpret these larger variations in terms of the evaporation of isotopically light potassium; condensation of potassium in the vapor plume; partial or complete stirring and quenching of the melts; and the possible uptake of potassium from seawater. That the average 41K/39K ratio of the microtektites equals the terrestrial value suggests that the microtektite-forming system was compositionally closed with respect to potassium and less volatile elements. The possibility remains open that 41K/39K ratios of microtektites vary systematically with location in the strewn field.

  6. Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a

  7. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter

  9. Impact of acid and alkaline pretreatments on the molecular network of wheat gluten and on the mechanical properties of compression-molded glassy wheat gluten bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansens, Koen J A; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Goderis, Bart; Smet, Mario; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-10-02

    Wheat gluten can be converted into rigid biobased materials by high-temperature compression molding at low moisture contents. During molding, a cross-linked protein network is formed. This study investigated the effect of mixing gluten with acid/alkali in 70% ethanol at ambient temperature for 16 h followed by ethanol removal, freeze-drying, and compression molding at 130 and 150 °C on network formation and on types of cross-links formed. Alkaline pretreatment (0-100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide or 25 mmol/L potassium hydroxide) strongly affected gluten cross-linking, whereas acid pretreatment (0-25 mmol/L sulfuric acid or 25 mmol/L hydrochloric acid) had limited effect on the gluten network. Molded alkaline-treated gluten showed enhanced cross-linking but also degradation when treated with high alkali concentrations, whereas acid treatment reduced gluten cross-linking. β-Elimination of cystine and lanthionine formation occurred more pronouncedly at higher alkali concentrations. In contrast, formation of disulfide and nondisulfide cross-links during molding was hindered in acid-pretreated gluten. Bioplastic strength was higher for alkali than for acid-pretreated samples, whereas the flexural modulus was only slightly affected by either alkaline or acid pretreatment. Apparently, the ratio of disulfide to nondisulfide cross-links did not affect the mechanical properties of rigid gluten materials.

  10. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW Th pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using chemical

  11. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1999-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  12. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  13. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK_a_2 of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO_2"−) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK_a_2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10"−"4 mM"1"−"("a "+ "b") h"−"1) × [NB]"a "= "1"."3"5 "± "0"."1"0[AA]"b "= "0"."8"9 "± "0"."0"1. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  14. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  15. Urinary potassium to urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately identify hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome: a provisional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenswijk, Werner; Ilias, Mohamad Ikram; Raes, Ann; Donckerwolcke, Raymond; Walle, Johan Vande

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence pointing to a decrease of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a subgroup of nephrotic children, likely secondary to hypovolemia. The aim of this study is to validate the use of urinary potassium to the sum of potassium plus sodium ratio (UK/UK+UNa) as an indicator of hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome, enabling detection of those patients who will benefit from albumin infusion. We prospectively studied 44 nephrotic children and compared different parameters to a control group (36 children). Renal perfusion and glomerular permeability were assessed by measuring clearance of para-aminohippurate and inulin. Vaso-active hormones and urinary sodium and potassium were also measured. Subjects were grouped into low, normal, and high GFR groups. In the low GFR group, significantly lower renal plasma flow (p = 0.01), filtration fraction (p = 0.01), and higher UK/UK+UNa (p = 0.03) ratio were noted. In addition, non-significant higher plasma renin activity (p = 0.11) and aldosteron (p = 0.09) were also seen in the low GFR group. A subgroup of patients in nephrotic syndrome has a decrease in glomerular filtration, apparently related to hypovolemia which likely can be detected by a urinary potassium to potassium plus sodium ratio > 0.5-0.6 suggesting benefit of albumin infusion in this subgroup. What is Known: • Volume status can be difficult to assess based on clinical parameters in nephrotic syndrome, and albumin infusion can be associated with development of pulmonary edema and fluid overload in these patients. What is New: • Urinary potassium to the sum of urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately detect hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome and thus identify those children who would probably respond to albumin infusion.

  16. Soil salinity and yield of mango fertigated with potassium sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Irrigated fruit crops have an important role in the economic and social aspects in the region of the Sub-middle São Francisco River Valley. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate soil salinity and the productive aspects of the mango crop, cv. Tommy Atkins, fertigated with doses of potassium chloride (KCl and potassium sulfate (K2SO4 during two crop cycles (from January to March 2014 and from January to March 2015. The experiment was carried out in a strip-split-plot design and five potassium doses (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of the recommended dose as plots and two potassium sources (KCl and K2SO4 as subplots, with four replicates. Soil electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ contents and pH were evaluated. In addition, the number of commercial fruits and yield were determined. The fertilization with KCl resulted in higher soil EC compared with K2SO4 fertigation. Soil Na+ and K+ contents increased with increasing doses of fertilizers. K2SO4 was more efficient for the production per plant and yield than KCl. Thus, under the conditions of this study, the K2SO4 dose of 174.24 g plant-1 (24.89 kg ha-1 or 96.8% of recommendation, spacing of 10 x 7 m was recommended for a yield of 23.1 t ha-1 of mango fruits, cv. Tommy Atkins.

  17. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra S. Parmar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ∼1 × 1016 cm−3. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM at 3226 cm−1, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O–H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm−1. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.

  18. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Narendra S.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-05-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ˜1 × 1016 cm-3. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm-1, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O-H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm-1. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.

  19. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Narendra S., E-mail: nparmar@wsu.edu; Lynn, K. G. [Center for Materials Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2711 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ∼1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm{sup −1}, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O–H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm{sup −1}. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.

  20. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  1. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  2. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  3. Gamma-spectrometric correction in radiometric determination of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejsler, M.

    1979-01-01

    The method is described of determination of potassium in mixed fertilizers in production conditions on a chemical enterprise in the GDR. Potassium content was determined according to the value of measured radiation from potassium-40. For measurement probes were used with radiation counters. While changing raw material, coming to the enterprise has been established that in raw phosphate, supplied from Morocco, there is low enough concentration of the natural radioactive isotopes of the uranium-radium series. In this connection, the two-cannel gamma-spectroscopy method has been developed taking into account influence of the background from these isotopes. Principles are explained of the method used and descriptions are given of the instruments used and sources of errors are listed. Relative standard deviation of the potassiun determination by this method equals nearly to 5% [ru

  4. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  5. Electrocardiography and serum potassium before and after hemodialysis sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarif, N.; Al-Wakeel, Jamal Saleh; Sulaimani, F.; Memon, Nawaz Ali; Al-Suwaida, Abdul Kareem; Yamani, H.; Bakhsh, Ahmed Jahangir

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess potassium level and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes post hemodialysis and whether fall in potassium level during hemodialysis may potentiate cardiac arrythemia. We studied 21 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients who had their serum electrolytes measured before and after dialysis session and ECG performed at the same time. The patients included 14 females and 7 males with a mean age of 53.1+-15.6 years and range from 26 to 81 years; 9 (43%) patients were diabetics. All the patients had been on dialysis for a minimum of 6 months each Pre-HD serum potassium levels had no correlation with any ECG parameters except a negative correlation with T wave amplitude r=-0.5, p=0.021. ECG parameters significantly changed post-HD; the T wave amplitude decreased and the R wave amplitude increased. A comparatively higher R wave significantly decreased the T to R wave ratio post dialysis. The QRS duration and QTc interval also increased significantly. The patients with post-HD serum potassium of 3.5 mmol/L had a higher R wave amplitude and a significantly less T to R wave ratio (11.8+-9.7 vs 6.4+-5.1, p=0.045 and 0.4+-0.38 vs 1.0+-0.97, p=0.049, respectively. In patients with serum potassium decrement of >2.0 mmol/L, the T to R wave ratio decreased significantly, 0.32+-0.21 vs 0.85+-0.26, p=0.023; The T wave amplitude decreased more than the rise in R wave. Multiple regression analysis did not reveal any relationship of pre or post HD ECG changes and serum potassium, serum calcium or net change in serum potassium post-HD. We conclude that post-HD serum potassium decrement results in a decrease in T to R wave ratio on ECG; this change may have an arrhythmogenic potential. (author)

  6. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this chapter, we will review the molecular identities and biophysical properties of these channels. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the possibility and prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:27261823

  7. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  8. Potassium Permanganate as an Alternative for Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiales, M.; Fernández, D.; Verdeja, L. F.; Sancho, J.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using potassium permanganate as a reagent for cyanide oxidation in wastewater was experimentally studied. Both artificial and production wastewater from two different gold mines were tested. The experiments had three goals: determine the optimum reagent concentration and reaction time required to achieve total cyanide removal, obtain knowledge of the reaction kinetics, and improve the management of the amount of reagent. The results indicate that potassium permanganate is an effective and reliable oxidizing agent for the removal of cyanide from gold mining wastewater.

  9. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this article, we will review their molecular identities and biophysical properties. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass-spectrometric study of thermodynamics of molybdate potassium evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazenas, E.K.; Tsvetkov, Yu.V.; Samojlova, I.O.; Astakhova, G.K.; Petrov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    One investigated into evaporation of potassium molybdate within 1170-1310 K temperature range using platinum effusion chambers. Evaporation of potassium molybdate within 1170-1310 K temperature range may be described as follows: K 2 MoO 4(s,l) = K 2 MoO 4(g) . Based on method of least squares one calculated equation of K 2 MoO 4(g) vapor pressure (pressure in millimeters of mercury column) dependence on temperature for 1200-1320 K range. One evaluated value of K 2 MoO 4(g) molecule atomization energy [ru

  11. Preparation of potassium tantalum fluoride from tantalum hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.T. da; Espinola, A.; Dutra, A.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Potassium tantalum fluoride (K 2 TaF 7 ) is an intermediary product in the processing of tantaliferous materials; it is the basic raw material for both reduction processes in use presently: reduction by metallic sodium and electrolysis in molten halides. It is normally obtained from a fluorotantalic acid solution to which potassium ions are added the precipitation of white acicular crystals of K 2 TaF 7 . The conditions for precipitation and recrystallization were studied, and crystal characterization were done by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and thermodifferential analyses. (Author) [pt

  12. Increasing Alkalinity Export from Large Russian Arctic Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, T.; Zhulidov, A. V.; Gurtovaya, T. Y.; Spencer, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Riverine carbonate alkalinity (HCO3- and CO32-) sourced from chemical weathering of minerals on land represents a significant sink for atmospheric CO2 over geologic timescales. The flux of alkalinity from rivers in the Arctic depends on precipitation, permafrost extent and thaw, groundwater flow paths, and surface vegetation, all of which are changing under a warming climate. Here we show that over the past four decades, the export of alkalinity from the Ob' and Yenisei Rivers has more than doubled. The increase is likely due to a combination of increasing precipitation and permafrost thaw in the watersheds, which lengthens hydrologic flow paths and increases residence time in soils. These trends have broad implications for the rate of carbon sequestration on land and the delivery of buffering capacity to the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  14. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.; Fedosseev, Alexander M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier

  16. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  17. Geology and petrology of Lages Alkaline District, Santa Catarina State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    A 1:100.000 geological map shows the main outcrops, covering about 50 Km 2 , of the leucocratic alkaline rocks, ultra basic alkaline rocks, carbonatites and volcanic breccias which intruded the Gondwanic sedimentary rocks within a short time interval and characterize the Alkaline District of Lages. Chemical analyses of 33 whole-rock samples confirm the petrographic classification, but the agpaitic indexes, mostly below 1.0, do not reflect the mineralogical variations of the leucocratic alkaline rocks adequately. Partial REE analyses indicate that the light as well as the heavy rare earth contents decrease from the basic to the more evolved rocks, the La/Y ratio remaining approximately constant. Eleven new K/Ar ages from porphyritic nepheline syenites porphyritic phonolites, ultra basic alkaline rocks and pipe-breccias, together with six already available ages, show a major concentration in the range 65 to 75 Ma, with a mode at ca. 70 Ma. But one Rb/Sr whole-rock reference isochron diagram gives an age of 82+-6 Ma for the agpaitic phonolites of the Serra Chapada, which are considered younger than the miaskitic porphyriric nepheline syenites. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of 0.705-0.706 are compatible with a sub continental mantelic origin, devoid of crustal contamination. A petrogenetic model based on subtraction diagrams and taking into consideration the geologic, petrographic, mineralogic and petrochemical characteristics of the alkaline rocks of Lages consists of limited partial melting with CO 2 , contribution of the previously metasomatized upper mantle, in a region submitted to decompression. (author)

  18. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O 2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO 3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  19. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  20. Extraction and atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of iron and ruthenium by using potassium xanthates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, M; Kiboku, M [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    Potassium xanthates (potassium o-alkyl dithiocarbonate; KRX) react with many metal ions, and so the complex formation with iron (II, III) ion and the extraction of their complexes has been studied to some extent, but those of ruthenium (III) have not been. Iron-xanthate and ruthenium-xanthate complexes can be extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from weakly acidic solution to weakly alkaline solution. For quantitative extraction of iron (20 ..mu..g/40 ml), KRX concentration should be above 2.0 x 10/sup -2/ mol dm/sup -3/ of KEtX, 1.0 x 10/sup -2/ mol dm/sup -3/ of KPrX, and 5.0 x 10/sup -3/ mol dm/sup -3/ of KBtX and KPeX, and for that of ruthenium (202 ..mu..g/40 ml), it should be above 2.0 x 10/sup -1/ mol dm/sup -3/ of KEtX and KPrX. Formation constant of ruthenium-xanthate complexes is presumed to be small. A 100-fold excess of Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II), WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, PO/sub 4//sup 3 -/, CrO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7//sup 2 -/ interfered with the determination of iron, however, the interferences are eliminated by adding 5 ml of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ ascorbic acid solution. For the determination of ruthenium, a 50-fold excess of Ag(I), Hg(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), and Pt(II), or a 100-fold excess of NO/sub 2//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/, CrO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7//sup 2 -/, respectively, interfered. The coefficient of variation after each ten runs, ranges from 0.9% to 3.2% in the determination of 10 ..mu..g, 20 ..mu..g, and 30 ..mu..g of iron, and from 1.4% to 4.3% in the determination of 100 ..mu..g, 200 ..mu..g, and 300 ..mu..g of ruthenium. The determination limit in aqueous samples is 0.02 ppm for iron and 0.2 ppm for ruthenium, when the volume ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase (MIBK) is 10:1.

  1. Relationship of soil potassium forms with maize potassium contents in soils derived from different parent materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mehmood Butt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil potassium (K dynamics is essential for sustainable crop production. Bioavailability of K depends on forms and distribution within the soil profile. The objectives of this research were to determine which soil K forms control the maize (Zea mays K contents and compare the extracting capability of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB with ammonium acetate (NH4OAc method. Nine soils representing three different parent materials, i.e. loess, sandstone and shale were sampled at three surface genetic horizons. Within each parent material, three soils at varying level of development were selected. Besides basic soil parameters, K was fractioned into water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K, and NaTPB-extracted K. The maize was sown in pots having 2 kg soil from each genetic horizon. Crop was harvested at seven weeks and plant was analysed for K contents. Results show that NaTPB-extracted K gave best correlation as compared to NH4OAc method. This conveys that a non-exchangeable K portion that becomes available to plants can be better estimated by NaTPB method than NH4OAc extraction.

  2. Palytoxin and the sodium/potassium pump—phosphorylation and potassium interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; De Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Infantosi, Antonio F C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a reaction model for investigating interactions between K + and the palytoxin–sodium–potassium (PTX–Na + /K + ) pump complex under conditions where enzyme phosphorylation may occur. The model is composed of (i) the Albers–Post model for Na + /K + –ATPase, describing Na + and K + pumping; (ii) the reaction model proposed for Na + /K + –ATPase interactions with its ligands (Na + , K + , ATP, ADP and P) and with PTX. A mathematical model derived for representing the reactions was used to simulate experimental studies of the PTX-induced current, in different concentrations for the pump ligands. The simulations allow interpretation of the simultaneous action of Na + /K + –ATPase phosphorylation and K + on the PTX-induced channels. The results suggest that (i) phosphorylation increases the PTX toxic effect, increasing its affinity and reducing the K + occlusion rate, and (ii) K + causes channel blockage, increases the toxin dissociation rate and impedes the induced channel phosphorylation, implying reduction of the PTX toxic effect

  3. Dielectric behaviour of sodium and potassium doped magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric behaviour of sodium and potassium doped magnesium titanate. VISHNU SHANKER. ∗. , SANTOSH KUMAR and T SURENDAR. Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004, India. MS received 10 November 2011; revised 27 February 2012. Abstract. Pure phase of magnesium ...

  4. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Composite Coatings in Potassium Rich Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina BRINKIENĖ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale method was used to study the performance of reinforced cement composites in potassium rich environment of biomass combustion. Buckwheat husk (BH was used as potential source of unexploited biomass product applicable as biomass derived fuel. In order to enhance the alkali effect on the properties of the investigated materials, the solution of potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was selected as potassium rich aggressive environment. Two reinforced cement composites as potential repair coatings for restoration of damaged refractory surfaces with different composition of aggregate were used in corrosion tests. Performance of refractory coatings was evaluated by analysing the microstructure of the treated composites as well as mechanical properties. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and optical microscopy were used to study the microstructure in the corroded region of the refractory coatings. Long term studies in the solution of 1M K2CO3 for 56 months have demonstrated that composite with the additive of fluid cracking catalyst of oil refinery and petrochemical industries is more durable in the potassium rich environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8348

  5. Treatment of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism with potassium perchlorate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E. W.; Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Nikkels, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    The antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone, induces thyroid dysfunction, which is potentially dangerous in cardiac patients. After discontinuation of the drug it takes several months before euthyroidism is restored. The potent antithyroid drug, potassium perchlorate (KClO4), is used successfully to treat

  6. New nonabsorbable potassium-exchange resins in hyperkalaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscioni, Sara S.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo

    New data suggest that treatment with patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate for up to 8 weeks reduces plasma potassium levels in hyperkalaemic patients. If proven safe and effective for long-term use, these therapies might be administered together with intensive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

  7. Cranial MR imaging findings of potassium chlorate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hakan; Silit, Emir; Pekkafali, Zekai; Basekim, C Cinar; Kizilkaya, Esref; Ay, Hakan; Karsli, A Fevzi

    2003-08-01

    We present the case of a patient who attempted suicide by ingesting matchstick heads (55% potassium chlorate). The patient presented to the emergency room with loss of consciousness, and MR imaging revealed symmetric hyperintense signal within the deep gray matter and medial temporal lobes. The patient improved after undergoing conventional treatment and hyperbaric oxygen.

  8. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... techniques (Instrumentation Laboratory Model IL 243). In order to examine ... mmol. Potassium and sugar concentrations were very poorly ... cations that the error in calculating its energy content would be .... mellifica adults (subspecies not named). .... consumption, and thoracic temperature during flight in a.

  9. Determination and comparison of vitamin C, calcium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is evident that the growing interest in organically grown produce has correspondingly necessitated the debate on the nutritional supremacy between organically and conventionally grown produce. A study was carried out to determine and compare vitamin C, calcium and potassium in organically and conventionally grown ...

  10. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  11. The mutagenic potentials of potassium bromate and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food additives are substances added to preserve flavour or improve the taste and appearance of food. The continuous consumption of these food additives could be hazardous to human health. Food additives including sodium bicarbonate, sodium benzoate, ammonium bicarbonate and potassium bromate were subjected ...

  12. Effect of gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae are rare resurrection plants, endemic and relict species from Balkan Peninsula. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) were conducted to determine the seed germination response for these two species. An experiment was conducted with four ...

  13. Isotope effect in the Knight shift of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahm, W.; Schwenk, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Knight shifts of the potassium isotopes 39 K and 41 K were determined with high accuracy: Ksup((39)) = 0.274 35(10)% and Ksup((41)) = 0.274 93(12)%. The relative isotope effect ΔK/K = -0.210 (20)% is in agreement with the hyperfine structure anomaly 39 Δ 41 . (orig.) [de

  14. Mechanism of Proarrhythmic Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Any disturbance of electrical impulse formation in the heart and of impulse conduction or action potential (AP) repolarization can lead to rhythm disorders. Potassium (K(+)) channels play a prominent role in the AP repolarization process. In this review we describe the causes and mechanisms...

  15. Formulation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of losartan potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj J. Aghera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were prepared to improve its bioavailability, to avoid pre-systemic metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic first pass elimination. Methods: The Sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression procedure using different concentration of Starch 1500 and microcrystalline cellulose. Compatibility studies of drug and polymer were performed by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC. Preformulation property of API was evaluated. Postcompressional parameters such disintegration time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro drug release and in vivo bioavailability study of optimized formulation were determined. Results: FTIR spectroscopy and DSC study revealed that there was no possible interaction between drug and polymers. The precompression parameters were in acceptable range of pharmacopoeial specification. The disintegration time of optimized formulation (F3 was upto 48 sec. The in vitro release of Losartan Potassium was upto 15 min. The percentage relative bioavailability of Losartan Potassium from optimized sublingual tablets was found to be 144.7 %. Conclusions: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.

  16. Noise Controlled Synchronization in Potassium Coupled Neural Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Ryazanova, L. S.; Zhirin, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper applies biologically plausible models to investigate how noise input to small ensembles of neurons, coupled via the extracellular potassium concentration, can influence their firing patterns. Using the noise intensity and the volume of the extracellular space as control parameters, we......-temporal oscillations in neuronal ensembles....

  17. Quaternary system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkushin, I.K.; Voronin, K.Yu.; Dibirov, M.A.; Miftakhov, T.T.

    1996-01-01

    Four-component system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides is studied by differential thermal analysis. A low-melting eutectic composition is revealed, specific fusion heat of the composition is experimentally determined, its thermal properties are calculated. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Effect of osmolarity on potassium transport in isolated cerebral microvessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Potassium transport in microvessels isolated from rat brain by a technique involving density gradient centrifugation was studied in HEPES buffer solutions of varying osmolarity from 200 to 420 mosmols, containing different concentration of sodium chloride, choline chloride, or sodium nitrate. The flux of 86 Rb into and out of the endothelial cells was estimated. Potassium influx was very sensitive to the osmolarity of the medium. Ouabain-insensitive K-component was reduced in hypotonic medium and was increased in medium made hypertonic with sodium chloride or mannitol. Choline chloride replacement caused a large reduction in K influx. Potassium influx was significant decrease when nitrate is substituted for chloride ion in isotonic and hypertonic media, whereas a slight decrease was found in hypotonic medium. The decrease of K influx in the ion-replacement medium is due to a decrement of the ouabain-insensitive component. Potassium efflux was unchanged in hypotonic medium but was somewhat reduced in hypertonic medium. The marked effect of medium osmolarity of K fluxes suggests that these fluxes may be responsible for the volume regulatory K movements. The possible mechanism of changes of K flux under anisotonic media is also discussed

  19. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  20. Structural Determinants of Specific Lipid Binding to Potassium Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weingarth, M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330985655; Prokofyev, A.; van der Cruijsen, E.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330826743; Nand, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337731403; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Pongs, O.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated specific lipid binding to the pore domain of potassium channels KcsA and chimeric KcsAKv1.3 on the structural and functional level using extensive coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, solid-state NMR, and single channel measurements. We show that, while

  1. Synthesis of glycoluril catalyzed by potassium hydroxide under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Tai; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Sun, Ming-Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of the glycolurils catalyzed by potassium hydroxide was carried out in 17-75% yield at 40 degrees C in EtOH under ultrasound irradiation. Compared to the method using stirring, the main advantage of the present procedure is milder conditions and shorter reaction time.

  2. Consumption of potassium permanganate by impurities in deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The titrimetric measurement of the consumption of potassium permanganate by impurities in deuterium oxide is one of the required methods intended for use in establishing whether the deuterium oxide is of sufficient purity to meet specifications. The method includes a discussion of reagents, procedure, and calculation

  3. Reaction of iodine oxidation by potassium permanganate in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, M.L.; Legin, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Stoichiometry was determined and kinetics of iodine oxidation by potassium permanganate in tributylphosphate was studied. Kinetic scheme, which agrees with stoichiometry and experimental kinetic equation of the reaction, is suggested. A mixture is the reaction product. It is ascertained that when the mixture is heated, thermal decomposition of iodate to iodide occurs without elementary iodine separation, which is catalyzed by polymanganate

  4. Effects of Potassium Iodide on Low Avid Immunological Reactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In identical test conditions keeping appropriate control, the following ... Abstract. Background: Selective in‑vivo anti‑fungal action of potassium iodide (KI) is an enigma, but .... mechanism of action of the drug against selective infections. In fact, if ...

  5. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Potassium permanganate, acute toxicity, LC50, LT50, behaviour, Clarias gariepinus, Nigeria. ... soft waters where other chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were too .... The temperature (oC) was measured by dipping a dry bulb thermo- .... (KMnO4) interferes with the respiratory mechanisms of.

  6. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated {sup 42}K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  7. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B.; Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated 42 K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  8. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, León D

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology.

  9. Salinity effect on seedling growth, water, sodium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature leaves exhibited good adaptative behavior toward salinity stress by increasing succulence due to absorption of large quantities of water and K+ in leaves. Potassium uptake in leaves was not found to be affected by NaCl concentration. As a consequence, monovalent cations adsorption resulted in an increase in the ...

  10. effect of population density and dose of nitrogen and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... while, nitrogen consumption increased dry weight resulting in increased plant yield (Hatami et al., 2009). Vorob (2000) ... of this study was to investigate the effect of plant density and dose of nitrogen and potassium on Green bean Cv. ..... biogeochem. cycle., 2008, 22(1), 1022-1041. [11] Moniruzzaman M ...

  11. Apical Membrane Potassium Conductance in Guinea Pig Gallbladder Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    did block the accompanying der short-circuit conditions except for brief periods (300 change in fR.. TEA was ineffective when added to the ms) during...toad skin. Biochim. 29. RICHARDS, N. W., AND D. C. DAWSON. Single potassium channelsBiophys. Acta 728: 455-459, 1983. blocked by lidocaine and quinidine

  12. Does Electroconvulsive therapy aggravate the rise in potassium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium and creatine kinase levels increase after the administration of suxamethonium. This rise may be exaggerated by the combination of suxamethonium fasciculation and the modified tonic/clonic convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy. This study compared the magnitude of increase in ...

  13. Argon analytical procedures for potassium-argon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabites, J.E.; Adams, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A manual for the argon analytical methods involved in potassium-argon geochronology, including: i) operating procedures for the ultra-high vacuum argon extraction/purification equipment for the analysis of nanolitre quantities of radiogenic argon in rocks, minerals and gases; ii) operating procedures for the AEI-MS10 gas source mass spectrometer

  14. Potassium and calcium nutrition improves potato production in drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K ...

  15. Trypanosome Letm1 protein is essential for mitochondrial potassium homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hashimi, Hassan; McDonald, Lindsay M.; Stříbrná, Eva; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 288, č. 37 (2013), s. 26914-26925 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2261 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bioenergetics * Letm1 * Mitochondria * Potassium Transport * Translation * Trypanosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2013

  16. Effects of different cavity‑disinfectants and potassium titanyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-25

    Oct 25, 2014 ... applied to dentin surfaces, and composite crowns were built up. ... Key words: Chlorhexidine gluconate, potassium titanyl phosphate .... absence of enamel and pulp tissue on the resultant substrate. ..... and Clearfil Protect Bond. ... Awawdeh L, Al‑Beitawi M, Hammad M. Effectiveness of propolis and calcium.

  17. Effects of potassium behaviour in soils on crop absorption | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potassium (K) is one of the three major elements that play important roles in plants, such as maintaining turgor of cells, promoting activation of enzymes, and improving efficiency of photosynthesis. The types of K in soil may affect the plant absorption of K. K in soils includes K minerals, K in layered silicates (clay minerals), ...

  18. Evaluation of human muscle in vivo by potassium radiometric measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Wanderson de P.

    2000-01-01

    Potassium is an essential element to the human metabolism and is present in all living cells, mainly in the striated muscular fibers. K-40 is one of the natural potassium isotopes with mass percentage of 0,0118% . This isotope emits beta particle and gamma rays with 1460 keV. The energy of K-40 photon and its uniform distribution within the human body allows its in vivo measurement. The objective of this study is to optimize this technique and evaluate the possibility of its medical application in order to quantify muscle increase during recovering procedures. Subjects of both sexes measured until this moment were divided into two groups. Subjects of Group 1 do not exercise routinely and subjects of Group 2 does. In Group 1 the average potassium mass, muscle mass and potassium concentration were (101±16)g of K, (20±3)kg of muscle and (1,3±0,3)g of K/kg of body mass, respectively, while in Group 2 average values were (125±38)g of K, (25±8)kg of muscle and (1,7±0,2)g of K/kg of body mass. The comparison between average values shows a clear difference, which allows to correlate a higher K mass with routine body activity. The technique has shown enough sensitivity for this application. (author)

  19. Potassium availability in soils - forms and spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afari-Sefa, Victor; Kwakye, Peter K.; Nyamiah, Mercy; Okae-Anti, Daniel; Imoro, A. Ziblim

    2004-10-01

    Potassium forms the third most important plant nutrient limiting plant growth and consequently reducing crop yields. This study was conducted on soil potassium availability, distribution and relationship with other soil properties. Seventeen top soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from four agro-ecological zones of the Central and Western Regions of Ghana. Water soluble, exchangeable and non-exchangeable forms of K were determined. The exchangeable K was extracted with 1 N-bar NH 4 OAc, 0.1 N-bar HNO 3 , 0.01 M-bar CaCl 2 , Bray No. 1 and 1 N-bar boiling HNO 3 . The non-exchangeable K was extracted with 1 N-bar boiling HNO 3 . Potassium was determined using flame photometer. The results showed that potassium is available in the soil in different forms and amounts. Soils from the forest-savanna transition and coastal savanna zones had relatively higher soil solution K concentration than soils from the moist rainforest and semi-deciduous forest zones. Also, soils of the semi-deciduous forest and forest savanna transition as well as the coastal savanna zones contained 2-3 times exchangeable K of the soils of the moist rainforest. The results also showed that the pH, texture as well as the land use affected K availability in the soils. (author)

  20. DRIS Analysis Identifies a Common Potassium Imbalance in Sweetgum Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; S.X. Chang; D.J. Robison

    2003-01-01

    DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and...

  1. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...... and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K channels may be of importance....

  2. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  3. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  4. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory static bioassays were conducted to determine the 96-h LC50 and the lethal levels of concentrations of the aquaculture therapeutant, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on fingerlings (mean weight, 6.24 ± 0.15 g and mean length, 4.25 ± 0.07 cm) of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. A total number of one ...

  5. Cassava productivity linked to potassium's influence on water use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.; Franke, A.C.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of field studies conducted in Togo (Djakakope and Sevekpota) to assess the effect of potassium (K) on cassava yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and transpiration as affected by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability under rainfed conditions. It was shown that an

  6. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... has a cooling saline taste. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture. (b) The ingredient...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... a white, crystalline powder. It has a pleasant, acid taste. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine...

  8. Tectonic Mechanism for the Mid-Cretaceous - Early Paleogene Intraplate Magmatism from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Snow, J. E.; van Wijk, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Parsons, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic mechanisms have remained controversial for a number of intraplate igneous suites of mid-Cretaceous - early Paleogene age across North America. They span the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), through Arkansas and Kansas in the US, to Saskatchewan and Northwestern Territories in Canada, resembling a belt that is located 1000+ km inboard from, and aligned sub-parallel to, the western margin of North America. The northern GoM magmatism is characterized by lamproites, carbonatites, nephelinites, with other alkaline rocks, whereas the rest igneous provinces are dominated by kimberlites. Their geochemical signatures, in general, point to a sub-lithospheric mantle origin. Hypotheses that explain the tectonic origin of these magmatic rocks include: (1) hotspots and mantle plumes, (2) edge-driven convection, (3) lithospheric reactivation, and (4) low-angle subduction. Evaluation based on our integration of published geological and geophysical data shows that contradictions exist in each model between observations and predictions. To explain this plate-scale phenomenon, we propose that the Farallon slab may have stagnated within or around the mantle transition zone during the Early Cretaceous, with its leading edge reaching ca. 1600 km inland beneath the North American plate. Dehydration and decarbonation of the slab produces sporadic, dense, low-degree partial melts at the mantle transition zone depths. As the slab descends into the lower mantle, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are induced at slab edges, causing passive upwelling that brings alkali-rich carbonate silicate melts to the base of the overriding plate. Subsequently, the North American lithosphere with varying thicknesses, discontinuities, and compositions interacts with the rising partial melts, generating a spectrum of igneous rocks. Fragments of the once-stagnated slab may still be detectable in the lower mantle beneath eastern US in seismic tomography models. This study highlights a profound plate

  9. Nutritional and taste characteristics of low-potassium lettuce developed for patients with chronic kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Takuya; Sakuma, Kozue; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary potassium restriction is recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperkalemia. Boiling or soaking vegetables in water is known to decrease their potassium content. However, these methods can also reduce the quantity of other nutrients. Recently, low-potassium (LK) lettuce has been developed for CKD patients with hyperkalemia. This study compared the potassium content, other nutritional values, and taste characteristics of LK lettuce with those of normal lettuce. The...

  10. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, M.; Bernillon, N.; Fabre, C.; Roubeix, M.; Ricort, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food'' and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate (R)) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate a...

  11. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  12. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR COTTON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITOR MARQUES VIDAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has great socio-economic importance due to its use in textile industry, edible oil and biodiesel production and animal feed. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the best potassium rate and soil management for cotton crops and select among cultivars, the one that better develops in the climatic conditions of the Cerrado biome in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thus, the effect of five potassium rates (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1 of K2O and two soil management systems (no-till and conventional tillage on the growth, development and reproduction of four cotton cultivars (BRS-371, BRS-372, BRS-286 and BRS-201 was evaluated. The data on cotton growth and development were subjected to analysis of variance; the data on potassium rates were subjected to regression analysis; and the data on cultivars and soil management to mean test. The correlation between the vegetative and reproductive variables was also assessed. The conventional tillage system provides the best results for the herbaceous cotton, regardless of the others factors evaluated. The cultivar BRS-286 has the best results in the conditions evaluated. The cultivar BRS-371 under no-till system present the highest number of fruiting branches at a potassium rate of 105.5% and highest number of floral buds at a potassium rate of 96.16%. The specific leaf area was positively correlated with the number of bolls per plant at 120 days after emergence of the herbaceous cotton.

  13. Behavior of oxygem bubbles during alkaline water electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedershoven, H.M.S.; Jonge, de R.M.; Sillen, C.W.M.P.; Stralen, van S.J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Growth rate, departure radius and population of oxygen bubbles at the transparent anode during alkaline water electrolysis have been investigated experimentally. The supersaturation of dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte adjacent to the anode surface has been derived from bubble growth rates.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The intensity and frequency variations for the characteristic phosphate group vibrations have been correlated with the changes of the structural units present in these glasses. Depolymerization of the phosphate chains in all the glasses is observed with replacement of alkaline earth content by spectroscopic studies.

  15. Alkaline protease from senesced leaves of invasive weed Lantana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... amongst the most valuable commercial enzyme. Alkaline proteases hold a great potential for application in the detergent and leather industries (Kumar and Takagi,. 1999; Oberoi et al., 2001) due to the increasing trend to develop environmentally friendly technologies. Plants, animals and microbes are the ...

  16. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  17. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...

  18. Positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.P.

    1998-09-01

    This doctoral thesis is subdivided into: 1. Theory of positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms, 2. Positron collisions with helium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, 3. Intercomparison of positron scattering by all those elements. The appendix of this work gives details of the numerical calculations and expands on the wavefunctions used

  19. Production of thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alkaliphilic bacterium producing organic solvent-tolerant and thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from poultry litter site and identified as Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Protease production under different submerged fermentation conditions were investigated with the aim of optimizing yield of enzyme. B. coagulans ...

  20. Isolation of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis AKRS3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ashok

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... production proved high protease production than the other tested ... Crude alkaline protease was most active at 55°C, pH 9 with casein as ... 13416 Afr. J. Biotechnol. ... The Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped endospore-.

  1. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  2. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in the electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media compared to platinum catalysts. Recent efforts have focused on the discovery of palladium-based electrocatalysts with little or no platinum for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This chapter is an overview...

  3. Potentiodynamic characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidman, S.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Arvia, A.J.; Lopes Teijelo, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potentiodynamic and ellipsometric characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions are studied. The phenomenology of both electrodes shows some common features which are interpreted in termo of a complex hydrated oxide anodic film structure resulting from simultaneous electrochemical and chemical reactions. The kinetics of film growth fits the predictions of nucleation and growth models. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Kamps, J.AAM; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin

  5. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864.7660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660...

  6. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    because of the entrance of the guest molecules between the layers, there will be a change in the interlayer distance (Alberti 1978). Although M(IV) organo-phos- phonates are well documented, the chemistry of M(II) organophosphonates especially the alkaline earth metal organophosphonates has been explored marginally ...

  7. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.M.F.; Malkin, S.Y.; Montserrat, F; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete

  8. Alkalinity Analysis. Training Module 5.220.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the acid-base titrimetric procedure for determining the hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity of a water sample. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. A video tape is also…

  9. A green method of graphene preparation in an alkaline environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Bludská, Jana; Ecorchard, Petra; Kormunda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, MAY (2015), s. 65-71 ISSN 1350-4177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Alkaline environment * Exfoliation * Graphene * Ultrasound Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2015

  10. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  11. Modelling the crystallisation of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Agersted, Karsten; Holm, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of a thermochemical software package (FactSage 6.2), in the design of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics, experimental and modelled results on four glass ceramics were compared. Initially large discrepancies were found. These are described and related...

  12. Kinetic characteristics of acidic and alkaline ceramidase in human epidermis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.; Uchida, Y.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Paepe, K. de; Vanhaecke, T.; Holleran, W.M.; Rogiers, V.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become evident that at least five ceramidase (CDase) isoforms are present in human epidermis, and that specifically acidic CDase (aCDase) and alkaline CDase (alkCDase) activities increase during keratinocyte differentiation, and thus might play a pivotal role(s) in permeability

  13. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  14. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  15. High-level expression of alkaline protease using recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... compared with that of wild-type B. licheniformis CICIM B5102. Key word: Alkaline protease, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are one of the most important industrial enzyme groups, accounting for approximately 60% of the total enzyme sales (Beg et al., 2003).

  16. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among various nitrogen sources, yeast extract was found to be the best inducer of alkaline protease. Among metal salts, KNO3 and NH4Cl were found to increase protease production. The maximum enzyme production (3600 U/ml) was observed with pomegranate peels of fermentation medium in the presence of yeast ...

  17. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  18. Electrochemical oxidation and detection of sodium urate in alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical behaviour of copper oxides electrode in the presence of sodium urate was investigated. The correlation between the anodic oxidation and the amperometric detection of sodium urate in the alkaline medium on copper oxides electrode was analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical ...

  19. Alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates and their intercalation chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zima, Vítězslav; Pospíšil, M.; Kovář, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2018), s. 2867-2880 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10639S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : intercalation * layered compounds * alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  20. Solid contact potassium selective electrodes for biomedical applications – a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, Lennart; d'Angremont, E.; Olthuis, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISE) are used in several biomedical applications, including laboratory sensing of potassium concentration in blood and urine samples. For on-site determination of potassium concentration and usage in other applications such as determination of extracellular potassium

  1. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium permanganate preparations as... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from...

  2. 75 FR 65448 - Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-001] Potassium Permanganate From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from... order on potassium permanganate from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  3. 75 FR 52509 - Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-001] Potassium Permanganate from...'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the People's Republic... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

  4. 40 CFR 415.110 - Applicability; description of the potassium metal production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... potassium metal production subcategory. 415.110 Section 415.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.110 Applicability; description of the potassium metal production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G potassium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. 520....1696b Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to 20,000, 25,000, 40,000, 50,000, 80,000, or 100,000 units of...

  6. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chenju, E-mail: cliang@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ya-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Jia-Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK{sub a2} of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK{sub a2} of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −4} mM{sup 1−(a} {sup +} {sup b)} h{sup −1}) × [NB]{sup a} {sup =} {sup 1.35} {sup ±} {sup 0.10}[AA]{sup b} {sup =} {sup 0.89} {sup ±} {sup 0.01}. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  7. Potassium homeostasis during exercise in domestic species: the role of the sodium-potassium pump in skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maria E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, Jens Christian Skou was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry for his discovery and elegant description, some 40 years earlier, of the sodium-potassium (Na+,K+) pump in crab nerve fibres [37]. It is now widely accepted that this cation transport system is essential for cell function, and

  8. Potassium-selective microelectrode revealed difference in threshold potassium concentration for cortical spreading depression in female and male rat brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, S.; Vyskočil, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1370, - (2011), s. 215-219 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat cortex * potassium in brain Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.728, year: 2011

  9. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.

    1969-01-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  10. Potassium-doped mesoporous bioactive glass: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biomedical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Saeed, Aamer [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Javeed [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 45550 (Pakistan); Rahman, Muhammad Saif Ur [Clinical Research Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009 (China); Ullah, Aman [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada. (Canada); Jurkschat, Klaus [Lehrstuhl für Anorganische Chemie II der Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam, E-mail: moazzam@qau.edu.pk [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2017-06-01

    A bifunctional mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) with composition (49SiO{sub 2}·20CaO·20Na{sub 2}O·7K{sub 2}O·4P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mol%) was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) as a soft template. The structure, morphology (spherical with approximate size 1 μm) and composition of MBG were determined by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively. The surface area (189.53 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with the pore size of 21 nm) of MBG was measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis. The formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer on the glass surface upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was monitored through X-ray diffraction (XRD) which indicates enhanced bioactivity as compared to previous studies. The animals study, protein adsorption ability, and cytotoxicity investigations show no tissue damage, good biomedical properties and no encumbrance with cell cycle (even at a concentration of 80 μg/mL). Moreover, the cell proliferation analysis reveals the non-toxic property of MBG at a concentration of 20 μg/mL. Notably, a cumulative drug (ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic) release of 75% was observed for first 48 h and the further release of 90% was observed over a period of two weeks. The synthesized MBG also shows osteoblast activity and bone mineralization as revealed by alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and osteocalcin formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of potassium-doped mesoporous bioglass (MBG) by simple sol-gel method • The synthesized MBG shows improved biomedical properties • Drug release studies of synthesized MBG using Ciprofloxacin as model drug • MBG shows osteoblast activity and bone mineralization.

  11. The precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate for P and K recovery from synthetic urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangning; Li, Jiyun; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Chi; Xie, Tao; Wang, Chengwen

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients recovery from urine to close the nutrient loop is one of the most attractive benefits of source separation in wastewater management. The current study presents an investigation of the thermodynamic modeling of the recovery of P and K from synthetic urine via the precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (MPP). Experimental results show that maximum recovery efficiencies of P and K reached 99% and 33%, respectively, when the precipitation process was initiated only through adding dissolvable Mg compound source. pH level and molar ratio of Mg:P were key factors determining the nutrient recovery efficiencies. Precipitation equilibrium of MPP and magnesium sodium phosphate heptahydrate (MSP) was confirmed via precipitates analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectrometer and an X-ray Diffractometer. Then, the standard solubility products of MPP and MSP in the synthetic urine were estimated to be 10(-12.2 ± 0.0.253) and 10(-11.6 ± 0.253), respectively. The thermodynamic model formulated on chemical software PHREEQC could well fit the experimental results via comparing the simulated and measured concentrations of K and P in equilibrium. Precipitation potentials of three struvite-type compounds were calculated through thermodynamic modeling. Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAP) has a much higher tendency to precipitate than MPP and MSP in normal urine while MSP was the main inhibitor of MPP in ammonium-removed urine. To optimize the K recovery, ammonium should be removed prior as much as possible and an alternative alkaline compound should be explored for pH adjustment rather than NaOH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation Doses to Hanford Workers from Natural Potassium-40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lynch, Timothy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weier, Dennis R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The chemical element potassium is an essential mineral in people and is subject to homeostatic regulation. Natural potassium comprises three isotopes, 39K, 40K, and 41K. Potassium-40 is radioactive, with a half life of 1.248 billion years. In most transitions, it emits a β particle with a maximum energy of 0.560 MeV, and sometimes a gamma photon of 1.461 MeV. Because it is ubiquitous, 40K produces radiation dose to all human beings. This report contains the results of new measurements of 40K in 248 adult females and 2,037 adult males performed at the Department of Energy Hanford Site in 2006 and 2007. Potassium concentrations diminish with age, are generally lower in women than in men, and decrease with body mass index (BMI). The average annual effective dose from 40K in the body is 0.149 mSv y-1 for men and 0.123 mSv y-1 women respectively. Averaged over both men and women, the average effective dose per year is 0.136 mSv y-1. Calculated effective doses range from 0.069 to 0.243 mSv y-1 for adult males, and 0.067 to 0.203 mSv y-1 for adult females, a roughly three-fold variation for each gender. The need for dosimetric phantoms with a greater variety of BMI values should be investigated. From our data, it cannot be determined whether the potassium concentration in muscle in people with large BMI values differs from that in people with small BMI values. Similarly, it would be important to know the potassium concentration in other soft tissues, since much of the radiation dose is due to beta radiation, in which the source and target tissues are the same. These uncertainties should be evaluated to determine their consequences for dosimetry.

  13. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago; Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel; Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of 137 Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the reality

  14. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel [Univesidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina); Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of {sup 137}Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the

  15. Porous matrix structures for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, R. W.; Narsavage, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    A number of advancements have been realized by a continuing research program to develop higher chemically stable porous matrix structures with high bubble pressure (crossover resistance) for use as separators in potassium hydroxide electrolyte fuel cells. More uniform, higher-bubble-pressure asbestos matrices were produced by reconstituting Johns-Manville asbestos paper; Fybex potassium titanate which was found compatible with 42% KOH at 250 F for up to 3000 hr; good agreement was found between bubble pressures predicted by an analytical study and those measured with filtered structures; Teflon-bonded Fybex matrices with bubble pressures greater than 30 psi were obtained by filtering a water slurry of the mixture directly onto fuel cell electrodes; and PBI fibers have satisfactory compatibility with 42% KOH at 250 F.

  16. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  17. When should we test for voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies? A retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, B J; Steele, T; Ellul, M A; Kirby, E; Duale, A; Kier, G; Crooks, D; Jacob, A; Solomon, T; Michael, B D

    2016-11-01

    Patients with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies are increasingly recognized as having central, peripheral or combined phenotypes. With increasing awareness, more patients are tested and the clinical spectrum is expanding. Consequently, clinicians may be uncertain as to which patients should or should not be tested. Previous studies have identified common clinical features, but none has looked at the usefulness of these in predicting seropositive disease. We conducted a case-control study of patients tested for VGKC-complex antibodies over 10years at a regional tertiary neurology centre determining which clinical/biochemical features were associated with antibody-positive disease. We found a marked increase in the numbers tested, although the percentage positive remained low. Antibody titre was highest in central disease (pVGKC-disease (p=0.01). Seizures were present in 11 (69%) of those with VGKC-disease versus three (18%) without (odds ratio [OR] 10.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-52.7, p=0.005). There was an inverse correlation between the antibody titre and serum sodium. A multivariate model selected seizures and hyponatraemia as predictive of VGKC disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity 82%); faciobrachial dystonic movements were specific but insensitive. Interestingly serum alkaline phosphatase was higher in those with VGKC-disease (p=0.016) and highest in those with peripheral disease (p=0.015). An ALP>70u/L was strongly associated with antibody positivity (OR 4.11 95% CI: 1.43-11.8, p=0.007) with a sensitivity of 74.2%. The presence of seizures, faciobrachial movements, and hyponatraemia should raise suspicion of VGKC-disease; alkaline phosphatase may represent a novel biomarker, particularly in those with peripheral disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deactivation of SCR catalysts by potassium: A study of potential alkali barrier materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Castellino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The use of coatings in order to protect vanadia based SCR catalysts against potassium poisoning has been studied by lab- and pilot-scale experiments. Three-layer pellets, consisting of a layer ofa potential coating material situated between layers of fresh and potassium poisoned SCR catalyst, were...... the coating process. Potassium had to some extent penetrated the MgO coat, and SEM analysis revealed it to be rather thick and fragile. Despite these observations, the coating did protect the SCR catalyst against potassium poisoning to some degree, leaving promise of further optimization....... used to test the ability of the barrier layer to block the diffusion of potassium across the pellet. Of MgO, sepiolite and Hollandite manganese oxide, MgO was the most effective potassium barrier, and no potassium was detected in the MgO layer upon exposure to SCR conditions for 7 days. Two monoliths...

  19. Population coherent control of Rydberg potassium atom via adiabatic passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li-Juan; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Jia Guang-Rui; Zhang Yong-Hui; Xia Li-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA) and B-spline expansion technique are used to study the coherent population transfer between the quantum states of a potassium atom by a single frequency-chirped microwave pulse. The Rydberg potassium atom energy levels of n = 6–15, l = 0–5 states in zero field are calculated and the results are in good agreement with other theoretical values. The time evolutions of the population transfer of the six states from n = 70 to n = 75 in different microwave fields are obtained. The results show that the coherent control of the population transfer from the lower states to the higher ones can be accomplished by optimizing the microwave pulse parameters. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Potassium hydroxide 5% for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a common reason for consultation in primary care. The condition is normally benign and self-limiting1 and the standard advice is to wait for the lesions to resolve spontaneously.2 Recently, potassium hydroxide 5% (MolluDab-Alliance Pharmaceuticals Limited) has been marketed in the UK for the treatment of the condition.3 It is sold as a medical device rather than a licensed medicinal product. Here we consider the evidence for potassium hydroxide 5% in the management of molluscum contagiosum. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Interaction of natural borates with potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarova, L.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.; Kudinov, I.B.; Panasyuk, G.P.; Danilov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of natural borates - inyoite, ulexite and hydroboracite MgCa[B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] 2 ·3H 2 O with KOH solution is studied at 50 Deg C by the methods of chemical, x- ray phase, differential thermal analyses and IR spectroscopy. IR spectra points out on island character of forming borates and confirms the data of x-ray phase and chemical analyses about presence of asharite and calcium hydrous borate in resulting products. Hydroboracite (chain structure) under the action of potassium hydroxide passes into borates of magnesium and calcium with island structure and in this case boron transforms partially into liquid phase. When potassium hydroxide interacts with inyoite and ulexite calcium hydroxide and roentgenoamorphous boron-containing product precipitate [ru

  2. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  3. Mechanism of disintegrant action of polacrilin potassium: Swelling or wicking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula Hemant Bele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of particle size, pH of medium, and presence of lubricant on the swelling behaviour, water uptake properties and disintegrant performance of polacrilin potassium was examined. Particle size did not affect the bulk swelling of disintegrant particles when measured as settling volume, but increased the water uptake and decreased the disintegration time of tablets containing this disintegrant. An increase in the pH of the medium from acidic to neutral increased the bulk swelling of the particles, whereas it decreased water uptake and disintegrant performance. Addition of lubricant had no effect on settling volume, but decreased the water uptake rate and the disintegrant performance significantly. It is concluded that wicking, i.e. capillary action, rather than swelling, is the major factor that contributes to the disintegration behaviour of polacrilin potassium.

  4. Observations of the dynamics of ionic potassium-38 in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.C.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bennett, G.W.; Rescigno, A.; Ment, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Short time course potassium dynamics in brain were investigated in the cat. 38 K (T1/2 . 7.6m) was prepared on the BNL 60'' cyclotron by the 40 Ar(p, 3n) 38 K reaction. Positron decay in brain was measured by the limited angle of view positron camera (LAPC). Radioactivity corrected for physical decay following intravenous bolus injection of 38 K showed an initial peak followed by a washout phase with a subsequent monotonic increase. The slope of the washout phase was linearly related to PaCO2 and the subsequent monotonic increase paralleled the arterial concentration of the tracer. No significant changes in 38 K radioactivity were determined following coma producing levels of phenobarbital or seizure producing doses of potassium penicillin as compared to control

  5. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  6. Intermediate energy electron scattering from sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.

    1979-06-01

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the interaction of fast electrons with alkali metal atoms. Several of the theoretical models which have been applied to atomic collision processes including the first Born approximation, the Glauber approximation, the optical model and the distorted wave polarized orbital approximation are discussed. The theory of electron-photon coincidence experiments is outlined and the effects of fine and hyperfine structure on the polarization state of photons emitted from an excited atom are calculated for Sodium. The results of elastic scattering measurements on Sodium and Potassium are presented and used to test several theoretical models in their description of the differential cross section at incident energies between 50 and 200eV. Absolute differential and integrated total cross sections for the Potassium resonance lines and Sodium D-lines are presented. Results of the first electron-polarized photon coincidence experiment on the Sodium D-lines are presented and compared with available theoretical calculations

  7. Serum Potassium Levels and Outcome in Acute Heart Failure (Data from the PROTECT and COACH Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jasper; Ter Maaten, Jozine M; Damman, Kevin; O'Connor, Christopher M; Metra, Marco; Dittrich, Howard C; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G F; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; van der Wal, Martje H L; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Voors, Adriaan A; van der Meer, Peter

    2017-01-15

    Serum potassium is routinely measured at admission for acute heart failure (AHF), but information on association with clinical variables and prognosis is limited. Potassium measurements at admission were available in 1,867 patients with AHF in the original cohort of 2,033 patients included in the Patients Hospitalized with acute heart failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal FuncTion trial. Patients were grouped according to low potassium (5.0 mEq/l) levels. Results were verified in a validation cohort of 1,023 patients. Mean age of patients was 71 ± 11 years, and 66% were men. Low potassium was present in 115 patients (6%), normal potassium in 1,576 (84%), and high potassium in 176 (9%). Potassium levels increased during hospitalization (0.18 ± 0.69 mEq/l). Patients with high potassium more often used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists before admission, had impaired baseline renal function and a better diuretic response (p = 0.005), independent of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist usage. During 180-day follow-up, a total of 330 patients (18%) died. Potassium levels at admission showed a univariate linear association with mortality (hazard ratio [log] 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 5.23; p = 0.034) but not after multivariate adjustment. Changes of potassium levels during hospitalization or potassium levels at discharge were not associated with outcome after multivariate analysis. Results in the validation cohort were similar to the index cohort. In conclusion, high potassium levels at admission are associated with an impaired renal function but a better diuretic response. Changes in potassium levels are common, and overall levels increase during hospitalization. In conclusion, potassium levels at admission or its change during hospitalization are not associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  8. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  9. The endocannabinoid anandamide inhibits potassium conductance in rat cortical astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignali, M.; Benfenati, V.; Caprini, M.; Anděrová, Miroslava; Nobile, M.; Ferroni, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2009), s. 791-806 ISSN 0894-1491 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/1316; GA ČR GA305/06/1464; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cortical astroglia * potassium conductance * endocannabinoids Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.932, year: 2009

  10. Successive potassium hydroxide testing for improved diagnosis of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Bilge F; Topal, Suhan G; Aksungur, Varol L; Ünal, İlker; İlkit, Macit

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of successive potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests for the diagnosis of tinea pedis with different clinical presentations. The study included 135 patients with 200 lesions that were clinically suspicious for tinea pedis. Three samples of skin scrapings were taken from each lesion in the same session and were examined using a KOH test. This study offers an inexpensive, rapid, and useful technique for the daily practice of clinicians and mycologists managing patients with clinically suspected tinea pedis.

  11. ITP determination of potassium and ammonium in fertilizers and silage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Michaela; Křivánková, Ludmila; Skalická, I.; Bartoš, M.; Vytřas, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 67, Suppl. (2008), S63-S68 ISSN 0009-5893. [Advances in Chromatography and Electrophoresis 2007 and Chiranal 2007. Olomouc, 24.06.2007-27.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2106; GA AV ČR IAA400310703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * ammonium * potassium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.312, year: 2008

  12. Potassium (1-methoxycarbonyl-2-methylprop-2-en-2-ylideneazinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Reuter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, K+·C6H8NO4−, the K+ cations have a coordination number of seven and are surrounded by four bidentate azinate anions. The methylene groups of the anions are always directed towards the coordinated potassium cations. The N—C—C—C torsion angle is 101.2 (2°. The orthogonal non-conjugated nature of the salt confirms the supposed geometry and reactivity of this compound.

  13. Performance analysis of a potassium-base AMTEC cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; Hendricks, T.J.; Hunt, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium-BASE Alkali-Metal-Thermal-to-Electric-Conversion (AMTEC) cells have been receiving increased attention and funding from the Department of Energy, NASA and the United States Air Force. Recently, sodium-BASE (Na-BASE) AMTEC cells were selected for the Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) program for the next generation of deep-space missions and spacecraft. Potassium-BASE (K-BASE) AMTEC cells have not received as much attention to date, even though the vapor pressure of potassium is higher than that of sodium at the same temperature. So that, K-BASE AMTEC cells with potentially higher open circuit voltage and higher power output than Na-BASE AMTEC cells are possible. Because the surface tension of potassium is about half of the surface tension of sodium at the same temperature, the artery and evaporator design in a potassium AMTEC cell has much more challenging pore size requirements than designs using sodium. This paper uses a flexible thermal/fluid/electrical model to predict the performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell. Pore sizes in the artery of K-BASE AMTEC cells must be smaller by an order of magnitude than in Na-BASE AMTEC cells. The performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell was higher than a Na-BASE AMTEC cell at low voltages/high currents. K-BASE AMTEC cells also have the potential of much better electrode performance, thereby creating another avenue for potentially better performance in K-BASE AMTEC cells

  14. Intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations during acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K E; Koldkjaer, O; Berndtz, N H; Hvidt, S; Kjaer, K; Midtskov, C; Sanchez, G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the cellular effects of digoxin, intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in 17 patients during the early phase of digitalization, in 45 patients on long-term therapy and in 64 non-digitalized control patients. Acute digitalization raised intraerythrocytic sodium from 11.6 +/- 0.4 to 16.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) (p less than 0.01) and reduced intraerythrocytic potassium from 100.1 +/- 1.3 to 95.9 +/- 1.8 mmol/l (p less than 0.01). These changes were strongly correlated with the steady-state plasma digoxin concentration. During a few weeks of digoxin therapy, the intraerythrocytic cation composition normalized gradually. In patients on chronic treatment, neither intraerythrocytic sodium (11.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) nor potassium concentrations (100.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) differed significantly from the values of the control group (11.4 +/- 0.2 and 99.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, respectively). The changes in intraerythrocytic cation concentrations, induced by acute digitalization, seem to disappear during chronic administration of the drug.

  15. Interaction of molybdenum (6) with potassium benzyldithiocarbaminate during amperometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushko, S.V.; Usatenko, Yu.I.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is an amperometric study of the mechanism of interaction between molybdenum (VI) and potassium benzyl dithiocarbamate [BDTC] which was based on the use of voltamperometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, potentiometry and elemental analysis. In amperometric titration Mo(VI) with BDTC (pH 4-2) forms a red compound of low solubility. In more acidic media the intensity of coloration is increased and a violet hue develops. On the basis of the data obtained it is concluded that in the amperometric titration of Mo(VI) with potassium BDTC there is first formation of a Mo(VI) compound, which subsequently acquires a red colour as a result of the reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V). It was also established that the degree of reduction is small where titration is carried out in the range pH 4.8-0.1. Quantitative determination of Mo is performed most effectively in slightly acidic media. Mo reacts with potassium BDTC in a ratio of 1:2. (E.P.)

  16. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  17. Regulation of potassium dependent ATPase (kdp) operon of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Pratiksha; Ujaoney, Aman Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar; Basu, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    The genome of D. radiodurans harbors genes for structural and regulatory proteins of Kdp ATPase, in an operon pattern, on Mega plasmid 1. Organization of its two-component regulatory genes is unique. Here we demonstrate that both, the structural as well as regulatory components of the kdp operon of D. radiodurans are expressed quickly as the cells experience potassium limitation but are not expressed upon increase in osmolarity. The cognate DNA binding response regulator (RR) effects the expression of kdp operon during potassium deficiency through specific interaction with the kdp promoter. Deletion of the gene encoding RR protein renders the mutant D. radiodurans (ΔRR) unable to express kdp operon under potassium limitation. The ΔRR D. radiodurans displays no growth defect when grown on rich media or when exposed to oxidative or heat stress but shows reduced growth following gamma irradiation. The study elucidates the functional and regulatory aspects of the novel kdp operon of this extremophile, for the first time.

  18. Potassium adsorption behaviour of three Malaysian rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.T.M.A.; Khanif, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency exists in different rice growing areas of Malaysia. A study on K adsorption was carried out in three Malaysian rice soils (Guar, Hutan and Kangar series) using six levels of K (0.00,28.77, 33.57, 38.37, 43.16 and 47.96 mmol kg/sup -1/). The data on K adsorption were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption equations. Adsorption data were also correlated with pH, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of the soils. Potassium adsorption increased linearly with increasing level of added K in all the three soils. The rate of increase was the highest in Guar series followed by Kangar and Hutan series, respectively. Potassium adsorption in two soils (Hutan and Kangar) fitted into Langmuir equation while he adsorption data in Guar series did not fit into this equation. Adsorption data in none of the soils fitted well in Freundlich and Temkin adsorption equations. Correlation between K adsorption and pH was significant (r = 0.881,), whereas, correlation of K adsorption with either organic matter content or cation exchange capacity was non-significant. The results of this study indicated that K adsorption is mainly dependent on soil pH. In soils with higher adsorption capacity, more K fertilizer may be needed to get immediate crop response. (author)

  19. Alternative potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Thereza dos Santos Torqueti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is dependent on importation of fertilizers, especially the potassics. Rocks and minerals that contain nutrients have a potential for use in agriculture as fertilizer, especially those of slow solubilization and that exhibit residual effect. In this context, the objective was to assess the feasibility of glauconite rock as potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions arranged in an entirely randomized design, in a 4x4 + 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates and one plant per plot. Four glauconite-based fertilizers were used as a potassium source: fine grained glauconite, fine grained organo-mineral glauconite, coarse grained glauconite and coarse grained organo-mineral glauconite, in four doses, as well as an additional treatment with four doses of KCl, the principal conventional source of the nutrient. The height of the flower stalks, the diameter of the stem and floral capitulum, the number of cultivation days and post-harvest durability were evaluated. The application of KCl yielded the production of flower stems with greater height and larger capitulum diameter in relation to the supply of glauconite. Among the glauconite based fertilizers, the fine grained organo-mineral product provided the best flower charateristics. The postharvest commercial durability of the flower stalks was higher in plants that received the glauconite and fine grained organo-mineral glauconite. The fine grained organo-mineral glauconite surpasses all other alternative sources of potassium in relation to the agronomic characteristics evaluated.

  20. Inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@yeah.net; Wang, Shaoyin; Luo, Fei; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin

    2013-07-31

    In this study, the inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films were investigated, and the optimal mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} was also obtained. The inhibiting process and healing mechanism were studied by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the introduction of potassium permanganate to electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process and the optimal inhibiting mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} is 2 × 10{sup −1} with a protective efficiency about 99.24%. According to its high protective efficiency and the nice results of long-term immersion test, potassium permanganate as an inhibitor could prolong the lifetime of silane films and expand its scope of application. - Highlights: • Healing sol–gel film was obtained by adding KMnO{sub 4} into electrolyte. • An optimal inhibitor mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} for Si sol–gel was 2 × 10{sup −1}. • The best protective efficiency was approximately 99.24%. • The inhibiting effect may be due to production of insoluble manganese hydroxide/oxide.