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Sample records for postbanding ulcer bleed

  1. Management of patients with ulcer bleeding.

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    Laine, Loren; Jensen, Dennis M

    2012-03-01

    This guideline presents recommendations for the step-wise management of patients with overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status is first assessed, and resuscitation initiated as needed. Patients are risk-stratified based on features such as hemodynamic status, comorbidities, age, and laboratory tests. Pre-endoscopic erythromycin is considered to increase diagnostic yield at first endoscopy. Pre-endoscopic proton pump inhibitor (PPI) may be considered to decrease the need for endoscopic therapy but does not improve clinical outcomes. Upper endoscopy is generally performed within 24h. The endoscopic features of ulcers direct further management. Patients with active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessels receive endoscopic therapy (e.g., bipolar electrocoagulation, heater probe, sclerosant, clips) and those with an adherent clot may receive endoscopic therapy; these patients then receive intravenous PPI with a bolus followed by continuous infusion. Patients with flat spots or clean-based ulcers do not require endoscopic therapy or intensive PPI therapy. Recurrent bleeding after endoscopic therapy is treated with a second endoscopic treatment; if bleeding persists or recurs, treatment with surgery or interventional radiology is undertaken. Prevention of recurrent bleeding is based on the etiology of the bleeding ulcer. H. pylori is eradicated and after cure is documented anti-ulcer therapy is generally not given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are stopped; if they must be resumed low-dose COX-2-selective NSAID plus PPI is used. Patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin should start PPI and generally re-institute aspirin soon after bleeding ceases (within 7 days and ideally 1-3 days). Patients with idiopathic ulcers receive long-term anti-ulcer therapy.

  2. Immunosuppressive agents are associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.

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    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding can be fatal. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are administered for long-term usage. The present study assessed the association between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Furthermore, the efficacy of lowering the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) was evaluated. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy performed at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital (Yotsukaido, Japan) from October 2014 to September 2015. During this period, a total of 1,023 patients underwent an upper GI endoscopy. A total of 1,023 patients, including 431 males (age, 68.1±12.9 years) and 592 females (age, 66.4±12.3 years), who had been administered NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, PPIs and H2RAs, were respectively enrolled. Endoscopic findings of the patients were reviewed and their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of peptic ulcer bleeding for each medication; immunosuppressive agents had an odds ratio of 5.83, which was larger than that for NSAIDs (4.77). The Wald test was applied to confirm the correlation between immunosuppressive agents and peptic ulcer bleeding. Furthermore, χ 2 tests were applied to the correlation between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of PPIs or H2RAs. Immunosuppressive agents had the largest χ 2 , and the P-value was 0.03. Administration of PPIs was significantly correlated with non-peptic ulcer bleeding (P=0.02); furthermore, a tendency toward non-peptic ulcer bleeding with administration of H2RA was indicated, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.12). In conclusion, immunosuppressive agents were correlated with peptic ulcer bleeding and PPIs were effective at

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers for low-dose aspirin-associated peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding.

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    Shiotani, Akiko; Murao, Takahisa; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Sakakibara, Takashi; Nishio, Kazuto; Haruma, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In our previous study, the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer in patients taking low-dose aspirin (LDA). The aim of the present study was to investigate pharmacogenomic profile of LDA-induced peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding. Patients taking 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin for cardiovascular diseases and with a peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding and patients who also participated in endoscopic surveillance were studied. Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Affymetrix DME Plus Premier Pack. SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and candidate genotypes of genes associated with ulcer bleeding or small bowel bleeding identified by genome-wide analysis were determined using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay kits, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and direct sequencing. Of 593 patients enrolled, 111 patients had a peptic ulcer and 45 had ulcer bleeding. The frequencies of the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and CHST2 2082 T allele were significantly greater in patients with peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding compared to the controls. After adjustment for significant factors, the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype was associated with peptic ulcer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.89) and CHST2 2082 T allele with ulcer bleeding (2.57, 1.07-6.17). The CHST2 2082 T allele as well as SLCO1B1*1b haplotype may identify patients at increased risk for aspirin-induced peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

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    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-06-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  5. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-01-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas

  6. Endoscopic management of bleeding peptic ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)

  7. Photocoagulation in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer

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    Otto, Wlodzimierz; Paczkowski, Pawel M.

    1996-03-01

    The authors present their experience in the endoscopic laser photocoagulation of bleeding peptic ulcer. From 1991 to June 1995, 203 patients admitted for UGI bleeding from peptic ulcer have been treated by this method. The source of bleeding was confirmed by endoscopy. The patients were divided into two groups: actively bleeding peptic ulcer (group IA and IB according to Forrest's classification) and ulcer with stigmata of recent bleeding (group IIA/IIB). The former group consisted of 106 patients, among whom over 40 percent (45 patients) presented signs of hypovolemic shock on admission. Nd:YAG laser (Surgical Laser Technologies) was used in a continuous mode with a contact (8 - 20 watts) or non-contact (over 50 watts) method of coagulation. In actively bleeding patients photocoagulation resulted in stopping the hemorrhage in 95 (90%). Recurrent bleeding occurred in 16 cases; in 9 of them it was stopped by repeated photocoagulation. In this group 18 patients required surgical intervention. The mortality was of 10.3% (11 patients). In 97 patients with recent bleeding stigmata photocoagulation provoked heavy hemorrhage in 3 (in 2 cases stopped by prolonged coagulation). In 9 of the remaining 94 patients recurrent bleeding occurred. Nine patients required surgical intervention. Mortality in this group was of 6%.

  8. Bleeding Peptic Ulcer - Tertiary Center Experience: Epidemiology, Treatment and Prognosis.

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    Budimir, Ivan; Stojsavljević, Sanja; Hrabar, Davor; Kralj, Dominik; Bišćanin, Alen; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Zovak, Mario; Babić, Žarko; Bohnec, Sven; Budimir, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate epidemiological, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) with special reference to peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The study included 2198 consecutive patients referred to our emergency department due to acute UGIB from January 2008 to December 2012. All patients underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy within 24 hours of admission, and 842 patients diagnosed with PUB were enrolled and prospectively followed-up. The cumulative incidence of UGIB was 126/100,000 in the 5-year period. Two out of five patients had a bleeding peptic ulcer; in total, 440 (52.3%) had bleeding gastric ulcer, 356 (42.3%) had bleeding duodenal ulcer, 17 (2%) had both bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers, and 29 (3.5%) patients had bleeding ulcers on gastroenteric anastomoses. PUB was more common in men. The mean patient age was 65.9 years. The majority of patients (57%) with PUB were taking agents that attenuate the cytoprotective function of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Rebleeding occurred in 77 (9.7%) patients and 47 (5.9%) patients required surgical intervention. The 30-day morality was 5.2% and 10% of patients died from uncontrolled bleeding and concomitant diseases. In conclusion, PUB is the main cause of UGIB, characterized by a significant rebleeding rate and mortality.

  9. Modern issues on the treatment of peptic ulcer bleedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potakhin S.N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of therapeutic treatment of peptic ulcer and the introduction of endoscopic technologies, the problem of peptic ulcer hemorrhage remains valid. A large number of publications in foreign literature are dedicated to epidemiology and prevention of bleeding, evaluation of modern tactics and search for new methods of treatment. The works relating to organization of aid to patients with peptic ulcer bleeding are of particular interest. According to the recent data not all clinics even in economically developed countries manage to follow the recommendations of an international consensus-2010 for non-variceal bleeding treatment of upper gastrointestinal tract. Among the causes of non-compliance of international recommendations there are subjective and objective factors, the understanding of which can significantly affect the optimization of aid to patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

  10. Complex endoscopic treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding of ulcer origin

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    V. V. Izbitsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB is determined in 20-30% of patients with peptic ulcer disease. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is on the first place as the main cause of deaths from peptic ulcer ahead of the other complications. Rebleeding occurs in 30-38% of patients. Materials and Methods For getting of the objective endoscopic picture in patients with bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers we used the classification of J.A. Forrest in our study: Type I - active bleeding: • I a - pulsating jet; • I b - stream. Type II - signs of recent bleeding: • II a - visible (non-bleeding visible vessel; • II b - fixed thrombus - a clot; • II c - flat black spot (black bottom ulcers. Type III - ulcer with a clean (white down. Integrated endoscopic hemostasis included: irrigation of ulcer defect and area around it with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution in a volume of 10 - 30ml; Injection of 2-4 mL of diluted epinephrine (1:10000 for hemostasis; use of Argon plasma coagulation. Results and Discussion Integrated endoscopic stop of bleeding was performed in 57 patients who were examined and treated at the Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2012. In 16 patients bleeding was caused by gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer type I localization according to classification (HD Johnson, 1965 was determined in 9 patients, type II - in 2 patients, type III – in 5 patients. In 31 patients bleeding was caused by duodenal peptic ulcer, in 4 patients - erosive gastritis, 1 - erosive esophagitis, and in 5 patients - gastroenteroanastomosis area peptic ulcer. Final hemostasis was achieved in 55 (96.5% patients. In 50 (87.7% patients it was sufficient to conduct a single session of complex endoscopic treatment. In 5 (8.8% patients – it was done two times. In 2 (3.5% cases operation was performed due to the recurrent bleeding. The source of major bleeding in these patients was: chronic, duodenal ulcer penetrating into the head of the pancreas in one case complicated by subcompensated

  11. Risk of Vascular Thrombotic Events Following Discontinuation of Antithrombotics After Peptic Ulcer Bleeding.

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    Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Suh, Sang Jun; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Park, Jong Jae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate whether the risk of cardiovascular events increases when antithrombotics are discontinued after ulcer bleeding. Peptic ulcer bleeding associated with antithrombotics has increased due to the increase in the proportion of elderly population. Little is known about the long-term effects of discontinuing antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of cardiovascular events increases when antithrombotics are discontinued after ulcer bleeding. We reviewed the medical records of patients with ulcer bleeding who were taking antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants at the time of ulcer bleeding. Cox-regression model was used to adjust for potential confounders, and analyzed association between discontinuation of antithrombotic drugs after ulcer bleeding and thrombotic events such as ischemic heart disease or stroke. Of the 544 patients with ulcer bleeding, 72 patients who were taking antithrombotics and followed up for >2 months were analyzed. Forty patients discontinued antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding (discontinuation group) and 32 patients continued antithrombotics with or without transient interruption (continuation group). Thrombotic events developed more often in discontinuation group than in the continuation group [7/32 (21.9%) vs. 1/40 (2.5%), P=0.019]. Hazard ratio for thrombotic event when antithrombotics were continuously discontinued was 10.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-89.7). There were no significant differences in recurrent bleeding events between the 2 groups. Discontinuation of antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, caution should be taken when discontinuing antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding.

  12. Management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2012-01-01

    Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved by the D......Description: A multidisciplinary group of Danish experts developed this guideline on management of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. Sources of data included published studies up to March 2011. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved......) again as soon as cardiovascular risks outweigh gastrointestinal risks. Patients in need of continued treatment with ASA or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be put on prophylactic treatment with PPI at standard dosage. The combination of 75mg ASA and PPI should be preferred to monotherapy...

  13. Treatment and prognosis in peptic ulcer bleeding.

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    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding is a frequent cause of admission. Despite several advances in treatment the 30-day mortality seems unchanged at a level around 11%. Use of risk scoring systems is shown to be advantageous in the primary assessment of patients presenting with symptoms of peptic ulcer bleeding. Studies performed outside Denmark have demonstrated that use of risk scoring systems facilitates identification of low-risk patients suitable for outpatient management. Nevertheless, these systems have not been implemented for routine use in Denmark. This is mainly explained by concerns about the external validity due to considerable inter-country variation in patients' characteristics. In recent years, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has become increasingly used for achievement of hemostasis in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding not responding to endoscopic therapy. As rebleeding is associated with poor outcome TAE could, in theory, also be beneficial as a supplementary treatment in patients with ulcer bleeding responding to endoscopic therapy. This has not been examined previously. Several studies have concluded that peptic ulcer bleeding is associated with excess long-term mortality. These findings are, however, questioned as the studies were based on life-table analysis, unmatched control groups, or did not perform adequate adjustment for comorbidity. Treatment with blood transfusion is, among patients undergoing cardiac bypass surgery, shown to increase the long-term mortality. Despite frequent use of blood transfusion in treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding a possible adverse effect of on long-term survival has not been examined in these patients. The aims of the present thesis were: 1. To examine which risk scoring system is best at predicting need of hospital-based intervention, rebleeding, and mortality in patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Study I) 2. To evaluate if supplementary transcatheter arterial embolization (STAE) after

  14. Endoscopic management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

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    Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term prognosis in patients continuing taking antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding.

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    Wang, Xi-Xu; Dong, Bo; Hong, Biao; Gong, Yi-Qun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Wei-Jun

    2017-01-28

    To investigate the long-term prognosis in peptic ulcer patients continuing taking antithrombotics after ulcer bleeding, and to determine the risk factors that influence the prognosis. All clinical data of peptic ulcer patients treated from January 1, 2009 to January 1, 2014 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into either a continuing group to continue taking antithrombotic drugs after ulcer bleeding or a discontinuing group to discontinue antithrombotic drugs. The primary outcome of follow-up in peptic ulcer bleeding patients was recurrent bleeding, and secondary outcome was death or acute cardiovascular disease occurrence. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2014. Basic demographic data, complications, and disease classifications were analyzed and compared by t - or χ 2 -test. The number of patients that achieved various outcomes was counted and analyzed statistically. A survival curve was drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was compared using the log-rank test. COX regression multivariate analysis was applied to analyze risk factors for the prognosis of peptic ulcer patients. A total of 167 patients were enrolled into this study. As for the baseline information, differences in age, smoking, alcohol abuse, and acute cardiovascular diseases were statistically significant between the continuing and discontinuing groups (70.8 ± 11.4 vs 62.4 ± 12.0, P peptic ulcer bleeding, continuing antithrombotics increases the risk of recurrent bleeding events, while discontinuing antithrombotics would increase the risk of death and developing cardiovascular disease. This suggests that clinicians should comprehensively consider the use of antithrombotics after peptic ulcer bleeding.

  16. Mortality in high-risk patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome is similar to that of peptic ulcer bleeding. Results of a prospective database study.

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    Ljubičić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Pavić, Tajana; Bišćanin, Alen; Puljiz, Zeljko; Bratanić, Andre; Troskot, Branko; Zekanović, Dražen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the predictive factors influencing mortality in patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome in comparison with peptic ulcer bleeding. Between January 2005 and December 2009, 281 patients with endoscopically confirmed Mallory-Weiss syndrome and 1530 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were consecutively evaluated. The 30-day mortality and clinical outcome were related to the patients' demographic data, endoscopic, and clinical characteristics. The one-year cumulative incidence for bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome was 7.3 cases/100,000 people and for peptic ulcer bleeding 40.4 cases/100,000 people. The age-standardized incidence for both bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding remained unchanged during the observational five-year period. The majority of patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome were male patients with significant overall comorbidities (ASA class 3-4). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 5.3% for patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and 4.6% for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (p = 0.578). In both patients with bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding, mortality was significantly higher in patients over 65 years of age and those with significant overall comorbidities (ASA class 3-4). The incidence of bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding has not changed over a five-year observational period. The overall 30-day mortality was almost equal for both bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome and peptic ulcer bleeding and was positively correlated to older age and underlying comorbid illnesses.

  17. Pantoprazole for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding and Prevention of Rebleeding

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    Christo J. Van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding proton pump inhibitors (PPIs to endoscopic therapy has become the mainstay of treatment for peptic ulcer bleeding, with current consensus guidelines recommending high-dose intravenous (IV PPI therapy (IV bolus followed by continuous therapy. However, whether or not high-dose PPI therapy is more effective than low-dose PPI therapy is still debated. Furthermore, maintaining pH ≥ 4 appears to prevent mucosal bleeding in patients with acute stress ulcers; thus, stress ulcer prophylaxis with acid-suppressing therapy has been increasingly recommended in intensive care units (ICUs. This review evaluates the evidence for the efficacy of IV pantoprazole, a PPI, in preventing ulcer rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, and in controlling gastric pH and protecting against upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in high-risk ICU patients. The review concludes that IV pantoprazole provides an effective option in the treatment of upper GI bleeding, the prevention of rebleeding, and for the prophylaxis of acute bleeding stress ulcers.

  18. Costs of treating bleeding and perforated peptic ulcers in The Netherlands.

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    de Leest, Helena; van Dieten, Hiske; van Tulder, Maurits; Lems, Willem F; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2004-04-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs includes perforations and bleeds. Several preventive strategies are being tested for cost-effectiveness, but little is known about the costs of the complications they are trying to prevent. We estimated the direct costs of hospital treatment of bleeding and perforated ulcers in a university hospital, from data in discharge letters and the hospital management information system. Eligible patients had been treated in the VU University Medical Center between January 1997 and August 2000 for an ulcer bleed or perforation (International Classification of Diseases code 531-4). Resource use comprised hospitalization days and diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Insurance claim prices determined the costs from the payers' perspective. In a secondary analysis we excluded resource use that was clearly related to the treatment of comorbid illness. Fifty-three patients with a bleeding (n = 35) or perforated ulcer (n = 15) or both (n = 3) were studied, including 14 with comorbidity; 22 complications occurred in the stomach, 29 in the duodenum, one in both stomach and duodenum, and one after partial gastrectomy. A simultaneous bleed and perforation was most expensive (26,000 euro), followed by perforation (19,000 euro) and bleeding (12,000 euro). A bleed in the duodenum was more expensive than in the stomach (13,000 euro vs 10,000 euro), while the opposite was seen for perforations (13,000 euro vs 21,000 euro). Comorbidity increased costs substantially: even after correction for procedures unrelated to the ulcer complication, comorbidity more than doubled the costs of treatment. Treatment of complicated ulcers is expensive, especially in patients with comorbid conditions.

  19. The hemostatic effect of endoscopic sodium hyaluronate injection in peptic ulcer bleeding.

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    Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Chang Seop; Kim, Si Young; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong H; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Shin, Jun Ho; Son, Byung Ho

    2007-06-01

    Endoscopic injection therapy is a well-established method of controlling peptic ulcer bleeding but it is not clear which agent would be the best choice for injection material. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Sodium Hyaluronate for control of ulcer bleeding. The subjects consisted of 26 patients with major peptic ulcer hemorrhage from June 2000 to August 2001. There were 17 gastric ulcers, 7 duodenal ulcers and 2 ulcers at anastomosis site. According to modified Forrest classifications, there were 7 active bleeding (spurting, 3; oozing, 4) and 19 stigmata of recent hemorrhage (visible vessel, 14; fresh blood clots, 5). Sodium Hyaluronate-saline solution was injected to control the bleeding. The initial and permanent hemostatic rate, rebleeding rate, and other complications were retrospectively evaluated. The initial hemostatic rate was 25/26 (96.2%) and re-bleeding rate 3/26 (11.5%). The success rate of the second trial of Sodium Hyaluronate injection was 3/3 (100%). Overall, the permanent hemostatic rate was 25/26 (96.2%) and there were no complications related to Sodium Hyaluronate injection. Sodium Hyaluronate is an excellent candidate agent for endoscopic injection therapy because of its convenience and safety. Further prospective randomized trials with other hemostatic methods are needed.

  20. [The causes of recurrent ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding].

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    Lipnitsky, E M; Alekberzade, A V; Gasanov, M R

    To explore microcirculatory changes within the first 48 hours after admission, to compare them with clinical manifestations of bleeding and to define the dependence of recurrent bleeding from the therapy. The study included 108 patients with ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding who were treated at the Clinical Hospital #71 for the period 2012-2014. There were 80 (74.1%) men and 28 (25.9%) women. Age ranged 20-87 years (mean 54.4±16.8 years). Patients younger than 45 years were predominant (33.4%). J. Forrest classification (1974) was used in endoscopic characterization of bleeding. Roccal Prognostic Scale for gastroduodenal bleeding was applied in all patients at admission to assess the risk of possible recurrence. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 53 (49.1%) patients without recurrent bleeding; group 2-55 (50.1%) patients who had recurrent bleeding within the first two days of treatment. Investigation of microcirculation showed the role of vegetative component including blood circulation centralization, blood flow slowing, blood cells redistribution providing sufficient blood oxygenation. By the end of the first day we observed pronounced hemodilution, decreased blood oxygenation, blood flow restructuring with its acceleration above 1 ml/s, violation of tissue oxygenation, signs of hypovolemia. These changes were significantly different from group 2 and associated with circulatory decentralization with possible pulmonary microcirculation disturbances and interstitial edema. This processes contribute to disruption of tissue oxygenation. We assume that recurrent bleeding in group 2 was caused by fluid therapy in larger volumes than it was necessary in this clinical situation. Infusion therapy should be significantly reduced for the debut of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding. Sedative therapy is advisable to reduce the influence of central nervous system.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of the Marginal Ulcer Bleeding after Gastrectomy: As Compared to the Peptic Ulcer Bleeding with Nonoperated Stomach

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    Chung, Woo Chul; Jeon, Eun Jung; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Oh, You Suk; Lee, Yang Woon; Kim, Sang Bae; Jun, Kyong-Hwa; Chin, Hyung Min

    2012-01-01

    Background. Marginal ulcer is a well-known complication after gastrectomy. Its bleeding can be severe, but the severity has rarely been reported. We aim to evaluate the clinical outcomes of marginal ulcer bleeding (MUB) as compared to peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) with nonoperated stomach. Methods. A consecutive series of patients who had nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and admitted to the hospital between 2005 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 530 patients were enrolled in this study, and we compared the clinical characteristics between 70 patients with MUB and 460 patients with PUB. Results. Patients with MUB were older (mean age: 62.86 ± 10.59 years versus 53.33 ± 16.68 years, P = 0.01). The initial hemoglobin was lower (8.16 ± 3.05 g/dL versus 9.38 ± 2.49 g/dL, P = 0.01), and the duration of admission was longer in MUB (7.14 ± 4.10 days versus 5.90 ± 2.97 days, P = 0.03). After initial hemostasis, the rebleeding rate during admission was higher (16.2% versus 6.5%, P = 0.01) in MUB. However, the mortality rate did not differ statistically between MUB and PUB groups. Helicobacter pylori-positive rate with MUB was lower than that of PUB (19.4% versus 54.4%, P = 0.01). Conclusions. Clinically, MUB after gastrectomy is more severe than PUB with nonoperated stomach. Infection with H. pylori might not appear to play an important role in MUB after gastrectomy. PMID:23304127

  2. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

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    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  3. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung

    2007-01-01

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

  4. TREATMENT OF ULCER GASTRODUODENAL BLEEDINGS: CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM (A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Antonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The problem of ulcer gastro-duodenal bleeding therapy is one of the most essential in urgent surgery. The bleeding is the most serious complication of peptic ulcer desease. It is observed in 15– 20% cases when patients have peptic ulcer diagnosis determined. In general the issues of bleeding therapy in gastroduodenal sphere are surveyed imperfectly. Some patulous endoscopic hemostasis methods don’t fully meet safety and confidence reqirements that preserves high level of general and post-operational lethality in our country and in the rest of the world. 

  5. Experimental and clinical application of laser doppler flowmetry in gastric and duodenal ulcerative bleedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasieva G.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop a new objective diagnostic method of prerecurrence syndrome that will prognose bleeding recurrence from gastroduodenal ulcers. Materials and methods. Method of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF of the regional perfusion of tissue has been used. The experimental part has been done on 30 white laboratory rats. Characteristics of regional tissue perfusion in the simulation and laser hemostasis of bleeding have been studied. Gastroduodenal endoscopy has been performed with laser Doppler flowmetry (ELDF in clinical conditions to predict the recurrence of ulcerative bleeding. The prognostic method of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding was used in 58 patients hospitalized with such pathology and activity of bleeding Forrest II. Results. The study of microcirculation parameters and experimental hemostasis has showed the possibility of using LDF to measure its performance. Effective hemostasis has been accompanied by a significant decrease in perfusion. On the basis of microcirculation parameters in ulcerative bleeding, medical adrenaline test has been proposed for an objective verification pre-recurrence syndrome. To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis perfusion has been measured before and after its implementation. Conclusion. ELDF has objectified the prognosis of ulcerative bleeding recurrence, verified pre-recurrence syndrome and evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic hemostasis

  6. Is the AIMS65 score useful in predicting outcomes in peptic ulcer bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Hoon; Oh, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hye Yeon; Jeong, Joon Won; Go, Se Eun; You, Chan Ran; Jeon, Eun Jung; Choi, Sang Wook

    2014-02-21

    To evaluate the applicability of AIMS65 scores in predicting outcomes of peptic ulcer bleeding. This was a retrospective study in a single center between January 2006 and December 2011. We enrolled 522 patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage who visited the emergency room. High-risk patients were regarded as those who had re-bleeding within 30 d from the first endoscopy as well as those who died within 30 d of visiting the Emergency room. A total of 149 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were analysed, and the AIMS65 score was used to retrospectively predict the high-risk patients. A total of 149 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were analysed. The poor outcome group comprised 28 patients [male: 23 (82.1%) vs female: 5 (10.7%)] while the good outcome group included 121 patients [male: 93 (76.9%) vs female: 28 (23.1%)]. The mean age in each group was not significantly different. The mean serum albumin levels in the poor outcome group were slightly lower than those in the good outcome group (P = 0.072). For the prediction of poor outcome, the AIMS65 score had a sensitivity of 35.5% (95%CI: 27.0-44.8) and a specificity of 82.1% (95%CI: 63.1-93.9) at a score of 0. The AIMS65 score was insufficient for predicting outcomes in peptic ulcer bleeding (area under curve = 0.571; 95%CI: 0.49-0.65). The AIMS65 score may therefore not be suitable for predicting clinical outcomes in peptic ulcer bleeding. Low albumin levels may be a risk factor associated with high mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding.

  7. National consensus on management of peptic ulcer bleeding in Denmark 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2014-01-01

    DESCRIPTION: The Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology have compiled a national guideline for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Sources of data included published studies up to June 2014. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline...... endoscopic hemostasis. Patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who require secondary cardiovascular prophylaxis should start receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) within 24 hours from primary endoscopy. Patients in need of continued treatment with ASA or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be put...... on prophylactic treatment with PPI at standard dosage. The combination of 75 mg ASA and PPI should be preferred to monotherapy with clopidogrel in patients needing anti-platelet therapy on the basis of indications other than coronary stents. Low-risk patients without clinical suspicion of peptic ulcer bleeding...

  8. Comparative efficiency of endoscopic hemostasis methods in bleeding undercomplicated peptic ulcer in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Олександрович Сокольник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis in complex treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in children of Chernovtsy region with peptic ulcer disease.Methods. 43 cases of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children are analyzed. Argon plasma coagulation is undergone in order to stop the bleeding for 11 patients, for others – aminocaproic acid irrigation.Results. Using argon plasma coagulation, in contrast to the aminocaproic acid irrigation reduces the risk of rebleeding 0.59 times when the number of patients who must be treated – 2.99.Conclusions. The most effective method of endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children is argon plasma coagulation, which allows you to achieve a stable hemostasis and reduce the risk of rebleeding

  9. Empiric transcatheter arterial embolization for massive bleeding from duodenal ulcers: efficacy and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiro, Ikushima; Shushi, Higashi; Akihiko, Ishii; Yasuhiko, Iryo; Yasuyuki, Yamashita

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of empiric transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for patients with massive bleeding from duodenal ulcers. During January 2000 and December 2009, 59 patients with duodenal ulcer bleeding in whom TAE was attempted after endoscopic therapy failed were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into empiric TAE (n = 36) and identifiable TAE (n = 23) groups according to angiographic findings with or without identification of the bleeding sites. The technical and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The technical and clinical success rates of TAE were 100% and 83%. The recurrent bleeding rate, clinical success, duodenal stenosis, and 30-day mortality after TAE were not significantly different between the empiric and identifiable TAE groups. A high rate of technical and clinical success was obtained with empiric TAE comparable to identifiable TAE in patients with massive bleeding from duodenal ulcers. There were no severe complications. Empiric TAE is an effective and safe method when a bleeding site cannot determined by angiography. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Comparative results of surgical treatment for perforating and bleeding pyloroduodenal ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, V N; Sytnik, A P; Korenev, N N; Gordeev, S A; Stoliarchuk, E V; Urzhumtseva, G A

    1998-01-01

    Results of treatment of 1309 patients with perforated and bleeding pyloroduodenal ulcers for 20-years period have been analysed. Resection of the stomach performed in 85 cases resulted in high postoperative lethality which made up in bleeding ulcers 14.8%. Drainage operations of the stomach with excision or suturing of ulcer combined with bilateral truncal vagotomy was performed in 60 patients, postoperative lethality rate being 8.4%. 128 patients underwent selective proximal vagotomy together with pyloro- and duodenoplasty, lethality rate being 1.6%. Combined vagotomy (posterior truncal and anterior sero-muscular) with excision of ulcer, transversal pyloroplasty and duodenoplasty was carried out in 1036 patients (postoperative lethality--2.4%). Excellent and good functional results were achieved in 79.6% of the patients.

  11. X-ray diagnostic features of acute bleeding ulcers of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbatenko, M.K.; Selina, I.E.; Chekalina, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is based on the analysis of clinical, X-ray, and morphological studies in 74 patients with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The paper presents the specific features of X-ray studies of patients with bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers. X-ray studies shout be twice performed in these patients. The first study is conducted if gastroscopic findings are unclear, the repeated one is carried out while assessing changes in disease regression. X-ray diagnosis of bleeding ulcers is determined by their sites and the nature of an ulcerous process. The X-ray diagnosis of chronic callous gastric ulcers accompanied by hemorrhage was based on the detection of two direct symptoms of a niche on the gastric outlines and configuration and an inflammatory mound on the gastric outline and configuration. That of chronic bleeding ulcers of the duodenal bulb is based not only on searches niche, but other signs of the disease - the deformed organ, and the magnitude of a periprocess. 10 refs., 5 figs

  12. Hypoalbuminemia is a predictor of mortality and rebleeding in peptic ulcer bleeding under proton pump inhibitor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Yang, Er-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Tai; Wang, Wen-Lun; Chen, Po-Jun; Lin, Meng-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2018-04-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding remains a deadly disease, and a simple indicator of long-term outcomes is crucial. This study validated whether hypoalbuminemia and its related factors in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding can indicate long-term mortality and rebleeding under proton pump inhibitor use. The prospective cohort study enrolled 426 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who had high risk stigmata at endoscopy and had received endoscopic hemostasis. They were divided into 79 patients in the hypoalbuminemia group (Hypo-AG, serum albumin ulcer size ≥1.0 cm independently (p peptic ulcer bleeding can be an alarm indicator of all-cause mortality and recurrent bleeding in a long-term follow-up situation under proton pump inhibitor use (NCT01591083). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome in Patients with Bleeding Peptic Ulcers and Helicobacter pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is the most frequently encountered complication of peptic ulcer disease. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration are two independent risk factors for UGI bleeding. Therefore, testing for and diagnosing Hp infection are essential for every patient with UGI hemorrhage. The presence of the infection is usually underestimated in cases of bleeding peptic ulcers. A rapid urease test (RUT), with or without histology, is usually the first test performed during endoscopy. If the initial diagnostic test is negative, a delayed 13C-urea breath test (UBT) or serology should be performed. Once an infection is diagnosed, antibiotic treatment is advocated. Sufficient evidence supports the concept that Hp infection eradication can heal the ulcer and reduce the likelihood of rebleeding. With increased awareness of the effects of Hp infection, the etiologies of bleeding peptic ulcers have shifted to NSAID use, old age, and disease comorbidity. PMID:25101293

  14. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome in Patients with Bleeding Peptic Ulcers and Helicobacter pylori Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal (UGI bleeding is the most frequently encountered complication of peptic ulcer disease. Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID administration are two independent risk factors for UGI bleeding. Therefore, testing for and diagnosing Hp infection are essential for every patient with UGI hemorrhage. The presence of the infection is usually underestimated in cases of bleeding peptic ulcers. A rapid urease test (RUT, with or without histology, is usually the first test performed during endoscopy. If the initial diagnostic test is negative, a delayed 13C-urea breath test (UBT or serology should be performed. Once an infection is diagnosed, antibiotic treatment is advocated. Sufficient evidence supports the concept that Hp infection eradication can heal the ulcer and reduce the likelihood of rebleeding. With increased awareness of the effects of Hp infection, the etiologies of bleeding peptic ulcers have shifted to NSAID use, old age, and disease comorbidity.

  15. An upper gastrointestinal ulcer still bleeding after endoscopy : what comes next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craenen, E. M. E.; Hofker, Hendrik; Peters, Frans; Kater, G. M.; Glatman, K. R.; Zijlstra, J. G.

    Introduction: Recurrent bleeding from an upper gastrointestinal ulcer when endoscopy fails is a reason for radiological or surgical treatment, both of which have their advantages and disadvantages. Case: Based on a patient with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, we reviewed the available evidence

  16. Short-term use of glucocorticoids and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding: a nationwide population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C-L; Chen, Y-T; Huang, C-J; Luo, J-C; Peng, Y-L; Huang, D-F; Hou, M-C; Lin, H-C; Lee, F-Y

    2015-09-01

    Controversy exists regarding glucocorticoids therapy and the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The present study was undertaken to determine whether short-term use of glucocorticoids is associated with the occurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding. The records of adult patients hospitalised for newly diagnosed peptic ulcer bleeding from 2000 to 2012 were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide population-based registry system. The association between systemic glucocorticoids usage and peptic ulcer bleeding was determined with a conditional logistic regression model comparing cases and controls during time windows of 7, 14 and 28 days using a case-crossover design. Of the 8894 enrolled patients, the adjusted self-matched odds ratios for peptic ulcer bleeding after exposure to the glucocorticoids were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.68, P = 0.003) for the 7-day window, 1.66 (95% CI: 1.38-2.00, P peptic ulcer bleeding. Concomitant use of a nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or aspirin further elevated the risk. However, it does not eliminate the effect of underlying diseases flare-up that may have placed the patients at risk for peptic ulcer bleeding in this kind of study design. Short-term (7-28 days) exposure to glucocorticoids is significantly associated with peptic ulcer bleeding; this risk seems dose-dependent and is higher when nonselective NSAIDs or aspirin are used concurrently. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Improving Quality of Care in Peptic Ulcer Bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Steffen J; Møller, Morten H; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:The treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is complex, and mortality remains high. We present results from a nationwide initiative to monitor and improve the quality of care (QOC) in PUB.METHODS:All Danish hospitals treating PUB patients between 2004 and 2011 prospectively registered...

  18. Chronic liver disease and 90-day mortality in 21,359 patients following peptic ulcer bleeding--a Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland-Bill, L; Christiansen, C F; Gammelager, H; Mortensen, R N; Pedersen, L; Sørensen, H T

    2015-03-01

    Bleeding is a serious and frequent complication of peptic ulcer disease. Hepatic dysfunction can cause coagulopathy and increases the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. However, whether chronic liver disease increases mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding remains unclear. To examine the prognostic impact of chronic liver disease on mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding. We used population-based medical registries to conduct a cohort study of all Danish residents hospitalised with incident peptic ulcer bleeding from 2004 through 2011. We identified patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis or non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease before their admission for peptic ulcer bleeding. We then computed 90-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding based on the Kaplan-Meier method (1 - survival function) and used a Cox regression model to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs), controlling for potential confounders. We identified 21,359 patients hospitalised with peptic ulcer bleeding. Among these, 653 (3.1%) had a previous diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and 474 (2.2%) had a history of non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease. Patients with liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease had a cumulative 90-day mortality of 25.3% and 20.7%, respectively, compared to 18.3% among patients without chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis was associated with an adjusted 90-day MRR of 2.38 (95% CI: 2.02-2.80), compared to 1.49 (95% CI: 1.22-1.83) among patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease. Patients with chronic liver disease, particularly liver cirrhosis, are at increased risk of death within 90 days after hospitalisation for peptic ulcer bleeding compared to patients without chronic liver disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Octreotide in the Control of Post-Sclerotherapy Bleeding from Oesophageal Varices, Ulcers and Oesophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A. Jenkins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from oesophageal varices, oesophageal ulcers or oesophagitis is occasionally massive and difficult to control. Octreotide, a synthetic analogue of somatostin lowers portal pressure and collateral blood flow including that through varices, increases lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, and inhibits the gastric secretion of acid as well as pepsin. Our current experience suggests it is effective in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage. Therefore we have examined the efficacy of octreotide in the control of postsclerotherapy bleeding from oesophageal varices, oesophageal ulcers and oesophagitis. During the study period 77 patients experienced a significant gastrointestinal bleed (blood pressure 100 beats per min or the need to transfuse 2 or more units of blood to restore the haemoglobin level following injection sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices. The source of bleeding was varices in 42 patients, oesophageal ulcers in 31 and oesophagitis in 4. All patients received a continuous intravenous infusion of octreotide (50 μg/h for between 40–140h. If bleeding was not controlled in the first 12h after commencing octreotide hourly bolus doses (50 μg for 24h were superimposed on the continuous infusion. Haemorrhage was successfully controlled by an infusion of octreotide in 38 of the 42 patients with bleeding from varices, in 30 of 31 patients with oesophageal ulceration, and all patients with oesophagitis. In the 1 patient with persistent bleeding from oesophageal ulceration and in 2 of the 4 with continued haemorrhage from varices, haemostasis was achieved by hourly boluses of 50 μg octreotide for 24h in addition to the continuous infusion. No major complications were associated with octreotide administration. The results of this study clearly indicate that octreotide is a safe and effective treatment for the control of severe haemorrhage after technically successful injection sclerotherapy.

  20. Emergency transcatheter arterial embolization for critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Li Yiyun; Zhao Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (ETAE) in treating critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer. Methods: ETAE was carried out in seven patients with acute massive bleeding due to endoscopically-proved duodenal bulb ulcer, who failed to respond conservative measures and were critically ill clinically. Super-selective catheterization of gastroduodenal artery or right gastroepiploic artery was performed, which was followed by arterial angiography to identify the bleeding site. According to the angiographic findings, ETAE with Gelfoam particles and coils was carried out. After the operation medical management was given and endoscopy re-examination was conducted. All the patients were follow up for 3∼6 months. Results: Angiographically, gastroduodenal artery bleeding was detected in all seven patients. ETAE was successfully accomplished in all cases. Complete clinical effectiveness was obtained in six patients while partial effectiveness in one case. No procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: For critical massive bleeding due to duodenal bulb ulcer ETAE is a highly effective and safe treatment, which can be regarded as an alternative to surgery. It is worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  1. Independent risk factors of 30-day outcomes in 1264 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding in the USA - large ulcers do worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M.; Kovacs, Thomas O.; Jensen, Mary Ellen; Markovic, Daniela; Gornbein, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Predictors of worse outcomes (rebleeding, surgery and death) of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB’s) are essential indicators because of significant morbidity and mortality. rates of PUB’s. However those have been rarely infrequently reported since changes in medical therapy (proton poump inhibitors-PPI) and application of newer endoscopic hemostasis. Aim Our purposes were to determine: 1) independent risk factors of 30-day rebleeding, surgery, and death and 2) whether ulcer size is an independent predictor of major outcomes in patients with severe PUB’s after successful endoscopic hemostasis and treatment with optimal medical (high dose IV PPI) vs. prior treatment (high dose IV histamine 2 antagonists – H2RA’s). Methods A large prospectively followed population of patients hospitalized with severe PUB’s between 1993 and 2011 at two US tertiary care academic medical centers, stratified by stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) was studied. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, independent risk factors of each outcome (rebleeding, surgery, and death) up to 30 days were analyzed. Effects of medical treatment (H2RA patients 1993–2005 vs. PPI’s 2006–2011) were also analysed. Results 1264 patients were included. For ulcers ≥10mm, the odds of 30-day rebleeding increased 6% per each 10% increase in ulcer size (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.10, p=0.0053). Other risk factors of 30-day rebleeding were major SRH, inpatient start of bleeding, and prior GI bleeding. Major SRH and ulcer size ≥10 mm were predictors of 30-day surgery. Risk factors of 30-day death were major SRH, inpatient bleeding, any initial platelet transfusion or fresh frozen plasma transfusion ≥2 units. Among patients with major SRH and outpatient start of bleeding, larger ulcer size was also a risk factor for death (OR 1.08 per 10% increase in ulcer size, 95%CI 1.02–1.14, p=0.0095). Ulcer size was a significant independent variable for both time periods. Conclusions Ulcer

  2. Anaesthesia care for emergency endoscopy for peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Patricia; Haahr, Camilla; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, no standard approach exists to the level of monitoring or presence of staff with anaesthetic expertise required during emergency esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). We assess the association between anaesthesia care and mortality. We further...

  3. Topical tranexamic acid as a novel treatment for bleeding peptic ulcer: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Rafeey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers are among the most common causes of upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in children. The standard care for GI bleeding is endoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We aimed to assess the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TXA via endoscopic procedures in children with GI bleeding caused by bleeding ulcers. Procedure: In this randomised controlled trial, 120 children were evaluated by diagnostic procedures for GI bleeding, of which 63 (30 girls, 33 boys aged 1-month to 15 years were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. In the case group, TXA was administered directly under endoscopic therapy. In the control group, epinephrine (1/10,000 was submucosally injected to the four quadrants of ulcer margins as the routine endoscopic therapy. In both groups, the patients received supportive medical therapy with intravenous fluids and proton pump inhibitor drugs. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the children was 5 ± 2.03 years. Rebleeding occurred in 15 (11.4% and 21 (9.8% patients in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.50. The frequency of blood transfusion episodes (P = 0.06 and duration of hospital stay (P = 0.07 were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: Using topical TXA via endoscopic procedures may be effective in cases of GI bleedings caused by active bleeding ulcers. In order to establish this therapeutic effect, a large number of clinical studies are needed.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Rebleeding in Patients with High Risk Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: Focusing on the Role of Second Look Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bum; Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Chang Keun; Park, Jeong Bae; Yang, Chang Heon

    2016-02-01

    Re-bleeding after initial hemostasis in peptic ulcer bleeding can be life threatening. Identification of factors associated with re-bleeding is important. The aims of this study were to determine incidence of rebleeding in patients with high risk peptic ulcer bleeding and to evaluate factors associated with rebleeding. Among patients diagnosed as upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage at seven hospitals in Daegu-Gyeongbuk, and one hospital in Gyeongnam, South Korea, from Feb 2011 to Dec 2013, 699 patients diagnosed as high risk peptic ulcer bleeding with Forrest classification above llb were included. The data were obtained in a prospective manner. Among 699 patients, re-bleeding occurred in 64 (9.2 %) patients. Second look endoscopy was significantly more performed in the non-rebleeding group than the rebleeding group (81.8 vs 62.5 %, p peptic ulcer bleeding. In our study, rebleeding was observed in 9.2 % of patients with high risk peptic ulcer bleeding. Performance of second look endoscopy seems to lower the risk of rebleeding in high risk peptic ulcer bleeding patients and caution should be paid to patients receiving high volume transfusion and on medication with NSAIDs.

  5. Peptic ulcer bleeding patients with Rockall scores ≥6 are at risk of long-term ulcer rebleeding: A 3.5-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Er-Hsiang; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Wu, Chung-Tai; Chen, Wei-Ying; Lin, Meng-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2018-01-01

    Patients with high Rockall scores have increased risk of rebleeding and mortality within 30 days after peptic ulcer bleeding, but long-term outcomes deserve follow-up after cessation of proton pump inhibitors. The paper aimed to validate whether patients with high Rockall scores have more recurrent ulcer bleeding in a 3.5-year longitudinal cohort. Between August 2011 and July 2014, 368 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were prospectively enrolled after endoscopic hemostasis to receive proton pump inhibitors for at least 8 to 16 weeks. These subjects were categorized into either a Rockall scores ≥6 group (n = 257) or a Rockall scores ulcer bleeding. The proportion of patients with rebleeding during the 3.5-year follow-up was higher in patients with Rockall scores ≥6 than in those with scores ulcer (P = 0.04) were three additional independent factors found to increase rebleeding risk. The cumulative rebleeding rate was higher in patients with Rockall scores ≥6 with more than or equal to any two additional factors than in those with fewer than two additional factors (15.69 vs. 7.63 per 100 person-year, P = 0.012, log-rank test). Patients with Rockall scores ≥6 are at risk of long-term recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. The risk can be independently increased by the presence of activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged ≥1.5-fold, American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥III, and gastric ulcer in patients with Rockall scores ≥6. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. The use of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) is not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Stanley, Adrian J

    2017-01-01

    in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. However, abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs is associated with development of withdrawal symptoms in one-third of patients. Further data are needed to clarify whether treatment with SSRIs is associated with poor outcomes, which would support temporary discontinuation...... of treatment. AIM: To identify if treatment with SSRIs is associated with increased risk of: (1) endoscopy-refractory bleeding, (2) rebleeding or (3) 30-day mortality due to peptic ulcer bleeding. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study. Analyses were performed on prospectively collected data on consecutive...... patients admitted to hospital with peptic ulcer bleeding in Denmark in the period 2006-2014. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between treatment with SSRIs and outcome following adjustment for pre-defined confounders. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed...

  7. The use of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) is not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, S B; Leontiadis, G I; Stanley, A J; Hallas, J; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B

    2017-08-01

    Observational studies have consistently shown an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in users of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs), probably explained by their inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, treatment with SSRIs is often temporarily withheld in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. However, abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs is associated with development of withdrawal symptoms in one-third of patients. Further data are needed to clarify whether treatment with SSRIs is associated with poor outcomes, which would support temporary discontinuation of treatment. To identify if treatment with SSRIs is associated with increased risk of: (1) endoscopy-refractory bleeding, (2) rebleeding or (3) 30-day mortality due to peptic ulcer bleeding. A nationwide cohort study. Analyses were performed on prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted to hospital with peptic ulcer bleeding in Denmark in the period 2006-2014. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between treatment with SSRIs and outcome following adjustment for pre-defined confounders. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the validity of the findings. A total of 14 343 patients were included. Following adjustment, treatment with SSRIs was not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding (odds ratio [OR] [95% Confidence Interval (CI)]: 1.03 [0.79-1.33]), rebleeding (OR [95% CI]: 0.96 [0.83-1.11]) or 30-day mortality (OR [95% CI]: 1.01 [0.85-1.19]. These findings were supported by sensitivity and subgroup analyses. According to our data, treatment with SSRIs does not influence the risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or 30-day mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Transarterial embolization of massive gastric ulcer bleeding in gastrostomy patients caused by a balloon replacement tube: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Byong Jong; Hur, Jin; Lee, Kwang Hun; Won, Jong Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We present the case of a 77-year-old woman with massive gastric ulcer bleeding caused by a balloon replacement tube that required emergent transcatheter left gastric arterial embolization in stop the ulcer bleeding.

  9. Mortality from nonulcer bleeding is similar to that of ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with nonvariceal hemorrhage: a prospective database study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmo, Riccardo; Del Piano, Mario; Rotondano, Gianluca; Koch, Maurizio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Zambelli, Alessandro; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Grossi, Enzo; Cipolletta, Livio; Prometeo Investigators

    2012-02-01

    Nonulcer causes of bleeding are often regarded as minor, ie, associated with a lower risk of mortality. To assess the risk of death from nonulcer causes of upper GI bleeding (UGIB). Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from 3 national databases. Community and teaching hospitals. Consecutive patients admitted for acute nonvariceal UGIB. Early endoscopy, medical and endoscopic treatment as appropriate. Thirty-day mortality, recurrent bleeding, and need for surgery. A total of 3207 patients (65.8% male), mean (standard deviation) age 68.3 (16.4) years, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 4.45% (143 patients). According to the source of bleeding, mortality was 9.8% for neoplasia, 4.8% for Mallory-Weiss tears, 4.8% for vascular lesions, 4.4% for gastroduodenal erosions, 4.4% for duodenal ulcer, and 3.1% for gastric ulcer. Frequency of death was not different among benign endoscopic diagnoses (overall P = .567). Risk of death was significantly higher in patients with neoplasia compared with benign conditions (odds ratio 2.50; 95% CI, 1.32-4.46; P bleeding peptic ulcers in the clinical context of a high-risk patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. National consensus on management of peptic ulcer bleeding in Denmark 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2014-11-01

    The Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology have compiled a national guideline for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Sources of data included published studies up to June 2014. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology September 4, 2011. The current version is revised June 2014. RECOMMENDATIONS emphasize the importance of early and efficient resuscitation. Use of a restrictive blood transfusion policy is recommended in haemodynamically stable patients without serious ischaemic disease. Endoscopy should generally be performed within 24 hours, reducing operation rate, rebleeding rate and duration of in-patient stay. When serious ulcer bleeding is suspected and blood found in gastric aspirate, endoscopy within 12 hours will result in faster discharge and reduced need for transfusions. Endoscopic hemostasis remains indicated for high-risk lesions. Hemoclips, thermocoagulation, and epinephrine injection are effective in achieving endoscopic hemostasis. Use of endoscopic monotherapy with epinephrine injection is not recommended. Intravenous high-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for 72 hours after successful endoscopic hemostasis is recommended even though the evidence is questionable. Although selected patients can be discharged promptly after endoscopy, high-risk patients should be hospitalized for at least three days after endoscopic hemostasis. Patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who require secondary cardiovascular prophylaxis should start receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) within 24 hours from primary endoscopy. Patients in need of continued treatment with ASA or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be put on prophylactic treatment with PPI at standard dosage. The combination of 75 mg ASA and PPI should be preferred to monotherapy with clopidogrel in patients needing anti-platelet therapy on the basis of indications other

  11. Association between emergency admission for peptic ulcer bleeding and air pollution: a case-crossover analysis in Hong Kong's elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Linwei; Qiu, Hong; Sun, Shengzhi; Tsang, Hilda; Chan, King-Pan; Leung, Wai K

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution increases intestinal permeability, alters the gut microbiome, and promotes inflammation, which might contribute towards gastrointestinal bleeding. In the present study, we aim to examine whether short-term elevations in air pollution are associated with increased numbers of emergency hospital admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in Hong Kong. Daily air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm [PM 2·5 ], nitric oxide [NO 2 ], sulpher dioxide [SO 2 ], and ozone [O 3 ]) data during 2005-10 were collected from the Environmental Protection Department and emergency admission data for peptic ulcer bleeding in elderly people (aged 65 years or older) from the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. A time stratified case-crossover analysis with conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the excess risk of peptic ulcer bleeding associated with each air pollutant, in single-pollutant and multi-pollutant models. Cardiorespiratory diseases were used as positive controls. 8566 emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding were recorded among Hong Kong's elderly population during 2005-10; the daily number of admissions ranged from 0 to 13. An IQR increment of 5-day moving average (lag 04 ) of NO 2 concentration (25·8 μg/m 3 ) was associated with a 7·6% (95% CI 2·2-13·2) increase in emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding. Multi-pollutant models confirmed the robustness of the risk estimates for NO 2 . Other pollutants (PM 2·5 , SO 2 , and O 3 ) were not associated with peptic ulcer bleeding admissions. Short-term elevation in ambient NO 2 might trigger peptic ulcer bleeding events and increase the risk of emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in Hong Kong's elderly population. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that air pollution affects not just cardiopulmonary diseases, but also certain diseases of the digestive system. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an

  12. The role of acid suppressants in upper gastrointestinal ulcer bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leerdam, M. E.; Rauws, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Re-bleeding and mortality remain significant in peptic ulcer haemorrhage despite the widespread use of endoscopic therapy. The acidic gastric environment interferes with coagulation. In vitro studies show that an intragastric pH of above 6 results in normal blood coagulation and platelet function.

  13. Endoscopic Injection Therapy in Bleeding Peptic Ulcers. Low Mortality in a High Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaqulm Balanzó

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscoric injection therapy was performed in 341 patients consecutively admitted with a bleeding peptic ulcer at high risk of further hemorrhage, assessed by the presence of active arterial bleeding or a nonbleeding visible vessel at emergency endoscopy. Initial hemostasis was achieved in 111 of 119 actively bleeding patients (93%. Rebleeding ocurred in 75 cases (23%, at a mean interval of 53±52 h. A second emergency injection was a ttempted in 36 therapeutic failures, and was successful in 20 (55%. Emergency surgery was finally required in 52 patients (15%. Overall mortality was 4.9%. Major complications occurred in four patients (1.2% (two perforations and two aspiration pneumonia; therefore, injection therapy is an effective and simple method for treating bleeding ulcers, achieving the initial control of hemorrhage in a majority of cases although the rate of further hemorrhage is not negligible and complications are not irrelevant.

  14. Outcome of peptic ulcer bleeding, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsoekh, Dewkoemar; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Tytgat, Guido N. J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori are risk factors for the development of peptic ulcers. A prospective study was conducted to determine prevalence of NSAID use, H pylori infection, and outcome of peptic ulcer bleeding. METHODS: In 2000, data of all 361 patients presenting with peptic

  15. Clinical and endoscopic aspects in the evolution of patients with bleeding peptic ulcer: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEGAL Fábio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Bleeding ulcers are a major problem in public health and represent approximately half of all the cases of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the United States. This study aims to determine the prognostic value of factors such as clinical history, laboratory and endoscopic findings in the occurrence of new episodes of bleeding in patients who have upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by gastric or duodenal peptic ulcer. Methods - A cohort study with 94 patients was designed to investigate prognostic factors to the occurrence of new episodes of bleeding. Results - From the 94 patients studied, 88 did not present a new bleeding episode in the 7 days following hospital admission. The incidence of rebleeding was significantly higher in those patients with hemoglobin <6 g/dL at the admission (P = 0.03, RR = 6.2. The localization of the ulcers in bulb was positively associated to rebleeding (P = 0.003.The rebleeding group needed a greater number of units transfunded (P = 0.03 and the time of hospitalization was longer than the time of the hemostasia group (P = 0.0349. Conclusions - The identification of patients with risk of death by bleeding peptic ulcer remains as a challenge, once few factors are capable of predicting the severity of the evolution. The identification of such factors will allow the choice of the better therapeutic conduct improving the diagnosis and decreasing the rate of rebleeding and the mortality.

  16. Upper-gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to peptic ulcer disease: incidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Samuel; Frolkis, Alexandra; Milne, Kaylee; Molodecky, Natalie; Yang, Hong; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Myers, Robert P; Ghosh, Subrata; Hilsden, Robert; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2014-12-14

    To evaluate the incidence, surgery, mortality, and readmission of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Administrative databases identified all hospitalizations for UGIB secondary to PUD in Alberta, Canada from 2004 to 2010 (n = 7079) using the International Classification of Diseases Codes (ICD-10). A subset of the data was validated using endoscopy reports. Positive predictive value and sensitivity with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Incidence of UGIB secondary to PUD was calculated. Logistic regression was used to evaluate surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-d readmission to hospital with recurrent UGIB secondary to PUD. Co-variants accounted for in our logistic regression model included: age, sex, area of residence (i.e., urban vs rural), number of Charlson comorbidities, presence of perforated PUD, undergoing upper endoscopy, year of admission, and interventional radiological attempt at controlling bleeding. A subgroup analysis (n = 6356) compared outcomes of patients with gastric ulcers to those with duodenal ulcers. Adjusted estimates are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95%CI. The positive predictive value and sensitivity of ICD-10 coding for UGIB secondary to PUD were 85.2% (95%CI: 80.2%-90.2%) and 77.1% (95%CI: 69.1%-85.2%), respectively. The annual incidence between 2004 and 2010 ranged from 35.4 to 41.2 per 100000. Overall risk of surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-d readmission to hospital for UGIB secondary to PUD were 4.3%, 8.5%, and 4.7%, respectively. Interventional radiology to control bleeding was performed in 0.6% of patients and 76% of these patients avoided surgical intervention. Thirty-day readmission significantly increased from 3.1% in 2004 to 5.2% in 2010 (OR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01-1.14). Rural residents (OR rural vs urban: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.83-3.01) and older individuals (OR ≥ 65 vs ulcers had higher odds of dying (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05-1.53), requiring surgery (OR = 1.73; 95

  17. Comparative analysis of assessment methods for operational and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potakhin S.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to conduct a comparative analysis of methods of evaluation of surgical and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis ofthe extent of the surgical and anesthetic risks and results of treatment of 71 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding has been conducted in the study. To evaluate the surgical and anesthetic risks classification trees are used, scale ТА. Rockall and prognosis System of rebleeding (SPRK, proposed by N. V. Lebedev et al. in 2009, enabling to evaluate the probability of a fatal outcome. To compare the efficacy ofthe methods the following indicators are used: sensitivity, specificity and prediction of positive result. Results. The study compared the results ofthe risk assessment emergency operation by using these methods with the outcome ofthe operation. The comparison ofthe prognosis results in sensitivity leads to the conclusion that the scales ТА. Rockall and SPRK are worse than the developed method of classification trees in recognizing patients with poor outcome of surgery. Conclusion. The method of classification trees can be considered as the most accurate method of evaluation of surgical and anesthetic risks in ulcerative gastroduodenal bleeding.

  18. Helicobacter pylori and risk of ulcer bleeding among users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalykke, C; Lauritsen, Jens; Hallas, J

    1999-01-01

    Peptic ulcer complications related to use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most common serious adverse drug reactions. Whether Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates this gastrointestinal toxicity of NSAIDs is still unresolved. In this study, we investigated...... the role of H. pylori as a cause of bleeding peptic ulcer among NSAID users....

  19. Prevalence of and risk for gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcerative disorders in a cohort of HIV patients from a U.S. healthcare claims database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bratton

    Full Text Available The primary study objectives were to estimate the frequencies and rates of gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcerative disorder in HIV-positive patients compared with age- and sex-matched HIV-negative subjects. Data from a US insurance claims database was used for this analysis. Among 89,207 patients with HIV, 9.0% had a GI bleed, 1.0% had an upper gastrointestinal bleed, 5.6% had a lower gastrointestinal bleed, 1.9% had a peptic ulcerative disorder diagnosis, and 0.6% had both gastrointestinal/peptic ulcerative disorder. Among 267,615 HIV-negative subjects, the respective frequencies were 6.9%, 0.6%, 4.3%, 1.4%, and 0.4% (p<0.0001 for each diagnosis subcategory. After combining effect measure modifiers into comedication and comorbidity strata, gastrointestinal bleeding hazard ratios (HRs were higher for HIV-positive patients without comedication/comorbidity, and those with comedication alone (HR, 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-2.84; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.47-1.71. The rate of peptic ulcerative disorder among those without a history of ulcers and no comorbidity/comedication was also elevated (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 2.48-2.99. Hazard ratios of gastrointestinal bleeding, and peptic ulcerative disorder without a history of ulcers were lower among patients infected with HIV with comedication/comorbidity (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56-0.73; HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.65. Rates of gastrointestinal bleeding plus peptic ulcerative disorder followed a similar pattern. In summary, the rates of gastrointestinal/peptic ulcerative disorder events comparing HIV-infected subjects to non-HIV-infected subjects were differential based on comorbidity and comedication status.

  20. [Relapse of bleeding ulcer in a 15 year-old boy with collagenous gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens

    2012-06-18

    Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults.

  1. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors in correlation with incidence, recurrence and death of peptic ulcer bleeding: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunxia; Sverdén, Emma; Ljung, Rickard; Söderlund, Claes; Lagergren, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are regarded as two types of drugs that respectively increase and decrease the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. However, their relation to occurrence, recurrence and death of bleeding in the population level is not clear. Study objective To clarify recent calendar-time correlations between sales of NSAIDs and PPIs and the occurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding, re-bleeding and death. Design Ecological study. Results The time trend of peptic ulcer bleeding did not correlate with PPI sales but did correlate with NSAIDs in mem (Rmale=0.6571, Pmale=0.05). Sales of PPIs (inverse) and NSAIDs correlated with re-bleeding in women (Rmale=−0.8754, Pmale=0.002 and Rfemale=0.7161, Pfemale=0.03, respectively), but not in men. An inverse correlation between PPI sales and 30-day death after bleeding was found (Rmale=−0.9392, Pmale=0.0002 and Rfemale=−0.8561, Pfemale=0.003), and NSAID sales were found to correlate with increased death after bleeding ((Rmale=0.7278, Pmale=0.03, Rfemale=0.7858, Pfemale=0.01). Conclusions The sales of NSAIDs and PPIs correlate with recurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding in women and death after peptic ulcer bleeding in both genders in the population level. PMID:23293249

  2. Validity of peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses in administrative databases: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montedori, Alessandro; Abraha, Iosief; Chiatti, Carlos; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Rimland, Joseph M; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-15

    Administrative healthcare databases are useful to investigate the epidemiology, health outcomes, quality indicators and healthcare utilisation concerning peptic ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding, but the databases need to be validated in order to be a reliable source for research. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision and 10th version (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes for peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases will be searched, using appropriate search strategies. We will include validation studies that used administrative data to identify peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses or studies that evaluated the validity of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding codes in administrative data. The following inclusion criteria will be used: (a) the presence of a reference standard case definition for the diseases of interest; (b) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, etc) and (c) the use of an administrative database as a source of data. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will evaluate quality using the checklist of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) criteria. This systematic review protocol has been produced in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics approval is not required given that this is a protocol for a systematic review. We will submit results of this study to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results will serve as a guide for researchers validating administrative healthcare databases to determine appropriate case definitions for peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as to perform outcome research using

  3. Helicobacter pylori Eradication within 120 Days Is Associated with Decreased Complicated Recurrent Peptic Ulcers in Peptic Ulcer Bleeding Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-05-23

    The connection between Helicobacter pylori and complicated peptic ulcer disease in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has not been established. In this study, we sought to determine whether delayed H. pylori eradication therapy in PUB patients increases complicated recurrent peptic ulcers. We identified inpatient PUB patients using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We categorized patients into early (time lag ≤120 days after peptic ulcer diagnosis) and late H. pylori eradication therapy groups. The Cox proportional hazards model was used. The primary outcome was rehospitalization for patients with complicated recurrent peptic ulcers. Our data indicated that the late H. pylori eradication therapy group had a higher rate of complicated recurrent peptic ulcers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; p=0.006), with time lags of more than 120 days. However, our results indicated a similar risk of complicated recurrent peptic ulcers (HR, 1.20; p=0.275) in time lags of more than 1 year and (HR, 1.10; p=0.621) more than 2 years. H. pylori eradication within 120 days was associated with decreased complicated recurrent peptic ulcers in patients with PUB. We recommend that H. pylori eradication should be conducted within 120 days in patients with PUB.

  4. Clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-negative drug-negative peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Chul; Jeon, Eun Jung; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Lim, Eun Sun; Kim, Min-Ah; Oh, Jung Hwan

    2015-07-28

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of idiopathic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative and drug-negative] peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). A consecutive series of patients who experienced PUB between 2006 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed. A total of 232 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into four groups according to the etiologies of PUB: idiopathic, H. pylori-associated, drug-induced and combined (H. pylori-associated and drug-induced) types. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes between the groups. When the silver stain or rapid urease tests were H. pylori-negative, we obtained an additional biopsy specimen by endoscopic re-examination and performed an H. pylori antibody test 6-8 wk after the initial endoscopic examination. For a diagnosis of idiopathic PUB, a negative result of an H. pylori antibody test was confirmed. In all cases, re-bleeding was confirmed by endoscopic examination. For the risk assessment, the Blatchford and the Rockall scores were calculated for all patients. For PUB, the frequency of H. pylori infection was 59.5% (138/232), whereas the frequency of idiopathic cases was 8.6% (20/232). When idiopathic PUB was compared to H. pylori-associated PUB, the idiopathic PUB group showed a higher rate of re-bleeding after initial hemostasis during the hospital stay (30% vs 7.4%, P = 0.02). When idiopathic PUB was compared to drug-induced PUB, the patients in the idiopathic PUB group showed a higher rate of re-bleeding after initial hemostasis upon admission (30% vs 2.7%, P ulcer (77% vs 49%, P < 0.01). However, the Blatchford and the Rockall scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Among the patients who experienced drug-induced PUB, no significant differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics, irrespective of H. pylori infection. Idiopathic PUB has unique clinical characteristics such as re-bleeding after initial hemostasis upon admission

  5. Wavelet-based analysis of gastric microcirculation in rats with ulcer bleedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Rodionov, M. A.; Pavlova, O. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Berdnikova, V. A.; Kuznetsova, Ya. V.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskij, I. A.

    2012-03-01

    Studying of nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanisms of regulation of microcirculation in a stomach can provide important diagnostic markers of the development of stress-induced ulcer bleedings. In this work we use a multiscale analysis based on the discrete wavelet-transform to characterize a latent stage of illness formation in rats. A higher sensitivity of stomach vessels to the NO-level in ill rats is discussed.

  6. The effect of surgical subspecialization on outcomes in peptic ulcer disease complicated by perforation and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Andrew J; Richards, Jennifer M J; Ohly, Nicholas; Nixon, Stephen J; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2008-07-01

    Emergency surgical services in Edinburgh were restructured in July 2002 to deliver subspecialist management of colorectal and upper-gastrointestinal emergencies on separate sites. The effect of emergency subspecialization on outcome from perforated and bleeding peptic ulceration was assessed. All patients admitted with complicated peptic ulceration (January 2000-February 2005) were identified from a prospectively compiled database. Perforation: 148 patients were admitted with perforation before the service reorganization (period A - 31 months) of whom 126 (85.1%) underwent surgery; 135 patients were admitted in period B (31 months) of whom 114 (84.4%) were managed operatively. The in-hospital mortality was lower in period B (14/135, 10.4%) than period A (30/148, 20.3%; P = 0.023; relative risk (RR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28-0.91). There was a significantly higher rate of gastric resection in the second half of the study (period A 1/126 vs. period B 8/114; P = 0.015; RR, 8.84; 95% CI, 1.48-54.34). Length of hospital stay was similar for both groups. Bleeding: 51 patients underwent operative management of bleeding peptic ulceration in period A and 51 in period B. There were no differences in length of stay or mortality between these two groups. Restructuring of surgical services with emergency subspecialization was associated with lower mortality for perforated peptic ulceration. Subspecialist experience, intraoperative decision-making, and improved postoperative care have all contributed to this improvement.

  7. Ulcer and bleeding complications and their relationship with dyspeptic symptoms in NSAIDs users: a transversal multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Ricardo Anuar; Chinzon, Decio; Fontes, Luiz Henrique de Souza; de Sá Teixeira, Ana Cristina; Navarro-Rodriguez, Tomás

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of lesions and digestive complications secondary to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the clinical profile seen for digestive complaints and the relation with the endoscopic findings. Prospective, multicentric, open study, evaluating consecutively 1231 patients, divided as follows: group I - NSAID and group II - non-NSAID. All patients answered questionnaire to evaluate the onset, the type of clinical complaint, the use of medication and possible complications associated to digestive bleeding. RESULTS. A total of 1213 patients were evaluated. Among them, 65% were female and 13.1% were smokers; 15.6% mentioned they ingested alcoholic beverages. The main signs and symptoms reported were epigastralgy and pyrosis (67% and 62%, respectively). The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy was normal in 3.9% in group I and in 10.7% in group II (p < 0.001). Patient who do not use NSAID will be 2.5 times more likely to have normal UGI endoscopy (p = 0.001). The presence of erosive or ulcer lesions in the stomach and duodenum was more frequent in group I. The incidence of lesions in the stomach when compared to the duodenum is observed (erosions: 49.12% vs. 13.60%, p = 0.001; ulcers: 14.04% vs. 11.84%, p = 0.05). The risk of digestive bleeding is 12 times higher (6.14% vs. 0.51%) in those who used NSAIDs, and the stomach is the site in which bleeding occurs more frequently. Conclusions. The frequency of gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and digestive bleeding was higher in patients who used NSAIDs. There was no connection found between endoscopic findings and dyspeptic symptoms.

  8. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benedeto-Stojanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB is a common medical emergency problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to establish the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to sex and age, determine the prevalence of bleeding lesions and perform analysis of bleeding peptic ulcer in relation to the location, age, gender, Forrest classification and the need for endoscopic hemostasis. Thе prospective study included 70 patients with UGB, 42 men and 28 women, mean age 68.64±13.66 years. The diagnosis of bleeding lesions was made exclusively by means of esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Forrest classification was used in the evaluation of the activity of bleeding ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. The largest number of bleeding patients was of male sex (60%. Bleeding most commonly occurred in patients older than 60 years (84.29%. Statistically, female patients were significantly older than patients of male gender (p=0.001. The most common cause of bleeding was peptic ulcer (65.71%. The average age of patients with gastric ulcer was 70.57±15.68 years, with a duodenal ulcer 63.78±16.70 years. In the duodenum, Forrest Ib, IIa and IIb ulcers were usually confirmed, whereas Forrest IIc ulcers were identified in the stomach. Endoscopic hemostasis was required in 55.56% of patients with duodenal and in 23.81% of patients with gastric ulcer. The incidence of UGB is higher in men and it increases with age. The most common cause of bleeding is ulcer disease. Patients with gastric ulcer are older than patients with duodenal ulcer, while both gastric and duodenal ulcers are found in the oldest patients. Duodenal ulcers cause serious bleeding and more often require endoscopic hemostasis.

  9. Contribution of Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, corticosteroids and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, M; Schneider, C; Costanzo, R; Breja, R; Röhl, F-W; Malfertheiner, P

    2018-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, low-dose aspirin, non-aspirin antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and corticosteroids increase the risk of gastroduodenal bleeding. To determine in a retrospective cohort study the contribution of Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in patients taking these drugs. Among patients with peptic ulcer disease diagnosed by endoscopy from 01/2004 to 12/2014 (N = 1719, 60% males, age 65.8 ± 14.5), 56.9% had peptic ulcer bleeding (cases) and 43.1% uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease (controls). Demographics, intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, non-aspirin antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors and corticosteroids were documented. H. pylori status was determined by histology, rapid urease test or serology. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. Helicobacter pylori infection increased the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and aspirin users (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.71-4.98 and OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.52-3.28, respectively), but not in patients on anticoagulants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or corticosteroid therapy. H. pylori-positive status substantially increased the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in patients on non-aspirin antiplatelet agents (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.28-14.99), concomitant aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug intake (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.68-20.36) and combined antiplatelet therapy (OR = 8.43, 95% CI = 1.09-65.17). After further adjustment for proton pump inhibitor intake, H. pylori infection was still a risk factor for peptic ulcer bleeding in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and aspirin users. Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in peptic ulcer disease patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and non

  10. The excess long-term mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding is explained by nonspecific comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Hansen, Jane Møller; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Previous studies have concluded that peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is associated with increased long-term mortality. The underlying mechanism of this excess mortality is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to examine if PUB patients have an increased long...

  11. Previous use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticoagulants: the influence on clinical outcome of bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, E. M.; de Bruijne, H. W.; Snel, P.; Bartelsman, J. W.; Rauws, E. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between prior non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or anticoagulant use and clinical outcome in bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcer patients. Prospective cohort-study. All patients (n = 132) admitted because of upper gastrointestinal bleeding during 3 months in

  12. Transcatheter arterial embolization is the first-line therapy of choice in peptic ulcer bleeding not responding to endoscopic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Jakobsen, Mark; Nielsen, Michael Milek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. In 5-10% of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) it is impossible to achieve endoscopic hemostasis because of severe bleeding. These patients have traditionally been treated surgically. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) may, however, be associated with a better ou...

  13. Supplementary arteriel embolization an option in high-risk ulcer bleeding--a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Hansen, Jane Møller; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: One of the major challenges in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is rebleeding which is associated with up to a fivefold increase in mortality. We examined if supplementary transcatheter arterial embolization (STAE) performed after achieved endoscopic hemostasis improves outcome in patients...... with high-risk ulcers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a non-blinded, parallel group, randomized-controlled trial and performed in a university hospital setting. Patients admitted with PUB from Forrest Ia - IIb ulcers controlled by endoscopic therapy were randomized (1:1 ratio) to STAE...... of rebleeding, need of hemostatic intervention and mortality. Secondary outcomes were rebleeding, number of blood transfusions received, duration of admission and mortality. RESULTS: Totally 105 patients were included. Of the 49 patients allocated to STAE 31 underwent successful STAE. There was no difference...

  14. Outcomes of peptic ulcer bleeding following treatment with proton pump inhibitors in routine clinical practice: 935 patients with high- or low-risk stigmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Angel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; García-Rodríguez, Luis A; García, Santiago; Arroyo-Villarino, María Teresa; Ponce, Julio; Bujanda, Luis; Calleja, José L; Polo-Tomas, Mónica; Calvet, Xavier; Feu, Faust; Perez-Aisa, Angeles

    2014-10-01

    To assess rates of further bleeding, surgery and mortality in patients hospitalized owing to peptic ulcer bleeding. Consecutive patients hospitalized for peptic ulcer bleeding and treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) (esomeprazole or pantoprazole) were identified retrospectively in 12 centers in Spain. Patients were included if they had high-risk stigmata (Forrest class Ia-IIb, underwent therapeutic endoscopy and received intravenous PPI ≥120 mg/day for ≥24 h) or low-risk stigmata (Forrest class IIc-III, underwent no therapeutic endoscopy and received intravenous or oral PPI [any dose]). Of 935 identified patients, 58.3% had high-risk stigmata and 41.7% had low-risk stigmata. After endoscopy, 88.3% of high-risk patients and 22.1% of low-risk patients received intravenous PPI therapy at doses of at least 160 mg/day. Further bleeding within 72 h occurred in 9.4% and 2.1% of high- and low-risk patients, respectively (p peptic ulcer bleeding and treated with PPIs, patients with high-risk stigmata have a higher risk of further bleeding and surgery, but not of death, than those with low-risk stigmata.

  15. Relationship between timing of endoscopy and mortality in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig B; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Stanley, Adrian J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal timing of endoscopy in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between timing of endoscopy and mortality in PUB. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort study based on a database of consecutive patients...

  16. Increasing biopsy number and sampling from gastric body improve the sensitivity of rapid urease test in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Tsai, Kuang-Chau

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of rapid urease test (RUT) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection decreased during peptic ulcer bleeding. We designed this study and tried to find a better method to improve the detection rate of H. pylori infection at the same session of endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer bleeding. We prospectively enrolled 116 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. These patients received intravenous proton pump inhibitor and then received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 h after arrival. We took one piece of biopsy from gastric antrum (Group 1), four pieces from gastric antrum (Group 2), and one piece from the gastric body (Group 3) for three separate RUTs, respectively. (13)C-urease breath test was used as gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There were 74 patients (64 %) with positive (13)C-urease breath test. Among these 74 patients, 45 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 61 %) in Group 1; 55 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 74 %) in Group 2; 54 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 73 %) in Group 3. There were significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.02) and between Group 1 and Group 3 (p = 0.022). The sensitivity of RUT was 61 % during peptic ulcer bleeding. The sensitivity of RUT can be increased significantly by increased biopsy number from gastric antrum or biopsy from gastric body.

  17. Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding from a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Caused by a Penetrating Gastric Ulcer: Case Report and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Marlicz, Wojciech; Czapla, Norbert; Łokaj, Marek; Skoczylas, Michał M.; Donotek, Maciej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm are rare pathologies. True aneurysms are usually asymptomatic. Aneurysm rupture occurring in 2–3% of cases results in bleeding into the lesser sack, peritoneal space or adjacent organs typically presenting as abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability. In contrast, pseudoaneurysms are nearly always symptomatic carrying a high risk of rupture of 37–47% and mortality rate of 90% if untreated. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential in the management of patients with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. Typical causes include pancreatitis and trauma. Rarely, the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm presents as upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding. Among causes, peptic ulcer is the casuistic one. This report describes a very rare case of recurrent UGI bleeding from a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm caused by a penetrating gastric ulcer. After negative results of endoscopy and ultrasound, the diagnosis was established in CT angiography. The successful treatment consisted of surgical ligation of the bleeding vessel and suture of the ulcer with preservation of the spleen and pancreas, which is rarely tried in such situations. The most important factor in identifying a ruptured splenic artery pseudoaneurysm as a source of GI bleeding is considering the diagnosis. UGI hemorrhage from splenic artery pseudoaneurysm can have a relapsing course providing false negative results of endoscopy and ultrasound if performed between episodes of active bleeding. In such cases, immediate CT angiography is useful in establishing diagnosis and in application of proper therapy before possible recurrence

  18. TC-325 versus the conventional combined technique for endoscopic treatment of peptic ulcers with high-risk bleeding stigmata: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Ang, Tiing Leong; Ong, Peng Lan Jeannie; Tan, Yi Lyn Jessica; Ang, Shih Wen Daphne; Law, Ngai Moh; Thurairajah, Prem Harichander; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2017-06-01

    Preliminary studies on a new topical hemostatic agent, TC-325, have shown its safety and effectiveness in treating active upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. However, to date there have been no randomized trials comparing TC-325 with the conventional combined technique (CCT). Our pilot study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of TC-325 with those of CCT in treating peptic ulcers with active bleeding or high-risk stigmata. This was a comparative randomized study of patients with upper GI bleeding who had Forrest class I, IIA or IIB ulcers. Altogether 20 patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 23-87 years) were recruited, including 16 men, with a mean hemoglobin of 97 g/L. Initial hemostasis was successful in 19 (95.0%) patients, including 90.0% (9/10) in the TC-325 group and 100% (10/10) in the CCT group. TC-325 monotherapy failed to stop bleeding in a patient with Forrest IB posterior duodenal wall ulcer. Rebleeding was seen in 33.3% (3/9) of the patients in the TC-325 group and 10.0% (1/10) in the CCT group. One patient required angio-embolization therapy while three had successful conventional endotherapy. Two patients from the TC-325 group had serious adverse events that were not procedure- or therapy-related. In patients with Forrest IIA or IIB ulcers, five received TC-325 monotherapy; none had rebleeding. Our pilot study showed that TC-325 has a tendency towards a higher rebleeding rate than CCT, when treating actively bleeding ulcers. Larger trials are necessary for definitive results. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Bleeding peptic ulcer. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/acetylsalicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, A.; Bredahl, K.; Muckadell, O.B. de

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) are risk factors for bleeding peptic ulcer. HP eradication reduces the risk of rebleeding. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and presence of blood...

  20. [Optimal Operational Definition of Patient with Peptic Ulcer Bleeding for Big Data Analysis Using Combination of Clinical Characteristics in a Secondary General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Hyun Ki; Woo, Yong Sik; Jahng, Jaehoon; Jin, Young Ran; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Yong Sung; Jung, Hwoon Yong

    2016-08-25

    Peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Korea but there has been no research done using big data. This study evaluates the optimal operational definition (OD) for big data research by analyzing clinical characteristics of PUB. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of 92 patients with PUB confirmed on endoscopy in Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital (January 2013 to December 2014). We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) to detect confirmed PUB patients using ODs developed by combining clinical features of patients with PUB. The mean patient age was 63 years. Men had higher prevalence of PUB than women. Bleeding gastric ulcer was proportionately common in the age range of 40s to 60s in men, while a significantly higher rate of bleeding occurred in women older than 70s. The rate of drug-induced ulcer was 28.2%, whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was 47.8%. Among the hospitalized patients with diagnostic code of PUB, we ruled out patients with endoscopic removal of gastric adenoma or peritonitis, and selected patients who had been administered intravenous proton pump inhibitor. The sensitivity in this setting was 82.6%, and PPV was 88.4%. PUB was more common in older patients, and there was a clear gender difference in gastric ulcer bleeding by age. With a proper OD using PUB diagnostic codes, we can identify true patients with sufficiently high sensitivity and PPV.

  1. [Diagnosis of gastric ulcer in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Kiyoshi; Fukuchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that gastric ulcers are most often found at anglus and upper corpus in the elderly. The number of gastric ulcer found at upper corpus hold half of all cases in the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer. Sixty percent of the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer took NSAIDs including low-dose aspirin in authors' hospital. Now it is easy to treat and cure bleeding ulcers due to development of endoscopic hemostasis and antiulcer drugs such as proton pump inhibitor(PPI). However, the elderly patients sometimes result in fatal outcome on bleeding from gastric ulcer. Therefore, it is important to prevent ulcer complications by PPI for the high-risk group such as elderly patients taking NSAIDs.

  2. Supplementary arteriel embolization an option in high-risk ulcer bleeding--a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Hansen, Jane Møller; Andersen, Poul Erik; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is rebleeding which is associated with up to a fivefold increase in mortality. We examined if supplementary transcatheter arterial embolization (STAE) performed after achieved endoscopic hemostasis improves outcome in patients with high-risk ulcers. The study was designed as a non-blinded, parallel group, randomized-controlled trial and performed in a university hospital setting. Patients admitted with PUB from Forrest Ia - IIb ulcers controlled by endoscopic therapy were randomized (1:1 ratio) to STAE of the bleeding artery within 24 h or continued standard treatment. Randomization was stratified according to stigmata of hemorrhage. Patients were followed for 30 days. Primary outcome was a composite endpoint where patients were classified into five groups based on transfusion requirement, development of rebleeding, need of hemostatic intervention and mortality. Secondary outcomes were rebleeding, number of blood transfusions received, duration of admission and mortality. Totally 105 patients were included. Of the 49 patients allocated to STAE 31 underwent successful STAE. There was no difference in composite endpoint. Two versus eight patients re-bled in the STAE and control group, respectively (Intention-to-treat analysis; p = .10). After adjustment for possible imbalances a strong trend was noted between STAE and rate of rebleeding (p = .079). STAE is potentially useful for preventing rebleeding in high-risk PUB. STAE can safely be performed in selected cases with high risk of rebleeding. Further studies are needed in order to confirm these findings; ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT01125852.

  3. Double oral esomeprazole after a 3-day intravenous esomeprazole infusion reduces recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Wu, Chung-Tai; Chang, Wei-Lun; Cheng, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2014-12-01

    Patients with high Rockall scores have increased risk of ulcer rebleeding after 3-day esomeprazole infusions. To investigate whether double oral esomeprazole given after a 3-day esomeprazole infusion decreases ulcer rebleeding for patients with high Rockall scores. We prospectively enrolled 293 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who had achieved endoscopic haemostasis. After a 3-day esomeprazole infusion, patients with Rockall scores ≥6 were randomised into the oral double-dose group (n=93) or the oral standard-dose group (n=94) to receive 11 days of oral esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily or once daily, respectively. The patients with Rockall scores peptic ulcer rebleeding. Among patients with Rockall scores ≥6, the oral double-dose group had a higher cumulative rebleeding-free proportion than the oral standard-dose group (p=0.02, log-rank test). The proportion of patients free from recurrent bleeding during the 4th-28th day in the oral double-dose group remained lower than that of the group with Rockall scores peptic ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with Rockall scores ≥6. NCT01591083. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Similar Efficacy of Proton-Pump Inhibitors vs H2-Receptor Antagonists in Reducing Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding or Ulcers in High-Risk Users of Low-Dose Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Kyaw, Moe; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Lee, Vivian; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Naito, Yuji; Watanabe, Toshio; Ching, Jessica Y L; Lam, Kelvin; Lo, Angeline; Chan, Heyson; Lui, Rashid; Tang, Raymond S Y; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tse, Yee Kit; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Handa, Osamu; Nebiki, Hiroko; Wu, Justin C Y; Abe, Takashi; Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Ng, Siew C; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether H 2 -receptor antagonists (H2RAs) reduce the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in aspirin users at high risk. We performed a double-blind randomized trial to compare the effects of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) vs a H2RA antagonist in preventing recurrent upper GI bleeding and ulcers in high-risk aspirin users. We studied 270 users of low-dose aspirin (≤325 mg/day) with a history of endoscopically confirmed ulcer bleeding at 8 sites in Hong Kong and Japan. After healing of ulcers, subjects with negative results from tests for Helicobacter pylori resumed aspirin (80 mg) daily and were assigned randomly to groups given a once-daily PPI (rabeprazole, 20 mg; n = 138) or H2RA (famotidine, 40 mg; n = 132) for up to 12 months. Subjects were evaluated every 2 months; endoscopy was repeated if they developed symptoms of upper GI bleeding or had a reduction in hemoglobin level greater than 2 g/dL and after 12 months of follow-up evaluation. The adequacy of upper GI protection was assessed by end points of recurrent upper GI bleeding and a composite of recurrent upper GI bleeding or recurrent endoscopic ulcers at month 12. During the 12-month study period, upper GI bleeding recurred in 1 patient receiving rabeprazole (0.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-5.1%) and in 4 patients receiving famotidine (3.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.1%) (P = .16). The composite end point of recurrent bleeding or endoscopic ulcers at month 12 was reached by 9 patients receiving rabeprazole (7.9%; 95% CI, 4.2%-14.7%) and 13 patients receiving famotidine (12.4%; 95% CI, 7.4%-20.4%) (P = .26). In a randomized controlled trial of users of low-dose aspirin at risk for recurrent GI bleeding, a slightly lower proportion of patients receiving a PPI along with aspirin developed recurrent bleeding or ulcer than of patients receiving an H2RA with the aspirin, although this difference was not statistically significant. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT01408186. Copyright © 2017 AGA

  5. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  6. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described

  7. Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with a reduced risk for bleeding and perforated gastroduodenal ulcers attributable to non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Fernandes, Robert W.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van Roon, Eric N.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is hampered by gastrointestinal ulcer complications, such as ulcer bleeding and perforation. The efficacy of proton-pump inhibitors in the primary prevention of ulcer complications arising from the use of NSAIDs remains unproven.

  8. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign ulcer. Mallory-Weiss tear .... pressure and direct thermal coagulation. Alternatively, use ... Forrest classification of peptic ulcer bleeding related to risks of rebleeding. (NBVV - non- .... esomeprazole for prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer ...

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of two combined therapies for peptic ulcer bleeding: adrenaline injection plus haemoclipping versus adrenaline injection followed by bipolar electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer remains the most frequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment of bleeding with simultaneous combination of two endoscopic techniques has proved to be more efficient than monotherapy. None of the published comparative studies of various contact coagulation modalities have confirmed the superiority of one of these techniques over the others. Aim To compare the therapeutic outcomes of the use of a device enabling both injection of adrenaline solution and bipolar electrocoagulation (A + BE) to those of combined adrenaline injection with mechanical therapy (haemostatic clips) (A + HC) in the treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding. Material and methods Fifty-two subjects with bleeding ulcers were assigned to the A + BE group, and 55 patients were treated with A + HC. Results Overall, treatment failed in 20 patients (20/107, 18.7%): in 10 individuals from the A + BE group (10/52; 18.2%) and in 10 individuals from the A + HC group (10/55; 19.2%) (p > 0.05). Primary haemostasis was not obtained in 7 patients (6.5%): in 4 patients in the A + BE group and in 3 patients in the A + HC group (p > 0.05). Ten individuals (9.3%) experienced recurrent bleeding during hospitalisation: 4 patients from the A + BE group and 6 patients from the A + HC group (p > 0.05). Finally, in 96.3% of the patients (n = 103) the endoscopic treatment proved efficient with regards to obtaining haemostasis during hospitalisation. Surgical intervention was required in 4 individuals (3.7%): 2 patients in the A + BE group and 2 patients treated with A + HC (p > 0.05). Three patients (2.8%) – all from the A + HC group – died during hospitalisation. No significant intergroup differences were documented with regards to the mean number of transfused blood units and the mean length of hospital stay. Conclusions The efficacy of combined endoscopic treatment of ulcer bleeding with a probe enabling simultaneous bipolar electrocoagulation and adrenaline injection seems

  10. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  11. Association between ulcer site and outcome in complicated peptic ulcer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DESIGN: a nationwide cohort study with prospective...... and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality...... was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p 

  12. High prevalence of ulcer bleeding risk factors in dual antiplatelet-treated patients after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Berit Elin S; Hansen, Jane M; Junker, Anders B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dual antiplatelet therapy is standard treatment following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and stenting. However, such therapy increases the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The risk factors of UGIB are well-documented and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment...... reduces the risk. The aim was to describe the prevalence of risk factors of UGIB in dual antiplatelet-treated patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among dual antiplatelet-treated first-time PCI patients in Western Denmark......: A total of 1,358 patients with a mean age of 64.1 years (range: 33-92 years) were included. The distribution of risk factors was as follows: dyspepsia: 681 patients (50.1%); previous ulcer: 110 (8.1%; 2.3% with bleeding); use of NSAIDs: 214 (15.8%); corticosteroids (2.9%), SSRIs (5.8%) and anticoagulants...

  13. Endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer bleeding: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracat, Felipe; Moura, Eduardo; Bernardo, Wanderley; Pu, Leonardo Zorron; Mendonça, Ernesto; Moura, Diogo; Baracat, Renato; Ide, Edson

    2016-06-01

    Peptic ulcer represents the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic therapy can reduce the risks of rebleeding, continued bleeding, need for surgery, and mortality. The objective of this review is to compare the different modalities of endoscopic therapy. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, LILACS, DARE, and CINAHL. We selected randomized clinical trials that assessed contemporary endoscopic hemostatic techniques. The outcomes evaluated were: initial hemostasis, rebleeding rate, need for surgery, and mortality. The possibility of publication bias was evaluated by funnel plots. An additional analysis was made, including only the higher-quality trials. Twenty-eight trials involving 2988 patients were evaluated. Injection therapy alone was inferior to injection therapy with hemoclip and with thermal coagulation when evaluating rebleeding and the need for emergency surgery. Hemoclip was superior to injection therapy in terms of rebleeding; there were no statistically significant differences between hemoclip alone and hemoclip with injection therapy. There was considerable heterogeneity in the comparisons between hemoclip and thermal coagulation. There were no statistically significant differences between thermal coagulation and injection therapy, though their combination was superior, in terms of rebleeding, to thermal coagulation alone. Injection therapy should not be used alone. Hemoclip is superior to injection therapy, and combining hemoclip with an injectate does not improve hemostatic efficacy above hemoclip alone. Thermal coagulation has similar efficacy as injection therapy; combining these appears to be superior to thermal coagulation alone. Therefore, we recommend the application of hemoclips or the combined use of injection therapy with thermal coagulation for the treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding.

  14. Hematologic and laboratory parameters in patientis with peptic ulcer bleeding treated by two modalities of endoscopic haemostasis and proton pompe inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Mehmedović-Redžepović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To compare two schedules (continuous infusion or bolus iv. ofPPI in treatment after endoscopic homeostasis of bleeding ulcers. Methods Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer, or a recent history (<24 h before presentation were included in the study. All cases with actively bleeding ulcers were treated with epinephrine injection and/or thermal coagulation, and randomized to receive intravenous PPIs according to the continuousregimen (in continuous infusion or the standard regimen (40 mg bolus twice a day for 3 days. Results 69 patients were treated. Bleeding recurred in 5 of 34 patients (14.7% receiving the intensive regimen, and in 8 of 35 (22.8% patients receiving the standard regimen. Hemoglobine rate in standard regimen group was 93,5 g/L (SD 23,8, and in intensive regimen group 106,6 g/L (SD 22,4 (p = 0.042. Total protein rate in the standard regimen group was 65,1 g/L (SD 7,3 and in the intensive regimen group 67,7 g/L (SD 8,15, (p = 0.525. Albumin rate in the standard regimen group was 31,0 g/L (SD 5,2, whereas in the intensive regimen group it was 34,8 g/L (SD 7,4, (p = 0.652. Globulin rate in the standard regimen group was 31,0 g/L (SD 5,2 and in the intensive regimen group 32,3 g/L (5,3, (p = 0.875. Fibrinogen rate in the standard regimen group was 11,1 (SD 2,6 and 10,8 g/L (SD 2,4 p = 0.622 in the intensive regimen group. A mean number of units of blood transfusion for patients in the intensive group was 2,18 (SD 0,8 and 1,34 (SD 1,02 in the standard group, with statistical level of difference p = 0.0004, using Student t-test. The duration of hospital stay was 6,4 days (SD 2,8 in the standard group and 5,8 days (SD 2,8 in the intensive group (p = 0.40. There were fewer surgical interventions in the intensive versus standard regimen.Conclusion In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers with successfulendoscopic hemostasis the standard IPP regimen had advantage for transfusion requirements, but no advantage with

  15. Preadmission use of SSRIs alone or in combination with NSAIDs and 30-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasse, Christiane; Christensen, Steffen; Riis, Anders

    2009-01-01

    with NSAIDs on 30-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). MATERIAL AND METHODS. A population-based cohort study of patients with a first hospitalization with PUB in three Danish counties was carried out between 1991 and 2005 using medical databases. We calculated 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs...

  16. Guidelines for endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Kakushima, Naomi; Kato, Motohiko; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Hoteya, Shu; Kataoka, Mikinori; Shimaoka, Shunji; Yahagi, Naohisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2016-05-01

    Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES) has compiled a set of guidelines for endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding using evidence-based methods. The major cause of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is peptic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. As a result, these guidelines mainly focus on peptic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding, although bleeding from other causes is also overviewed. From the epidemiological aspect, in recent years in Japan, bleeding from drug-related ulcers has become predominant in comparison with bleeding from Helicobacter pylori (HP)-related ulcers, owing to an increase in the aging population and coverage of HP eradication therapy by national health insurance. As for treatment, endoscopic hemostasis, in which there are a variety of methods, is considered to be the first-line treatment for bleeding from almost all causes. It is very important to precisely evaluate the severity of the patient's condition and stabilize the patient's vital signs with intensive care for successful endoscopic hemostasis. Additionally, use of antisecretory agents is recommended to prevent rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, especially for gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. Eighteen statements with evidence and recommendation levels have been made by the JGES committee of these guidelines according to evidence obtained from clinical research studies. However, some of the statements that are supported by a low level of evidence must be confirmed by further clinical research. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vomiting of blood almost always proximal to the ligament of Treitz is the upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been estimated to be 50-100 per 1,00,000 person per year, with an annual hospitalization rate of approximately 100 per 1, 00,000 hospital admission. This study is to find out the prevalence of nature of lesion on Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in patients admitted for Gastrointestinal bleeding. (UGI Bleed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Place of Study- Department of General Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India. Type of Study- Prospective study. Period of Study- July 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS The Results Study on Endoscopic Findings in Upper Gastro Intestinal Bleed are 1. The peptic ulcer disease was the most common lesion found on endoscopy with prevalence of 54%. 2. Varices contributes second common lesion, next to peptic ulcer disease in UGI bleed with prevalence of 16%. 3. Minor UGI bleed was the commonest presentation. Majority of lesions (60% presented with minor UGI bleed, 28% lesions presented as moderate UGI bleed. Only 8% presented as major UGI bleed. 4. Varices account for the most common cause for major UGI bleed contributing 50%. 5. Gastric ulcer was commonest lesions accounting for 37 cases (37% among 72 cases having single acid peptic lesions on endoscopy. The second most common is duodenal ulcer (31%. 6. Multiple lesions were found in 10% of cases. Peptic ulcer lesions were found in 20% of total number of varices cases. CONCLUSION Peptic ulcer disease was found to be most common lesion causing UGI bleed, with most common presentation as minor UGI bleed and variceal bleed being most common cause of major UGI bleed.

  18. Outcome of holiday and nonholiday admission patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding: a real-world report from southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Chin; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that patients admitted on the weekend with peptic ulcer bleeding might be at increased risk of adverse outcomes. However, other reports found that there was no "holiday effect." The purpose of this study was to determine if these findings hold true for a real-life Taiwanese medical gastroenterology practice. We reviewed the medical files of hospital admissions for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who received initial endoscopic hemostasis between January 2009 and March 2011. A total of 744 patients were enrolled (nonholiday group, n = 615; holiday group, n = 129) after applying strict exclusion criteria. Holidays were defined as weekends and national holidays in Taiwan. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. We also observed that, compared to the nonholiday group, patients in the holiday group received earlier endoscopy treatment (12.20 hours versus 16.68 hours, P = 0.005), needed less transfused blood (4.8 units versus 6.6 units, P = 0.02), shifted from intravenous to oral proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) more quickly (5.3 days versus 6.9 days, P = 0.05), and had shorter hospital stays (13.05 days versus 17.36 days, P = 0.005). In the holiday and nonholiday groups, the rebleeding rates were 17.8% and 23.41% (P = 0.167), the mortality rates were 11.63% versus 13.66% (P = 0.537), and surgery was required in 2.11% versus 4.66% (P = 0.093), respectively. Patients who presented with peptic ulcer bleeding on holidays did not experience delayed endoscopy or increased adverse outcomes. In fact, patients who received endoscopic hemostasis on the holiday had shorter waiting times, needed less transfused blood, switched to oral PPIs quicker, and experienced shorter hospital stays.

  19. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many possible causes of GI bleeding, including hemorrhoids , peptic ulcers , tears or inflammation in the esophagus, ... blood Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Hemorrhoids Peptic Ulcer National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  20. Emergency gastroduodenal artery embolization by sandwich technique for angiographically obvious and oblivious, endotherapy failed bleeding duodenal ulcers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil, G., E-mail: ivyanil10@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiology, Changi General Hospital (Singapore); Tan, A.G.S.; Cheong, H.-W.; Ng, K.-S.; Teoh, W.-C. [Department of Radiology, Changi General Hospital (Singapore)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of adopting a standardized protocol for emergency transarterial embolization (TAE) of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) with a uniform sandwich technique in endotherapy-failed bleeding duodenal ulcers (DU). Materials and methods: Between December 2009 and December 2010, 15 patients with endotherapy-failed bleeding DU were underwent embolization. Irrespective of active extravasation, the segment of the GDA supplying the bleeding DU as indicated by endoscopically placed clips was embolized by a uniform sandwich technique with gelfoam between metallic coils. The clinical profile of the patients, re-bleeding, mortality rates, and response time of the intervention radiology team were recorded. The angioembolizations were reviewed for their technical success, clinical success, and complications. Mean duration of follow-up was 266.5 days. Results: Active contrast-medium extravasation was seen in three patients (20%). Early re-bleeding was noted in two patients (13.33%). No patient required surgery. There was 100% technical success, while primary and secondary clinical success rates for TAE were 86.6 and 93.3%, respectively. Focal pancreatitis was the single major procedure-related complication. There was no direct bleeding-DU-related death. The response time of the IR service averaged 150 min (range 60-360 min) with mean value of 170 min. Conclusion: Emergency embolization of the GDA using the sandwich technique is a safe and highly effective therapeutic option for bleeding DUs refractory to endotherapy. A prompt response from the IR service can be ensured with an institutional protocol in place for such common medical emergencies.

  1. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Five-year experience from one centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the commonest emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Objective To assess the frequency of erosive gastropathy and duodenal ulcer as a cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding as well as its relation to age, gender and known risk factors. METHOD We conducted retrospective observational analysis of emergency endoscopy reports from the records of the Emergency Department of Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Data consisted of patients' demographics, endoscopic findings and potential risk factors. Results During the period 2000-2005, three thousand nine hundred and fifty four emergency upper endoscopies were performed for acute bleeding. In one quarter of cases, acute gastric erosions were the actual cause of bleeding. One half of them were associated with excessive consumption of salicylates and NSAIDs. In most of the examined cases, bleeding stopped spontaneously, while 7.6% of the cases required endoscopic intervention. Duodenal ulcer was detected as a source of bleeding in 1320 (33.4% patients and was significantly associated with a male gender (71.8% and salicylate or NSAID abuse (59.1% (χ2-test; p=0.007. Conclusion Erosive gastropathy and duodenal ulcer represent a significant cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for up to 60% of all cases that required emergency endoscopy during the 5- year period. Consumption of NSAIDs and salicylates was associated more frequently with bleeding from a duodenal ulcer than with erosive gastropathy leading to a conclusion that we must explore other causes of erosive gastropathy more thoroughly. .

  2. Surgical management of peptic ulcer disease today--indication, technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittel, T T; Jehle, E C; Becker, H D

    2000-03-01

    The current surgical management of peptic ulcer disease and its outcome have been reviewed. Today, surgery for peptic ulcer disease is largely restricted to the treatment of complications. In peptic ulcer perforation, a conservative treatment trial can be given in selected cases. If laparotomy is necessary, simple closure is sufficient in the large majority of cases, and definitive ulcer surgery to reduce gastric acid secretion is no longer justified in these patients. Laparoscopic surgery for perforated peptic ulcer has failed to prove to be a significant advantage over open surgery. In bleeding peptic ulcers, definitive hemostasis can be achieved by endoscopic treatment in more than 90% of cases. In 1-2% of cases, immediate emergency surgery is necessary. Some ulcers have a high risk of re-bleeding, and early elective surgery might be advisable. Surgical bleeding control can be achieved by direct suture and extraluminal ligation of the gastroduodenal artery or by gastric resection. Benign gastric outlet obstruction can be controlled by endoscopic balloon dilatation in 70% of cases, but gastrojejunostomy or gastric resection are necessary in about 30% of cases. Elective surgery for peptic ulcer disease has been largely abandoned, and bleeding or obstructing ulcers can be managed safely by endoscopic treatment in most cases. However, surgeons will continue to encounter patients with peptic ulcer disease for emergency surgery. Currently, laparoscopic surgery has no proven advantage in peptic ulcer surgery.

  3. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-01-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy

  4. Usefulness of angiographic embolization endoscopic metallic clip placement in patient with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min Jae; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Ho Jun; Cho, Young Jun; Bae, Seok Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of angiographic embolization after endoscopic metallic clip placement around the edge of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. We have chosen 41 patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (22 gastric ulcers, 16 duodenal ulcers, 3 malignant ulcers) between January 2010 and December 2012. We inserted metallic clips during the routine endoscopic treatments of the bleeding ulcers. Subsequent transcatheter arterial embolization was performed within 2 hours. We analyzed the angiographic positive rates, angiographic success rates and clinical success rates. Among the 41 patients during the angiography, 19 patients (46%) demonstrated active bleeding points. Both groups underwent embolization using microcoils, N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA), microcoils with NBCA or gelfoam particle. There are no statistically significant differences between these two groups according to which embolic materials are being used. The bleeding was initially stopped in all patients, except the two who experienced technical failures. Seven patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding within two weeks. Among them, 4 patients were successful re-embolized. Another 3 patients underwent gastrectomy. Overall, clinical success was achieved in 36 of 41 (87.8%) patients. The endoscopic metallic clip placement was helpful to locate the correct target vessels for the angiographic embolization. In conclusion, this technique reduced re-bleeding rates, especially in patients who do not show active bleeding points.

  5. Usefulness of angiographic embolization endoscopic metallic clip placement in patient with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min Jae; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Ho Jun; Cho, Young Jun; Bae, Seok Hwan; Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Kang, Chae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of angiographic embolization after endoscopic metallic clip placement around the edge of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. We have chosen 41 patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (22 gastric ulcers, 16 duodenal ulcers, 3 malignant ulcers) between January 2010 and December 2012. We inserted metallic clips during the routine endoscopic treatments of the bleeding ulcers. Subsequent transcatheter arterial embolization was performed within 2 hours. We analyzed the angiographic positive rates, angiographic success rates and clinical success rates. Among the 41 patients during the angiography, 19 patients (46%) demonstrated active bleeding points. Both groups underwent embolization using microcoils, N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA), microcoils with NBCA or gelfoam particle. There are no statistically significant differences between these two groups according to which embolic materials are being used. The bleeding was initially stopped in all patients, except the two who experienced technical failures. Seven patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding within two weeks. Among them, 4 patients were successful re-embolized. Another 3 patients underwent gastrectomy. Overall, clinical success was achieved in 36 of 41 (87.8%) patients. The endoscopic metallic clip placement was helpful to locate the correct target vessels for the angiographic embolization. In conclusion, this technique reduced re-bleeding rates, especially in patients who do not show active bleeding points.

  6. Management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Current policies and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Holster (Ingrid); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAcute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a gastroenterological emergency with a mortality of 6%-13%. The vast majority of these bleeds are due to peptic ulcers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Helicobacter pylori are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

  7. Optimal initiation of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Lee, Dong Ho; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jaihwan; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hayng; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-02-28

    To evaluate when Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy (ET) should be started in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). Clinical data concerning adults hospitalized with PUB were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Age, sex, type and stage of peptic ulcer, whether endoscopic therapy was performed or not, methods of H. pylori detection, duration of hospitalization, and specialty of the attending physician were investigated. Factors influencing the confirmation of H. pylori infection prior to discharge were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The H. pylori eradication rates of patients who received ET during hospitalization and those who commenced ET as outpatients were compared. A total of 232 patients with PUB were evaluated for H. pylori infection by histology and/or rapid urease testing. Of these patients, 53.7% (127/232) had confirmed results of H. pylori infection prior to discharge. In multivariate analysis, duration of hospitalization and ulcer stage were factors independently influencing whether H. pylori infection was confirmed before or after discharge. Among the patients discharged before confirmation of H. pylori infection, 13.3% (14/105) were lost to follow-up. Among the patients found to be H. pylori-positive after discharge, 41.4% (12/29) did not receive ET. There was no significant difference in the H. pylori eradication rate between patients who received ET during hospitalization and those who commenced ET as outpatients [intention-to-treat: 68.8% (53/77) vs 60% (12/20), P=0.594; per-protocol: 82.8% (53/64) vs 80% (12/15), P=0.723]. Because many patients with PUB who were discharged before H. pylori infection status was confirmed lost an opportunity to receive ET, we should confirm H. pylori infection and start ET prior to discharge.

  8. Benign (solitary) ulcer of the rectum - another cause for rectal stricture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa, H.J.; Smith, H.J.; Dickinson, T.A.

    1981-01-15

    Benign rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients may present with mild, often recurrent, rectal bleeding frequently ascribed to hemorrhoids. Barium enema may be normal during the early, nonulcerative phase of proctitis. Single (or multiple) ulcers with or without rectal stricture are the hallmarks of the radiographic diagnosis. Radiologic demonstration of the ulcer(s) is not required, however, for the diagnosis. Benign rectal ulcer should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign-appearing rectal strictures.

  9. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: the Usefulness of Rotational Angiography after Endoscopic Marking with a Metallic Clip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to assess the usefulness of rotational angiography after endoscopic marking with a metallic clip in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients with no extravasation of contrast medium on conventional angiography. In 16 patients (mean age, 59.4 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (13 gastric ulcers, 2 duodenal ulcers, 1 malignant ulcer), a metallic clip was placed via gastroscopy and this had been preceded by routine endoscopic treatment. The metallic clip was placed in the fibrous edge of the ulcer adjacent to the bleeding point. All patients had negative results from their angiographic studies. To localize the bleeding focus, rotational angiography and high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip were used. Of the 16 patients, seven (44%) had positive results after high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip and they underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with microcoils. Nine patients without extravasation of contrast medium underwent TAE with microcoils as close as possible to the clip. The bleeding was stopped initially in all patients after treatment of the feeding artery. Two patients experienced a repeat episode of bleeding two days later. Of the two patients, one had subtle oozing from the ulcer margin and that patient underwent endoscopic treatment. One patient with malignant ulcer died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation one month after embolization. Complete clinical success was achieved in 14 of 16 (88%) patients. Delayed bleeding or major/minor complications were not noted. Rotational angiography after marking with a metallic clip helps to localize accurately the bleeding focus and thus to embolize the vessel correctly.

  10. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: the Usefulness of Rotational Angiography after Endoscopic Marking with a Metallic Clip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to assess the usefulness of rotational angiography after endoscopic marking with a metallic clip in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients with no extravasation of contrast medium on conventional angiography. In 16 patients (mean age, 59.4 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (13 gastric ulcers, 2 duodenal ulcers, 1 malignant ulcer), a metallic clip was placed via gastroscopy and this had been preceded by routine endoscopic treatment. The metallic clip was placed in the fibrous edge of the ulcer adjacent to the bleeding point. All patients had negative results from their angiographic studies. To localize the bleeding focus, rotational angiography and high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip were used. Of the 16 patients, seven (44%) had positive results after high pressure angiography as close as possible to the clip and they underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with microcoils. Nine patients without extravasation of contrast medium underwent TAE with microcoils as close as possible to the clip. The bleeding was stopped initially in all patients after treatment of the feeding artery. Two patients experienced a repeat episode of bleeding two days later. Of the two patients, one had subtle oozing from the ulcer margin and that patient underwent endoscopic treatment. One patient with malignant ulcer died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation one month after embolization. Complete clinical success was achieved in 14 of 16 (88%) patients. Delayed bleeding or major/minor complications were not noted. Rotational angiography after marking with a metallic clip helps to localize accurately the bleeding focus and thus to embolize the vessel correctly.

  11. Gastrointestinal bleeding after intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective review of 808 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tie-Cheng; Li, Jian-Guo; Shi, Hong-Mei; Yu, Dong-Ming; Shan, Kai; Li, Li-Xia; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Tian-Hua

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the incidence and risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The available medical records of patients with ICH admitted from June 2008 to December 2009 for any episode of GI bleeding, possible precipitating factors and administration of ulcer prophylaxis were reviewed. The prevalence of GI bleeding was 26.7%, including 3 cases of severe GI bleeding (0.35%). Patients with GI bleeding had significantly longer hospital stay and higher in-hospital mortality compared with patients without GI bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, sepsis and ICH volume were independent predictors of GI bleeding. About 63.4% of patients with ICH received stress ulcer prophylaxis. GI bleeding occurred frequently after ICH, but severe events were rare. Age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, sepsis and ICH volume were independent predictors of GI bleeding occurring after ICH.

  12. Bleeding and starving: fasting and delayed refeeding after upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Meira, Tânia; Nunes, Ana; Santos, Carla Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Early refeeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is safe and reduces hospital stay/costs. The aim of this study was obtaining objective data on refeeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. From 1 year span records of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients that underwent urgent endoscopy: clinical features; rockall score; endoscopic data, including severity of lesions and therapy; feeding related records of seven days: liquid diet prescription, first liquid intake, soft/solid diet prescription, first soft/solid intake. From 133 patients (84 men) Rockall classification was possible in 126: 76 score ≥5, 50 score bleeding, eight rebled, two underwent surgery, 13 died. Ulcer was the major bleeding cause, 63 patients underwent endoscopic therapy. There was 142/532 possible refeeding records, no record 37% patients. Only 16% were fed during the first day and half were only fed on third day or later. Rockall upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients must be refed earlier, according to guidelines.

  13. [Anterior seromyotomy of the body and the functional part of the stomach combined with posterior truncal vagotomy and ulcer excision in the surgical treatment of complicated stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V I; Sytnik, A P; Gorbunov, V N; KOrenev, N N; Naumov, B A; Gordeev, S A

    1990-07-01

    Anterior seromyotomy of the body and fundus of the stomach was combined with posterior truncal vagotomy and excision of the ulcer in 23 patients with gastric ulcer complicated by bleeding or perforation. Seventeen patients had chronic ulcers of the body of the stomach (type I), 3 patients had concurrent ulcers (type II), and 3 more patients had acute ulcers of the body of the stomach. Operation was undertaken for active bleeding from the ulcer in 20 patients and for perforating ulcer in 3 patients. One patient died. Mild disorders of evacuation of an aqueous barium sulfate suspension from the stomach were noted in 4 patients.

  14. Benign (solitary) ulcer of the rectum - another cause for rectal stricture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa, H.J.; Smith, H.J.; Dickinson, T.A.; Veterans Administration Hospital, Dallas, TX; Texas Univ., Dallas

    1981-01-01

    Benign rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients may present with mild, often recurrent, rectal bleeding frequently ascribed to hemorrhoids. Barium enema may be normal during the early, nonulcerative phase of proctitis. Single (or multiple) uclers with or without rectal stricture are the hallmarks of the radiographic diagnosis. Radiologic demonstration of the ulcer(s) is not required, however, for the diagnosis. Benign rectal ulcer should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign-appearing rectal strictures. (orig.) [de

  15. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to ulcer in duodenal diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon Banos Madrid; Fernando Alberca de las Parras; Angel Vargas Acosta and others

    2006-01-01

    The reasons more frequent of high gastrointestinal bleeding are the peptic gastric and duodenal, followed by acute erosions and the varicose veins in oesophagus and stomach. The diverticulosis of the small bowel is a very rare reason of gastrointestinal bleeding, must considerate in patients with bleeding without evident reason in oesophagus and stomach, the habitual is to diagnose this entity of accidental form in the course of endoscopic procedures, radiological or surgical. The complications associated with the diverticulosis duodenal are rare; it justifies supporting a not surgical attitude at first

  16. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to ulcer in duodenal diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos Madrid, Ramon; Alberca de las Parras, Fernando; Vargas Acosta, Angel and others

    2006-01-01

    The reasons more frequent of high gastrointestinal bleeding are the peptic gastric and duodenal, followed by acute erosion and the varicose veins in oesophagus and stomachs. The diverticulosis of the small bowel is a very rare reason of gastrointestinal bleeding, must considerate in patients with bleeding without evident reason in oesophagus and stomach the habitual is to diagnose this entity of occidental form in the course of endoscopic procedures, radiological of surgical. The complications associated with the diverticulosis duodenal are rare; it justifies supporting a not surgical attitude at first

  17. A STUDY ON ENDOSCOPIC EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranaya Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the commonest gastrointestinal emergencies encountered by clinicians. Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Endoscopy has become the preferred method for diagnosis in patients with acute UGIB. This study is done in a diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE setup of a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the causes of UGIB prevalent in this part of our country which might differ from other studies. AIM To ascertain prevalent causes of UGIB in patients of this part of India admitted to a Govt. Tertiary Hospital with a provisional diagnosis of UGIB. METHOD One hundred consecutive patients with UGIB were subjected to UGIE to find out the aetiology. The clinical profile and endoscopic findings were analysed and compared with the data on UGIB from other studies. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 47.03 years with male: female ratio of 2.33:1. 58% of patients were first time bleeders. Majority of patients presented with melaena. Visualisation of active bleeding achieved to 85.7% when endoscopy was done within first 24 hrs. The commonest cause of UGIB was duodenal ulcer (DU which accounted for 41% cases. Gastric ulcer was responsible in 13% of cases. Portal hypertension was responsible for bleed in only 13%. Neoplasms accounted for 25% of cases. Other less common causes were erosive gastritis (3%, gastric polyp (3%, Mallory-Weiss tear (1%, and Dieulafoy’s lesion (1%. Among bleeding peptic ulcers, 27.8% of cases were classified as Forrest IIa and 20.4% in Forrest IIb & IIc each. Acid peptic disease was past history elicited in majority (33% followed by NSAID (26% and alcohol (26%. CONCLUSION The present study has diagnosed various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this part of country. The incidence of gastric carcinoma as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is significantly high compared to those in other studies. UGI endoscopy should be done in every case

  18. Helicobacter pylori eradication in complicated peptic ulcer: Beneficial in most?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subair Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has a role in minimizing the complications of peptic ulcer disease, namely, bleeding, perforation, and obstruction. However, the precise role of H. pylori eradication therapy in the complicated ulcers remains inconclusive, especially in perforation and gastric outlet obstruction. The prevalence of H. pylori in peptic ulcer bleeding patients has been widely underestimated owing to the differences in diagnostic tests and patient characteristics, and hence, it is recommended that an initial negative test should be followed up by a delayed repeat testing to rule out false negativity. It is well established now that eradication of H. pylori in patients with bleeding ulcers reduces rebleeding and ulcer recurrence. Multiple studies have attributed high recurrence rates of duodenal ulcer following simple closure to a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Eradication therapy decreases the recurrence rate of perforated ulcers, thus justifying the role of H. pylori eradication therapy following the primary surgical management of perforated ulcers. The role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer with gastric outlet obstruction is yet to be evaluated clearly. There are some reports of resolution of gastric outlet obstruction following therapy for H. pylori, obviating the need for surgery. Clarithromycin-containing regimens are recommended as first-line in areas of low resistance, whereas bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is the first-line empirical treatment in areas of high clarithromycin resistance. Treatment of H. pylori is beneficial in most of the patients with complicated peptic ulcer disease, especially in reducing recurrence of ulcer with or without complications.

  19. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Chinese Children: A Multicenter 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Baoxiang; Yuan, Lan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Xinqiong; Xiao, Yuan; Mei, Hong; Xu, Chundi

    2016-08-01

    Objective This study aims to analyze the clinical and endoscopic presentations of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in the Chinese children. Methods A 10-year retrospective study was made on children with UGIB and undertaken esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) from 4 tertiary referral centers in China. Results Of the 1218 children studied, the bleeding source was found in 76.4%. Erosive gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding (33.5%), followed by duodenal ulcer (23.2%). The proportion of erosive gastritis decreased with age (correlation coefficient = -0.787), and duodenal ulcer increased with age (correlation coefficient = 0.958). The bleeding source was more likely to be determined in children having EGDs within 48 hours (80.6% vs 67.9%). Conclusions In Chinese children with UGIB, erosive gastritis and duodenal ulcer were the leading causes, and their proportions varied with age. EGDs performed within 48 hours may improve the possibility of finding the source of bleeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  1. A Mysterious Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Disguising Itself as Diverticulosis and Peptic Ulcer Disease: A Review of Diagnostic Modalities for Aortoenteric Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viplove Senadhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old male with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and peptic ulcer disease (PUD presented with 2 episodes of maroon stools for 3 days and was found to be orthostatic. His PUD was thought to have accounted for a previous upper gastrointestinal (GI bleed. A colonoscopy revealed 3 polyps and a few diverticuli throughout the colon that were considered to be the source of the bleeding. Two months later, the patient had massive lower GI bleeding and developed hypovolemic shock with a positive bleeding scan in the splenic flexure; however, angiography was negative. A repeat colonoscopy revealed transverse/descending colon diverticular disease and the patient was scheduled for a left hemicolectomy for presumed diverticular bleeding. Intraoperatively, an aortoenteric (AE fistula secondary to an aorto-bi-iliac bypass graft placed during an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA repair 14 years prior was discovered and was found to be the source of the bleeding. The patient had an AE fistula repair and did well postoperatively without further bleeding. AE fistulas can present with either upper GI or lower GI bleeding, and are universally deadly if left untreated. AE fistulas often present with a herald bleed before life-threatening bleeding. A careful history should always be elicited in patients with risk factors of AAAs such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and a history of smoking. Strong clinical suspicion in the setting of a scrupulous patient history is the most important factor that allows for the diagnosis of an AE fistula. There are numerous diagnostic modalities for AE fistula, but there is not one specific test that universally diagnoses AE fistulas. Nuclear medicine scans and angiography should not be completely relied on for the diagnosis of AE fistulas or other lower GI bleeds for that manner. Although the conventional paradigm for evaluating lower GI bleeds incorporates nuclear medicine scans and angiography, there is

  2. [Clinical epidemiological characteristics and change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding over the past 15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Cui, Yi; Wang, Jinhui; Chen, Baili; He, Yao; Chen, Minhu

    2017-04-25

    To investigate the clinical epidemiology change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) over the past 15 years. Consecutive patients who was diagnosed as continuous UGIB in the endoscopy center of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun-Yat University during the period from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1998 and the period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013 were enrolled in this study. Their gender, age, etiology, ulcer classification, endoscopic treatment and hospitalization mortality were compared between two periods. In periods from 1997 to 1998 and 2012 to 2013, the detection rate of UGIB was 9.99%(928/9 287) and 4.49%(1 092/24 318)(χ 2 =360.089, P=0.000); the percentage of male patients was 73.28%(680/928) and 72.44% (791/1 092) (χ 2 =0.179, P=0.672), and the onset age was (47.3±16.4) years and (51.4±18.2) years (t=9.214, P=0.002) respectively. From 1997 to 1998, the first etiology of UGIB was peptic ulcer bleeding, accounting for 65.2%(605/928)[duodenal ulcer 47.8%(444/928), gastric ulcer 8.3%(77/928), stomal ulcer 2.3%(21/928), compound ulcer 6.8%(63/928)],the second was cancer bleeding(7.0%,65/928), and the third was esophageal and gastric varices bleeding (6.4%,59/928). From 2012 to 2013, peptic ulcer still was the first cause of UGIB, but the ratio obviously decreased to 52.7%(575/1092)(χ 2 =32.467, P=0.000)[duodenal ulcer 31.9%(348/1092), gastric ulcer 9.4%(103/1092), stomal ulcer 2.8%(30/1092), compound ulcer 8.6%(94/1092)]. The decreased ratio of duodenal ulcer bleeding was the main reason (χ 2 =53.724, P=0.000). Esophageal and gastric varices bleeding became the second cause (15.1%,165/1 092, χ 2 =38.976, P=0.000), and cancer was the third cause (9.2%,101/1 092, χ 2 =3.352, P=0.067). The largest increasing amplitude of the onset age was peptic ulcer bleeding [(46.2±16.7) years vs. (51.9±18.9) years, t=-5.548, P=0.000), and the greatest contribution to the amplitude was duodenal ulcer bleeding [(43.4±15.9) years vs. (48.4±19

  3. A retrospective study demonstrating properties of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Serhat; Dağli, Ulkü; Sarer, Banu; Gürel, Selim; Tözün, Nurdan; Sıvrı, Bülent; Akbaş, Türkay; Sahın, Burhan; Memık, Faruk; Batur, Yücel

    2011-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peptic ulcer are considered as the major factors for upper gastrointestinal system bleeding. The objective of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and etiologic factors, management and outcome of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal system bleeding in Turkey. Patients who admitted to hospitals with upper gastrointestinal system bleeding and in whom upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed were enrolled in this retrospective study. The detailed data of medical history, comorbid diseases, medications, admission to intensive care units, Helicobacter pylori infection, blood transfusion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and treatment outcome were documented. The most frequent causes of bleeding (%) were duodenal ulcer (49.4), gastric ulcer (22.8), erosion (9.6), and cancer (2.2) among 1,711 lesions in endoscopic appearances of 1,339 patients from six centers. Seven hundred and four patients were evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection and the test was positive in 45.6% of those patients. Comorbid diseases were present in 59.2% of the patients. The percentage of patients using acetylsalicylic acid and/or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was 54.3%. Bleeding was stopped with medical therapy in 66.9%. Only 3.7% of the patients underwent emergency surgery, and a 1.1% mortality rate was determined. Patients with upper gastrointestinal system bleeding were significantly older, more likely to be male, and more likely to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Though most of the patients were using gastro-protective agents, duodenal and gastric ulcers were the contributing factors in more than 70% of the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The extensive use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is a hazardous health issue considering the use of these drugs in half of the patients.

  4. Association between ulcer site and outcome in complicated peptic ulcer disease: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais

    2016-10-01

    Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). a nationwide cohort study with prospective and consecutive data collection. all patients treated for PUB and PPU at Danish hospitals between 2003 and 2014. demographic and clinical data reported to the Danish Clinical Registry of Emergency Surgery. 90- and 30-d mortality and re-intervention. the crude and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p ulcers (DUs) in PPU patients: adjusted OR 0.99 (0.84-1.16); p = 0.698, OR 0.93 (0.78 to 1.10); p = 0.409, and OR 0.97 (0.80-1.19); p = 0.799, respectively. DU site is a significant predictor of death and re-intervention in patients with PUB, as compared to GU site. This does not seem to be the case for patients with PPU.

  5. Severe Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from Linear Gastric Ulcers in Large Hiatal Hernias: a Large Prospective Case Series of Cameron Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas O.; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Machicado, Gustavo A.; Dulai, Gareth S.; Hines, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims Cameron ulcers are a rare but clinically significant cause of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (SUGIH). Our aims were to describe (1) the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with Cameron ulcers causing hospitalization for SUGIH, (2) the differences between patients with occult vs. overt bleeding and (3) between patients treated surgically and medically. Patients and methods Over the past 17 years, all consecutive patients hospitalized in our two tertiary referral medical centers for severe UGIH or severe obscure GIH and entered into our large prospective databasis were screened for Cameron ulcer diagnosis. Results Cameron ulcers were diagnosed in 25 patients of 3960 patients with SUGIH (0.6%). 21 patients had follow-up (median [IQR] time of 20.4 months [8.5–31.8]). Patients were more often elderly females with chronic anemia, always had large hiatal hernias, and were usually referred for obscure SUGIH. Twelve (57.2%) patients were referred to surgery for rebleeding and recurrent blood loss while treated with high dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). 9 (42.8%) other patients continued PPI without any rebleeding during the follow-up. Patients with overt bleeding had significantly more prior hospitalizations for SUGIH, more often stigmata of hemorrhage on ulcers, and more red blood cell transfusions than patients with occult bleeding. However, there was no difference in rebleeding and mortality rates between the two groups. Conclusions Cameron ulcers in large hiatal hernias are an uncommon cause of SUGIH. Most of patients are referred for obscure GIH. The choice of medical vs. surgical therapy should be individualized. PMID:23616128

  6. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Effects of the CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, peptic ulcer bleeding and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainan, Wannapa; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn

    2014-01-01

    The CYP2C19 genotype has been found to be an important factor for peptic ulcer healing and H. pylori eradication, influencing the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical correlations of the CYP2C19 genotype in patients with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and gastric cancer in Thailand. Clinical information, endoscopic findings and H. pylori infection status of patients were assessed between May 2012 and November 2014 in Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. Upper GI endoscopy was performed for all patients. Five milliliters of blood were collected for H. pylori serological diagnosis and CYP2C19 study. CYP2C19 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and classified as rapid metabolizer (RM), intermediate metabolizer (IM) or poor metabolizer (PM). A total of 202 patients were enrolled including 114 with gastritis, 36 with PUD, 50 with PUB and 2 with gastric cancer. Prevalence of CYP2C19 genotype was 82/202 (40.6%) in RM, 99/202 (49%) in IM and 21/202 (10.4%) in PM. Overall H. pylori infection was 138/202 patients (68.3%). H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 72% in RM genotype, 69.7% in IM genotype and 47.6% in PM genotype. Both gastric cancer patients had the IM genotype. In PUB patients, the prevalence of genotype RM (56%) was highest followed by IM (32%) and PM(12%). Furthermore, the prevalence of genotype RM in PUB was significantly greater than gastritis patients (56% vs 36%: p=0.016; OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.1-4.7). CYP2C19 genotype IM was the most common genotype whereas genotype RM was the most common in PUB patients. All gastric cancer patients had genotype IM. The CYP2C19 genotype RM might be play role in development of PUD and PUB. Further study in different population is necessary to verify clinical usefulness of CYP2C19 genotyping in development of

  8. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten H

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is considered standard of care in the majority of critically ill patients in the ICU. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of SUP in ICU patients, including data on the prevalence of gastrointestinal bleeding and the ba......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is considered standard of care in the majority of critically ill patients in the ICU. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of SUP in ICU patients, including data on the prevalence of gastrointestinal bleeding...

  9. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients in Nile Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mamdouh Ahmed; Tawfik, Mohamed Abd El-Raouf; El-Sawy, Abd Allah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in cirrhotic patients occurs mainly from esophageal and gastric varices; however, quite a large number of cirrhotic patients bleed from other sources as well. The aim of the present work is to determine the prevalence of non-variceal UGIB as well as its different causes among the cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients in Nile Delta. Emergency upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for AUGIB was done in 650 patients. Out of these patients, 550 (84.6%) patients who were proved to have cirrhosis were the subject of the present study. From all cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients, 415 (75.5%) bled from variceal sources (esophageal and gastric) while 135 (24.5%) of them bled from non-variceal sources. Among variceal sources of bleeding, esophageal varices were much more common than gastric varices. Peptic ulcer was the most common non-variceal source of bleeding. Non-variceal bleeding in cirrhosis was not frequent, and sources included peptic ulcer, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and erosive disease of the stomach and duodenum.

  10. A case of von Willebrand disease discovered during treatment of a sacral pressure ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Fukaya, Sumiko; Furuya, Masaichi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2010-12-01

    A sacral pressure ulcer developed in a patient hospitalized for cerebral infarction. Each time necrotic tissue was debrided from the ulcer, pressure hemostasis was necessary to stop the bleeding. As treatment continued, the pressure required to stop the bleeding caused the ulcer to worsen, leading to a downward spiral in the patient's condition. While trying to determine the cause of this problem, we discovered that the patient had von Willebrand disease. Medication controlled the bleeding, and the pressure ulcer began to heal at the same time. It was clear to us that conservative treatment would lead to a complete cure but that the healing process would take a long time and require continued administration of an expensive drug. We decided, therefore, to close the wound with a fasciocutaneous flap so that the patient could be quickly transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. About 1 month after surgery, epithelialization was complete, we were able to discontinue medication, and the patient was discharged. This experience demonstrates the importance of determining the cause of any deviation from the normal course of healing in pressure ulcers. It also indicates that the use of fasciocutaneous flaps, which involve little intraoperative bleeding in short surgeries, is appropriate in cases like this one.

  11. Effect of baseline characteristics on response to proton pump inhibitors in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, James; Lind, Tore; Persson, Tore; Eklund, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The rate of rebleeding from peptic ulcers could differ between Asian and Western populations. This study aimed to determine whether the observed twofold difference in rebleeding rates in two similarly designed clinical trials (one in Hong Kong [n = 240], the other in a predominantly Western population [n = 764, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00251979]) can be explained by differences in baseline patient characteristics. Two-factor and multifactor analyses (adjusted by demographics, established risk factors for peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer bleeding, and disease severity variables) were performed using pooled data from the two studies. Cox regression analysis was used to predict the rebleeding risk at 3 days. In the two-factor analysis (placebo vs esomeprazole/omeprazole and Western study vs Hong Kong study), data trended towards a reduced risk of rebleeding in the Western study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-1.07, P = 0.094). The risk of rebleeding was similar in both studies after adjusted for multiple factors (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.60-1.99, P = 0.767). The strongest predictor of rebleeding (apart from study drug) was a classification of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade IV (HR 4.15, 95% CI 1.49-11.56, P = 0.006). When such patients were excluded, the difference in rebleeding rates between the studies reduced. The difference in rebleeding rates between the two studies is explained by the factors in our analysis, most importantly a classification of ASA grade IV, suggesting that other differences, including ethnicity, did not influence the rebleeding rate. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Early Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Vietnamese Patients with Acute Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Trong Quach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate H. pylori infection rate and evaluate a combined set of tests for H. pylori diagnosis in Vietnamese patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding (PUD. Methods. Consecutive patients with acute PUB were enrolled prospectively. Rapid urease test (RUT with 3 biopsies was carried out randomly. Patients without RUT or with negative RUT received urea breath test (UBT and serological and urinary H. pylori antibody tests. H. pylori was considered positive if RUT or any noninvasive test was positive. Patients were divided into group A (RUT plus noninvasive tests and group B (only noninvasive tests. Results. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 94.2% (161/171. Groups A and B had no differences in demographic characteristics, bleeding severity, endoscopic findings, and proton pump inhibitor use. H. pylori-positive rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (98.2% versus 86.7%, p=0.004. The positive rate of RUT was similar at each biopsy site but significantly increased if RUT results from 2 or 3 sites were combined (p<0.05. Conclusions. H. pylori infection rate in Vietnamese patients with acute PUB is high. RUT is an excellent test if at least 2 biopsies are taken.

  13. Effect of Ramadan fasting on acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, El Mekkaoui; Kaoutar, Saâda; Ihssane, Mellouki; Adil, Ibrahimi; Dafr-Allah, Benajah

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged fasting may precipitate or exacerbate gastrointestinal complaints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between Ramadan fasting and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB), and to assess characteristics of those occurred in the holly month. Retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients, who underwent endoscopy for AUGIB in Ramadan (R) and the month before Ramadan (BR). Epidemiological, clinical and etiological characteristics and outcome of patients having AUGIB were compared between the two periods from 2001 to 2010. Two hundred and ninety-one patients had endoscopy for AUGIB during the two periods study. There was an increasing trend in the overall number of patients in Ramadan period (n = 132, 45.4% versus n = 159, 54.6%), especially with duodenal ulcer (n = 48, 37.2% versus n = 81, 62.8%). The most frequent etiology was peptic ulcer but it was more observed in group R than in group BR (46.2% versus 57.9%, P = 0.04), especially duodenal ulcer (36.4% versus 50.3%, P = 0.01); this finding persisted in multivariable modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.69, P = 0.03). In contrast, there was a decreasing trend in rate of variceal bleeding from BR period (26.5%) to R period (18.9%; P = 0.11). Regarding the outcome, there were no significant differences between the two periods of the study: Recurrent bleeding (10.6% versus 7.5%, P = 0.36) and mortality rate (5.3% versus 4.4%, P = 0.7). The most frequent etiology of AUGIB was peptic ulcer during Ramadan. However, Ramadan fasting did not influence the outcome of the patients. Prophylactic measures should be taken for people with risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

  14. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: A rare cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat H Dar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of obscure gastrointestinal (GI bleed are diverse and rare. The most common cause for GI bleeding of small bowel origin is angiodysplasia, followed by tumors of the small intestine, and various other causes, including small bowel ulcers and aortienteric fistulas. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a rare cause of GI bleed. It is an inherited elastic tissue disorder with degeneration of elastic fibers involving mainly skin, eyes and the cardiovascular system. Upper GI hemorrhage occurs in 13% of cases and is often resistant to nonsurgical methods of treatment. Presented herein is a case of GI bleed in a 65-year-old woman who had PXE and hyperplastic polyps in the stomach.

  15. Angiographic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Sung, Kyu Bo; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Bae, Tae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Han, Man Chung

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic angiographic evaluations were done in 33 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding for recent 5 years at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. On 11 patients of them, therapeutic interventional procedures were made and the results were analysed. 1. In a total of 33 cases, there were 18 cases of upper GI bleeding and 15 cases of lower GI bleeding. The most frequent causes were peptic ulcer in the former and intestinal typhoid fever in the latter. 2. Bleeding sites were localized angiographically in 28 cases, so the detection rate was 85%. Four of the five angiographically negative cases were lower GI bleeding cases. 3. The most frequent bleeding site was left gastric artery (7/33). The next was ileocecal branch of superior mesenteric artery (6/33). 4. Among the 11 interventional procedures, Gelfoam embolization was done in 7 cases and Vasopressin infusion was tried in 4 cases. They were successful in 4 and 3 cases, suggesting 57% and 47% success rates respectively.

  16. Angiographic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Sung, Kyu Bo; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Bae, Tae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Diagnostic angiographic evaluations were done in 33 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding for recent 5 years at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. On 11 patients of them, therapeutic interventional procedures were made and the results were analysed. 1. In a total of 33 cases, there were 18 cases of upper GI bleeding and 15 cases of lower GI bleeding. The most frequent causes were peptic ulcer in the former and intestinal typhoid fever in the latter. 2. Bleeding sites were localized angiographically in 28 cases, so the detection rate was 85%. Four of the five angiographically negative cases were lower GI bleeding cases. 3. The most frequent bleeding site was left gastric artery (7/33). The next was ileocecal branch of superior mesenteric artery (6/33). 4. Among the 11 interventional procedures, Gelfoam embolization was done in 7 cases and Vasopressin infusion was tried in 4 cases. They were successful in 4 and 3 cases, suggesting 57% and 47% success rates respectively.

  17. The effects of antidepressants on gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Latif Güneş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In their daily practice, psychiatrists often experience gastriccomplaints in patients beside psychiatric disorders.Peptic ulcer is one of the diseases, which accompanyto psychiatric disorders including mainly depression. Itis shown that antidepressants can inflame the bleedingsincluding gastrointestinal (GI bleedings, while they havepositive effect on ulcer healing. In this review, studies,which conducted about the positive or negative effects ofantidepressant drugs on ulcer treatment were examined.Accordingly; it was found that opipramol, amitriptyline,imipramine that of tricyclic antidepressants was found tobe helpful in healing of the ulcer. It was stated that SelectiveSerotonin Reuptake Inhibitors generally inflamedulcers, exceptionally fluvoxamine and fluoxetine reducedulcer; moclobemide that of monoamine-oxidase inhibitorand tianeptine and mirtazapine that of atypical antidepressantshad positive effect in ulcer healing. To be carefulin choosing the appropriate antidepressant in psychiatricpatients with gastric ulcer is important in the prognosisof both ulcer and depression.Key words: peptic ulcer; depression; antidepressant drugs

  18. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700

  19. [Ulcerating Herpes simplex infections in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Wohlrab, J; Radke, J; Marsch, W C; Soukup, J

    2002-11-01

    Herpes simplex infections are potentially a life-threatening situation for immunocompromised as well as critically ill patients. The correct diagnosis is made more difficult in comatose patients by the fact that the characteristic symptom of extreme pain cannot be registered. The clinical dermatological findings (polycyclic configuration, easily bleeding ulcers) are thus especially important in patients under intensive care conditions. As examples, the cases of 3 critically ill patients (subarachnoid bleeding or head injury) developing therapy-resistant, flat sacral or perioral skin ulcers with peripheral blisters are presented. Herpes simplex virus was confirmed immunohistologically and in the smear test. All patients subsequently died. These cases emphasize that patients in the intensive care unit are in danger of developing a chronic persistent Herpes simplex infection due to latent immunosuppression. Chronic persistent Herpes infections may be underrated in intensive therapy, and must always be ruled out in case of therapy-resistant erosions or ulcerations.

  20. Timing of onset of gastrointestinal bleeding in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, A; Lange, T; Anthon, C T

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, but clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. The majority of intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite uncertainty concerning the balance between benefit and harm....... For approximately half of ICU patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, onset is early, ie within the first two days of the ICU stay. The aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding and consequently the balance between benefit and harm of SUP may differ between patients with early vs late gastrointestinal bleeding...... will describe baseline characteristics and assess the time to onset of the first clinically important episode of GI bleeding accounting for survival status and allocation to SUP or placebo. In addition, we will describe differences in therapeutic and diagnostic procedures used in patients with clinically...

  1. Management of NSAID-associated peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcarne, Luigi; García-Iglesias, Pilar; Calvet, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use increases the risk of gastrointestinal complications such as ulcers or bleeding. The presence of factors like advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori infection and the use of anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents increase this risk further. COX-2 inhibitors and antisecretory drugs, particularly proton pump inhibitors, help to minimize the risk of gastrointestinal complications in high-risk patients. This review presents a practical approach to the prevention and treatment of NSAID-associated peptic ulcer disease and examines the new advances in the rational use of NSAIDs.

  2. Reconstruction of radionecrotic ulcer using a myocutaneous flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Okano, Shinji; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Mori, Tamotsu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Shigeki, Sadayuki

    1990-01-01

    Problems in the surgical treatment of radionecrotic ulcers, using a myocutaneous flap, have been reviewed in 21 patients. These problems included poor wound healing, radiation damage to important nerves and vessels there by making dissection difficult, malignant changes, infections, continuing necrosis of the tissue, and bleeding during surgery and secondary hemorrhaging. The use of a myocutaneous flap has many advantages when compared with conventional flaps and free skin grafts in the reconstruction of radionecrotic ulcers. Flap survival was good, but an incomplete excision of the ulcer delayed primary wound healing. Therefore, complete excision of the radionecrotic ulcer is imperative. (author)

  3. Management of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding in Different Case Volume Workplaces: Results of a Nationwide Inquiry in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Rácz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a national survey to evaluate the recent endoscopic treatment and drug therapy of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB patients and to compare practices in high and low case volume Hungarian workplaces. A total of 62 gastroenterology units participated in the six-month study. A total of 3033 PUB cases and a mean of 8.15±3.9 PUB cases per month per unit were reported. In the 23 high case volume units (HCV, there was a mean of 12.9±5.4 PUB cases/month, whereas in the 39 low case volume units (LCV, a mean of 5.3±2.9 PUB cases/month were treated during the study period. In HCV units, endoscopic therapies for Forrest Ia, Ib, and IIa ulcers were significantly more often used than in LCV units (86% versus 68%; P=0.001. Among patients with stigmata of recent haemorrhage (Forrest I, II, bolus + continuous infusion PPI was given significantly more frequently in HCV than in LCV units (49.6% versus 33.2%; P=0.001. Mortality in HCV units was less than in LCV units (2.7% versus 4.3%; P=0.023. The penetration of evidence-based recommendations for PUB management is stronger in HCV units resulting lower mortality.

  4. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  5. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kiichi; Yoshino, Junji; Akamatsu, Taiji; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Kamada, Tomoari; Takagi, Atsushi; Chiba, Toshimi; Nomura, Sachiyo; Mizokami, Yuji; Murakami, Kazunari; Sakamoto, Choitsu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao; Uemura, Naomi; Goto, Hidemi; Joh, Takashi; Miwa, Hiroto; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-03-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for peptic ulcer disease in 2014 and has created an English version. The revised guidelines consist of seven items: bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy, drug-induced ulcer, non-H. pylori, non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer, surgical treatment, and conservative therapy for perforation and stenosis. Ninety clinical questions (CQs) were developed, and a literature search was performed for the CQs using the Medline, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases between 1983 and June 2012. The guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Therapy is initially provided for ulcer complications. Perforation or stenosis is treated with surgery or conservatively. Ulcer bleeding is first treated by endoscopic hemostasis. If it fails, surgery or interventional radiology is chosen. Second, medical therapy is provided. In cases of NSAID-related ulcers, use of NSAIDs is stopped, and anti-ulcer therapy is provided. If NSAID use must continue, the ulcer is treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or prostaglandin analog. In cases with no NSAID use, H. pylori-positive patients receive eradication and anti-ulcer therapy. If first-line eradication therapy fails, second-line therapy is given. In cases of non-H. pylori, non-NSAID ulcers or H. pylori-positive patients with no indication for eradication therapy, non-eradication therapy is provided. The first choice is PPI therapy, and the second choice is histamine 2-receptor antagonist therapy. After initial therapy, maintenance therapy is provided to prevent ulcer relapse.

  6. Hormonal assay in gastric secretion of portal hypertension and peptic ulceration by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Moustafa, N.A.; Refaat, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relation between the plasma levels and the gastric secretion in cases of portal hypertension and the duodenal ulcer. The relation between gastrin levels and bleeding in case of duodenal ulcer was also studied regarding the role of acidity, gastrin level, and the portal pressure on the pathogenesis of bleeding from oesophageal varices. Finally, the relation between gastrin secretion and state of liver functions was tested. The radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) is the basic test in assessment of the gastrin. The obtained results revealed the following: 1. The fasting serum gastrin was increased in case of liver cirrhosis 2. The level of gastrin was markedly increased in case of peptic ulceration 3. The incidence of peptic ulceration was increased in case of liver cirrhosis.3 tab

  7. [Comparison between Endoscopic Therapy and Medical Therapy in Peptic Ulcer Patients with Adherent Clot: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Cohort Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hye; Jung, Jin Tae; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Wook; Jeon, Seong Woo; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Si Hyung; Park, Jeong Bae; Ha, Chang Yoon; Park, Youn Sun

    2015-08-01

    The optimal management of bleeding peptic ulcer with adherent clot remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcome between endoscopic therapy and medical therapy. We also evaluated the risk factors of rebleeding in Forrest type IIB peptic ulcer. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding registry data from 8 hospitals in Korea between February 2011 and December 2013 were reviewed and categorized according to the Forrest classification. Patients with acute UGI bleeding from peptic ulcer with adherent clots were enrolled. Among a total of 1,101 patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer bleeding, 126 bleedings (11.4%) were classified as Forrest type IIB. Of the 126 patients with adherent clots, 84 (66.7%) received endoscopic therapy and 42 (33.3%) were managed with medical therapy alone. The baseline characteristics of patients in two groups were similar except for higher Glasgow Blatchford Score and pre-endoscopic Rockall score in medical therapy group. Bleeding related mortality (1.2% vs.10%; p=0.018) and all cause mortality (3.7% vs. 20.0%; p=0.005) were significantly lower in the endoscopic therapy group. However, there was no difference between endoscopic therapy and medical therapy regarding rebleeding (7.1% vs. 9.5%; p=0.641). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors of rebleeding were previous medication with aspirin and/or NSAID (OR, 13.1; p=0.025). In patients with Forrest type IIB peptic ulcer bleeding, endoscopic therapy was associated with a significant reduction in bleeding related mortality and all cause mortality compared with medical therapy alone. Important risk factor of rebleeding was use of aspirin and/or NSAID.

  8. Oropharynx Ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Sylwanowicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 31-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with worsening constant left sided throat pain over the past four months. The patient reports that he was brushing his teeth when his dog jumped onto his back causing his toothbrush to puncture the back of his throat, resulting in immediate bleeding and discomfort. The bleeding subsided and the patient did not seek medical care. The pain radiated to his left ear and the back of the neck. He also noted a change in his voice. The day before presenting to the ED the patient noted subjective fevers, hemoptysis and drooling, which led him to seek medical care. Significant findings: The photograph demonstrates an area of ulcerative tissue at the left palatine tonsil without surrounding erythema or purulent drainage. The computed tomography (CT scan shows a large ulceration of the left soft palate and palatine tonsil (red arrow. There is no evidence of skull base osteomyelitis. There is suppurative lymphadenopathy with partial left jugular vein compression due to mass effect (yellow highlight. There is mild nasopharyngeal airway narrowing with architectural distortion (blue arrow, but no other evidence of airway obstruction. Discussion: The oral cavity is prone to trauma leading to the formation of superficial ulcerations. There are many causes of mechanical trauma, most commonly accidental biting. Chemical, electrical and thermal insults are also possibilities. Poor fitting dental devices and fractured or malformed teeth can also be etiologies.1 Traumatic ulcerations are most common in children given bruxism and thumb sucking. However, a broad differential must be considered including malignant and premalignant lesions, infections of the oral mucosa, aphthous ulcerations and autoimmune diseases.2, 3 Chronic ulcerations are associated with superimposed infection, but there has not been established an association of malignant transformation of the oral mucosa after

  9. Transcatheter emboilization therapy of massive colonic bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G. H.; Oh, J. H.; Yoon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    To evaulate the efficacy and safety of emergent superselective transcatheter embolization for controlling massive colonic bleeding. Six of the seven patients who had symptom of massive gastrointestinal bleeding underwent emergent transcatheter embolization for control of the bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients was originated from various colonic diseases: rectal cancer(n=1), proctitis(n=1), benign ulcer(n=1), mucosal injury by ventriculoperitoneal shunt(n=1), and unknown(n=2). All patients except one with rectal cancer were critically ill. Superselective embolization were done by using Gelfoam particles and/or coils. The vessels embolized were ileocolic artery(n=1). superior rectal artery(n=2), inferior rectal artery (n=1), and middle and inferior rectal arteries(n=1). Hemostasis was successful immediately in all patients. Two underwnet surgery due to recurrent bleeding developed 3 days after the procedure(n=1) or in associalion with underlying rectal cancer(n=1). On surgical specimen of two cases, there was no mucosal ischemic change. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and effective treatment of method for the control of massive colonic bleeding

  10. Ulcer detection with 99mTc-sucralfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze, P.; Gratz, K.F.; Hundeshagen, H.; Freise, J.

    1988-01-01

    Sucralfate is an agent commonly used in the therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers. It binds itself to proteins in the ulcer crater. A selective labeling with pure 99m Tc-pertechnetate is possible. For an unequivocal ulcer localization or exclusion, images have to be taken in the upright and supine positions. Encouragement of gastric emptying is useful. Images should be taken at least twice, the last one 4 h after ingestion. The method might be used when endoscopy is difficult, incomplete or contraindicated, and for follow-up during therapy. We recommend it also in the search for the cause of intermittent bleeding. (orig.) [de

  11. X-ray diagnostic features of giant bleeding ulcers in the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbatenko, M.K.; elina, I.E.

    1997-01-01

    The study was based on the analysis of clinical, X-ray, and morphological examinations made in 64 patients with giant gastric and duodenal ulcers. The methods of X-ray examinations and the X-ray symptomatology of giant ulcers of the stomach and duodenum is given. Gastroscopic and X-ray examinations were comparative analyzed. The paper gives evidence that the X-ray examination has many advantages in estimating the size and ratio of ulcers to the adjacent organs and tissues. The paper outlines giant duodenal ulcers. 9 refs., 5 figs

  12. Surgery for Peptic Ulcer Disease in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review of Published Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a significant burden in low- and middle-income countries. However, there is limited information regarding management of peptic ulcer disease in these countries. This study describes surgical interventions for peptic ulcer disease in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and African Index Medicus for studies describing surgical management of peptic ulcer disease in sub-Saharan Africa. From 55 published reports, 6594 patients underwent surgery for peptic ulcer disease. Most ulcers (86%) were duodenal with the remainder gastric (14%). Thirty-five percent of operations were performed for perforation, 7% for bleeding, 30% for obstruction, and 28% for chronic disease. Common operations included vagotomy (60%) and primary repair (31%). The overall case fatality rate for peptic ulcer disease was 5.7% and varied with indication for operation: 13.6% for perforation, 11.5% for bleeding, 0.5% for obstruction, and 0.3% for chronic disease. Peptic ulcer disease remains a significant indication for surgery in sub-Saharan Africa. Recognizing the continued role of surgery for peptic ulcer disease in sub-Saharan Africa is important for strengthening surgical training programs and optimizing allocation of resources.

  13. Stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor versus placebo in critically ill patients (SUP-ICU trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, and acid suppressants are frequently used prophylactically. However, stress ulcer prophylaxis may increase the risk of serious adverse events and, additionally......, the quantity and quality of evidence supporting the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis is low. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess the benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor in adult patients in the ICU. We hypothesise that stress ulcer prophylaxis reduces the rate...... of gastrointestinal bleeding, but increases rates of nosocomial infections and myocardial ischaemia. The overall effect on mortality is unpredictable. METHODS/DESIGN: The SUP-ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, pragmatic, international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group trial of stress ulcer...

  14. Safety and efficacy of lansoprazole injection in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a postmarketing surveillance conducted in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari F; Setiawati, Arini

    2013-04-01

    to assess the safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole injection (Prosogan®) in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis. this study was a multicenter observational postmarketing study of lansoprazole (Prosogan®) injection. Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis were given intravenous lansoprazole for a maximum of 7 days or until the bleeding stopped and the patients were able to take oral doses of lansoprazole. Primary outcome of the study was cessation of bleeding. Some laboratory parameters were also measured. among a total of 204 patients evaluable for safety, there was no adverse event reported during the study. A total of 200 patients were eligible for efficacy evaluation, 125 patients (62.5%) were males. Among these patients, upper GI bleeding stopped in 20 patients (10.0%) on day 1, in 71 patients (35.5%) on day 2, 75 patients (37.5%) on day 3, 24 patients (12.0%) on day 4, and 7 patients (3.5%) on day 5, making a cumulative of 197 patients (98.5%) on day 5. The hemostatic effect was rated as 'excellent' if the bleeding stopped within 3 days, and 'good' if the bleeding stopped within 5 days. Thus, the results were 'excellent' in 166 patients (83.0%) and 'good' in 31 patients (15.5%). These results were not different between males and females, between age below 60 years and 60 years and above, and between baseline Hb below 10 g/dL and 10 g/dL and above. the results of this observational postmarketing study in 200 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis demonstrated that intravenous lansoprazole twice a day was well tolerated and highly effective.

  15. Ulcer detection with /sup 99m/Tc-sucralfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, P.; Gratz, K.F.; Hundeshagen, H.; Freise, J.

    1988-02-01

    Sucralfate is an agent commonly used in the therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers. It binds itself to proteins in the ulcer crater. A selective labeling with pure /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate is possible. For an unequivocal ulcer localization or exclusion, images have to be taken in the upright and supine positions. Encouragement of gastric emptying is useful. Images should be taken at least twice, the last one 4 h after ingestion. The method might be used when endoscopy is difficult, incomplete or contraindicated, and for follow-up during therapy. We recommend it also in the search for the cause of intermittent bleeding.

  16. Endoscopic findings of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadayat, R.; Rehman, A.U.; Gandapur, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30-40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastro-duodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age ?50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used. Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. Results: The mean age was 57.84 ± 6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). Conclusion: In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes. (author)

  17. ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadayat, Rania; Jehangiri, Attique-ur-Rehman; Gul, Rahid; Khan, Adil Naseer; Said, Khalid; Gandapur, Asadullah

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30-40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastroduodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology & Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age 50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used, Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. The mean age was 57.84 +/- 6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes.

  18. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  19. Peptic ulcer complications requiring surgery: what has changed in the last 50 years in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Hakan; Kahramanca, Sahin; Şeker, Duray; Özgehan, Gülay; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Kargıcı, Hülagü

    2014-04-01

    The incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in recent years, but it is not so easy to make the same conclusion when complications of peptic ulcer are taken into consideration. The aim of this study is to determine the time trends in complicated peptic ulcer disease and to state the effects of H2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), and H. pylori eradication therapies on these complications. This study retrospectively evaluated the patients who were operated on for complications (perforation, bleeding, and obstruction) of peptic ulcer for the last 50 years. Patients were grouped into four groups (G1-G4) according to the dates in which H2 receptor blockers, PPIs, and eradication regimens for H. pylori were introduced The time periods that were studied were: (G1) 1962-1980, (G2) 1981-1990, (G3) 1991-1997, and (G4) 1998-2012. In total, 2953 patients were operated on for complications of peptic ulcer disease, of which 86% of the patients were male. In G1, perforation and obstruction were significantly the most frequent complications (p<0.001), followed by bleeding. In groups G2 and G3, obstruction was still the most frequent complication requiring surgery (p<0.001). In G2 and G3, obstruction was followed by perforation and bleeding, respectively. In G4, perforation was significantly the most frequent complication (p<0.001). From 1962 to 1990 obstruction was the most common complication requiring surgery. In the last decade, perforation became the most common complication. In contrast to reports in the literature, bleeding was the least common complication requiring surgery in Turkey.

  20. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation.

  1. Fatores preditivos do tratamento operatório na úlcera péptica hemorrágica Predictors of operative treatment in patients sustaining bleeding peptic ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ GUSTAVO PARREIRA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores preditivos de tratamento operatório nos doentes com úlceras pépticas hemorrágicas. MÉTODOS: Através de um estudo retrospectivo, foram analisados os prontuários dos doentes com úlceras pépticas hemorrágicas admitidos de 1998 a 2001. Foram avaliados 200 doentes, com idade entre 17 e 97 anos e média etária de 52 + 18 anos, sendo 153 (76,5% do sexo masculino. Dados vitais à admissão, antecedentes mórbidos, achados e tratamento endoscópico, bem como a evolução e tratamento definitivo foram revisados. Empregou-se o teste t de student e qui-quadrado para a análise estatística, considerando-se o valor de pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the predictors of operative treatment in patients sustaining bleeding peptic ulcers. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the patients admitted owing to bleeding peptic ulcers from 1998 to 2001. Vital signs upon admission, associated diseases, endoscopy data, evolution and definitive care were evaluated. Patients who underwent surgery were compared with the others in order to identify the predictors of the operative treatment. Student's t and chi squared test were employed for statistical analysis, considering p< 0,05 as significant. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were included in the study group. The age ranged between 17 and 97 years (mean 52 + 18, and 153 patients (76.5% were male. Shock upon admission was present in 27 (13.5%. The endoscopic exam performed at admission showed that 101 patients sustained ulcers in the duodenum and 99 in the stomach, which were classified as Forrest Ia in 5 (2.5%, Ib in 20 (10%, IIa in 48 (24% and IIb in 48 (24%. Twenty five (12.5% patients needed operation, and 23 (92% were submitted to gastrectomy with Billroth's II reconstruction. The operative treatment were more frequently performed in patients sustaining chronic alcoholic intake (p=0.002, cigarette smoking (p=0.02, diabetes mellitus (p=0.01, chronic peptic disease (p=0.05, shock upon admission

  2. Increased short- and long-term mortality in 8146 hospitalised peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmi, H; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Färkkilä, M A

    2016-08-01

    Incidence and complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have declined, but mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding has remained unchanged. The few recent studies on mortality associated with both uncomplicated and complicated patients with peptic ulcer disease provide contradictory results. To evaluate short- and long-term mortality, and the main causes of death in peptic ulcer disease. In this retrospective epidemiologic cohort study, register data on 8146 adult patients hospitalised with peptic ulcer disease during 2000-2008 were collected in the capital region of Finland. All were followed in the National Cause of Death Register until the end of 2009. The data were linked with the nationwide Drug Purchase Register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Mean follow-up time was 4.9 years. Overall mortality was substantially increased, standardised mortality ratio 2.53 (95% CI: 2.44-2.63); 3.7% died within 30 days, and 11.8% within 1 year. At 6 months, the survival of patients with perforated or bleeding ulcer was lower compared to those with uncomplicated ulcer; hazard ratios were 2.06 (1.68-2.04) and 1.32 (1.11-1.58), respectively. For perforated duodenal ulcers, both the short- and long-term survival was significantly impaired in women. The main causes of mortality at 1 year were malignancies and cardiovascular diseases. Previous use of statins was associated with significant reduction in all-cause mortality. One-year mortality in patients hospitalised with peptic ulcer disease remained high with no change. This peptic ulcer disease cohort had a clearly decreased survival rate up to 10 years, especially among women with a perforated duodenal ulcer, most likely explained by poorer survival due to underlying comorbidity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of the patients that followed up for upper gastrointestinal system bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gölgeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate demographic and laboratory characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal system (GIS bleeding define the factors leading to bleeding. Methods: The study included 285 patients aged between 18 and 89 years who were followed and treated for upper GIS bleeding in our Internal Medicine Clinics. Patients’ demographic and aboratory data, endoscopic findings, treatment methods, ospitalization length and need for blood transfusions were determined. Results: The mean age was 62.7±18.3 years with the male/female ratio of 2.2/1. The most common finding was melena (45.3%, and the second melena with hematemesis (33%. 76.84% of the patients had the history of drug use, mostly non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (45.26% and aspirin (23.86%. The mean hospitalization length was 8.3±4.9 days. Blood transfusion was required in 74.04% with the mean 3,14±1,41 units. Bleeding recurrence was seen in 10.25%. Duodenal ulcer was observed as the most common cause of GIS bleeding (29.82% and gastric ulcer was the second (21.75%. The treatment methods were medical in 73.34%, endoscopic sclerotherapy in 22.46%, hemoclips in 1.40% and band ligation in 0.70% of the patients. Upper GIS bleedings were mostly occurred in August (11.9% and least occurred in December (3.5%. Conclusion: The majority of the patients have history of drug use, like NSAIDs and aspirin leading to bleeding. We suggest that the usage of these drugs should be controlled and used only with accurate indications especially in elderly patients.

  4. An Incidental Finding of AL-associated Amyloidosis Presenting as Gastric Ulcers

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    Nadia Huq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract amyloidosis has been reported in rare instances and related symptoms are usually nonspecific to the disease process. We present a patient who initially had melena on anticoagulation and endoscopy revealed a bleeding gastric ulcer. Hemostasis was achieved. The patient had a recurrence of symptoms despite being off anticoagulation months later and at that time repeat endoscopy showed multiple gastric ulcers with surrounding friable mucosa. Biopsy results were significant for light chain associated-amyloidosis. This case represents a rare cause of gastric ulcer.

  5. Causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding on colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.U.; Gul, R.; Khursheed, L.; Hadayat, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bleeding from anus is usually referred as rectal bleeding but actually rectal bleeding is defined as bleeding from lower colon or rectum, which means bleeding from a place distal to ligament of Treitz. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of different causes of rectal bleeding in patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Methods: One hundred and seventy-five patients with evidence of rectal bleed, without gender discrimination were selected by non-probability convenient sampling from the out-patient department and general medical wards. Patients with suspected upper GI source of bleeding; acute infectious bloody diarrhoea and any coagulopathy were excluded from the study. All patients were subjected to fibre optic colonoscopy after preparation of the gut and findings were recorded. Where necessary, biopsy samples were also taken. Diagnosis was based on colonoscopic findings. Results: A total of 175 patients (92 males and 83 females) with mean age 35.81±9.18 years were part of the study. Colonoscopy showed abnormal findings in 150 (85.7%) patients. The commonest diagnosis was haemorrhoids, which was found in 39 (22.3%) patients. It was followed by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 30 (17.1%) patients, solitary rectal ulcer in 13 (7.4%) patients and polyps in 25 (14.3%) patients. Other less frequent findings were non-specific inflammation and fungating growths in rectum. Conclusion: Haemorrhoids was the leading cause of bleeding per rectum in this study, followed by evidence of IBD while infrequent findings of polyps and diverticuli indicate that these are uncommon in this region. (author)

  6. [Complicated gastroduodenal ulcers in rheumatology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, V G; Shemerovskaia, T G; Sergeev, P V; Bokovanov, V E

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of observations of 250 patients with different rheumatological diseases has shown that 18% of the patients had ulcer disease with complications. The greatest risk of bleedings and perforations took place during the first year of treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The main risk factors of complications were determined. They are: male sex, high parameters of gastric secretion.

  7. Gastrointestinal safety of celecoxib versus naproxen in patients with cardiothrombotic diseases and arthritis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (CONCERN): an industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Ching, Jessica Y L; Tse, Yee Kit; Lam, Kelvin; Wong, Grace L H; Ng, Siew C; Lee, Vivian; Au, Kim W L; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Suen, Bing Y; Chan, Heyson; Kee, Ka Man; Lo, Angeline; Wong, Vincent W S; Wu, Justin C Y; Kyaw, Moe H

    2017-06-17

    Present guidelines are conflicting for patients at high risk of both cardiovascular and gastrointestinal events who continue to require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesised that a cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor is superior to a non-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in concomitant users of aspirin with previous ulcer bleeding. For this industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial done in one academic hospital in Hong Kong, we screened patients with arthritis and cardiothrombotic diseases who were presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, were on NSAIDs, and require concomitant aspirin. After ulcer healing, an independent staff member randomly assigned (1:1) patients who were negative for Helicobacter pylori with a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive oral administrations of either celecoxib 100 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day or naproxen 500 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day for 18 months. All patients resumed aspirin 80 mg once per day. Both patients and investigators were masked to their treatments. The primary endpoint was recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 18 months. The primary endpoint and secondary safety endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153660. Between May 24, 2005, and Nov 28, 2012, we enrolled 514 patients, assigning 257 patients to each study group, all of whom were included in the intention-to-treat population. Recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 14 patients in the celecoxib group (nine gastric ulcers and five duodenal ulcers) and 31 patients in the naproxen group (25 gastric ulcers, three duodenal ulcers, one gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and two bleeding erosions). The cumulative incidence of recurrent bleeding in 18 months

  8. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Peptic Ulcers in Patients Receiving Antithrombotic/Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Ochiai, Toshiaki; Komori, Keishi; Haraguchi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Munehiro; Nakamura, Norimoto; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Kakigao, Kana; Ogino, Haruei; Ihara, Eikichi; Akiho, Hirotada; Motomura, Yasuaki; Kabemura, Teppei; Harada, Naohiko

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Antithrombotic/nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) therapies increase the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The features of hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease in patients receiving antithrombotic/NSAID therapies were investigated. Methods We investigated the medical records of 485 consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and were diagnosed with hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers. The patients treated with antithrombotic agents/NSAIDs were c...

  9. Endoscopic findings in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients at Lacor hospital, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, O N; Martin, D O; Okello, T R

    2012-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency medical condition that may require hospitalization and resuscitation, and results in high patient morbidity. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the preferred investigative procedure for UGIB because of its accuracy, low rate of complication, and its potential for therapeutic interventions. To determine the endoscopic findings in patients presenting with UGIB and its frequency among these patients according to gender and age in Lacor hospital, northern Uganda. The study was carried out at Lacor hospital, located at northern part of Uganda. The record of 224 patients who underwent endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a period of 5 years between January 2006 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 224 patients had endoscopy for UGIB which consisted of 113 (50.4%) males and 111 (49.6%) females, and the mean age was 42 years ± SD 15.88. The commonest cause of UGIB was esophagealvarices consisting of 40.6%, followed by esophagitis (14.7%), gastritis (12.6%) and peptic ulcer disease (duodenal and gastric ulcers) was 6.2%. The malignant conditions (gastric and esophageal cancers) contributed to 2.6%. Other less frequent causes of UGIB were hiatus hernia (1.8), duodenitis (0.9%), others-gastric polyp (0.4%). Normal endoscopic finding was 16.1% in patients who had UGIB. Esophageal varices are the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this environment as compared to the west which is mainly peptic ulcer disease.

  10. Management of non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: position statement of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Pilar; Botargues, Josep-Maria; Feu Caballé, Faust; Villanueva Sánchez, Càndid; Calvet Calvo, Xavier; Brullet Benedi, Enric; Cánovas Moreno, Gabriel; Fort Martorell, Esther; Gallach Montero, Marta; Gené Tous, Emili; Hidalgo Rosas, José-Manuel; Lago Macía, Amelia; Nieto Rodríguez, Ana; Papo Berger, Michel; Planella de Rubinat, Montserrat; Saló Rich, Joan; Campo Fernández de Los Ríos, Rafel

    2017-05-01

    In recent years there have been advances in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that have helped reduce rebleeding and mortality. This document positioning of the Catalan Society of Digestologia is an update of evidence-based recommendations on management of gastrointestinal bleeding peptic ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Gastric ulcer treatment: cure of Helicobacter pylori infection without subsequent acid-suppressive therapy: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; van der Knoop, Bloeme

    2008-06-01

    Whether it is a requirement to continue with anti-secretory therapy following anti-Helicobacter therapy in H. pylori positive gastric ulcers is an important question. As gastric ulcers tend to heal more slowly than duodenal ulcers, may be asymptomatic or only causing mild symptoms and success at curing H. pylori with current fist line therapies is 80% at best, clinicians will likely err on the side of caution and continue acid suppressive therapy to ensure healing of gastric ulcers. This is certainly recommended when dealing with bleeding ulcers.

  12. Bleeding and pneumonia in intensive care patients given ranitidine and sucralfate for prevention of stress ulcer: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, A; Trippoli, S; Vaiani, M; Gorini, M; Corrado, A

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of ranitidine and sucralfate in the prevention of stress ulcer in critical patients and to assess if these treatments affect the risk of nosocomial pneumonia. Design Published studies retrieved through Medline and other databases. Five meta-analyses evaluated effectiveness in terms of bleeding rates (A: ranitidine v placebo; B: sucralfate v placebo) and infectious complications in terms of incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (C: ranitidine v placebo; D: sucralfate v placebo; E: ranitidine v sucralfate). Trial quality was determined with an empirical ad hoc procedure. Main outcome measures Rates of clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding and nosocomial pneumonia (compared between the two study arms and expressed with odds ratios specific for individual studies and meta-analytic summary odds ratios). Results Meta-analysis A (five studies) comprised 398 patients; meta-analysis C (three studies) comprised 311 patients; meta-analysis D (two studies) comprised 226 patients: and meta-analysis E (eight studies) comprised 1825 patients. Meta-analysis B was not carried out as the literature search selected only one clinical trial. In meta-analysis A ranitidine was found to have the same effectiveness as placebo (odds ratio of bleeding 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 1.70, P=0.46). In placebo controlled studies (meta-analyses C and D) ranitidine and sucralfate had no influence on the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia. In comparison with sucralfate, ranitidine significantly increased the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (meta-analysis E: 1.35, 1.07 to 1.70, P=0.012). The mean quality score in the four analyses (on a 0 to 10 scale) ranged from 5.6 in meta-analysis E to 6.6 in meta-analysis A. Conclusions Ranitidine is ineffective in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients in intensive care and might increase the risk of pneumonia. Studies on sucralfate do not provide conclusive results. These findings are

  13. Transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uflacker, R.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was attempted in 13 patients by selective embolization of branches of the mesenteric arteries with Gelfoam. Bleeding was adequately controlled in 11 patients with active bleeding during the examination. One patient improved after embolization but bleeding recurred within 24 hours and in another patient the catheterization was unsuccessful. Five patients with diverticular hemorrhage were embolized in the right colic artery four times, and once in the middle colic artery. Three patients had embolization of the ileocolic artery because of hemorrhage from cecal angiodysplasia, post appendectomy, and leukemia infiltration. Three patients had the superior hemorrhoidal artery embolized because of bleeding from unspecific proctitis, infiltration of the rectum from a carcinoma of the bladder, and transendoscopic polypectomy. One patient was septic and bled from jejunal ulcers. Ischemic changes with infarction of the large bowel developed in two patients and were treated by partial semi-elective colectomy, three and four days after embolization. Four other patients developed pain and fever after embolization. Transcatheter embolization of branches of mesenteric arteries in an effective way to control acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but still has a significant rate of complications that must be seriously weighed against the advantages of operation. (orig.)

  14. [Non-Helicobacter pylori, Non-nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Peptic Ulcer Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young Woon

    2016-06-25

    Non-Helicobacter pylori, non-NSAID peptic ulcer disease (PUD), termed idiopathic PUD, is increasing in Korea. Diagnosis is based on exclusion of common causes such as H. pylori infection, infection with other pathogens, surreptitious ulcerogenic drugs, malignancy, and uncommon systemic diseases with upper gastrointestinal manifestations. The clinical course of idiopathic PUD is delayed ulcer healing, higher recurrence, higher re-bleeding after initial ulcer healing, and higher mortality than the other types of PUD. Genetic predisposition, older age, chronic mesenteric ischemia, cigarette smoking, concomitant systemic diseases, and psychological stress are considered risk factors for idiopathic PUD. Diagnosis of idiopathic PUD should systematically explore all possible causes. Management of this disease is to treat underlying disease followed by regular endoscopic surveillance to confirm ulcer healing. Continuous proton pump inhibitor therapy is an option for patients who respond poorly to the standard ulcer regimen.

  15. Monitoring of gastric secretion and early diagnostics of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding recurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belikov A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop a universal method of monitoring of intragastric medium dynamics. It allows diagnosing of bleeding recurrences and monitoring the effectiveness of gastric secretion suppression. In Saratov clinic of General Surgery use of probe-detector, dynamic endoscopy, laser Doppler flowmetry and methods of endoscopic hemostasis has reduced mortality: postoperative mortality has been decreased from 7,4 to 1,6%, while the general mortality — from 3,5 to 1,5%. The proposed devices can be used separately, and do not allow parallel assessment of pH of gastric juice, the microcirculation in the stomach wall and bleeding recurrences. 47 patients have been under the study. The changes in electroconductivity of intragastric medium have been proved in the suppression of intragastric secretion and the appearance of blood in gastric lumen. The received data have considered impedancemetry as the method of monitoring of intragastric medium in gastroduodenal bleedings

  16. Portal Hypertensive Duodenopathy Manifesting as “Kissing” Duodenal Ulcers in a Nigerian with Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderemi Oluyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple duodenal ulcers are an uncommon finding in portal hypertensive duodenopathy (PHD. They represent a potential source of clinically significant bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system in patients with cirrhosis. As this particular ulcer entity in relation to PHD has no distinguishing symptoms aside from those relating to the consequent bleeding, most of them are found either on routine endoscopic screening for cirrhotics or on endoscopic examination for cause(s of bleeding in this patient population. The case documented below highlights many of the aspects of pathogenesis, associations, and consequences of this unique endoscopic finding in cirrhotic patients.

  17. Monitoring and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenjani, Basri; Zeka, Sadik; Krasniqi, Salih; Bunjaku, Ilaz; Jakupi, Arianit; Elshani, Besni; Xhafa, Agim

    2012-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding-massive acute bleeding from gastrointestinal section is one of the most frequent forms of acute abdomen. The mortality degree in emergency surgery is about 10%. It's very difficult to identify the place of bleeding and etiology. The important purpose of this research is to present the cases of acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the patients which were monitored and treated at The University Clinical Center of Kosova-Emergency Center in Pristina. These inquests included 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who were treated in emergency center of The University Clinical Center in Pristina for the period from January 2005 until December 2006. From 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding 41% or 29% was female and 96% or 70.1% male. Following the sex we gained a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01). The gastrointestinal bleeding was two times more frequent in male than in female. Also in the age-group we had a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01) 63.5% of patients were over 55 years old. The mean age of patients with an acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 58.4 years SD 15.8 age. The mean age for female patients was 56.4 age SD 18.5 age. The patients with arterial systolic pressure under 100 mmHg have been classified as patients with hypovolemic shock. They participate with 17.5% in all prevalence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. From the number of prevalence 2 {1.5%} patients have been diagnosed with peptic ulcer, 1 {0.7%} as gastric perforation and 1 {0.7%} with intestine ischemia. Abdominal Surgery and Intensive Care 2 or 1.5% died, 1 at intensive care unit and 1 at nephrology. As we know the severe condition of the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and etiology it is very difficult to establish, we need to improve for the better conditions in our emergency center for treatment and initiation base of clinic criteria.

  18. Evaluation of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal lesions associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, D L; Lee, A C Y; Johnston, A N; Bowman, D D; Simpson, K W

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the utility of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Capsules were administered to 2 healthy controls and 8 patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Images were evaluated for quality, gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time and presence of lesions. There were no adverse effects of capsule endoscopy in dogs weighing from 7·7 to 58 kg. The capsule traversed the entire gastrointestinal tract in 5 of 8 patients, with high quality images obtained in the stomach and small intestine. Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time ranged from 1 to 270 and 15 to 180 minutes, respectively. In 3 of 8 patients, the capsule remained in the stomach despite pro-kinetics. Gastric lesions included mild haemorrhage and pinpoint erosion (4 of 8), a mass (1) and thickened bleeding pyloric mucosa (2). Two of 3 dogs with capsule retention had gastric lesions. Intestinal lesions included a healing duodenal ulcer, abnormal villi, ileal ulceration and colonic bleeding. Lesions identified by capsule endoscopy were considered a significant source of haemorrhage in 4 of 7 dogs with active bleeding. The relevance of pinpoint gastric mucosal erosions to blood loss is unclear. Capsule endoscopy can enable the non-invasive detection of gastric and small intestinal mucosal lesions in dogs presenting for evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Prehospital triage of patients diagnosed with perforated peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer bleeding: an observational study of patients calling 1-1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, Kasper; Friesgaard, Kristian D; Boetker, Morten T; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2018-04-05

    Triage systems are used in emergency medical services to systematically prioritize prehospital resources according to individual patient conditions. Previous studies have shown cases of preventable deaths in emergency medical services even when triage systems are used, indicating a potential undertriage among some conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the triage level among patients diagnosed with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) or peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). In a three-year period in Central Denmark Region, all patients hospitalized within 24 h after a 1-1-2 emergency call and who subsequently received either a PPU or a PUB (hereinafter combined and referred to as PPU/PUB) or a First Hour Quintet (FHQ: respiratory failure, stroke, trauma, cardiac chest pain, and cardiac arrest) diagnosis were investigated. A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of receiving the highest and lowest prehospital response level. Also, a linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk of 30-day mortality. Of 8658 evaluated patients, 263 were diagnosed with PPU/PUB. After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB were less likely to receive ambulance transportation compared to patients diagnosed with stroke, RR = 1.41 (CI: 1.28-1.56); trauma, RR = 1.28 (CI: 1.15-1.42); cardiac chest pain, RR = 1.47 (CI: 1.33-1.62); and cardiac arrest, RR = 1.44 (CI: 1.31-1.42). Among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB, 6.5% (CI: 3.3-9.7) did not receive ambulance transportation. The proportion of patients not receiving ambulance transportation was higher among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB compared to patients diagnosed with an FHQ diagnosis. The 30-day mortality rate among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB was 7.8% (CI: 4.2-11.1). This was lower than the 30-day mortality rate among patients diagnosed with respiratory failure (P = 0.010), stroke (P = 0.001), and cardiac arrest (P

  20. rhEGF-containing thermosensitive and mucoadhesive polymeric sol-gel for endoscopic treatment of gastric ulcer and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin Hee; So, Jung Won; Kim, Jungju; Kim, In Ae; Jung, Ji Hoon; Min, Kyunghyun; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2014-03-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a standard diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal ulcers and cancer. In this study, we have developed recombinant human epidermal growth factor-containing ulcer-coating polymeric sol-gel for endoscopic application. Chitosan and pluronic F127 were employed for their thermoresponsive and bioadhesive properties. At temperatures below 21, polymeric sol-gel remains liquid during endoscopic application and transforms to gel at body temperature after application on ulcers. In an in vitro cellular wounding assay, recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel significantly enhanced the cell migration and decreased the wounding area (68%) compared to nontreated, recombinant human epidermal growth factor solution, and sol-gel without recombinant human epidermal growth factor (42, 49, and 32 % decreased at day 1). The in vivo ulcer-healing study was performed in an acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer rat model and proved that our recombinant human epidermal growth factor endoscopic sol-gel facilitated the ulcer-healing process more efficiently than the other treatments. Ulcer sizes in the recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel group were decreased 2.9- and 2.1-fold compared with those in the nontreated group on days 1 and 3 after ulceration, respectively. The mucosal thickness in the recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel group was significantly increased compared to that in the nontreated group (3.2- and 6.9-fold on days 1 and 3 after ulceration, respectively). In a gastric retention study, recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel stayed on the gastric mucosa more than 2 h after application. The present study suggests that recombinant human epidermal growth factor sol-gel is a prospective candidate for treating gastric ulcers via endoscopic application.

  1. Peptic Ulcers in Fukushima Prefecture Related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Ishihata, Ryoichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yuta; Saito, Hironobu; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Sato, Yuki; Ohira, Hiromasa; Obara, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011, many residents of Fukushima Prefecture were affected by a radiation accident in addition to suffering loss or damage from the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual condition of patients with peptic ulcers related to the disaster. Methods Patients with peptic ulcers at six hospitals in three different regions of Fukushima Prefecture during the two months following the disaster and the corresponding period of the year before and the year after the disaster were enrolled in this study. Changes by period and region in the number of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations and the number of peptic ulcer patients were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Changes in the frequencies of hemorrhagic ulcers were evaluated by period and by region as secondary endpoints. Results The numbers of EGDs and peptic ulcer cases compared to the previous year decreased in 2011 and then increased in 2012. However, the ratio of hemorrhagic ulcers to peptic ulcers was higher in 2011 (51.9%) than in 2010 (38.1%) and 2012 (31.1%), and the 2011 hemorrhagic ulcer ratio was the highest at 63.6% in the coastal area. Regarding bleeding cases during 2011, the rate at 1 month after the disaster (64.1%) was higher than the rate at 2 months after the disaster (40.5%) (p=0.033). Conclusion The number of patients with peptic ulcers did not increase immediately following the disaster in Fukushima Prefecture. However, the rate of bleeding patients increased soon after the disaster, especially in the coastal area. PMID:29269647

  2. Clinical endoscopic management and outcome of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016. The blood biochemistry, comorbidities, indication for sphincterotomy, severity of bleeding, endoscopic features of bleeder, and type of endoscopic therapy were analyzed. Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding occurred in 65 (12.6% patients. Forty-five patients had immediate bleeding and 20 patients had delayed bleeding. The multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding were liver cirrhosis (P = 0.029, end-stage renal disease (P = 0.038, previous antiplatelet drug use (P<0.001, and duodenal ulcer (P = 0.023. The complications of pancreatitis and cholangitis were higher in the bleeding group, with statistical significance. Delayed bleeding occurred within 1 to 7 days (mean, 2.5 days, and 60% (12/20 of the patients received endoscopic evaluation. In the delayed bleeding group, the successful hemostasis rate was 71.4% (5/7, and 65% (13/20 of the patients had ceased bleeding without endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Comparison of different therapeutic modalities showed that cholangitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine spray (P = 0.042 and pancreatitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine injection and electrocoagulation (P = 0.041 and P = 0.039 respectively. Clinically, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and further endoscopic hemostasis therapy increase the complication rate of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Realizing the effectiveness of each

  3. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  4. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  5. NSAID induced perforated peptic ulcer in a pediatric sickle cell patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Johnson-Mann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease is a relatively rare entity in the pediatric population. Given the trend toward multimodal pain control for pain crises in Sickle Cell Disease patients, they are at an increased risk of developing complications secondary to peptic ulcer disease. We discuss a case of a Sickle Cell Disease patient on multimodal therapy that presented with a perforated peptic ulcer requiring emergent surgery. While multimodal therapy helps ease the dependency on narcotic pain medication, it does present other potential problems like potential bleeding or perforation. For those that can be categorized in this select group of patients, routine surveillance with esophagogastroduodenoscopy should be considered for those at highest risk to prevent devastating complications.

  6. Therapeutic Endoscopy for the Control of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banc-Husu, Anna M; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Jaffe, David L; Kochman, Michael L; Rajala, Michael W; Mamula, Petar

    2017-04-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most common indications for urgent endoscopy in the pediatric setting. The majority of these procedures are performed for control of variceal bleeding, with few performed for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (NVUGI) bleeding. The data on therapeutic endoscopy for NVUGI are sparse. The aims of our study were to review our experience with NVUGI bleeding, describe technical aspects and outcomes of therapeutic endoscopy, and determine gastroenterology fellows' training opportunities according to the national training guidelines. We performed a retrospective review of endoscopy database (Endoworks, Olympus Inc, Center Valley, PA) from January 2009 to December 2014. The search used the following keywords: bleeding, hematemesis, melena, injection, epinephrine, cautery, clip, and argon plasma coagulation. The collected data included demographics, description of bleeding lesion and medical/endoscopic therapy, rate of rebleeding, relevant laboratories, physical examination, and need for transfusion and surgery. The study was approved by the institutional review board. During the study period 12,737 upper endoscopies (esophagogastroduodenoscopies) were performed. A total of 15 patients underwent 17 esophagogastroduodenoscopies that required therapeutic intervention to control bleeding (1:750 procedures). The mean ± standard deviation (median) age of patients who required endoscopic intervention was 11.6 ± 6.0 years (14.0 years). Seven out of 17 patients received dual therapy to control the bleeding lesions. All but 3 patients received medical therapy with intravenous proton pump inhibitor, and 3 received octreotide infusions. Six of the patients experienced rebleeding (40%), with 4 out of 6 initially only receiving single modality therapy. Two of these patients eventually required surgical intervention to control bleeding and both patients presented with bleeding duodenal ulcers. There were no cases of aspiration

  7. Real-time PCR improves Helicobacter pylori detection in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ramírez-Lázaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Histological and rapid urease tests to detect H. pylori in biopsy specimens obtained during peptic ulcer bleeding episodes (PUB often produce false-negative results. We aimed to examine whether immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR can improve the sensitivity of these biopsies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We selected 52 histology-negative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens obtained during PUB episodes. Additional tests showed 10 were true negatives and 42 were false negatives. We also selected 17 histology-positive biopsy specimens obtained during PUB to use as controls. We performed immunohistochemistry staining and real-time PCR for 16S rRNA, ureA, and 23S rRNA for H. pylori genes on all specimens. RESULTS: All controls were positive for H. pylori on all PCR assays and immunohistochemical staining. Regarding the 52 initially negative biopsies, all PCR tests were significantly more sensitive than immunohistochemical staining (p<0.01. Sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 80% for 16S rRNA PCR, 43% and 90% for ureA PCR, 41% and 80% for 23S rRNA PCR, and 7% and 100% for immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Combined analysis of PCR assays for two genes were significantly more sensitive than ureA or 23S rRNA PCR tests alone (p<0.05 and marginally better than 16S rRNA PCR alone. The best combination was 16S rRNA+ureA, with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time PCR improves the detection of H. pylori infection in histology-negative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy samples obtained during PUB episodes. The low reported prevalence of H. pylori in PUB may be due to the failure of conventional tests to detect infection.

  8. Costs of treating bleeding and perforated peptic ulcers in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leest, H.T.J.I.; Dieten, H.; van Tulder, M.; Lems, W.F.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Boers, M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs includes perforations and bleeds. Several preventive strategies are being tested for cost-effectiveness, but little is known about the costs of the complications they are trying to prevent. We estimated the direct costs of

  9. Clinical and endoscopic profile of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding at tertiary care center of North India

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    Deep Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is a common medical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The presentation of bleeding depends on the amount and location of hemorrhage and the endoscopic profile varies according to different etiology. Despite advancements in medical intervention UGIB still carries considerable morbidity, mortality and economic burden on health care system. At present, there is limited epidemiological data on UGIB and associated mortality from India. Aims: The aim was to study clinical, endoscopic profile, and associated mortality in patients presenting with UGIB. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients came to Emergency Department with UGIB during the study period and were subjected to endoscopy to identify the etiology. The clinical and endoscopic profile was analyzed and mortality pattern was studied. Results: The mean age of patients was 49 ± 14.26. Majority of them were males (83.33% and male to female ratio was 5:1. The most common cause of UGIB was portal hypertension related (Esophageal and gastric varices seen in 56.14% of patients, peptic ulcer-related bleed was seen in 14.91% patients, gastric erosions were responsible for bleed in 12.28% patients, Mallory-Weiss tear was seen in 8.77% cases, gastric malignancy accounted for 4.38% of cases, Dieulafoy′s lesion was responsible for bleed in 1.75% cases and 1.75% had Duodenal polyp. The mortality rate because of UGIB in our cohort of patients was 21.05%. Conclusions: In the present study, variceal bleed was the most common cause of UGIB, followed by peptic ulcer bleed. Overall mortality was seen in 21.05% of cases; however, majority of mortality was seen in portal hypertension related bleeding.

  10. Ulcerative colitis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, L H; Das, K M

    1996-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that affects the rectum and a variable length of contiguous colon. The disease is characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea during periods of exacerbation; these symptoms usually abate with treatment. The pathogenic mechanism of ulcerative colitis is believed to be an aberrant immune response in which antibodies are formed against colonic epithelial protein(s). The disease usually presents during the second and third decades of life, with a smaller peak after the age of 60 years. There is a genetic component to ulcerative colitis, with a higher incidence among family members and, particularly, first-degree relatives. Diagnosis depends on several factors, most notably symptoms, demonstration of uniformly inflamed mucosa beginning in the rectum, and exclusion of other causes of colitis, such as infection. There is no medical cure for ulcerative colitis, but medical therapy is effective and can improve or eliminate symptoms in more than 80% of patients. Surgery offers a cure but carries the high price of total colectomy. New surgical methods, such as ileoanal anastomosis, allow for maintenance of bowel continuity and better patient satisfaction.

  11. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: difficulties in comparing CT enterography and video capsule endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a retrospective study that was designed to evaluate the potential role of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in elucidating the cause of bleeding in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) for whom CT enterography was negative. The authors highlight the limitations of dual-phase CT enterography for the detection of flat lesions of the small bowel such as ulcers, angiodysplasias or arteriovenous malformations, and confirm the superiority of VCE for the detection of this category of lesions. This commentary discusses some of the issues raised. Key Points circle Video capsule endoscopy surpasses CT enterography in detecting flat small bowel lesions. circle Retrospective VCE and CT enterography findings in obscure bleeding need further evaluation. circle A fair and unbiased comparison of the two investigations is still needed. (orig.)

  12. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Morten Brøgger; Perner, A; Wetterslev, J

    2013-01-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is regarded as standard of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, recent randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have questioned the rationale and level of evidence for this recommendation. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate...... incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding varies considerably. Data on the incidence and severity of GI bleeding in general ICUs in the developed world as of today are lacking. The best intervention for SUP is yet to be settled by balancing efficacy and harm. In essence, it is unresolved if intensive care...... patients benefit overall from SUP. The following clinically research questions are unanswered: (1) What is the incidence of GI bleeding, and which interventions are used for SUP in general ICUs today?; (2) Which criteria are used to prescribe SUP?; (3) What is the best SUP intervention?; (4) Do intensive...

  13. Reduced hemoglobin and increased C-reactive protein are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Togawa, Akira; Shirai, Yoshinori; Ichiki, Noboru; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Sueishi, Makoto

    2014-02-07

    To investigate the early upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (endoscopy) significantly reduces mortality resulting from upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Upper GI bleeding was defined as 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b according to the Forrest classification. The hemoglobin (Hb), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined at around the day of endoscopy and 3 mo prior to endoscopy. The rate of change was calculated as follows: (the result of blood examination on the day of endoscopy - the results of blood examination 3 mo prior to endoscopy)/(results of blood examination 3 mo prior to endoscopy). Receiver operating characteristic curves were created to determine threshold values. Seventy-nine men and 77 women were enrolled. There were 17 patients with upper GI bleeding: 12 with a gastric ulcer, 3 with a duodenal ulcer, 1 with an acute gastric mucosal lesion, and 1 with gastric cancer. The area under the curve (AUC), threshold, sensitivity, and specificity of Hb around the day of endoscopy were 0.902, 11.7 g/dL, 94.1%, and 77.1%, respectively, while those of CRP were 0.722, 0.5 mg/dL, 70.5%, and 73%, respectively. The AUC, threshold, sensitivity, and specificity of the rate of change of Hb were 0.851, -21.3%, 76.4%, and 82.6%, respectively, while those of CRP were 0.901, 100%, 100%, and 82.5%, respectively. Predictors for upper GI bleeding were Hb 21.3% and an increase in the CRP > 100%, 3 mo before endoscopy.

  14. Selective CT mesentericography in the diagnostics of obscure overt intestinal bleeding: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, K.; Buecker, A.; Tacke, J.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Jansen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate intra-arterial CT mesentericography (CTM) in the diagnostics of severe obscure overt intestinal bleeding in comparison with conventional mesentericography (MG) and surgery. Methods: In 8 patients (23 - 82 years, mean 59 years), CTM was performed via the catheter left in the superior mesenteric artery after MG to detect the source of bleeding. Early and late-phase spiral CT scans were acquired after administration of contrast medium. Active bleeding was considered to be present if extravasation of contrast medium into the bowel was found. The results of MG and CTM were compared with the results of surgery. Results: With MG active bleeding was found in one patient, with CTM in five patients. In three patients, both MG and CTM were negative. Six patients underwent surgery. Five cases of bleeding detected with CTM were confirmed by surgery. In one case, bleeding found with CTM was not confirmed by surgery. One patient underwent surgery although all imaging procedures were negative. The source of bleeding remained unknown. Surgically, the site of bleeding was located in the jejunum in 3 patients (jejunitis, jejunal ulcers, carcinoid), one patient had a diverticulum in the ascending colon. The colonic bleeding site was correctly localized with CTM, whereas the small bowel bleeding could only roughly be assigned to the proximal or distal jejunum or jejunoileal transition area. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicate that selective CTM is superior to MG in the evaluation of severe obscure overt intestinal bleeding. (orig.) [de

  15. A comparison of oral omeprazole and intravenous cimetidine in reducing complications of duodenal peptic ulcer

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    Khaleghian Farzaneh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem and its most common etiology is peptic ulcer disease. Ulcer rebleeding is considered a perilous complication for patients. To reduce the rate of rebleeding and to fasten the improvement of patients' general conditions, most emergency departments in Iran use H2-blockers before endoscopic procedures (i.e. intravenous omeprazole is not available in Iran. The aim of this study was to compare therapeutic effects of oral omeprazole and intravenous cimetidine on reducing rebleeding rates, duration of hospitalization, and the need for blood transfusion in duodenal ulcer patients. Methods In this clinical trial, 80 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to duodenal peptic ulcer and endoscopic evidence of rebleeding referring to emergency departments of Imam and Sina hospitals in Tabriz, Iran were randomly assigned to two equal groups; one was treated with intravenous cimetidine 800 mg per day and the other, with 40 mg oral omeprazole per day. Results No statistically significant difference was found between cimetidine and omeprazole groups in regards to sex, age, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, NSAID consumption, endoscopic evidence of rebleeding, mean hemoglobin and mean BUN levels on admission, duration of hospitalization and the mean time of rebleeding. However, the need for blood transfusion was much lower in omeprazole than in cimetidine group (mean: 1.68 versus 3.58 units, respectively; p Conclusion This study demonstrated that oral omeprazole significantly excels intravenous cimetidine in reducing the need for blood transfusion and lowering rebleeding rates in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Though not statistically significant (p = 0.074, shorter periods of hospitalization were found for omeprazole group which merits consideration for cost minimization.

  16. Detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding by means of technetium-99m in vivo labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Vizd'a, J.; Bures, J.

    2002-01-01

    the pancreas with bleeding vessel communicating to the transverse colon (1 patient), bleeding submucose varix in jejunum (1 patient), carcinoid of the ileum (1 patient), bleeding from the ileosigmoideoanastomosis six days after hemicolectomy for Crohn's disease (1 patient), bleeding from an ulcer close to the papilla of Vater (1 patient), bleeding from ulcer at jejunum after revious NSAIDs treatment (1 patient), bleeding inflammatory polyp at ileotransversoanastomosis (1 patient). GI bleeding stopped spontaneously in 5 patients with positive scintigraphy. Therefore these patients did not undergo intraoperative enteroscopy or surgery and we could not determine the final diagnosis. Scintigraphy with RBCs in vivo labelled technetium-99m hastened detection of the source of GI bleeding and improved management of the source of GI bleeding and improved management of disease. (author)

  17. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F.; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 66 Final Diagnosis: Calciphylaxis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis • blood transfusions Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. Case Report: A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  18. Canonical correlation analysis of factors involved in the occurrence of peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyurt, Nizamettin; Abasiyanik, M Fatih; Sander, Ersan; Salih, Barik A

    2007-01-01

    The impact of risk factors on the development of peptic ulcers has been shown to vary among different populations. We sought to establish a correlation between these factors and their involvement in the occurrence of peptic ulcers for which a canonical correlation analysis was applied. We included 7,014 patient records (48.6% women, 18.4% duodenal ulcer [DU], 4.6% gastric ulcer [GU]) of those underwent upper gastroendoscopy for the last 5 years. The variables measured are endoscopic findings (DU, GU, antral gastritis, erosive gastritis, pangastritis, pyloric deformity, bulbar deformity, bleeding, atrophy, Barret esophagus and gastric polyp) and risk factors (age, gender, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs] and aspirin intake). We found that DU had significant positive correlation with bulbar deformity (P=2.6 x 10(-23)), pyloric deformity (P=2.6 x 10(-23)), gender (P=2.6 x 10(-23)), H. pylori (P=1.4 x 10(-15)), bleeding (P=6.9 x 10(-15)), smoking (P=1.4 x 10(-7)), aspirin use (P=1.1 x 10(-4)), alcohol intake (P=7.7 x 10(-4)), and NSAIDs (P=.01). GU had a significantly positive correlation with pyloric deformity (P=1,6 x 10(-15)), age (P=2.6 x 10(-14)), bleeding (P=3.7 x 10(-8)), gender (P=1.3 x 10(-7)), aspirin use (P=1.1 x 10(-6)), bulbar deformity (P=7.4 x 10(-4)), alcohol intake (P=.03), smoking (P=.04), and Barret esophagus (P=.03). The level of significance was much higher in some variables with DU than with GU and the correlations with GU in spite of being highly significant the majority, were small in magnitude. In conclusion, Turkish patients with the following endoscopic findings bulbar deformity and pyloric deformity are high-risk patients for peptic ulcers with the risk of the occurrence of DU being higher than that of GU. Factors such as H. pylori, smoking, alcohol use, and NSAIDs use (listed in a decreasing manner) are risk factors that have significant impact on the occurrence of DU

  19. Etiological and Endoscopic Profile of Middle Aged and Elderly Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pranav; Chandail, Vijant Singh

    2017-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation depends on the amount and location of hemorrhage and the endoscopic profile varies according to different etiology. At present, there are limited epidemiological data on upper GI bleed and associated mortality from India, especially in the middle and elderly age group, which has a higher incidence and mortality from this disease. This study aims to study the clinical and endoscopic profile of middle aged and elderly patients suffering from upper GI bleed to know the etiology of the disease and outcome of the intervention. Out of a total of 1790 patients who presented to the hospital from May 2015 to August 2017 with upper GI bleed, and underwent upper GI endoscopy, data of 1270 patients, aged 40 years and above, was compiled and analyzed retrospectively. All the patients included in the study were above 40 years of age. Majority of the patients were males, with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. The most common causes of upper GI bleed in these patients were portal hypertension-related (esophageal, gastric and duodenal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric antral vascular ectasia GAVE), seen in 53.62% of patients, followed by peptic ulcer disease (gastric and duodenal ulcers) seen in 17.56% of patients. Gastric erosions/gastritis accounted for 15.20%, and duodenal erosions were seen in 5.8% of upper GI bleeds. The in-hospital mortality rate in our study population was 5.83%. The present study reported portal hypertension as the most common cause of upper GI bleeding, while the most common endoscopic lesions reported were esophageal varices, followed by gastric erosion/gastritis, and duodenal ulcer.

  20. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in patients being weaned from the ventilator in a respiratory care center: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chu Lin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stress ulcer prophylaxis with lansoprazole in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilators led to a lower but not statistically significant incidence of apparent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There was no significant increase of incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the prophylaxis group. Further larger scale studies are needed to clarify the benefit of stress ulcer prophylaxis in such patients.

  1. Epidemiology and Endoscopic Findings of the Patients Suffering from Upper Gastrointestinal System Bleeding

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    Mehmet Suat Yalçın

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aim to investigate general and endoscopic findings of the patients who were hospitalized in our clinic because of upper gastrointestinal system bleeding (UGSB. Methods: The files of 403 patients who applied to our clinic between January 2014 and December 2014 with UGSB diagnosis were scanned retrospectively. The de­mographic, laboratorial and endoscopic findings of the patients were examined. Results: The average age of 403 patients were 61.12±17.1 (min. 17- max. 96 and while 263 of these patients were male (65.3(%, 140 of them were female (34.7%. Of all, 234 patients had an additional disease. The most fre­quently observed diseases were hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery. 259 (64.3% of the patients used to take at least one drug and 212 (52.6% of the patients used to get non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and/or aspirin. The most common reasons of UGSB were duodenal ulcer in 158 patients (39.2%, stomach ulcer in 97 patients (24%, erosive gastroduodenitis in 66 patients (16.3% and esophageal varices in 38 patients (9.4%. Unfortunately, 18 of the patients died. Conclusion: The most common reason of UGSB is duo­denal ulcer bleeding. In spite of the technological devel­opment nowadays, it is a disease which has mortality.

  2. Rectal ulcer in a patient with VZV sacral meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Tokushige, Shin-ichi; Mizuno, Hideo; Igeta, Yukifusa; Hashida, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 55-year-old woman with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) sacral meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome) who presented with herpes zoster in the left S2 dermatome area, urinary retention, and constipation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the left sacral nerve root swelling with enhancement. Thereafter, she suddenly showed massive hematochezia and hemorrhagic shock because of a rectal ulcer. To elucidate the relation between Elsberg syndrome and rectal ulcer, accumulation of similar cases is necessary. To avoid severe complications, attention must be devoted to the possibility of rectal bleeding in the early stage of Elsberg syndrome.

  3. A novel hemostatic powder for upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a multicenter study (the "GRAPHE" registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddara, Sami; Jacques, Jeremie; Lecleire, Stéphane; Branche, Julien; Leblanc, Sarah; Le Baleur, Yann; Privat, Jocelyn; Heyries, Laurent; Bichard, Philippe; Granval, Philippe; Chaput, Ulriikka; Koch, Stephane; Levy, Jonathan; Godart, Bruno; Charachon, Antoine; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Metivier-Cesbron, Elodie; Chabrun, Edouard; Quentin, Vincent; Perrot, Bastien; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Coron, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Background and study aims: The hemostatic powder TC-325 (Hemospray; Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) has shown promising results in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in expert centers in pilot studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of TC-325 in a large prospective registry of use in routine practice. Patients and methods: The data of all patients treated with TC-325 were prospectively collected through a national registry. Outcomes were the immediate feasibility and efficacy of TC-325 application, as well as the rates of rebleeding at Day 8 and Day 30. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictive factors of rebleeding. Results: A total of 202 patients were enrolled and 64 endoscopists participated from 20 centers. TC-325 was used as salvage therapy in 108 patients (53.5 %). The etiology of bleeding was an ulcer in 75 patients (37.1 %), tumor in 61 (30.2 %), postendoscopic therapy in 35 (17.3 %), or other in 31 (15.3 %). Application of the hemostatic powder was found to be very easy or easy in 31.7 % and 55.4 %, respectively. The immediate efficacy rate was 96.5 %. Recurrence of UGIB was noted at Day 8 and Day 30 in 26.7 % and 33.5 %, respectively. Predictive factors of recurrence at Day 8 were melena at initial presentation and use of TC-325 as salvage therapy. Conclusion: These multicenter data confirmed the high rate of immediate hemostasis, excellent feasibility, and good safety profile of TC-325, which could become the treatment of choice in bleeding tumors or postendoscopic bleeding but not in bleeding ulcers where randomized studies are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02595853). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Use of proton pump inhibitors for the provision of stress ulcer prophylaxis: clinical and economic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Jeffrey F; Sclar, David A

    2014-01-01

    The provision of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) for the prevention of clinically significant bleeding is widely recognized as a crucial component of care in critically ill patients. Nevertheless, SUP is often provided to non-critically ill patients despite a risk for clinically significant bleeding of roughly 0.1 %. The overuse of SUP therefore introduces added risks for adverse drug events and cost, with minimal expected benefit in clinical outcome. Historically, histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) have been the preferred agent for SUP; however, recent data have revealed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as the most common modality (76 %). There are no high quality randomized controlled trials demonstrating superiority with PPIs compared with H2RAs for the prevention of clinically significant bleeding associated with stress ulcers. In contrast, PPIs have recently been linked to several adverse effects including Clostridium difficile diarrhea and pneumonia. These complications have substantial economic consequences and have a marked impact on the overall cost effectiveness of PPI therapy. Nevertheless, PPI use remains widespread in patients who are at both high and low risk for clinically significant bleeding. This article will describe the utilization of PPIs for SUP and present the clinical and economic consequences linked to their use/overuse.

  5. Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Home For Patients Search FAQs Perimenopausal Bleeding and ... 2011 PDF Format Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Gynecologic Problems What are menopause and perimenopause? What ...

  6. Intra-arterial intervention chemotherapy for sarcoma and cancerous ulcer via an implanted pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Cui, Qiu; Guo, Jun; Li, Dingfeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2014-04-01

    To observe the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy with subcutaneously implanted pump for soft tissue sarcoma in extremities and cancerous ulcer. 31 patients with ulcerative skin squamous cell carcinoma or sarcoma in extremities who received treatment during the period from July 2003 to November 2011 at our hospital were recruited, including 15 male and 16 female patients, aging between 14 and 83 with average age of 49 years old. 10 patients had tumor in upper extremities and 21 patients in lower extremities. The pathological types of studied cases include 9 cases with skin squamous cell carcinoma, 6 cases with synovial sarcoma, 5 cases with malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 3 cases with liposarcoma, 3 cases with osteosarcoma, 2 cases with malignant melanoma, 2 cases with epidermoid sarcoma, and 1 case with protuberans. The main symptoms of cancerous ulcer were pain, infection and hemorrhage; All the studied patients were administrated with cisplatin and doxorubicin by intra-arterial chemotherapy pump, and the patients with squamous cell carcinoma were additionally applied with bleomycin and patients with malignant melanoma were additionally applied with dacarbazine. The chemotherapy efficiency was observed after at 3 cycles of intra-arterial chemotherapy. The total remission rate of pain (RR) was 87 %, and total remission rate of ulcer cicatrization (RR) was 71 %, with ulcer cicatrizing spontaneously in 9 cases and obvious homeostasis in 5 cases with bleeding ulcers. 19 patients underwent surgery after chemotherapy, in which 16 cases had limb-salvage surgery and 3 cases underwent lower leg amputation after chemotherapy, and 3 patients out of 16 cases had local recurrence (19 %). The subcutaneous intra-arterial targeting chemotherapy could be applied to treat refractory sarcoma and cancerous ulcer in extremities to significantly increase the chemotherapeutic concentration at tumor area so as to effectively constrain the tumor rupture induced main symptoms

  7. Medical versus surgical treatment for refractory or recurrent peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Pallari, Elena

    2016-03-29

    authors do not state whether these were recurrent or refractory ulcers. It appears that the participants did not have previous complications such as bleeding or perforation. Of the 77 included participants, 37 participants continued to have medical therapy while 40 participants received surgical therapy (antrectomy with or without vagotomy; subtotal gastrectomy with or without vagotomy; vagotomy; pyloroplasty and suture of the ulcer; suture or closure of ulcer without vagotomy or excision of the ulcer; proximal gastric or parietal cell vagotomy alone; suture or closure of the ulcer with proximal gastric or parietal cell vagotomy). Whether to use medical or surgical treatment was determined by participant's or treating physician's preference.The study authors reported that two participants in the medical treatment group (2 out of 37; 5.4%) had gastric cancer, which was identified by repeated biopsy. They did not report the proportion of participants who had gastric cancer in the surgical treatment group. They also did not report the implications of the delayed diagnosis of gastric cancer in the medical treatment group. They did not report any other outcomes of interest for this review (that is health-related quality of life (using any validated scale), adverse events and serious adverse events, peptic ulcer bleeding, peptic ulcer perforation, abdominal pain, and long-term mortality). We found no studies that provide the relative benefits and harms of medical versus surgical treatment for recurrent or refractory peptic ulcers. Studies that evaluate the natural history of recurrent and refractory peptic ulcers are urgently required to determine whether randomised controlled trials comparing medical versus surgical management in patients with recurrent or refractory peptic ulcers or both are necessary. Such studies will also provide information for the design of such randomised controlled trials. A minimum follow-up of two to three years will allow the calculation of the

  8. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary comparison of 64-section CT enteroclysis with video capsule endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalife, Samer; Vahedi, Kouroche; Dray, Xavier; Marteau, Philippe; Soyer, Philippe; Hamzi, Lounis; Place, Vinciane; Boudiaf, Mourad; Alatawi, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    To retrospectively compare the diagnostic capabilities of 64-section CT enteroclysis with those of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to elucidate the cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Thirty-two patients who had 64-section CT enteroclysis and VCE because of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were included. Imaging findings were compared with those obtained at double balloon endoscopy, surgery and histopathological analysis, which were used as a standard of reference. Concordant findings were found in 22 patients (22/32; 69%), including normal findings (n = 13), tumours (n = 7), lymphangiectasia (n = 1) and inflammation (n = 1), and discrepancies in 10 patients (10/32; 31%), including ulcers (n = 3), angioectasias (n = 2), tumours (n = 2) and normal findings (n = 3). No statistical difference in the proportions of abnormal findings between 64-section CT enteroclysis (11/32; 34%) and VCE (17/32, 53%) (P = 0.207) was found. However, 64-section CT enteroclysis helped identify tumours not detected at VCE (n = 2) and definitely excluded suspected tumours (n = 3) because of bulges at VCE. Conversely, VCE showed ulcers (n = 3) and angioectasias (n = 2) which were not visible at 64-section CT enteroclysis. Our results suggest that 64-section CT enteroclysis and VCE have similar overall diagnostic yields in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the two techniques are complementary in this specific population. (orig.)

  9. Taeniasis: A possible cause of ileal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settesoldi, Alessia; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tarantino, Ottaviano

    2017-12-16

    Taenia spp. are flatworms of the class Cestoda, whose definitive hosts are humans and primates. Human infestation (taeniasis) results from the ingestion of raw meat contaminated with encysted larval tapeworms and is considered relatively harmless and mostly asymptomatic. Anemia is not recognized as a possible sign of taeniasis and taeniasis-induced hemorrhage is not described in medical books. Its therapy is based on anthelmintics such praziquantel, niclosamide or albendazole. Here we describe a case of acute ileal bleeding in an Italian man affected with both Taenia spp. infestation resistant to albendazole and Helicobacter pylori -associated duodenal ulcers.

  10. Liver cirrhosis is a risk factor of repeat acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer in intensive care unit patients

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    Pi-Kai Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU can be found in patients with severe comorbid illness, who are bedridden for a long time. Per anal suturing is a quick and feasible treatment. However, recurrent bleeding occurs frequently after suture ligation of a bleeder and can be life-threatening. However, the risk factor for recurrent bleeding is not well known. Our study tries to clarify the risk factor of repeat AHRU in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2009, the medical records of 32 patients, who were admitted to the ICU of the Tri-Service General Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Taiwan, and who underwent per anal suturing of acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 96 patients who received emergency treatment for acute massive hematochezia, 32 patients were diagnosed with AHRU. Eight (25% patients had recurrent bleeding following suture ligation of AHRU and underwent a reoperation; no patient had recurrent bleeding after the second operation. The duration from the first hematochezia attack to surgery (P = 0.04, liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002, and coagulopathy (P = 0.01 were the risk factors of recurrent bleeding after suture ligation of a bleeder. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that liver cirrhosis (OR = 37.77, P = 0.014 was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Conclusion: AHRU could be a major cause of acute massive hematochezia in patients with severe illness. Our data showed that per anal suturing could quickly and effectively control bleeding. We found that liver cirrhosis was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Therefore, treatment of a liver cirrhosis patient with AHUR should be more aggressive, such as, early detection and proper suture ligation.

  11. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in the orthodontic patient. A case report.

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    Jesús Rodríguez-Pulido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: About 0.1% of the population suffers from necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, a disease of rapid progression and acute manifestation, which may progress to necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and eventually to bone sequestration and loss of gingival tissue. Case report: A 21-year-old female patient undergoing orthodontic treatment for six months, diagnosed with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to acute pain in the gingival tissue, spontaneous bleeding, halitosis and abundant plaque. The treatment was conservative and effective, obtaining total remission of the lesion after seven days and three months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Today there are no epidemiological or clinical reports that support the relationship of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and orthodontic treatment. Prevention is critical to the success of the treatment, which is why the dentist should recognize the clinical features of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis to raise awareness of its risks in the orthodontic patient.

  12. Prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and associated factors in Koranic boarding schools in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, M; Cisse, D; Faye, A; Niang, P; Seck, I; Faye, D; Lo, C M M

    2012-06-01

    Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is the most common clinical syndrome preceding noma. It is found in developing countries and in malnourished children and especially in deprived groups such as children at Koranic boarding schools. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and factors associated with its occurrence in a boarding school population. This was a cross-sectional study of children in Koranic boarding schools in the city of Touba, Senegal. A multistage sampling strategy was used and 8 out of 17 schools were selected. The variables collected were gender, age, oral hygiene habits, duration of residence, presence of ulcerative gingivitis and plaque, and gingival bleeding index. A logistic regression analysis with R software using the manual procedure down was used to identify factors associated with the dependent variables. There were 501 participants and boys made up 92% of the study group. The mean age was 9.3 (sd 4.0) years. The mean of duration residence was 3.4 (sd 1.5) years. The prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was 37% and 81% of children did not use a toothbrush or a chewing-stick. The length of residence, school size, hygiene habits and plaque and bleeding indices were significantly associated with necrotizing gingivitis after adjustment for other variables. It is necessary to develop oral hygiene programs, to establish policies to manage the oral health of children and to improve health and nutrition at Koranic boarding-schools.

  13. Optimal management of peptic ulcer disease in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa; Maggi, Stefania; Addante, Filomena; Sancarlo, Daniele

    2010-07-01

    Recent data report that the incidence of peptic ulcer is decreasing in the general population; conversely, the rates of gastric and duodenal ulcer hospitalization and mortality remain very high in older patients. Two major factors that might explain this epidemiological feature in the elderly population are the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the increasing prescriptions of gastroduodenal damaging drugs, including NSAIDs and/or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). The main goals for treating peptic ulcer disease in old age are to reduce recurrence of the disease and to prevent complications, especially bleeding and perforation. The available treatments for peptic ulcer are essentially based on gastric acid suppression with antisecretory drugs and the eradication of H. pylori infection. The aim of this article is to report the available data on clinical efficacy and tolerability of peptic ulcer treatments in elderly patients and provide recommendations for their optimal use in this special population. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapies for 7 days are highly effective for the cure of H. pylori-positive peptic ulcers as well as for reducing ulcer recurrence. Antisecretory drugs are also the treatment of choice for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcers and are useful as preventive therapy in chronic users of NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin as antiplatelet therapy. Antisecretory PPI therapy has a favourable tolerability profile in geriatric patients; however, monitoring is suggested in older patients with frequent pulmonary infections, gastrointestinal malabsorption, unexplained chronic diarrhoea, osteoporosis or those taking concomitant cytochrome P450 2C19-metabolized medications. The overall approach to the geriatric patient should include a comprehensive geriatric assessment that ensures multidimensional evaluation of the patient in order to better define the clinical risk of adverse outcomes in the older patient with peptic ulcer and

  14. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities: Case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2-5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery.

  15. Marginal ulcer perforation: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, S K; Chua, D; Anbalakan, K; Shelat, V G

    2017-10-01

    Marginal ulcer (MU) is defined as ulcer on the jejunal side of the gastrojejunostomy (GJ) anastomosis. Most MUs are managed medically but those with complications like bleeding or perforation require intervention. It is recommended that GJ anastomosis be revised in patients with MU perforation (MUP). The aim of this case series is to study the clinical presentation and management of MUP. Three hundred and thirty-two patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer at a single center were studied over a period of 5 years. Nine patients (2.7 %) presented with MUP. GJ was previously done for either complicated peptic ulcer (n = 4) or for suspected gastric malignancy (n = 5). Two patients had previously completed H. pylori therapy. None of the patients presented with septic shock. MU was on the jejunal side of GJ in all patients. The median MUP size was 10 mm. Four patients (44.4 %) had omental patch repair, three (33.3 %) had primary closure, and one each had revision of GJ and jejunal serosal patch repair. There were no leaks, intra-abdominal abscess or reoperation and no malignancies. MUP patients do not present with septic shock. Omental patch repair or primary closure is sufficient enough. Revision of Billroth-II-GJ into Roux-en-Y-GJ is not mandatory.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: audit of a single center experience in Western India

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    Jignesh B. Rathod

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The most important aspect of management of GI bleeding is to locate the site and cause of bleeding. The aim of the study is to find out the common etiology, presentation and management, including the role of upper GI endoscopy. Recent advances have meant that endoscopic hemostatic methods are now associated with a reduced rate of re-bleeding, cost, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay and mortality. A prospective study of 50 cases was carried out between August 2001 and July 2003. Patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of upper GI bleeding (UGIB such as hematemesis, melena, aspirated blood from nasogastric tubes, profuse hematochezia, etc., were included in the study. The patients were selected randomly. The most common cause of UGIB in the present study was acute erosive gastritis (34% followed by portal hypertension (24% and peptic ulcer (22%. All 50 patients underwent upper GI endoscopy, of whom 39 patients were treated conservatively and 11 patients underwent endotherapy to control bleeding. Out of 39 patients treated non-endoscopically, 6 cases required laparotomy to control UGIB. 8 of 50 cases had past history of UGIB, 5 of whom had a previous history of endotherapy. One case was treated with devascularization as routine hemostatic methods failed. So, initial method of choice to control the bleeding was endotherapy and surgery was undertaken if an endoscopic method failed. The most common cause of hematemesis in our setting was acute erosive gastritis followed by portal hypertension. Endoscopy is a valuable minimal invasive method to diagnose and treat upper GI bleeding.

  17. BLEEDING PEPTIC ULCER, NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION – A PROSPECTIVE, CONTROLLED, RANDOMIZED STUDY

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    Pavel Skok

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The explanation of peptic ulcer etiology has changed significantly in the past decade after the clarification of the significance of Helicobacter pylori infection.Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with hemorrhaging peptic ulcer and patients with peptic ulcer without complications.Study ethics. The study was approved in 1998 by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Republic of Slovenia (No. 90/09/98.Type of study. Prospective, controlled and randomized study, carried out between 1998–2000.Patients and methods. The study included 80 patients (50 male and 30 female, av.age 57.5 years, SD ± 17.1, range 22– 80 in which endoscopy confirmed hemorrhage from peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum and Helicobacter pylori infection. In all cases endoscopic hemostasis was performed: injection sclerotherapy with diluted adrenalin 1:10,000 and 1% polidocanol or argon plasma coagulation. The control group was made up of 80 patients (50 male and 30 female, av.age 56.8 years, SD ± 16.8, range 19–80 with peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum and Helicobacter pylori infection. Infection was confirmed by a rapid urease test and histologic investigation of the gastric mucosa. In all cases the recommended drug combinations were used in the treatment of the infection: a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazol (4 weeks, and combination of antibiotics, claritromycin and metronidazole or with regard to the antibiogram (1 week. The therapeutic success was ascertained endoscopically four weeks after inclusion in the study. Infection eradication was confirmed by the rapid urease test and histologic investigation of the gastric mucosa.Results. Four weeks after inclusion in the study the success of infection eradication was 92.5% in the study group, in the control group it was 91.3% (p > 0.05. In 6 patients (7.5%, 6/ 80 from the study group and in 7 (8.8%, 7/80 from the control group we introduced a replacement treatment

  18. A rare cause of anemia due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Cameron lesion

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    Ismet Özaydın

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic large hiatal hernias may lead to iron deficiency anemia due to occult and massive bleeding from linear gastric erosions or ulcers on the mucosal folds at the level of the diaphragm called the Cameron lesions. The diagnosis is usually made during upper gastrointestinal system endoscopies. Current therapy includes the medication with proton pump inhibitors in combination with oral iron supplements and in some cases surgical reconstruction of hiatal hernia with fundoplication. We present a case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted to the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia without signs of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. She was treated with medication and her follow-up gastroscopy showed a total cure. She is asymptomatic for two years after treatment with proton pump inhibitors and iron supplements. Cameron lesions should be kept in mind as an unusual cause of iron deficiency anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding

  19. Outcomes from peptic ulcer surgery have not benefited from advances in medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfigh, Shirin; Chandler, Charles; Hines, Oscar J; McFadden, David W

    2002-04-01

    Given the advancements in medical treatment of peptic ulcer disease such as Helicobacter pylori eradication and proton-pump inhibitors, we sought to assess their impact on the need for surgical intervention. Patients who underwent peptic ulcer surgery between 1981 and 1998 were evaluated in a retrospective chart review from a tertiary-care hospital (n = 222). The number of operations performed for peptic ulcers decreased annually (24 vs 11.3). Seventy-seven per cent of all cases were done urgently; most were performed for acute perforated ulcers. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 13 per cent, which remained unchanged over the past two decades. The highest mortality rate (82%) was in the transplanted population (n = 11). Our institutional experience demonstrates that despite the lower volume of patients requiring operative management a greater percentage of these patients are presenting with urgent need for surgery. Also despite the aggressive endoscopic management of acutely bleeding ulcers there was no change in the percentage of patients taken to the operating room for uncontrollable hemorrhage. Improvements in medical management of peptic ulcer disease have decreased the surgical volume; nevertheless we show a rising proportion of urgent operations performed annually, and mortality remains high.

  20. Simultaneous development of ulcerative colitis in the colon and sigmoid neovagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Toni; Appelbaum, Heather; Weinstein, Toba A; Rosen, Nelson; Mitchell, Ian; Levine, Jeremiah J

    2013-03-01

    Vaginoplasty using sigmoid colon is a common technique for creation of a neovagina. However, special consideration must be given to potential long term consequences of using a colonic conduit for vaginal replacement. We report on the youngest described case in which a patient developed ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapy with simultaneous involvement of a sigmoid neovagina requiring total proctocolectomy and neovaginectomy. A 17 year old XY female with a history of gonadal dysgenesis and sigmoid graft vaginoplasty presented with a history of bloody, mucoid vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Colonic and neovaginal biopsies demonstrated active colitis with diffuse ulcerations, consistent with ulcerative colitis. Despite aggressive immunosuppressive treatment she had persistent neovaginal and colonic bleeding requiring multiple transfusions, subtotal colectomy and ultimately completion proctectomy and neovaginectomy. It is imperative to recognize that colectomy alone may be an inadequate surgical intervention in patients with ulcerative colitis and a colonic neovaginal graft and that a concomitant neovaginectomy may be integral in providing appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequecy of different causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding using endoscopic procedure at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, F.; Ullah, R.S.; Khan, J.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the outcome of early endoscopy in terms of frequency of different causes of upper Gastrointestinal bleeding at a tertiary care hospital.Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Outpatients / indoor patients, Department of Medicine Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 1st Jan 2010 to 30th June 2010. Patients and Methods: Study was carried out in department of medicine Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Two hundred and forty four after cosen. Patients of upper gastrointestinal bleeding fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Haemodynamically stable patients were kept empty stomach for at least 6 -8 hours before procedure. A detailed history and thorough physical examination was carried out. Protocols for endoscopic examination were followed. Mandatory baseline investigations were obtained. Endoscopic findings were documented on a proforma. pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were 174 males (71.3%) and 70 females (28.7%). The age of the patients ranged from 15 years to 75 years, mean age was 52.23 years (SD = 14.78). The most common cause of upper GI bleed was varices in 176 (72.1%) patients; followed by gastric ulcer in 24 (9.8%) patients. Other causes in order of decreasing frequency included gastritis 16(6.55%), duodenal ulcer 14(5.73%), esophagitis 6(2.45%), Mallory Weiss tear 2(0.81%) and miscellaneous 6(2.45%). Conclusion: Esophageal varices is the most common cause of upper GI bleed in our set up reflecting high prevalence of liver cirrhosis secondary to chronic HBV and HCV infection. (author)

  2. Current status of indications for surgery in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, G G

    2000-03-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer disease has greatly diminished the need for antiulcer surgery. However, in societies where such drug therapy is considered too expensive and because occasional patients remain refractory to optimal medical therapy, elective surgery for duodenal ulcer disease is still carried out. If the required expertise is available, it can be undertaken laparoscopically. The advent of endoscopic therapies such as heater probe therapy and injection sclerotherapy has also greatly diminished the need for emergency surgery in bleeding peptic ulcer disease. Once again, however, when such therapy fails surgery is still indicated. Even with perforated peptic ulcer disease the role of surgery has receded somewhat, but here not because of changes in drug therapy. Nonoperative management of perforation is indicated in fit patients if the diagnosis is in doubt, in any patient when surgical facilities are unavailable (e.g., remote geographic areas, on board ship), or when a patient is extremely ill either because of co-morbidity or late presentation of the disease. Operation should be considered in all patients when the perforation is established to be unsealed, particularly after

  3. Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients referred to the Shohada Ashayer Khoramabad in 2011: Short Communication

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    Koorush Ghanadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency that often leads to hospitalization. In the present cross-sectional study conducted during 2011, all patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bIeeding living in Khorramabad city referring to the specialized Shohada Ashayer hospital, after being matched with a control group for age and sex, were assessed. Endoscopic findings, demographic data, and clinical characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. Out of 62 patients, 67.7% were males. Mean age of the patients was 54. 5±12.1 yrs. The most frequent gastrointestinal bleeding was found in 60-79 year olds (35.5%. The ratio of gastrointestinal bleeding in regular NSAID consumption was 3.8 (CI=1.3-4.8. Hematemesis (62.9% was the most common primary presentation. The most common prevalent underlying disease predisposing bleeding in these patients was cirrhosis (61.5% and the main causes of bleeding were digestive ulcers (42.7%.

  4. Telemetric real-time sensor for the detection of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostek, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Melanie; Keller, Jan; Fode, Mario; Melbert, Michael; Schurr, Marc O; Gottwald, Thomas; Prosst, Ruediger L

    2016-04-15

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings from ulcers or esophago-gastric varices are life threatening medical conditions which require immediate endoscopic therapy. Despite successful endoscopic hemostasis, there is a significant risk of rebleeding often requiring close surveillance of these patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Any time delay to recognize bleeding may lead to a high blood loss and increases the risk of death. A novel telemetric real-time bleeding sensor can help indicate blood in the stomach: the sensor is swallowed to detect active bleeding or is anchored endoscopically on the gastrointestinal wall close to the potential bleeding source. By telemetric communication with an extra-corporeal receiver, information about the bleeding status is displayed. In this study the novel sensor, which measures characteristic optical properties of blood, has been evaluated in an ex-vivo setting to assess its clinical applicability and usability. Human venous blood of different concentrations, various fluids, and liquid food were tested. The LED-based sensor was able to reliably distinguish between concentrated blood and other liquids, especially red-colored fluids. In addition, the spectrometric quality of the small sensor (size: 6.5mm in diameter, 25.5mm in length) was comparable to a much larger and technically more complex laboratory spectrophotometer. The experimental data confirm the capability of a miniaturized sensor to identify concentrated blood, which could help in the very near future the detection of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to survey high-risk patients for rebleeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pseudoaneurysm embolization and vasopressin infusion for lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to recurrence of urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyota, Naoyuki; Mita, Koji; Fujimura, Yoshio; Hieda, Masashi; Hirai, Nobuhiko; Tachikake, Toshihiro; Ito, Katsuhide

    2006-05-01

    We report a case that was successfully treated for massive lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding due to a recurrent urinary bladder carcinoma. Treatment consisted of combination therapy including embolization of an inferior gluteal artery (IGA) pseudoaneurysm and low-dose arterial vasopressin infusion via a sigmoid artery (SA). A 57-year-old man presented with life-threatening sudden, massive LGI bleeding due to an obturator lymph node (LN) metastasis from a urinary bladder carcinoma. Computed tomography showed that the LN recurrence had invaded all the way to the sigmoid colon, and there was a pseudoaneurysm with extravasation inside the recurrence. An angiogram revealed a left IGA pseudoaneurysm. We therefore excluded the pseudoaneurysm by embolization with microcoils. Following this treatment the bleeding decreased, but intermittent LGI bleeding continued. Endoscopic examination showed the tumor with a huge ulcer inside the colonic lumen, and continuous oozing was confirmed. A second angiogram showed no recurrence of the IGA pseudoaneurysm and no apparent findings of bleeding. Then a 3F microcatheter was placed in the SA selectively using a coaxial catheter system, and vasopressin was infused at a rate 0.05 U/min for 12 h. Bleeding completely ceased 2 days later. There were no signs of ischemic gastrointestinal complications. Massive LGI bleeding has not recurred in 5 months.

  6. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) - initial evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaysi, Iyad; Gralnek, Ian M

    2013-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the most common reason that the 'on-call' gastroenterologist is consulted. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of upper endoscopy, there is still significant associated morbidity and mortality in patients experiencing acute UGIB, thus this is a true GI emergency. Acute UGIB is divided into non-variceal and variceal causes. The most common type of acute UGIB is 'non-variceal' and includes diagnoses such as peptic ulcer (gastric and duodenal), gastroduodenal erosions, Mallory-Weiss tears, erosive oesophagitis, arterio-venous malformations, Dieulafoy's lesion, and upper GI tract tumours and malignancies. This article focuses exclusively on initial management strategies for acute upper GI bleeding. We discuss up to date and evidence-based strategies for patient risk stratification, initial patient management prior to endoscopy, potential causes of UGIB, role of proton pump inhibitors, prokinetic agents, prophylactic antibiotics, vasoactive pharmacotherapies, and timing of endoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel fully synthetic and self-assembled peptide solution for endoscopic submucosal dissection-induced ulcer in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraoka, Toshio; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Fujimoto, Ai; Goto, Osamu; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Naoya; Kanai, Takanori; Matsuda, Sachiko; Kitagawa, Yuko; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2016-06-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can remove early stage GI tumors of various sizes en bloc; however, success requires reducing the relatively high postprocedure bleeding rate. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel, fully synthetic, and self-assembled peptide solution that functions as an extracellular matrix scaffold material to facilitate reconstruction of normal tissues in ESD-induced ulcers. Consecutive patients who underwent gastric ESD were prospectively enrolled. Immediately after the resection, the solution was applied to the site with a catheter. Gastric ulcers were evaluated by endoscopy and classified as active, healing, or scarring stages at weeks 1, 4, and 8 after ESD. Forty-seven patients with 53 lesions, including 14 (29.8%) previously on antithrombotic therapy and 2 (4.3%) requiring heparin bridge therapy, were analyzed; 2 patients were excluded, 1 with perforations and 1 with persistent coagulopathy. The mean size of the en bloc resected specimens was 36.5 ± 11.3 mm. The rate of post-ESD bleeding was 2.0% (1/51; 95% CI, 0.03-10.3). Transitional rate to the healing stage of ESD-induced ulcers at week 1 was 96% (49/51). Subsequent endoscopies demonstrated the scarring stage in 19% (9/48) and 98% (41/42) at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. No adverse effects related to this solution occurred. The use of this novel peptide solution may potentially aid in reducing the delayed bleeding rate by promoting mucosal regeneration and speed of ulcer healing after large endoscopic resections in the stomach. Further studies, particularly randomized controlled studies, are needed to fully evaluate its efficacy. ( 000011548.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in severely burned patients: a case-control study to assess risk factors, causes, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Koh, Dong Hee; Park, Se Woo; Park, Sun Man; Choi, Min Ho; Jang, Hyun Joo; Kae, Sea Hyub; Lee, Jin; Byun, Hyun Woo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk factors, causes, and outcome of clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding that occurs in severely burned patients. The charts of all patients admitted to the burn intensive care unit were analyzed retrospectively over a 4-year period (from January 2006 to December 2009). Cases consisted of burned patients who developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding more than 24 hours after admission to the burn intensive care unit. Controls were a set of patients, in the burn intensive care unit, without upper gastrointestinal bleeding matched with cases for age and gender. Cases and controls were compared with respect to the risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and outcomes. During the study period, clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 20 patients out of all 964 patients. The most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was duodenal ulcer (11 of 20 cases, 55%). In the multivariate analysis, mechanical ventilation (p = 0.044) and coagulopathy (p = 0.035) were found to be the independent predictors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in severely burned patients. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage tends to occur more frequently after having prolonged mechanical ventilation and coagulopathy.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of histamine receptor-2 antagonist versus proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Robert; Campbell, Jon

    2014-04-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of using histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Decision analysis model examining costs and effectiveness of using histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Costs were expressed in 2012 U.S. dollars from the perspective of the institution and included drug regimens and the following outcomes: clinically significant stress-related mucosal bleed, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile infection. Effectiveness was the mortality risk associated with these outcomes and represented by survival. Costs, occurrence rates, and mortality probabilities were extracted from published data. A simulation model. A mixed adult ICU population. Histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for 9 days of stress ulcer prophylaxis therapy. Output variables were expected costs, expected survival rates, incremental cost, and incremental survival rate. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the drivers of incremental cost and incremental survival. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted using second-order Monte Carlo simulation. For the base case analysis, the expected cost of providing stress ulcer prophylaxis was $6,707 with histamine receptor-2 antagonist and $7,802 with proton pump inhibitor, resulting in a cost saving of $1,095 with histamine receptor-2 antagonist. The associated mortality probabilities were 3.819% and 3.825%, respectively, resulting in an absolute survival benefit of 0.006% with histamine receptor-2 antagonist. The primary drivers of incremental cost and survival were the assumptions surrounding ventilator-associated pneumonia and bleed. The probabilities that histamine receptor-2 antagonist was less costly and provided favorable survival were 89.4% and 55.7%, respectively. A secondary analysis assuming equal rates of C. difficile infection showed a cost saving of $908 with histamine

  10. [Recommendation for the prevention and treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal ulcers and its complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a broad class of non glucocorticoid drugs which are extensively used in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic therapies. However, NSAIDs may cause many side effects, most commonly in gastrointestinal(GI) tract. Cardiovascular system, kidney, liver, central nervous system and hematopoietic system are also involved. NSAID-induced GI side effects not only endanger the patients' health, increase mortality, but also greatly increase the cost of medical care. Therefore, how to reduce GI side effects is of particular concern to clinicians. The Chinese Rheumatism Data Center(CRDC) and Chinese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treatment and Research Group(CSTAR) compose a "Recommendation for the prevention and treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal ulcers and its complications" , as following: (1) GI lesions are the most common side effects of NSAIDs. (2) NSAID-induced GI side effects include gastritis, esophagitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, bleeding, perforation and obstruction. (3) With the application of capsule endoscopy and small intestinal endoscopy, growing attention is being paid to the NASID-induced small intestine mucosa damage, which is mainly erosion and ulcer. (4) Risk factors related to NSAID-induced GI ulcers include: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, age> 65 years, past history of GI ulcers, high doses of NSAIDs, multiple-drug combination therapy, and comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease and nephropathy.(5) GI and cardiovascular function should be evaluated before using NSAIDs and gastric mucosal protective agents. (6) The risk of GI ulcers and complications caused by selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is less than that of non-selective COX-2 inhibitors. (7)Hp eradication therapy helps to cure GI ulcers and prevent recurrence when Hp infection is positive in NSAID-induced ulcers. (8) Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is the first choice for the

  11. Efficacy of Over-the-Scope Clips in Management of High-Risk Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Justin; Baruah, Anushka; Zeb, Muhammad; Mehfooz, Ayesha; Pophali, Prachi; Wong Kee Song, Louis; AbuDayyeh, Barham; Gostout, Christopher; Mara, Kristin; Dierkhising, Ross; Buttar, Navtej

    2018-05-01

    Standard endoscopic therapies do not control bleeding or produce complications in as many as 20% of patients with nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding. Most bleeding comes from ulcers with characteristics such as high-risk vascular territories and/or large vessels. We evaluated the efficacy of using over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) as primary or rescue therapy for patients with bleeding from lesions that have a high risk for adverse outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 67 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding from high-risk lesions who were treated with OTSCs as primary (n = 49) or rescue therapy (n = 18) at a quaternary center, from December 2011 through February 2015. The definition of high-risk lesions was lesions that were situated in the area of a major artery and larger than 2 mm in diameter and/or a deep penetrating, excavated, fibrotic ulcer with high-risk stigmata, in which a perforation could not be ruled out or thermal therapy would cause perforation, or lesions that could not be treated by standard endoscopy. Clinical severity was determined based on the Rockall score and a modified Blatchford score. Our primary outcome was the incidence of rebleeding within 30 days after OTSC placement. We assessed risk factors for rebleeding using univariate hazard models followed by multivariable analysis. Of the 67 patients, 47 (70.1%) remained free of rebleeding at 30 days after OTSC placement. We found no difference in the proportion of patients with rebleeding who received primary or rescue therapy (hazard ratio, 0.639; 95% confidence interval, 0.084-4.860; P = .6653). Only 9 rebleeding events were linked clearly to OTSCs and required intervention, indicating an OTSC success rate of 81.3%. We found no significant associations between rebleeding and clinical scores. However, on multivariable analysis, patients with coronary artery disease had a higher risk of rebleeding after OTSC independent of international normalized ratio and

  12. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Montero, Dolores

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design Population based case-control study. Setting General practices included in the UK general practice research database. Subjects 1651 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 248 cases of ulcer perforation among patients aged 40 to 79 years between April 1993 and September 1997, and 10 000 controls matched for age, sex, and year that the case was identified. Interventions Review of computer profiles for all potential cases, and an internal validation study to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis on the basis of the computerised information. Main outcome measures Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants within 30 days before the index date. Results Current exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was identified in 3.1% (52 of 1651) of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding but only 1.0% (95 of 10 000) of controls, giving an adjusted rate ratio of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.4). This effect measure was not modified by sex, age, dose, or treatment duration. A crude incidence of 1 case per 8000 prescriptions was estimated. A small association was found with non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (relative risk 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9) but not with antidepressants lacking this inhibitory effect. None of the groups of antidepressants was associated with ulcer perforation. The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding beyond the sum of their independent effects (15.6, 6.6 to 36.6). A smaller interaction was also found between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and low dose aspirin (7.2, 3.1 to 17.1). Conclusions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however

  13. A study of clinical and endoscopic profile of acute upper, gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, K R; Patowary, B S; Bhattarai, S

    2014-01-01

    Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding is a common medical emergency with a hospital mortality of approximately 10 percent. Higher mortality rate is associated with rebleeding. Rockall scoring system identifies patients at higher risk of rebleed and mortality. To study the clinical and endoscopic profile of acute upper gastrointestinal bleed to know the etiology, clinical presentation, severity of bleeding and outcome. This is a prospective, descriptive hospital based study conducted in Gastroenterology unit of College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal from January 2012 to January 2013. It included 120 patients at random presenting with manifestations of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Their clinical and endoscopic profiles were studied. Rockall scoring system was used to assess their prognosis. Males were predominant (75%). Age ranged from 14 to 88 years, mean being 48.76+17.19. At presentation 86 patients (71.7%) had both hematemesis and malena, 24 patients (20%) had only malena and 10 patients (8.3%) had only hematemesis. Shock was detected in 21.7%, severe anemia and high blood urea were found in 34.2% and 38.3% respectively. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding endoscopy revealed esophageal varices (47.5%), peptic ulcer disease (33.3%), erosive mucosal disease (11.6%), Mallory Weiss tear (4.1%) and malignancy (3.3%). Median hospital stay was 7.28+3.18 days. Comorbidities were present in 43.3%. Eighty six patients (71.7%) had Rockall score 6. Five patients (4.2%) expired. Risk factors for death being massive rebleeeding, comorbidities and Rockall score >6. Acute Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding is a medical emergency. Mortality is associated with massive bleeding, comorbidities and Rockall score >6. Urgent, appropriate hospital management definitely helps to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  14. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Japanese Patients Prescribed Antithrombotic Drugs: Differences in Trends over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Shimoda, Ryo; Higuchi, Toru; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Iwakiri, Ryuichi

    2014-06-01

    We studied the features of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients taking antithrombotic drugs. The records of 430 patients taking antithrombotic drugs who underwent emergency endoscopy for UGIB in Saga Medical School Hospital between 2002 and 2011 were studied. We also compared the characteristics of our cohort of 11,919 patients prescribed antithrombotic drugs in our hospital between 2002 and 2011. UBGI patients of variceal bleeding were not included in this study. 186 patients presented with UGIB in the first period (2002-2006) and 244 in the second period (2007-2011). The proportion of patients infected with Helicobacter pylori was lower in the second period, while the proportion taking antithrombotic drugs rose significantly. Peptic ulcer disease was responsible for the majority of bleeding episodes; however, bleeding from other sources is increasing. In the whole cohort, the risk of UGIB was 1.08%; however, of the 31.8% who also took an acid-secretion inhibitor only 18 (0.28%) developed bleeding. In contrast, 102 (1.87%) of those not taking an acid-secretion inhibitor developed UGIB, a statistically significant difference. Risk of UGIB in Japanese patients taking antithrombotics was 1.01% and the incidence is increasing. Acid-secretion inhibitors reduced the risk of antithrombotic drug-related UGIB.

  15. Detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding by intra-arterial scintigraphy: an experimental study and preliminary clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Duk Yoon; Yi, Bum Ha; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this animal and clinical study was to compare intra-arterial (IA) scintigraphy with angiography in the localization of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. After sedation with intramuscularly administered ketamine, lower GI bleeding was induced in ten rabbits. Using inguinal cut-down, an arterial femoral 3F catheter was placed in the proximal mesenteric artery. Following abdominal incision to expose the bowel, lower GI bleeding was caused by incising the antimesenteric border of the small bowel wall. Initial angiography was performed, and this was followede by Tc-99m pertechnetate IA scintigarphy. Tc-99m RBC IA scintigraphy involved two patients who had undergone selective mesenteric arterial catheterizaion for the evaluation of acute lower GI bleeding. Ten rabbits, bleeding at a mean rate of 0.7g/min, were studied. IA scintigraphy was superior to angiography in four cases and equal in six. The sensitivity of angiography was 40%(4/10), and IA scintigraphy 80%(8/10). In one patient, Tc-99m RBC was administered directly into the superior mesenteric artery and ulcer bleeding in the transverse colon was identified. PRior to conventional angiography, the bleeding had been occult. In a second patient, in whom angiography had revealed a hypervascular mass, selective injection of Tc-99m RBC into the superior mesenteric artery revealed tumor(leiomyoma) bleeding in the jejunum. Selective IA scintigraphy was valuable for detecting intestinal bleeding, occult during conventional studies and may be useful for detecting acute bleeding at the time of negative angiography.=20.

  16. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Khaikin, Marat; Bracho, Jorge; Luo, Cheng Hua; Weiss, Eric G; Sands, Dana R; Cera, Susan; Nogueras, Juan J; Wexner, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare disorder often misdiagnosed as a malignant ulcer. Histopathological features of SRUS are characteristic and pathognomonic; nevertheless, the endoscopic and clinical presentations may be confusing. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcomes in patients who suffer from SRUS. A retrospective chart review was undertaken, from January 1989 to May 2005 for all patients who were diagnosed with SRUS. Data recorded included: patient's age, gender, clinical presentation, past surgical history, diagnostic and preoperative workup, operative procedure, complications, and outcomes. During the study period, 23 patients were diagnosed with SRUS. Seven patients received only medical treatment, and in three patients, the ulcer healed after medical treatment. Sixteen patients underwent surgical treatment. In four patients, the symptoms persisted after surgery. Two patients presented with postoperative rectal bleeding requiring surgical intervention. Three patients developed late postoperative sexual dysfunction. One patient continued suffering from rectal pain after a colostomy was constructed. Median follow-up was 14 (range 2-84) months. The results of this study show clearly that every patient with SRUS must be assessed individually. Initial treatment should include conservative measures. In patients with refractory symptoms, surgical treatment should be considered. Results of anterior resection and protocolectomy are satisfactory for solitary rectal ulcer.

  17. Management of overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a low resource setting: a real world report from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Olusegun I; Aderibigbe, Adeniyi S; Adisa, Adewale O; Adekanle, Olusegun; Agbakwuru, Augustine E; Arigbabu, Anthony O

    2014-12-10

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a common medical problem worldwide that has significant associated morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use. This study outlines the aetiology, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes of patients with UGIB in a Nigerian low resource health facility. This was a descriptive study of consecutive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy for upper GI bleeding in the endoscopy unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria from January 2007 to December 2013. During the study period, 287 (12.4%) of 2,320 patients who underwent upper GI endoscopies had UGIB. Of these, 206 (72.0%) patients were males and their ages ranged from 3 to 100 years with a median age of 49 years. The main clinical presentation included passage of melaena stool in 268 (93.4%) of individuals, 173 (60.3%) had haematemesis, 110 (38.3%) had haematochezia, and 161 (56.1%) were dizzy at presentation. Observed in 88 (30.6%) of UGIB patients, duodenal ulcer was the most common cause, followed by varices [52 (18.1%)] and gastritis [51 (17.1%)]. For variceal bleeding, 15 (28.8%) and 21 (40.4%) of patients had injection sclerotherapy and variceal band ligation, respectively. The overall rebleeding rate for endoscopic therapy for varices was 16.7%. For patients with ulcers, only 42 of 55 who had Forrest grade Ia to IIb ulcers were offered endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic therapy was áin 90.5% of the cases. No rebleeding followed endoscopic therapy for the ulcers. The obtained Rockall scores ranged from 2 to 10 and the median was 5.0. Of all patients, 92.7% had medium or high risk scores. An increase in Rockall score was significantly associated with length of hospital stay and mortality (p < 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 5.9% (17 patients). Endoscopic therapy for UGIB in a resource-poor setting such as Nigeria is feasible, significantly reduces morbidity and mortality

  18. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  19. Scintigraphic pattern of small bowel bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshu Rajnish Sharma; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    camera fitted with LEAP collimator. Delayed imaging up to 6 hours was optional and was undertaken only when first 90 minutes images did not reveal any site of bleeding. Two nuclear physicians reviewed the sequential static images for 1) First appearance of focus of activity in a particular quadrant/region of abdomen and 2) looking for its migration pattern. Scintigraphic results were prospectively compared with surgical outcome in 10 patients. Results: Tc-99m RBC Scan localized site of bleeding in 10 of 13 patient evaluated (77%). Ten scan positive patients underwent exploratory laprotomy. On surgical exploration, five culprit lesions were identified in jejunum and as many number of lesions were detected in ileum. Etiological lesions were mainly inflammatory or ulcerative (n=5) followed by neoplastic and vascular ectasias in 2 patients each. One patient showed diverticular disease of jejunum as the source of haemorrhage.Tc-99m RBC Scan was able to distinguish between proximal (jejunal) and distal (ileal) small bowel bleeding in 8 of 10 scan positive cases (80%). Scintigraphy correctly localized bleeding in jejunum and ileum in 3 and 5 patients respectively. In majority of patients (7/10, 70%), scan became positive within 3 hours. Six types of scan patterns were noticed in thirteen patients evaluated with Tc-99m RBCs scan. Five scintigraphic patterns were representative of small bowel bleeding. A serpentine appearance of bowel loops in mid abdomen, focal tracer appearance in right iliac region with subsequent outlining of ascending colon on delayed images, and a focus of activity showing distal extension in circular fashion on sequential static images were characteristic of ileal bleeding. Visualization of fixed loop in left flank region corroborated with jejunal lesion (Leiomyoma) in our series. An abnormal blush and early localization of diffuse activity in left upper quadrant followed by its centripetal extension/movement, was seen in patient with jejunitis

  20. Outcomes of patients hospitalized with peptic ulcer disease diagnosed in acute upper endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmi, Hanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Virta, Lauri J; Färkkilä, Martti A

    2017-11-01

    The incidence and complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have declined, but mortality from bleeding ulcers has remained unchanged. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the significance of PUD among patients admitted for acute upper endoscopy and to evaluate the survival of PUD patients. In this prospective, observational cohort study, data on 1580 acute upper endoscopy cases during 2012-2014 were collected. A total of 649 patients were included with written informed consent. Data on patients' characteristics, living habits, comorbidities, drug use, endoscopy and short-term and long-term survival were collected. Of all patients admitted for endoscopy, 147/649 (23%) had PUD with the main symptom of melena. Of these PUD patients, 35% had major stigmata of bleeding (Forrest Ia-IIb) in endoscopy. Patients with major stigmata had significantly more often renal insufficiency, lower level of blood pressure with tachycardia and lower level of haemoglobin, platelets and ratio of thromboplastin time. No differences in drug use, Charlson comorbidity class, BMI, smoking or alcohol use were found. Of the PUD patients, 31% were Helicobacter pylori positive. The 30-day mortality was 0.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.01-4.7), 1-year mortality was 12.9% (8.4-19.5) and the 2-year mortality was 19.4% (13.8-26.8), with no difference according to major or minor stigmata of bleeding. Comorbidity (Charlson>1) was associated with decreased survival (P=0.029) and obesity (BMI≥30) was associated with better survival (P=0.023). PUD is still the most common cause for acute upper endoscopy with very low short-term mortality. Comorbidity, but not the stigmata of bleeding, was associated with decreased long-term survival.

  1. Unusual Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Late Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsan Chang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of recurrent massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from metastatic renal cell carcinoma is reported. A 63-year-old woman underwent right nephrectomy 9 years previously and experienced no recurrence during follow-up. A gradually enlarging ulcerative tumor over the bulb of the duodenum and four subsequent episodes of massive bleeding from this tumor occurred between June 2001 and March 2002. The patient underwent surgery in April 2002 for intractable bleeding from the tumor. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the duodenum was confirmed from the surgical specimen. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is very rare and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Furthermore, a solitary late renal cell carcinoma metastasis 9 years after a nephrectomy is extremely uncommon. This case suggests that life-long follow-up of renal cell carcinoma patients is necessary, owing to unpredictable behavior and the possibility of long disease-free intervals. In nephrectomized patients suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding, complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination, is indicated. The possibility of late recurrent renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract should be kept in mind, although it is rare. If the patient is fit for surgery, metastatectomy is the first choice of treatment.

  2. Ulcerative giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Chowdhry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a trichogenic tumor which arises from the inferior segment of hair follicle epithelium as hamartoma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST has been defined as a solitary trichoepithelioma with a diameter greater than 2 cm. A 49-year-old female presented with a slow growing skin coloured swelling on the scalp of 8 years duration with recent history of ulceration and occasional bleeding. The local examination revealed a single well defined nodular swelling which was irregular in shape measuring approximately 2 × 2.5 cm. Histopathology from biopsy specimen revealed dark basaloid cells with scanty cytoplasm and darkly stained nucleus arranged in nests with horn cysts lacking high-grade atypia and mitosis, which was consistent with features of trichoepithelioma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp is itself a rare entity and the present case is being reported with the additional component of ulceration in the lesion.

  3. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ...

  4. Frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, S.; Shaheen, M.; Rana, T.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is defined as bleeding that occurs after 1 year of amenorrhea in a woman who is not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). About 10% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have a primary or secondary malignancy. Common malignancies among them are endometrial cancer (80%), cervical cancer or an ovarian tumour. Endometrial cancer is the second most common cancer associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Ninety percent of patients have benign causes. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with post-menopausal bleeding. Study Design: Descriptive case series study. Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Lady Willingdon, Lahore. Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of six months from January, 1 2009 to June 30, 2009. Subjects and Methods: 50 cases with postmenopausal bleeding. Results: During the period of this study a total number of 50 consecutive patients who met inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Ages of the patients who presented with PMB ranged between 48 years and 80 years with a mean age of 59 years. Malignancy was found in 18 out of 50 cases (36%).Cases with endometrial CA were 14 out of 50 cases (28%) and CA cervix constituted 4 out of 50 cases (8%). Benign pathology was more frequent (64%). 13 of 50 cases (26%) had hyperplasia out of which 1 case (2%) was of atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial polyp was found in 4 of 50 cases (8%). 3 of 50 cases (6%) had chronic endometritis. 5 of 50 cases (10%) had chronic cervicitis. While 7 cases (14%) had postmenopausal bleeding due to decubitus ulcer of uterovaginal prolapse. Among malignancies (36%), endometrial cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding with mean age of 65 years. Conclusion: In this study it was concluded that the majority of cases of PMB would be expected to be suffering from benign problems

  5. Analysis of risk factor and clinical characteristics of angiodysplasia presenting as upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Bum; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Seok Jong; Sung, Hea Jung; Woo, Seokyung; Kim, Hyo Suk; Jeong, Yeon Oh; Lee, Hyewon; Kim, Yeon-Ji

    2016-07-01

    Angiodysplasia is important in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), but the clinical features and outcomes associated with UGIB from angiodysplasia have not been characterized. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of angiodysplasia presented as UGIB. Between January 2004 and December 2013, a consecutive series of patients admitted with UGIB were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-five patients with bleeding from angiodysplasia were enrolled. We compared them with an asymptomatic control group (incidental finding of angiodysplasia in health screening, n = 58) and bleeding control group (simultaneous finding of angiodysplasia and peptic ulcer bleeding, n = 28). When patients with UGIB from angiodysplasia were compared with the asymptomatic control group, more frequent rates of nonantral location and large sized lesion (≥ 1 cm) were evident in multivariate analysis. When these patients were compared with the bleeding control group, they were older (mean age: 67.94 ± 9.16 years vs.55.07 ± 13.29 years, p = 0.03) and received less transfusions (p = 0.03). They also had more frequent rate of recurrence (40.0% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.02). Non-antral location and large lesions (≥ 1 cm) could be risk factors of UGIB of angiodysplasia. UGIB due to angiodysplasia was more common in older patients. Transfusion requirement would be less and a tendency of clinical recurrence might be apparent.

  6. A fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 240 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaka, Hyasinta; Koy, Mheta; Liwa, Anthony; Kabangila, Rodrick; Mirambo, Mariam; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Mkongo, Eliasa; McHembe, Mabula D; Chalya, Phillipo L

    2012-07-03

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P bleeding, shock, hepatic decompensation, HIV infection, comorbidities, malignancy, age > 60 years and in patients with

  7. An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-01-01

    This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (≥18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 ± 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 ± 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock

  8. NSAID-induced gastro-duodenal bleeding: risk of development and patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Rebrov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A.P. Rebrov, E.l. Koshkina, A.A. Antonyan, R.V. Lyakisheva NSAID-induced gastro-duodenal bleeding: risk of development and patient management. Retrospective analysis of gastro-duodenal bleeding (GDB report forms was performed. Pts admitted to the department of internal diseases of Saratov regional clinical hospital from 1999 to 2004 were included. 354 cases of GDB were recorded ( 282 from 1999 to 2001 and 72 from 2002 to 2004. Cause ofbleeding, influence of NSAID administration on appearance and relapse ofbleeding, source ofbleeding and pt management were assessed. NSAJD administration was considered trigger factor of GDB in 24% in 1999-2001 and in 18% in 2002-2004. The results of the study show some tendency to decrease of NSAID- induced gastropathy frequency among causes of GDB. The main risk factors ofbleeding during NSAID treatment were age of more than 30 years, ulcer history, the first month of NSAID administration. GDB frequency did not depend on regularity of treatment and NSAID dosage.

  9. [Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug and Aspirin-induced Peptic Ulcer Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young Kwang; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-06-25

    Despite decreasing Helicobacter pylori prevalence, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is increasing in the aged population, mainly due to increasing use of NSAIDs to manage pain and inflammation. In addition, low dose aspirin is employed as an anti-coagulant for those who have suffered or are at high risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, NSAIDs and aspirin are injurious to mucosa of stomach and duodenum. NSAID-induced inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis is thought to be a major mechanism of gastrointestinal mucosal injury. The proportion of elderly has increased rapidly in Korea, with the proportion over 65 years old expected to be 24.3% in 2030. In this higher-risk population, the strategy to reduce the incidence of NSAID-related peptic ulcers and complications such as bleeding, obstruction and perforation is very important. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can be used for reducing the risk of NSAID-related ulcers and upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications. However, continuous use of PPI has several problems. In addition, NSAID-related problems in the lower GI tract have increased, in contrast to the decrease of NSAID-related upper GI disease. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based knowledge regarding the mechanism, complications of treatment, and prevention strategies for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcer disease in Korea.

  10. Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding during anticoagulant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas-Gimeno, Aitor; Lanas, Angel

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major problem in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy. This issue has become even more pressing since the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in 2009. Areas covered: Here we review current evidence related to GIB associated with oral anticoagulants, focusing on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and post-marketing observational studies. Dabigatran 150 mg twice daily and rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily increase the risk of GIB compared to warfarin. The risk increase with edoxaban is dose-dependent, while apixaban shows apparently, no increased risk. We summarize what is known about GIB risk factors for individual anticoagulants, the location of GIB in patients taking these compounds, and prevention strategies that lower the risk of GIB. Expert opinion: Recently there has been an important shift in the clinical presentation of GIB. Specifically, upper GIB has decreased with the decreased incidence of peptic ulcers due to the broad use of proton pump inhibitors and the decreased prevalence of H. pylori infections. In contrast, the incidence of lower GIB has increased, due in part to colonic diverticular bleeding and angiodysplasia in the elderly. In this population, the addition of oral anticoagulation therapy, especially DOACs, seems to increase the risk of lower GIB.

  11. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, K. A.R.; Baloch, A.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Results: Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Conclusion: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features. (author)

  12. Exeretic surgery in complicated peptic ulcer: An inopportune procedure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armas Perez, Barbaro; Reyes Balseiro, Evelio; Garcia Rodriguez, Miguel; Armas Moredo, Karina

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of present study was to analyze the surgical treatment results in the complicated duodenal or gastric chronic peptic ulcer over 15 years. METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in patients presenting with complicated peptic ulcer by exeresis. Patients (n=45) were seen by some of us in the ''Amalia Simoni'' Clinical Surgical of Camaguey province from January, 1989 to December, 2004. RESULTS: Disease was more frequent in male sex (82,22%) and in ages from 36 to 50 years (46,67%). The 95,56% of patients treated suffered from duodenal ulcer and the main criterion for surgery was its unmanageable condition (62,22%). Endoscopy was very useful for diagnosis of this entity. All operated on underwent vagotomy with antrectomy; in the 68,89% we performed a Billroth's II anastomosis and in remainder (31,11% it was of Billroth I type. There was a similar figure of early complications related to techniques used and among them prevails the anastomosis bleeding and delay evacuation. There were more late complications in type Billroth II anastomosis than in the Billroth I. Surgical results were excellent and very good in the 89% of cases. The enterocolitis variant has the great percentage of non-satisfactory results (9,09%). Only two patients had poor results, although there wasn't operative mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This kind of surgery is indicated only in cases of complicated peptic ulcer. It is not the choice method in ulcer patients, but in its use it is necessary to know about different techniques and its use. Thus, we must to know a lot about this procedure. (author)

  13. [Epidemiological changes in peptic ulcer and their relation with Helicobacter pylori. Hospital Daniel A Carrion 2000-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Teves, Pedro; Salazar Ventura, Sonia; Monge Salgado, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a frequent pathological condition. In the last few years there have been reports describing changes in its epidemiology and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection. To describe epidemiological characteristics of peptic ulcers during the study period from January 2000 through December 2005 in Hospital Daniel Carrion. Cross sectional analitical study. All patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer were included. Patients with gastric cancer or previous surgery were excluded. Data were processed using the SPSS 9.0 software. We reviewed 10,819 endoscopy reports with 899 peptic ulcer cases diagnosed during the study period. 67.8% were male, age average 54 years. Age was higher in females (59.8 y), as was in those with gastric and pyloric ulcers (68.7 y). Most frequent endoscopic indications were upper gastrointestinal bleeding (53.3%) and dyspepsia (43.8%). Duodenal location was the most frequent (49.5%) although in recent years gastric ulcers have become more prevalent. Gastric ulcers were more commonly located in the antrum lesser curvature, while duodenal ulcers were located in the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. Gastric ulcers were larger in size and more in number than duodenal ones. Helicobacter pylori was present in 65.3% of all ulcers, 74.3% for duodenal and 55.4% for gastric ulcers. Prevalence of peptic ulcers during the study period was 83.09 cases per 1,000 endoscopies. Duodenal ulcers were the most frequent although there is a decline in the last years. There is also a decrease in the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection as compared to what is usually described.

  14. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection using urease rapid test in patients with bleeding duodenal ulcer: influence of endoscopic signs and simultaneous corporal and antral biopsies Diagnóstico de la infección por Helicobacter pylori mediante el test rápido de la ureasa en pacientes con hemorragia por úlcera duodenal: influencia de los signos endoscópicos de sangrado y de la obtención simultánea de biopsias de cuerpo y antro gástrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro Fernández

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the sensitivity of invasive diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, particularly of urease rapid test, is decreased in cases of gastroduodenal ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Objectives: to assess the influence of blood in the stomach or recent bleeding endoscopic signs in the diagnostic sensitivity of urease rapid test among patients with bleeding duodenal ulcer, as well as the influence of simultaneously collected corporal and antral biopsy samples. Patients and methods: 120 patients, 85 male and 35 female, with an average age of 62 (18-88 years, who were admitted to our Hospital due to bleeding duodenal ulcer and who received an endoscopic diagnosis within 24 hours of admission were included. None of the patients had been under treatment with non-steroideal antiinflammatory drugs, proton-pump inhibitors or antimicrobial drugs in the two weeks prior to the bleeding event, and none had received eradicating therapy for H. pylori. In this group of selected patients an H. pylori infection rate nearing 100% was assumed. H. pylori infection was ruled out using antral biopsy (69 cases or both antral and fundic biopsies (51 cases for urease rapid testing (Jatrox®-H.p.-Test. Patients were classified in three groups according to their endoscopic bleeding signs: a presence of blood in the stomach or recent bleeding ulcer (21 cases; b ulcer showing non-recent bleeding signs (38 cases; and c ulcer without bleeding signs (61 cases. The sensitivity of the urease rapid test was compared between patient groups. Similarly, urease test results with an antral biopsy sample were compared in 100 patients with non-bleeding duodenal ulcer. Results: urease test was positive in 93% of patients with non-bleeding duodenal ulcer, and in 83% of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which reached statistical significance (p = 0.019. This test was positive in 82.6% of patients with an antral biopsy, and in 82.3% of

  15. New Evidence on the Impact of Antithrombotics in Patients Submitted to Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy for the Evaluation of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Boal Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE plays a decisive role in the obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB diagnosis. Antithrombotics may increase bleeding risk in patients with preexistent lesions or through direct mucosal aggression. We aimed to correlate antithrombotics usage with lesions with bleeding potential found in SBCE. Methods. Retrospective single-center study including 274 consecutive SBCE performed over 7 years for OGIB. The lesions were classified as P0 (no bleeding potential, P1 (uncertain bleeding potential: erosions, and P2 (high bleeding potential: angioectasias, ulcers, and tumors. We assessed antiplatelet and anticoagulant drug use during the 60 days preceding SBCE. Results. One-third of the patients were under antithrombotic therapy. The diagnostic yield of SBCE for P2 lesions was 30.0%. Angioectasias (20.4% were the most frequently observed lesions. There was a significant correlation between anticoagulant drug use and a higher incidence of P2 lesions in the small bowel (43.2% versus 26.5%; OR = 2.11, P=0.026. We found no significant correlation between antiplatelets and lesions with bleeding potential in SBCE. Conclusions. Small bowel lesions with high bleeding potential were more frequently detected when the patient was on anticoagulant drugs, resulting in a twofold risk. Antiplatelet drugs were not associated with small bowel lesions.

  16. Vaginal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or period, is a woman's monthly bleeding.Abnormal vaginal bleeding is different from normal menstrual periods. It ... therapy) Cancer of the cervix, ovaries, uterus or vagina Thyroid problems Bleeding during pregnancy can have several ...

  17. Antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulants are not associated with worse outcome following nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles-Sampaio, Elvira; Maia, Luís; Salgueiro, Paulo; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding emerges as a major complication of using antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulants and represents a clinical challenge in patients undergoing these therapies. To characterize patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to antithrombotics and their management, and to determine clinical predictors of adverse outcomes. Retrospective cohort of adults who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2010 to 2012. The outcomes were compared between patients exposed and not exposed to antithrombotics. Five hundred and forty-eight patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (67% men; mean age 66.5 ± 16.4 years) were included, of which 43% received antithrombotics. Most patients had comorbidities. Peptic ulcer was the main diagnosis and endoscopic therapy was performed in 46% of cases. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.7% (n = 42), and 36% were bleeding-related. The recurrence rate was 9% and 14% of patients with initial endoscopic treatment needed endoscopic retreatment. There were no significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed groups in most outcomes. Co-morbidities, hemodynamic instability, high Rockall score, low hemoglobin (7.76 ± 2.72 g/dL) and higher international normalized ratio (1.63 ± 1.13) were associated significantly with mortality in a univariate analysis. Adverse outcomes were not associated with antithrombotic use. The management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding constitutes a challenge to clinical performance optimization and clinical cooperation.

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  19. The Traumatic Tube: Bleeding Rectal Ulcer Caused by Flexi-Seal Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea and fecal incontinence are common in critically ill patients and present a challenging problem in patient management. The Flexi-Seal® Fecal Management System is a device to divert the stools away from the patient, thus improving the care to patients with fecal incontinence. There have been only few case reports describing the complications with the use of this device. Here, we present a case of a 77-year-old woman who was admitted due to massive hematochezia while on anticoagulation. She was found to have a large rectal ulcer caused by the Flexi-Seal device, used during the last hospital stay for fecal incontinence. Flexi-Seal device can be effective for the management of incontinence; however, caution should be exercised during handling and pressure from the retention balloon should be relieved periodically.

  20. Giant gastric lipoma presenting as GI bleed: Enucleation or Resection?

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    Salah Termos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastric lipomas are unusual benign lesions and account for less than 1% of all tumours of the stomach and 5% of all gastrointestinal lipomas (Thompson et al.2003; Fernandez et al. 1983 [1,2]. Although predominantly asymptomatic and indolent; they may present with gastric outlet obstruction and upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding owing to size and ulceration. Only a few cases have been reported, presenting large in size with massive GI bleeding (Alcalde Escribano et al. 1989; Johnson et al. 1981 [3,4]. Presentation of case: We report the case of a 62-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department with massive upper GI hemorrhage. He was initially resuscitated and stabilized. Later gastroscopy showed a large submucosal tumour (Fig. 1. Biopsy revealed adipose tissue. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge well defined oval soft tissue lesion measuring about 16 × 8 × 8 cm. The mass noted a homogenous fat density arising from the posterior wall of stomach with no extramural infiltration (Fig. 2. The tumour was completely enucleated through an explorative gastrotomy incision (Fig. 4. Discussion and conclusion: Massive bleeding secondary to a giant gastric lipoma is a rare finding of a rare disease. The majority of cases in the literature result in major gastric resection. Familiarity with its radiological findings and a high index of suspicion can lead to proper diagnosis in the acute setting. If malignancy is carefully ruled out, stomach preserving surgery is an optimal treatment option. Keywords: Case report, Lipoma, Gastric lipoma, G I bleeding, Enucleation, Gastric resection

  1. A Case of an Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Ruptured Dissection of a Right Aortic Arch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, Christine; Forster, Andreas; Rock, Clemens; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen; Rieger, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a rare underlying cause. The patient was unconscious when he was admitted to the hospital. No chest radiogram was performed. Routine diagnostic measures, including endoscopy, failed to reveal the origin of the bleeding, which was believed to originate from the esophagus secondary to a peptic ulcer or varices. Exploratory laparotomy added no further information, but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the chest showed dextroposition of the widened aortic arch with a ruptured type-B dissection and a consecutive aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF). The patient died on the day of admission. Noninvasive MSCT angiography gives rapid diagnostic information on patients with occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding and should be considered before more invasive conventional angiography or surgery

  2. Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngu, JH; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Chin, YK

    2017-01-01

    Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study.......Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study....

  3. Efficacy and safety of mesalamine suppositories for treatment of ulcerative proctitis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Pediatric patients (5-17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P children with ulcerative proctitis.

  4. Association of vagus nerve severance and decreased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in peptic ulcer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Fang, Chu-Wen; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hsu, Chung Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vagus nerve may play a role in serum glucose modulation. The complicated peptic ulcer patients (with perforation or/and bleeding) who received surgical procedures with or without vagotomy provided 2 patient populations for studying the impact of vagus nerve integrity. We assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in peptic ulcer patients without and with complications by surgical treatment received in a retrospective population study using the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. A cohort of 163,385 patients with peptic ulcer and without Helicobacter pylori infection in 2000 to 2003 was established. A randomly selected cohort of 163,385 persons without peptic ulcer matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Charlson comorbidity index score, and index year was utilized for comparison. The risks of developing diabetes in both cohorts and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received truncal vagotomy or simple suture/hemostasis (SSH) were assessed at the end of 2011. The overall diabetes incidence was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (15.87 vs 12.60 per 1000 person-years) by an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40–1.47) based on the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (competing risk). Comparing ulcer patients with truncal vagotomy and SSH or those without surgical treatment, the aHR was the lowest in the vagotomy group (0.48, 95% CI = 0.41–0.56). Peptic ulcer patients have an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Moreover, there were associations of vagus nerve severance and decreased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in complicated peptic ulcer patients. PMID:27930533

  5. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated. The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group. Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD. PMID:27977613

  6. Endoscopic evaluation of upper and lower gastro-intestinal bleeding

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    Emeka Ray-Offor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A myriad of pathologies lead to gastro-intestinal bleeding (GIB. The common clinical presentations are hematemesis, melena, and hematochezia. Endoscopy aids localization and treatment of these lesions. Aims: The aim was to study the differential diagnosis of GIB emphasizing the role of endoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of patients with GIB referred to the Endoscopy unit of two health facilities in Port Harcourt Nigeria from February 2012 to August 2014. The variables studied included: Demographics, clinical presentation, risk score, endoscopic findings, therapeutic procedure, and outcome. Data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: A total of 159 upper and lower gastro-intestinal (GI endoscopies were performed during the study period with 59 cases of GI bleeding. There were 50 males and 9 females with an age range of 13-86 years (mean age 52.4 ΁ 20.6 years. The primary presentations were hematochezia, hematemesis, and melena in 44 (75%, 9 (15%, and 6 (10% cases, respectively. Hemorrhoids were the leading cause of lower GIB seen in 15 cases (41%. The majority of pathologies in upper GIB were seen in the stomach (39%: Gastritis and benign gastric ulcer. Injection sclerotherapy was successfully performed in the hemorrhoids and a case of gastric varices. The mortality recorded was 0%. Conclusion: Endoscopy is vital in the diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Gastritis and Haemorrhoid are the most common causes of upper and lower GI bleeding respectively, in our environment

  7. Antroduodenectomy with Gastroduodenal Anastomosis: Salvage Emergency Surgery for Complicated Peptic Ulcer Disease--Results of a Double Institution Study of 35 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereau, Nathalie; Chandeze, Marie-Maëlle; Tantardini, Camille; Trésallet, Christophe; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Parc, Yann; Menegaux, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic and interventional techniques are currently the mainstay of management of bleeding duodenal ulcer. As well, for patients with perforated duodenal ulcer, laparoscopic simple closure is nowadays usually performed. Although indications for emergency antroduodenectomy have declined, this procedure is still necessary as a salvage option when conservative management has failed or is not practicable. Our study aimed to evaluate indications and results of antroduodenectomy with gastroduodenal anastomosis in current practice and to examine the factors that predict operative outcomes. All patients who underwent emergency antroduodenectomy with gastroduodenal anastomosis in two surgical care departments specialized in emergency digestive surgery were studied from 2000 to 2015. Thirty-five patients (27 males, 77 %) with a median age of 68 years (20-90) underwent emergency antroduodenectomy with gastroduodenal anastomosis. Indications were bleeding and perforated duodenal ulcer in 24 and 11 patients, respectively. The overall complication rate was 69 %, especially because of a high rate of medical complications (57 %). Only two patients (6 %) required reoperation for anastomotic leakage. The overall mortality rate was 40 % (n = 14). According to the univariate analysis, age >70, >3 comorbidities, ASA score >2, and postoperative medical complications were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. In the multivariate analysis, age and ASA score remained independent risk factors. No recurrence of complicated duodenal disease was observed. Antroduodenectomy with gastroduodenal anastomosis is a safe and effective long-term strategy, with a low and acceptable rate of surgical complications, for complicated duodenal ulcer not responding to conservative measures.

  8. Diabetic foot disease: impact of ulcer location on ulcer healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickwell, KM; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kars, M

    2013-01-01

    Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing.......Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing....

  9. Peptic Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of any age — even kids — can develop ulcers. About Peptic Ulcers An ulcer is a sore, which means it's ... that most people can be cured. Causes of Peptic Ulcers in Kids Although stress and certain foods may ...

  10. Successful Endoscopic Hemostasis Is a Protective Factor for Rebleeding and Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Jae; Cha, Jae Myung; Park, Jae Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2016-07-01

    Rebleeding and mortality rates remain high in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To identify clinical and endoscopic risk factors for rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study was performed in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent upper endoscopic procedures between July 2006 and February 2013. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were compared among patients with and without rebleeding and mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for rebleeding and mortality. After excluding 64 patients, data for 689 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed. Peptic ulcer (62.6 %) was by far the most common source of bleeding. Endoscopic intervention was performed within 24 h in 99.0 % of patients, and successful endoscopic hemostasis was possible in 80.7 % of patients. The 30-day rebleeding rate was 13.1 % (n = 93). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis was found to be the only independent risk factor for rebleeding (odds ratio 79.6; 95 % confidence interval 37.8-167.6; p = 0.000). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.2 % (n = 23). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis (odds ratio 4.9; 95 % confidence interval 1.7-13.9; p = 0.003) was also associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Successful endoscopic hemostasis is an independent protective factor for both rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  11. Mortality and need of surgical treatment in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a one year study in a tertiary center with a 24 hours / day-7 days / week endoscopy call. Has anything changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botianu, Am; Matei, D; Tantau, M; Acalovschi, M

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, previously often a surgical problem, is now the most common gastroenterological emergency. To evaluate the current situation in terms of mortality and need of surgery. Retrospective non-randomised clinical study performed between 1st January-31st December 2011, at "Professor Dr. Octavian Fodor" Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Cluj Napoca. 757 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding were endoscopically examined within 24 hours from presentation in the emergency unit. Data were collected from admission charts and Hospital Manager programme. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad 2004, using the following tests: chi square, Spearman, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, area under receiver operating curve. Non-variceal etiology was predominant, the main cause was bleeding being peptic ulcer. In hospital global mortality was of 10.43%, global rebleeding rate was 12.02%, surgery was performed in 7.66% of patients. Urgent haemostatic surgery was needed in 3.68% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding. The need for surgery correlated with the postendoscopic Rockall score (p=0.0425). In peptic ulcer, the need for surgery was not influenced by time to endoscopy or type of treatment (p=0.1452). Weekend (p=0.996) or night (p=0.5414) admission were not correlated with a higher need for surgery. Over the last decade, the need for urgent surgery in upper gastrointestinal bleeding has decreased by half, but mortality has remained unchanged. Celsius.

  12. Menstrual Patterns and Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescents with Bleeding Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlut-McElroy, Tazim; Williams, Karen B; Carpenter, Shannon L; Strickland, Julie L

    2015-12-01

    To characterize menstrual bleeding patterns and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents with bleeding disorders. We conducted a retrospective review of female patients aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders who attended a pediatric gynecology, hematology, and comprehensive hematology/gynecology clinic at a children's hospital in a metropolitan area. Prevalence of heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche, prolonged menses, and irregular menses among girls with bleeding disorders and patterns of initial and subsequent treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in girls with bleeding disorders. Of 115 participants aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders, 102 were included in the final analysis. Of the 69 postmenarcheal girls, almost half (32/69, 46.4%) noted heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche. Girls with von Willebrand disease were more likely to have menses lasting longer than seven days. Only 28% of girls had discussed a treatment plan for heavy menstrual bleeding before menarche. Hormonal therapy was most commonly used as initial treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Half (53%) of the girls failed initial treatment. Combination (hormonal and non-hormonal therapy) was more frequently used for subsequent treatment. Adolescents with bleeding disorders are at risk of heavy bleeding at and after menarche. Consultation with a pediatric gynecologist and/or hematologist prior to menarche may be helpful to outline abnormal patterns of menstrual bleeding and to discuss options of treatment in the event of heavy menstrual bleeding. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-ulcer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explains the procedure of ethanol-induced ulcer to check the protective effect of drugs over induced ulcer in rats. Ulcer is defined as the erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum and is caused by the disruptions of the gastric mucosal defence and repair systems. Ulceration of stomach is called gastric ulcer and that of duodenum is called duodenal ulcer and together peptic ulcer. In clinical practice, peptic ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which commonly occurs in developed countries.

  14. Effect of Gastric Acid Suppressant Prophylaxis on Incidence of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahoora Abdollahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Critically ill children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress related mucosal injury. Reducing gastric acid by acid suppressant medication is the accepted prophylaxis treatment, but there is not any definitive guideline for using prophylaxis in PICU patients. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI and H2 Blocker (H2B prophylaxis on gastrointestinal bleeding in admitted patients of PICU, Mashhad- Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients admitted in PICU divided into two equal groups on the first day of admission. They received ranitidine or pantoprazole as prophylaxis of stress ulcer. Those patients who had history of gastrointestinal bleeding or coagulation disorder were excluded. 100 PICU patients who had not received prophylaxis during last 6 months retrospectively evaluated as control of the study. Data were collected as demographic characteristics, admission reason, definitive diagnosis, receiving corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation in each patient. Gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground aspirate, and melena and clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding were daily monitored. Data analyzed through descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, t-test and using SPSS-16 software.Results: Among 204 patients (control group=105 and case group=99, incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GB was 13.2% in which 6.9% of cases presented with clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding (CSGB. Loss of consciousness and respiratory distress were the main reason of admission. There was no significant differences between the incidence of (GB and (CSGB in experimental and control groups (P>0.05 as well as ranitidine and pantoprazole prophylaxis (P>0.05. Significant risk factors of (GB were mechanical ventilation and loss of consciousness and corticosteroid therapy

  15. Allele variants of the cytochrome P4502C9 genotype in white subjects from the Netherlands with serious gastroduodenal ulcers attributable to the use of NSAIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Vermes, Istvan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The most common serious adverse effects (AEs) associated with NSAID therapy are bleeding and perforated gastroduodenal ulcers. These AEs are dose related, and reduced oral clearance of NSAIDs associated with polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) would, theoretically, increase the risk

  16. Effect of histamine-2-receptor antagonists versus sucralfate on stress ulcer prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated patients: a meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiahao; Cao, Yunfei; Liao, Cun; Wu, Liucheng; Gao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis in order to investigate the effect of histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) versus sucralfate on stress ulcer prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966 to January 2010) was conducted using specific search terms. A review of Web of Science and a manual review of references were also performed. Eligible studies were randomized control trials (RCTs) that compared H2RA and sucralfate for the prevention of stress ulcer in mechanically ventilated patients. Main outcome measures were rates of overt bleeding, clinically important gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, ventilator-associated pneumonia, gastric colonization and ICU mortality. Ten RCTs with 2,092 participants on mechanical ventilation were identified. Meta-analysis showed there was a trend toward decreased overt bleeding when H2RA was compared with sucralfate (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.53). A total of 12 clinically important GI bleeding events occurred among 667 patients (1.8%) in the H2RA group compared with 26 events among 673 patients (3.9%) in the sucralfate groups. Prophylaxis with sucralfate decreased the incidence of gastric colonization (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.19) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.64). Subgroup analysis showed H2RA was not superior to sucralfate in reducing early-onset pneumonia (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.36 to 1.07) but had a higher late-onset pneumonia rate (OR = 4.36, 95%CI: 2.09 to 9.09) relative to sucralfate. No statistically significant reduction was observed in mortality of ICU between groups (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.34). In patients with mechanical ventilation, H2RA resulted in no differential effectiveness in treating overt bleeding, but had higher rates of gastric colonization and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Additional RCTs of stress ulcer prophylaxis with H2RA and

  17. Effectiveness of TC-325 (Hemospray) for treatment of diffuse or refractory upper gastrointestinal bleeding - a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Oscar; Bauder, Markus; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-11-01

     TC-325 (Hemospray, Cook Medical) is a powder agent for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Although most publications are based on case-reports and retrospective studies, data on efficacy are promising. Here we report our experience with TC-325 for diffuse or refractory UGIB.  Data on patients receiving TC-325 for endoscopic hemostasis from November 2013 to February 2017 at our center were analyzed retrospectively. Primary endpoints were technical success (successful immediate hemostasis) and clinical success (effective hemostasis and no recurrent bleeding). Secondary endpoints were recurrent bleeding within 3 and 7 days, hospital mortality and TC-325 associated complications. TC-325 was used for bleeding not amenable to standard endoscopic treatment (e. g. diffuse bleeding) or as salvage therapy after failure of conventional methods.  Fifty-two patients received TC-325 treatment. Most of the patients were treated for peptic ulcer bleeding (18/52 patients, 34.6 %) and post-interventional bleeding (13/52 patients, 25 %). Hemospray was used in 23/52 (44.2 %) patients as monotherapy and in 29/52 (55.8 %) patients as a salvage therapy. Application of the powder on the bleeding source was successful in all patients with no therapy-related adverse events (AEs). Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 51/52 (98.1 %) patients. Recurrent bleeding within 3 and 7 days was observed in 22/51 and 25/51 patients respectively (43.1 % and 49 %). The overall clinical success was 56.9 % on day 3 and 51 % on day 7. Total mortality was 15.4 % (8 patients), bleeding associated mortality was 3.8 % (2 patients). There were no therapy-related AEs.  TC-325 showed a high technical success rate as monotherapy for bleeding sources not amenable to standard methods or as an "add-on" therapy after unsuccessful hemostasis. However, rebleeding was frequent in this cohort and further studies are warranted to exactly define a

  18. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... higher if you [bullet] are age 60 or older [bullet] have had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet... stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet] takes a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug... bleeding. The chance is higher if the user [bullet] has had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet...

  19. Definition and Facts for Peptic Ulcers (Stomach Ulcers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an H. pylori infection never develop a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori are uncommon in ... saliva or other bodily fluids. 3 Who develops peptic ulcers caused by tumors? People who have Zollinger-Ellison ...

  20. Recurrent Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Ileal GIST Diagnosed by Video Capsule Endoscopy—A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST in the ileum is an extremely rare cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB. Case Report. An 89-year-old man was admitted with melana. He had extensive PMH of CAD post-CABG/AICD, AAA repair, chronic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lung cancer after resection, and recurrent GIB. Prior EGDs, colonoscopies, and upper device-assisted enteroscopy showed duodenal ulcer, A-V malformation s/p cauterization, and angioectasia. On admission, Hb was 6.0 g/dL. An endoscopic capsule study showed an ulcerated tumor in the ileum. CT showed no distant metastasis. The lesion was resected successfully and confirmed as a high-grade GIST. The patient was discharged with no further bleeding. Discussion. Early diagnosis for patients with ileal GIST is often challenging. Video capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy could be useful diagnostic tools. Surgical removal is the first line for a resectable GIST. Imatinib has become the standard therapy. Conclusion. This is a unique case of an ileal GIST in a patient with recurrent GIB which was diagnosed by video capsule. Complicated medical comorbidities often lead to a significant delay in diagnosis. Therefore, we recommend that if GIB does not resolve after appropriate treatments for known causes, the alternative diagnosis for occult GIB must be considered, including malignancy such as GIST.

  1. Unidentified angular recurrent ulceration responsive to antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent ulcer on angular area is usually called stomatitis angularis. It is caused by many factors such as vertical dimension reduce, vitamin B12, and immune system deficiency, C. albicans and staphylococcus involvement. Clinically is characterized by painful fissure with erythematous base without fever. Purpose: to describe an unidentified angular ulcer proceeded by recurrent ulcers with no response of topical therapy. Case: An 18-years old male came to Oral Medicine clinic in RSCM who complained of angular recurrent ulcers since 3 years ago which developed on skin and bleed easily on mouth opening. Patient had fever before the onset of ulcers. Large, painful, irregular ulcers covered by red crustae on angular area bilaterally. Patient has been treated with various drugs without improvement and lead to mouth opening limitation. Intra oral shows herpetiformtype of ulcer and swollen of gingival. Case management: Provisional diagnosis was established as viral infection thus acyclovir 200 mg five times daily for two weeks and topical anti inflammation gel were administered. Blood test for IgG/IgM of HSV1 and HSV2 were non reactive, however ulceration showed a remarkable improvement. The ulcers healed completely after next 2 weeks with acyclovir. Conclusion: The angular ulceration on above patient failed to fulfill the criteria of stomatitis angularis or herpes labialis lesion. However it showed a good response to antiviral. Therefore, unidentified angular ulceration was appointed, as the lesion might be triggered by other type of human herpes virus or types of virus that response to acyclovir.Latar belakang: ulser rekuren pada sudut mulut biasanya disebut stomatitis angularis. Kelainan ini disebabkan oleh banyak faktor seperti berkurangnya dimensi vertikal, defisiensi vitamin B12 dan sistem kekebalan tubuh, infeksi C. albicans serta staphylococcus. Secara klinis kelainan ini ditandai dengan fisur sakit pada sudut mulut dengan dasar

  2. Transfusion requirements in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a study in a Blood Unit at a referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To study transfusion requirements in the Department of Gastroenterology of a Tertiary Referral Hospital, and their evolution over the last seven years. 2. To analyze risk factors associated with greater erythrocyte transfusion requirements. Patients and methods: erythrocyte transfusion requirements were compared for patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology at Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, from 1999 to 2005. Clinical data of interest have been analyzed in order to determine factors associated with greater transfusion requirements. Results: 1,611 patients with a mean age of 60.45 years (59.7-61.2 were included in this study; 76.41% were males. Gastric ulcers were the cause of bleeding in 18.4% of cases (with 69% requiring transfusions; duodenal ulcers caused 22.2% of cases (with 52.9% requiring transfusions, and portal hypertension caused 33.6% of cases (with 90.2% requiring transfusions. Upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin requires transfusions in 88.9 and 96.2% of cases, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that clinical presentations such as hematemesis (odds ratio = 3.12, hematochezia (odds ratio = 33.17, gastrointestinal hemorrhage of unknown origin (odds ratio = 6.57, and hemorrhage as a result of portal hypertension (odds ratio = 3.43 were associated with greater transfusion requirements for erythrocyte concentrates. No significant differences were observed between the percentages of patients who received transfusions from 1999 to 2005. Conclusions: 1. No differences have been observed between the percentages of patients who received transfusions over the last seven years at our Department of Gastroenterology. 2. Patients presenting with hematemesis or hematochezia, in addition to those with bleeding of unknown origin or from portal hypertension, are prone to have greater transfusion requirements.

  3. Distinctive aspects of peptic ulcer disease, Dieulafoy's lesion, and Mallory-Weiss syndrome in patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease or cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojkov, Borko; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review the data on distinctive aspects of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Dieulafoy’s lesion (DL), and Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) in patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease (aALD), including alcoholic hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis. METHODS: Computerized literature search performed via PubMed using the following medical subject heading terms and keywords: “alcoholic liver disease”, “alcoholic hepatitis”,“ alcoholic cirrhosis”, “cirrhosis”, “liver disease”, “upper gastrointestinal bleeding”, “non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding”, “PUD”, ‘‘DL’’, ‘‘Mallory-Weiss tear”, and “MWS’’. RESULTS: While the majority of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with aALD is related to portal hypertension, about 30%-40% of acute GI bleeding in patients with aALD is unrelated to portal hypertension. Such bleeding constitutes an important complication of aALD because of its frequency, severity, and associated mortality. Patients with cirrhosis have a markedly increased risk of PUD, which further increases with the progression of cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis or aALD and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) have worse clinical outcomes than other patients with PUB, including uncontrolled bleeding, rebleeding, and mortality. Alcohol consumption, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and portal hypertension may have a pathogenic role in the development of PUD in patients with aALD. Limited data suggest that Helicobacter pylori does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of PUD in most cirrhotic patients. The frequency of bleeding from DL appears to be increased in patients with aALD. DL may be associated with an especially high mortality in these patients. MWS is strongly associated with heavy alcohol consumption from binge drinking or chronic alcoholism, and is associated with aALD. Patients with aALD have more severe MWS bleeding and are more likely to rebleed when compared to non

  4. Etiology and outcome in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Study on 4747 patients in the central region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakari, Mohammad; Badihian, Shervin; Jalalpour, Pooyan; Sebghatollahi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a threatening condition leading to urgent hospitalization. This study aims to investigate etiology and outcome in UGIB patients in Iran. Medical records of GIB patients admitted to Alzahra referral hospital (in Isfahan) during 2010-2015 were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, comorbidities, history of smoking and taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), presenting symptoms, endoscopic findings, therapeutic endoscopy, blood products' infusion, surgical intervention, rebleeding, and mortality. A total of 4747 patients were enrolled in the study (69.2% men, mean age = 55.46 ± 21.98 years). Hematemesis was the most frequent presenting symptom (63.5%). Peptic ulcer (duodenal ulcer in most cases) was seen as the main reason for UGIB (42.4%). Rebleeding (present in 16.5% of patients) was found to be more frequent in patients with older age, presenting sign of hematochezia and hypotension, history of taking NSAIDs and smoking, presence of comorbidities, history of bleeding because of UGI tract neoplasm and esophageal varices, history of needing blood products' infusion, and history of therapeutic endoscopy or surgical intervention (P < 0.005). We found that mortality (5.5% in total) was also higher in the same group of patients that were seen to have a higher tendency for rebleeding (P < 0.005). Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Comorbidities, hemodynamic instability, high-risk endoscopic stigmata, history of smoking and taking NSAIDs, gastric and esophageal malignancies, may be important predisposing factors for rebleeding and mortality in patients with UGIB. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in pregnancy? • What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? • Can bleeding be a sign of preterm labor? • ... the hospital. What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? Several problems with the placenta later in pregnancy ...

  6. Superselective Embolization for Arterial Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate: A Single-Center Experience in 152 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Saebeom; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Hyukjoon; Lee, Myungsu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate 30-day safety and efficacy of superselective embolization for arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). This single-center retrospective 10-year study included 152 consecutive patients with UGIB (gastric, n = 74; duodenal, n = 78) who underwent embolization with NBCA for angiographically positive arterial bleeding. The primary endpoint was clinical success rate defined as achievement of hemostasis without rebleeding or UGIB-related mortality within 30 days after embolization. Mean systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 121.2 mm Hg ± 27.4 and 97.9 beats/minute ± 22.5; 31.1% of patients needed intravenous inotropes, and 36.6% had coagulopathy. The etiology of bleeding was ulcer (80.3%) or iatrogenic injury (19.7%). Statistical analysis was performed to identify predictive factors for outcomes. Technical success rate was 100%. Clinical success, 1-month mortality, and major complication rates were 70.4%, 22.4%, and 0.7%. There were significant differences in the clinical success rates between gastric and duodenal bleeding (79.4% vs 62.2%; P = .025). The need for intravenous inotropes at the time of embolization was a significant negative predictive factor in both gastric (odds ratio [OR] = 0.091, P = .004) and duodenal (OR = 0.156, P = .002) bleeding. The use of a microcatheter with a smaller tip (2 F) was associated with better outcomes in duodenal bleeding (OR = 7.389, P = .005). Superselective embolization using NBCA is safe and effective for angiographically positive arterial UGIB. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case series of verrucae vulgares mimicking hyperkeratosis in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, D R; Nauck, M A; Bechara, F G; Meier, J J

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication in the advanced stages of diabetes mellitus. Certain lesions may be refractory to usual treatments with prolonged healing. In these cases, differential diagnoses to classical ulcers should be considered. Although plantar warts are a common and easy-to-diagnose finding in the general population, diagnosis can be challenging in people with diabetic foot ulcers, as they mimic hyperkeratosis in these people. We report seven cases of people with diabetic foot ulcers and verrucae vulgares mimicking treatment-refractory hyperkeratosis, presenting to our centre between 2014 and 2016. Diagnosis was aided by the clinical presentation, followed by dermoscopy and punch biopsy. Treatment included topical application of 5-fluoruracil and salicylic acid (four people), cryotherapy (three people) and surgical excision (three people), all in combination with local pressure offloading. In five people, the verrucae were completely removed after a mean treatment period of 9.4 months; two individuals were lost to follow-up. Verrucae may be more common in people with diabetic foot lesions and polyneuropathy than generally assumed. Typical findings include small, pinhead-sized bleedings within and surrounding hyperkeratous lesions. These findings should alert the clinician for the potential presence of a verruca. In such cases, biopsy should be performed to enable specific diagnosis and treatment. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  8. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication and antisecretory maintenance therapy on peptic ulcer recurrence in cirrhotic patients: a prospective, cohort 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzathas, Charalambos; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Mallas, Elias; Triantafyllou, George; Ladas, Spiros D

    2008-07-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori eradication to cure peptic ulcer disease in patients with cirrhosis is not clear. To investigate the course of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotics, first after healing with either H. pylori eradication or omeprazole therapy and second while on omeprazole maintenance therapy after recurrence. Prospective cohort study in a tertiary-care hospital in Greece. Out of 365 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent endoscopy, 67 had peptic ulcer and 30 were enrolled. H. pylori positive patients received eradication therapy and H. pylori negative patients received omeprazole treatment. Follow-up endoscopies were performed at 12 and 24 months or when symptoms recurred. Patients with ulcer recurrence were treated with omeprazole maintenance therapy. The main outcome measurement of the study was peptic ulcer relapse rate during follow-up. Twenty-eight patients with healed ulcers were followed for up to 2 years. During follow-up, ulcer relapsed in 17 patients (8/18 H. pylori positive and 9/10 H. pylori negative at study entry, P=0.041), including 2 patients who died from ulcer bleeding. No further ulcer relapse was observed in the remaining 15 patients who received omeprazole maintenance therapy for the rest of follow-up. H. pylori negative status (P=0.002) and severity of cirrhosis (P=0.015) at study entry were independently related to shorter peptic ulcer relapse-free time. H. pylori eradication does not protect all cirrhotics from ulcer recurrence and the majority of ulcers recur in H. pylori negative patients. Therefore, omeprazole maintenance treatment is mandatory, irrespectively of H. pylori status.

  10. Behavior in face of a high digestive hemorrhage from gastroduodenal ulcer in elderly: current considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen; Acosta Gonzalez, Daniel; Fong Estrada, Juana; Pages Gomez, Odalis

    2010-01-01

    High digestive hemorrhage has a peculiar significance in elderly because of it is an event putting quickly at risk the life. In elderly, the high incidence of associated osteomyoarticular and cardiovascular diseases that also fitting the drugs ingestion, e.g. the non-steroid anti-inflammatory and the aspirin and the toxic habits frequent in third age, since the alcohol, coffee and tobacco consumption are factors having an ulcerative effect on the high digestive tract mucosa. The commonest cause of hemorrhage is the gastric ulcer. At present time we considered as of supreme significance the early carrying out of the endoscopy for the consequent medical treatment and diagnosis limiting surgery only for elderlies, who due to its general status and the bleeding extent or persistence be impossible its carrying out when there is a failure of endoscopic and/or pharmacologic treatment. (author)

  11. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  12. The Application of Hemospray in Gastrointestinal Bleeding during Emergency Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Hagel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal bleeding represents the main indication for emergency endoscopy (EE. Lately, several hemostatic powders have been released to facilitate EE. Methods. We evaluated all EE in which Hemospray was used as primary or salvage therapy, with regard to short- and long-term hemostasis and complications. Results. We conducted 677 EE in 474 patients (488 examinations in 344 patients were upper GI endoscopies. Hemospray was applied during 35 examinations in 27 patients (19 males, 33 during upper and 2 during lower endoscopy. It was used after previous treatment in 21 examinations (60% and in 14 (40% as salvage therapy. Short-term success was reached in 34 of 35 applications (97.1%, while long-term success occurred in 23 applications (65.7%. Similar long-term results were found after primary application (64,3% or salvage therapy (66,7%. Rebleeding was found in malignant and extended ulcers. One major adverse event (2.8% occurred with gastric perforation after Hemospray application. Discussion. Hemospray achieved short-term hemostasis in virtually all cases. The long-term effect is mainly determined by the type of bleeding source, but not whether it was applied as first line or salvage therapy. But, even in the failures, patients had benefit from hemodynamic stabilization and consecutive interventions in optimized conditions.

  13. Parallel pocket incision: Less invasive surgical intervention for the treatment of intractable pressure ulcer with wound edge undermining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Koshima, Isao

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of deep pressure ulcer with a wide wound edge undermining (pocket) is challenging, especially when conservative treatments are ineffective. As most patients with a pressure ulcer suffer from systemic comorbidities, invasive surgery cannot be performed on all patients, and less invasive treatment is required. Less invasive surgical intervention to a deep pressure ulcer, parallel pocket incision (PPI), was performed on 10 patients with intractable pressure ulcers with a pocket formation. In PPI procedures, two parallel skin incisions were made to open up the deepest fold of the pocket and to preserve the skin overlying the pocket lesion; through the created incisions, the necrotic tissues around the deepest fold of the undermining could be easily removed, which facilitated spontaneous wound healing. Postoperative results and complications were evaluated. All PPI procedures were safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia without major postoperative complication; minor bleeding was seen intraoperatively in three patients, which could be easily controlled with electric cautery coagulation. Nine of 10 ulcers were cured after PPI, and one could not be followed up due to the patient's death non-related to the pressure ulcer. For the nine cured patients, the average time for cure was 14.9 weeks, and no recurrence was observed at postoperative 6 months. PPI is a simple, technically easy, and less invasive surgical intervention to an intractable pressure ulcer with a pocket, which can be safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia even on a patient with severe systemic comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ugh! Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... believed that ulcers were caused by stress and spicy foods. Then, in 1982, two doctors (Barry Marshall and ... not develop ulcers. Doctors still aren't sure why, but they think that part ... of pain relievers , like aspirin or ibuprofen, can cause ulcers in some ...

  15. Exsanguinating upper GI bleeds due to Unusual Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM of stomach and spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqai Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we are reporting one case of exsanguinating upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT bleed requiring massive blood transfusion and immediate life saving surgery. Case presentation A 30 years old female, 12 weeks pregnant was referred to our hospital from the earth-quake affected area of Kashmir with history of upper abdominal pain, haematemesis and melaena for one week. After stabilizing the patient, upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy was performed. It revealed gastric ulcer just distal to the gastro-esophageal junction on the lesser curvature. Biopsy from the ulcer edge led to profuse spurting of the blood and patient went into state of shock. Immediate resuscitation led to rebleeding and recurrence of post haemorrahagic shock. Conclusion The patient was immediately explored and total gastrectectomy with splenectomy concluded as life saving procedure. A review of literature was conducted to make this report possible.

  16. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  17. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  18. Management and treatment of distal ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calafiore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.

  19. Managing peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease in elderly Chinese patients – focus on esomeprazole

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    Tang RS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Raymond SY Tang, Justin CY Wu Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Abstract: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are not uncommon in elderly patients. Clinical presentations of these acid-related disorders may be atypical in the geriatric population. Older individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes in complicated PUD and for development of GERD complications. Multiple risk factors (eg, Helicobacter pylori [HP], use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], aspirin contribute to the development of PUD. Recent data has shown that HP-negative, NSAID-negative idiopathic peptic ulcers are on the rise and carry a higher risk of recurrent ulcer bleeding and mortality. Effective management of PUD in the geriatric population relies on identification and modification of treatable risk factors. Elderly patients with GERD often require long-term acid suppressive therapy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI including esomeprazole are effective in the treatment of reflux esophagitis, maintenance of GERD symptomatic control, and management of PUD as well as its complications. Potential safety concerns of long-term PPI use have been reported in the literature. Clinicians should balance the risks and benefits before committing elderly patients to long-term PPI therapy. Keywords: elderly patients, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, proton pump inhibitor, esomeprazole

  20. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding ulcer disease: rapid urease test and histology Diagnóstico mediante endoscopia de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en pacientes con úlcera gastroduodenal y hemorragia digestiva: test rápido de ureasa e histología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro-Fernández

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the endoscopic diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer is limited by a decreased sensitivity in standard invasive tests, rapid urease test and histology. There is controversy about the convenience of using one, neither, or both diagnostic tests. Aims: to evaluate the results of simultaneously performed rapid urease test and histology in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection (H. pylori in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer. Patients and methods: we included 173 patients, 98 male and 75 female, with an average age of 62 years (18-88, with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to duodenal ulcer (115 or gastric ulcer (58, diagnosed within 24 hours after hospital admission. None of the patients had received treatment for H. pylori, proton pump inhibitors or antibiotics in the two weeks prior to the upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode. H. pylori infection was investigated in all patients by two antral biopsy samples for histological study (hematoxilin-eosin and one or two antral biopsies for rapid urease test (Jatrox®-H.p.-test. In cases with a negative urease test and histology, a 13C urea breath test was performed. Infection was considered present when at least one invasive test or the breath test was positive, whereas both invasive tests and the breath test had to be negative to establish an absent infection. Results: 152 patients (88% showed H. pylori infection, 104 patients (90% with duodenal ulcer and 48 patients (83% with gastric ulcer. In all 119 cases (78% were diagnosed by the urease test and 112 cases (74% by histology. Both methods were used to diagnose 134 of 152 cases (88% (p Introducción: el diagnóstico de la infección por Helicobacter pylori, mediante endoscopia, en pacientes con úlcera gastroduodenal y hemorragia digestiva está limitado por la disminución de la sensibilidad de los métodos invasivos habituales, test de la ureasa e histología. Existen

  1. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer: An Asian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated.The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group.Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD.

  2. Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: A Biopsychosocial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daghaghzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and its etiology is not well understood. There is no specific treatment for this syndrome and patients with SRUS may, for years, experience many complications. The aim of the present research was the biopsychosocial study of patients with SRUS.Methods: The study participants consisted of 16 patients with SRUS (7 men and 9 women. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical spectrum of the patients along with the endoscopic and histological findings. Moreover, psychiatric and personality disorders [based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR], psychosocial stressors, early life traumas, and coping mechanisms were assessed through structured interviews.Results: At presentation, mean age of the patients was 39 years (16 to 70. Common symptoms reported included rectal bleeding (93.8%, rectal self-digitations (81.2%, passage of mucous (75%, anal pain (75%, and straining (75%. Endoscopically, solitary and multiple lesions were present in 9 (60% and 4 (26.7% patients, respectively, and 87% of lesions were ulcerative and 13.3% polypoidal. The most common histological findings were superficial ulceration (92.85% and intercryptic fibromuscular obliteration (87.71%. Common psychosocial findings included anxiety disorders (50%, depression (37.5%, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD or traits (62.5%, interpersonal problems (43.75%, marital conflicts (43.75%, occupational stress (37.5%, early life traumas, physical abuse (31.25%, sexual abuse (31.25%, dysfunctional coping mechanisms, emotional inhibition (50%, and non-assertiveness (37.5%.Conclusion: Given the evidence in this study, we cannot ignore the psychosocial problems of patients with SRUS and biopsychosocial assessment of SRUS is more appropriate than biomedical evaluation alone.

  3. Non-contact ulcer area calculation system for neuropathic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth; Mahajan, Siddaram; Nageswaran, Sharmila; Paul, Sathish Kumar; Ebenzer, Mannam

    2017-08-11

    Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013-14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe. Quantification of prognosis of the condition would be required to understand the efficacy of current treatment methods and plan for further treatment. This study aims at developing a non contact technique to precisely measure the size of ulcer in patients affected by leprosy. Using MATLAB software, GUI was designed to process the acquired ulcer image by segmenting and calculating the pixel area of the image. The image was further converted to a standard measurement using a reference object. The developed technique was tested on 16 ulcer images acquired from 10 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc analysis software to find the reliability of the system. The analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient (r=0.9882) between the ulcer area measurements done using traditional technique and the newly developed technique, The reliability of the newly developed technique was significant with a significance level of 99.9%. The designed non-contact ulcer area calculating system using MATLAB is found to be a reliable system in calculating the size of ulcers. The technique would help clinicians have a reliable tool to monitor the progress of ulcer healing and help modify the treatment protocol if needed. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients: a randomized, double-blind study evaluating esomeprazole and cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wenhui; Xia, Ying; Xiang, Peng; Zhang, Liangqing; Yu, Xiangyou; Lim, Sam; Xu, Mo; Zhao, Lina; Rydholm, Hans; Traxler, Barry; Qin, Xinyu

    2018-04-20

    To assess the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in preventing upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, using cimetidine as an active comparator. A pre-specified non-inferiority limit (5%) was used to compare rates of significant upper GI bleeding in this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 study across 27 intensive care units in China. Secondary endpoints included safety and tolerability measures. Patients required mechanical ventilation and had at least one additional risk factor for stress ulcer bleeding. Patients were randomized to receive either active esomeprazole 40 mg, as a 30-min intravenous (IV) infusion twice daily, and an IV placebo cimetidine infusion or active cimetidine 50 mg/h, as a continuous infusion following an initial bolus of 300 mg, and placebo esomeprazole injections, given up to 14 days. Patients were blinded using this double-dummy technique. Of 274 patients, 2.7% with esomeprazole and 4.6% with cimetidine had significant upper GI bleeding (bright red blood in the gastric tube not clearing after lavage or persistent Gastroccult-positive "coffee grounds" material). Non-inferiority of esomeprazole to cimetidine was demonstrated. The safety profiles of both drugs were similar and as expected in critically ill patients. Esomeprazole is effective in preventing upper GI bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, as demonstrated by the non-inferiority analysis using cimetidine as an active control. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02157376.

  5. Association of vagus nerve severance and decreased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in peptic ulcer patients: An Asian population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Fang, Chu-Wen; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hsu, Chung Y

    2016-12-01

    Vagus nerve may play a role in serum glucose modulation. The complicated peptic ulcer patients (with perforation or/and bleeding) who received surgical procedures with or without vagotomy provided 2 patient populations for studying the impact of vagus nerve integrity. We assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in peptic ulcer patients without and with complications by surgical treatment received in a retrospective population study using the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan.A cohort of 163,385 patients with peptic ulcer and without Helicobacter pylori infection in 2000 to 2003 was established. A randomly selected cohort of 163,385 persons without peptic ulcer matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Charlson comorbidity index score, and index year was utilized for comparison. The risks of developing diabetes in both cohorts and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received truncal vagotomy or simple suture/hemostasis (SSH) were assessed at the end of 2011.The overall diabetes incidence was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (15.87 vs 12.60 per 1000 person-years) by an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-1.47) based on the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (competing risk). Comparing ulcer patients with truncal vagotomy and SSH or those without surgical treatment, the aHR was the lowest in the vagotomy group (0.48, 95% CI = 0.41-0.56).Peptic ulcer patients have an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Moreover, there were associations of vagus nerve severance and decreased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in complicated peptic ulcer patients.

  6. Telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária: ácido tranexâmico no tratamento de úlcera plantar Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: tranexamic acid for plantar ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relato de um caso de úlcera plantar por fístula arteriovenosa em paciente portador de telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária ou doença de Rendu-Osler-Weber tratado com ácido tranexâmico. Este fármaco é utilizado para tratamento de epistaxe, referindo-se o principal achado deste artigo ao uso eficaz desse medicamento na terapia de úlceras plantares hemorrágicas. São descritos os aspectos fisiopatológicos e clínicos da doença e as propriedades antifibrinolíticas do ácido tranexâmico. Este foi bem tolerado e apresentou evidências de eficácia na utilização para controle do sangramento e cicatrização da úlcera.Case report of one patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, treated with Tranexamic Acid for arteriovenous plantar ulcer. This drug has proved effective in controlling epistaxis, but the main point of this report is to expose the success use of this medication in the therapy of skin bleeding ulcer. The pathophysiologic and clinical features of the disease are reviewed and also the pharmacological aspects of the antifibrinolytic drugs. This drug was well tolerated by the patient and show evidence of good activity in the bleeding and healed the ulcer.

  7. Bleeding Disorders in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might be heavy, print and use a menstrual chart to track your bleeding and talk to your ... you’re “low in iron.” Heavy bleeding after dental surgery, other surgery, or childbirth. Prolonged bleeding episodes ...

  8. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  9. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of TC-325 (Hemospray) for treatment of diffuse or refractory upper gastrointestinal bleeding – a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Oscar; Bauder, Markus; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  TC-325 (Hemospray, Cook Medical) is a powder agent for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Although most publications are based on case-reports and retrospective studies, data on efficacy are promising. Here we report our experience with TC-325 for diffuse or refractory UGIB. Patients and methods  Data on patients receiving TC-325 for endoscopic hemostasis from November 2013 to February 2017 at our center were analyzed retrospectively. Primary endpoints were technical success (successful immediate hemostasis) and clinical success (effective hemostasis and no recurrent bleeding). Secondary endpoints were recurrent bleeding within 3 and 7 days, hospital mortality and TC-325 associated complications. TC-325 was used for bleeding not amenable to standard endoscopic treatment (e. g. diffuse bleeding) or as salvage therapy after failure of conventional methods Results  Fifty-two patients received TC-325 treatment. Most of the patients were treated for peptic ulcer bleeding (18/52 patients, 34.6 %) and post-interventional bleeding (13/52 patients, 25 %). Hemospray was used in 23/52 (44.2 %) patients as monotherapy and in 29/52 (55.8 %) patients as a salvage therapy. Application of the powder on the bleeding source was successful in all patients with no therapy-related adverse events (AEs). Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 51/52 (98.1 %) patients. Recurrent bleeding within 3 and 7 days was observed in 22/51 and 25/51 patients respectively (43.1 % and 49 %). The overall clinical success was 56.9 % on day 3 and 51 % on day 7. Total mortality was 15.4 % (8 patients), bleeding associated mortality was 3.8 % (2 patients). There were no therapy-related AEs. Conclusions  TC-325 showed a high technical success rate as monotherapy for bleeding sources not amenable to standard methods or as an “add-on” therapy after unsuccessful hemostasis. However, rebleeding was frequent

  11. Bleeding from gastrointestinal angioectasias is not related to bleeding disorders - a case control study

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    Lärfars Gerd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angioectasias in the gastrointestinal tract can be found in up to 3% of the population. They are typically asymptomatic but may sometimes result in severe bleeding. The reasons for why some patients bleed from their angioectasias are not fully understood but it has been reported that it may be explained by an acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS. This condition has similar laboratory findings to congenital von Willebrand disease with selective loss of large von Willebrand multimers. The aim of this study was to find out if AVWS or any other bleeding disorder was more common in patients with bleeding from angioectasias than in a control group. Methods We compared bleeding tests and coagulation parameters, including von Willebrand multimers, from a group of 23 patients with anemia caused by bleeding from angioectasias, with the results from a control group lacking angioectasias. Results No significant differences between the two groups were found in coagulation parameters, bleeding time or von Willebrand multimer levels. Conclusion These results do not support a need for routine bleeding tests in cases of bleeding from angioectasias and do not show an overall increased risk of AVWS among these patients.

  12. Minor Bleeds Alert for Subsequent Major Bleeding in Patients Using Vitamin K Antagonists.

    OpenAIRE

    Veeger , Nic J.G.M.; Piersma-Wichers , Margriet; Meijer , Karina; Hillege , Hans L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) have shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of thromboembolism, but the associated risk of bleeding is an important limitation. The majority of the bleeds are clinically mild. In this study, we assessed whether these minor bleeds are associated with major bleeding, when controlling for other important risk indicators, including the achieved quality of anticoagulation. For this, 5898 patients of a specialised anticoagulation cl...

  13. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  14. Effect of vonoprazan on the treatment of artificial gastric ulcers after endoscopic submucosal dissection: Prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Izumi; Kato, Yuri; Tanida, Emiko; Masui, Yoshifumi; Kato, Shingo; Nakajima, Atsushi; Izumi, Motoyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are effective for the treatment of gastric ulcers after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). However, the most excellent therapy is controversial. Vonoprazan, an active potassium-competitive acid blocker, has a strong gastric acid secretion inhibitory effect, but its efficacy for the treatment of post-ESD gastric ulcers is unclear. Herein, we aimed to determine the healing effect of vonoprazan on post-ESD gastric ulcers. We carried out a prospective randomized controlled trial examining 92 patients who had undergone ESD for the treatment of gastric neoplasms between April 2015 and June 2016 at Machida Municipal Hospital. Patients were treated with 20 mg/day vonoprazan (V group) or 20 mg/day esomeprazole (E group) for 8 weeks. We evaluated the 8-week cure rate for artificial ulcers and any complications after ESD. A total of 80 patients (median age, 73.5 years; 71.3% male) were analyzed. Cure rate for the V group was significantly higher than that for the E group (94.9% [37/39] vs 78.0% [32/41], respectively; P = 0.049). In a multivariate analysis, only vonoprazan was correlated with ulcer healing (odds ratio = 6.33; 95% CI = 1.21-33.20; P = 0.029). Delayed bleeding was experienced only in the E group (7.3% [3/41]), but no significant difference compared with the V group was observed (P = 0.241). Vonoprazan was significantly superior to esomeprazole for the healing of post-ESD gastric ulcers and should be considered as a treatment of first choice. © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of unexplained anemia with iron deficiency without overt bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eivindson, Martin; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius

    2015-01-01

    A general overview is given of the causes of anemia with iron deficiency as well as the pathogenesis of anemia and the para-clinical diagnosis of anemia. Anemia with iron deficiency but without overt GI bleeding is associated with a risk of malignant disease of the gastrointestinal tract; upper...... gastrointestinal cancer is 1/7 as common as colon cancer. Benign gastrointestinal causes of anemia are iron malabsorption (atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, chronic inflammation, and bariatric surgery) and chronic blood loss due to gastrointestinal ulcerations. The following diagnostic strategy is recommended...... for unexplained anemia with iron deficiency: conduct serological celiac disease screening with transglutaminase antibody (IgA type) and IgA testing and perform bidirectional endoscopy (gastroscopy and colonoscopy). Bidirectional endoscopy is not required in premenopausal women

  16. Pseudomonas oryzihabitans cutaneous ulceration from Octopus vulgaris bite: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Birgit Angela; Ollert, Markus; Seifert, Florian; Ring, Johannes; Plötz, Sabine Gisela

    2011-08-01

    Octopus vulgaris is a common marine animal that can be found in nearly all tropical and semitropical waters around the world. It is a peaceful sea dweller with a parrotlike beak, and its primary defense is to hide through camouflaging adjustments. Bites from animals of the class Cephalopoda are very rare. We describe a boy who was bitten on his forearm by an Octopus vulgaris. A 9 -year-old boy was bitten by an Octopus vulgaris while snorkeling. There was no strong bleeding or systemic symptoms; however, 2 days later, a cherry-sized, black, ulcerous lesion developed, surrounded by a red circle that did not heal over months and therefore had to be excised. Histologic examination showed ulceration with extensive necrosis of the dermis and the epidermis. A microbial smear revealed Pseudomonas (formerly known as Flavimonas) oryzihabitans. After excision, the wound healed within 2 weeks, without any complications or signs of infection. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of an Octopus vulgaris bite resulting in an ulcerative lesion with slow wound healing owing to P oryzihabitans infection. We recommend greater vigilance regarding bacterial contamination when treating skin lesions caused by marine animals.

  17. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30-60, in 1982-3. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993-4. Hospital diagnoses of incident ulcer through 2011 were detected using the Danish National Patient Registry. Ulcers were diagnosed in 166 subjects, including 83 complicated by bleeding or perforation. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted associations were significant for mental vulnerability (Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-2.8), Helicobacter pylori (HR 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3), smoking (HR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1), heavy drinking (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.4), abstinence (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.5), non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (HR 2.1, CI 1.5-3.0), and sedentary lifestyle (HR 1.9, CI 1.4-2.7). Adjusted for all behavioral mediators, the HR for mental vulnerability was 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2, p = .04). Mental vulnerability raised risk in Helicobacter pylori seropositive subjects and those exposed to neither Helicobacter pylori nor non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; its impact was virtually unchanged when analysis was limited to complicated ulcers. A vulnerable personality raises risk for hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer, in part because of an association with health risk behaviors. Its impact is seen in 'idiopathic' and Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcers, and in acute surgical cases.

  19. Risk Factors for Post-TAVI Bleeding According to the VARC-2 Bleeding Definition and Effect of the Bleeding on Short-Term Mortality: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayang; Yu, Wenyuan; Jin, Qi; Li, Yaqiong; Liu, Nan; Hou, Xiaotong; Yu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) bleeding (per Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 [VARC-2] bleeding criteria) on 30-day postoperative mortality and examined the correlation between pre- or intraoperative variables and bleeding. Multiple electronic literature databases were searched using predefined criteria, with bleeding defined per Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. A total of 10 eligible articles with 3602 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that post-TAVI bleeding was associated with a 323% increase in 30-day postoperative mortality (odds risk [OR]; 4.23, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.80-6.40; P logistic regression analysis revealed that atrial fibrillation (AF) was independently correlated with TAVI-associated bleeding (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.33-5.21; P = 0.005). Meta-regression showed that potential modifiers like the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score, mortality, the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), aortic valve area, mean pressure gradient, left ventricular ejection fraction, preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, and study design had no significant effects on the results of the meta-analysis. Post-TAVI bleeding, in particular, major bleeding/life-threatening bleeding, increased 30-day postoperative mortality. Transapical access was a significant bleeding risk factor. Preexisting AF independently correlated with TAVI-associated bleeding, likely because of AF-related anticoagulation. Recognition of the importance and determinants of post-TAVI bleeding should lead to strategies to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of wound management in France: pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Gemmen, E

    2002-06-01

    This study set out to define realistic protocols of care for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers and pressure ulcers in France and, by developing cost-effectiveness models, to compare the different protocols of care for the two ulcer groups, enabling a calculation of direct medical costs per ulcer healed in a typical French health insurance plan. Clinical outcomes and some treatment patterns were obtained from published literature. Validations of different treatment patterns were developed using an expert consensus panel similar to the Delphi approach. Costs were calculated based on national averages and estimates from the UK and Germany. The models were used to measure costs per healed ulcer over a 12-week period. For both the pressure ulcer and venous leg ulcer models, three protocols of care were identified. For pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers, the hydrocolloid DuoDERM (ConvaTec, also known as Granuflex in the UK and Varihesive in Germany) was most cost-effective in France. The combination of published data and expert consensus opinion is a valid technique, and in this case suggests that treating pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers with hydrocolloid dressings is more cost-effective than treating them with saline gauze, in spite of the lower unit cost of the latter.

  1. Bleeding esophageal varices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000268.htm Bleeding esophageal varices To use the sharing features on ... veins in the esophagus to balloon outward. Heavy bleeding can occur if the veins break open. Any ...

  2. Proximal gastric vagotomy: does it have a place in the future management of peptic ulcer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A G

    2000-03-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) is a modification of truncal vagotomy, which was introduced by Dragstedt for the treatment of duodenal ulcer (DU) in 1943. It is a technically demanding operation; but when performed by an experienced surgeon, it is safe and gives a cure rate for DU of more than 90%, with minimal side effects. The operation permanently alters the natural history of the disease and may be used for gastric ulcer (GU), with ulcer excision; but it is not as effective. Further adaptations, such as posterior truncal vagotomy with anterior seromyotomy, were introduced to simplify and shorten the operation, but they did not receive wide acceptance. Recently, with the identification of Helicobacter, it was found that DU can also be cured by eliminating the infection. PGV is therefore used electively in patients with persistent DU that is not Helicobacter-positive or in the few in whom Helicobacter cannot be eliminated. In patients with bleeding or perforated DUs, PGV may be used in conjunction with underrunning the vessel or patching the perforation. However, few surgeons doing emergency peptic ulcer surgery have experience with PGV, so simple suture followed by medical treatment is the safest option. Because elective PGV is now a rare procedure, patients should be referred to a center with special expertise. If Helicobacter becomes resistant to antibiotics in the future, surgery may be needed regularly again, but the technical nuances would have to be learned.

  3. GI bleeding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100162.htm GI bleeding - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gastrointestinal Bleeding A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Choon Keun; Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1988-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major diagnostic problem. Although advances have been made in the medical and surgical methods of managing gastrointestinal bleeding, the commonly employed techniques of barium radiography, endoscopy, and angiography may not successfully localize the site and define the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Two widely available technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, sulfur colloid and red blood cells are currently used in the evaluation of patients who are bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. Surgically confirmed 19 patients with use of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid (7 cases) and 99m Tc-RBC (12 cases) were retrospectively evaluated. The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy in detection of bleeding and localization of bleeding site was 68% and 84%, respectively. The authors conclude that bleeding scintigraphy is a safe, sensitive, and non-invasive method as an effective screening test before performing angiography or surgery.

  5. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site ACG Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic Ulcer Disease Basics Overview An “ulcer” is an open ... for pain in patients at risk for peptic ulcer disease. Peptic – caused by acid. PPIs – P roton P ump ...

  6. Ulcers of stomach body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.; Rizaev, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Symptoms of the roentgenologic image in differential diagnosis of nonmalignant ulcers and stomach carcinomas ulcerated are presented. Problems on X-ray semiotics of ulcerations, data on X-ray represenetation of ulcer evolution as well as postulcer changes in the stomach are interpreted

  7. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, M; Perner, A; Wetterslev, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) may decrease the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), but the risk of infection may be increased. In this study, we aimed to describe SUP practices in adult ICUs. We hypothesised that patient selection...... for SUP varies both within and between countries. METHODS: Adult ICUs were invited to participate in the survey. We registered country, type of hospital, type and size of ICU, preferred SUP agent, presence of local guideline, reported indications for SUP, criteria for discontinuing SUP, and concerns about...... adverse effects. Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Ninety-seven adult ICUs in 11 countries participated (eight European). All but one ICU used SUP, and 64% (62/97) reported having a guideline for the use of SUP. Proton pump inhibitors were the most common SUP...

  8. Clinical utility of new bleeding criteria: a prospective study of evaluation for the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong-Min; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Kyungil; Kim, Young-Dae

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the new bleeding criteria, proposed by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC), compared with the old criteria for determining the action of physicians in contact with bleeding events, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The BARC criteria were independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality after PCI, and provided a predictive value, in regard to 1-year mortality. The standardized bleeding definitions will be expected to help the physician to correctly analyze the bleeding events, to select an optimal treatment, and to objectively compare the results of multiple trials and registries. All the patients undergoing PCI from June to September 2012 were prospectively enrolled. Patients who experienced a bleeding event were further classified, based on three different bleeding severity criteria: BARC, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), and Global Use of Strategies To Open coronary arteries (GUSTO). The primary outcome was the occurrence of bleeding events requiring interruption of antiplatelet therapy (IAT) by physicians. A total of 376 consecutive patients were included in this study. Total bleeding events occurred in 46 patients (12.2%). BARC type ≥2 bleeding occurred in 30 patients (8.0%); however, TIMI major or minor bleeding, and GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 6 (1.6%) and 11 patients (2.9%), respectively. Of the 46 patients, 28 (60.9% of patients) required IAT. On receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, bleeding defined BARC type ≥2 effectively predicted IAT, with a sensitivity of 89.3%, and a specificity of 98.5% (pdefinition may be a more useful tool for the detection of bleeding with clinical relevance, for patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other menstrual conditions; Abnormal menstrual periods; Abnormal vaginal bleeding ... There are many causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. HORMONES ... Doctors call the problem abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) . AUB ...

  10. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  11. Unusual primary HIV infection with colonic ulcer complicated by hemorrhagic shock: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emonet Stephane

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Timely diagnosis of primary HIV infection is important to prevent further transmission of HIV. Primary HIV infection may take place without symptoms or may be associated with fever, pharyngitis or headache. Sometimes, the clinical presentation includes aseptic meningitis or cutaneous lesions. Intestinal ulceration due to opportunistic pathogens (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii has been described in patients with AIDS. However, although invasion of intestinal lymphoid tissue is a prominent feature of human and simian lentivirus infections, colonic ulceration has not been reported in acute HIV infection. Case description A 42-year-old Caucasian man was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate for pharyngitis. He did not improve, and a rash developed. History taking revealed a negative HIV antibody test five months previously and unprotected sex with a male partner the month before admission. Repeated tests revealed primary HIV infection with an exceptionally high HIV-1 RNA plasma concentration (3.6 × 107 copies/mL and a low CD4 count (101 cells/mm3, seven percent of total lymphocytes. While being investigated, the patient had a life-threatening hematochezia. After angiographic occlusion of a branch of the ileocaecal artery and initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the patient became rapidly asymptomatic and could be discharged. Colonoscopy revealed a bleeding colonic ulcer. We were unable to identify an etiology other than HIV for this ulcer. Conclusion This case adds to the known protean manifestation of primary HIV infection. The lack of an alternative etiology, despite extensive investigations, suggests that this ulcer was directly caused by primary HIV infection. This conclusion is supported by the well-described extensive loss of intestinal mucosal CD4+ T cells associated with primary HIV infection, the extremely high HIV viral load observed in our patient, and the rapid improvement of the ulcer after

  12. High-dose ibuprofen therapy associated with esophageal ulceration after pneumonectomy in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis is thought to develop as a result of airway inflammation, infection, and obstruction. Pulmonary therapies for cystic fibrosis that reduce airway inflammation include corticosteroids, rhDNase, antibiotics, and high-dose ibuprofen. Despite evidence that high-dose ibuprofen slows the progression of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis, many clinicians have chosen not to use this therapy because of concerns regarding potential side effects, especially gastrointestinal bleeding. However, studies have shown a low incidence of gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding in patients with cystic fibrosis who have been treated with high-dose ibuprofen. Case presentation The described case illustrates a life-threatening upper gastrointestinal bleed that may have resulted from high-dose ibuprofen therapy in a patient with CF who had undergone a pneumonectomy. Mediastinal shift post-pneumonectomy distorted the patient's esophageal anatomy and may have caused decreased esophageal motility, which led to prolonged contact of the ibuprofen with the esophagus. The concentrated effect of the ibuprofen, as well as its systemic effects, probably contributed to the occurrence of the bleed in this patient. Conclusions This report demonstrates that gastrointestinal tract anatomical abnormalities or dysmotility may be contraindications for therapy with high-dose ibuprofen in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  13. Maintenance therapy with sucralfate in duodenal ulcer: genuine prevention or accelerated healing of ulcer recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, T E; Koch, G G

    1991-08-08

    We sought to compare the efficacy of sucralfate to placebo for the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence and to determine that the efficacy of sucralfate was due to a true reduction in ulcer prevalence and not due to secondary effects such as analgesic activity or accelerated healing. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multicenter clinical study with 254 patients. All patients had a past history of at least two duodenal ulcers with at least one ulcer diagnosed by endoscopic examination 3 months or less before the start of the study. Complete ulcer healing without erosions was required to enter the study. Sucralfate or placebo were dosed as a 1-g tablet twice a day for 4 months, or until ulcer recurrence. Endoscopic examinations once a month and when symptoms developed determined the presence or absence of duodenal ulcers. If a patient developed an ulcer between monthly scheduled visits, the patient was dosed with a 1-g sucralfate tablet twice a day until the next scheduled visit. Statistical analyses of the results determined the efficacy of sucralfate compared with placebo for preventing duodenal ulcer recurrence. Comparisons of therapeutic agents for preventing duodenal ulcers have usually been made by testing for statistical differences in the cumulative rates for all ulcers developed during a follow-up period, regardless of the time of detection. Statistical experts at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and on the FDA Advisory Panel expressed doubts about clinical study results based on this type of analysis. They suggested three possible mechanisms for reducing the number of observed ulcers: (a) analgesic effects, (b) accelerated healing, and (c) true ulcer prevention. Traditional ulcer analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to an analgesic effect or accelerated healing. Point-prevalence analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to accelerated healing between endoscopic examinations. Maximum ulcer

  14. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  15. Association of Vagotomy and Decreased Risk of Subsequent Ischemic Stroke in Complicated Peptic Ulcer Patients: an Asian Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chu-Wen; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2017-12-01

    The primary management of peptic ulcers is medical treatment. Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to complications (perforation and/or bleeding). There has been a trend toward the use of a less invasive surgical simple suture, simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiography) hemostasis rather than acid-reducing vagotomy (i.e., vagus nerve severance) for treating complicated peptic ulcers. Other studies have shown the relationship between high vagus nerve activity and survival in cancer patients via reduced levels of inflammation, indicating the essential role of the vagus nerve. We were interested in the role of the vagus nerve and attempted to assess the long-term systemic effects after vagus nerve severance. Complicated peptic ulcer patients who underwent truncal vagotomy may represent an appropriate study population for investigating the association between vagus nerve severance and long-term effects. Therefore, we assessed the risks of subsequent ischemic stroke using different treatment methods in complicated peptic ulcer patients who underwent simple suture/hemostasis or truncal vagotomy/pyloroplasty. We selected 299,742 peptic ulcer patients without a history of stroke and Helicobacter pylori infection and an additional 299,742 matched controls without ulcer, stroke, and Helicobacter pylori infection from the National Health Insurance database. The controls were frequency matched for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score, hypertension, hyperlipidemia history, and index year. Then, we measured the incidence of overall ischemic stroke in the two cohorts. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression. Compared to the controls, peptic ulcer patients had a 1.86-fold higher risk of ischemic stroke. There were similar results in gender, age, CCI, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia stratified analyses. In complicated peptic ulcer patients, those who received

  16. Surgical management of acute perforation of peptic ulcers. A single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, J; El Founas, W; Simoens, Chr; Ngongang, Chr; Smets, D; Mendes da Costa, P

    2005-01-01

    Acute perforation may occur in gastric and duodenal ulcers. During the past decade, the need for elective operation for peptic ulceration has decreased as medical treatment has improved. However, emergency operations for acute complications such as perforation or bleeding remain constant. Actually, the treatment of choice is simple suture-closure, with or without omentoplasty, and peritoneal lavage or even omentoplasty alone, associated with a high intravenous dose of inhibitors of the proton pump and Helicobacter pylori eradication, if needed. The standard treatment in our team is to perform a peritoneal lavage and drainage and a simple closure of the ulcer with an omentoplasty. A first retrospective analysis was made on data collected from 1996 to 2001 and we completed a prospective study from 2001 to 2003 to compare our results with our old data and with data collected from other teams. The mean age and the mean ASA score were similar in the two groups. For the majority of the patients, the diagnosis was made from symptoms and the presence of free abdominal air. The delay between arrival in the emergency room and the operating room was significantly shorter in the second group, but operating time was longer in this group. Morbidity was more frequent in the first group but mortality remained quite similar. Our results indicate that in a trained team the morbidity has decreased as the delay in surgery decreased and that the rate of diagnosis on plain abdominal film has increased. Laparoscopic suture of a perforated peptic ulcer is as safe as the open procedure but allows the surgeon to search for another cause of free air and offers the possibility, if conversion is needed, to perform a shorter laparotomy.

  17. Marginal ulcers after one anastomosis (mini) gastric bypass: a survey of surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, K K; Reed, A N; Graham, Y N H

    2017-06-01

    Many surgeons believe that one anastomosis (mini) gastric bypass (OAGB/MGB) is associated with a high marginal ulcer (MU) rate and that this is associated with complications in a significant number of patients. The purpose of this survey was to find out the participant-reported incidence of MU after OAGB/MGB and its complications. We also aimed to understand practices in this cohort concerning prophylaxis, diagnosis, treatment and management of complications. Bariatric surgeons who perform OAGB/MGB procedures were invited to participate in a confidential, online survey using SurveyMonkey®. A total of 86 surgeons performing OAGB/MGB procedures participated in the survey. The total number of OAGB/MGB procedures reported was 27 672, revealing 622 MU, giving an MU rate of 2.24 %. Most participants (69/84, 82.4%) routinely use proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prophylaxis, but there was variation in drugs, dosages and duration. The majority (49/85, 57.6%) of participants 'always' use endoscopy for diagnosis, and 48.1% (39/81) 'always' perform an endoscopy to ensure healing. Most (49/55) perforated ulcers were treated with laparoscopic repair +/- omentoplasty +/- drainage. Most (55/59, 93.0%) of the bleeding ulcers were managed with PPI +/- blood transfusions +/- endoscopic intervention (23/59, 39.0%). Non-healing ulcers were treated by conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 46.5% of patients (n = 20/43). The participants did not report any MU-related mortality but described a number of risk factors for it. This survey is the first detailed attempt to understand the incidence of MU following OAGB/MGB; its complications; and practices concerning prophylaxis, diagnosis, treatment and management of complications. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Gastroduodenal ulceration in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becht, J L; Byars, T D

    1986-07-01

    Gastroduodenal ulceration is becoming recognised as an important disease in foals during the first few months of life. Aetiopathogenesis is presumed to be similar to peptic disease in humans associated with back diffusion of hydrogen ions into the mucosa. Many factors have been incriminated as predisposing foals to ulceration but few have been proven. To date, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents has been the only documented cause of gastroduodenal ulceration in foals. The clustering of affected foals on certain farms suggests an infectious aetiology but attempts to identify a causative organism have been unsuccessful. Four clinical syndromes defined for foals with gastroduodenal ulceration include: silent ulcers, which occur most often in the non-glandular stomach along the margo plicatus and are identified as incidental findings at necropsy; active ulcers which are often manifested by abdominal pain, excessive salivation and bruxism; perforating ulcers which usually result in a severe, diffuse peritonitis; and pyloric or duodenal obstruction from a healing ulcer. General approaches to therapy of a foal with active ulceration consist of reduction of gastric acidity and enhancement of mucosal protection. Antacids and type 2 histamine receptor antagonists are used most often to neutralise or decrease acid secretion, respectively. Sucralfate, a locally active sulphated sucrose preparation, is commonly used as a cytoprotective agent. The efficacy and safety of many products used have not been evaluated adequately in foals. Perforating ulcers are usually associated with death or humane destruction of the foal because of fulminating peritonitis. Surgical intervention and bypass procedures are indicated in foals that develop pyloric or duodenal obstructions from healing ulcers.

  19. Stasis dermatitis and ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... veins. Some people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower ...

  20. Peptic Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or your duodenum, the first part of your ... Comes and goes for several days or weeks Peptic ulcers happen when the acids that help you digest ...

  1. Stomach ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erode the stomach wall. A major cause of stomach ulcers is the bacteria called Helicobacter pylori . Treatment regimens for ulcers caused this bacterium usually include medications to suppress the stomach acid as well as antibiotics to eradicate the ...

  2. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Rescue treatment with a modified cyanoacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Roberto; Capone, Pietro; Iiritano, Elena; Vjero, Katerina; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Martinotti, Mario; Rozzi, Gabriele; Buffoli, Federico

    2016-12-28

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified cyanoacrylate [N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate associated with methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA + MS)] to treat non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NV-UGIB). In our retrospective study we took into account 579 out of 1177 patients receiving endoscopic treatment for NV-UGIB admitted to our institution from 2008 to 2015; the remaining 598 patients were treated with other treatments. Initial hemostasis was not achieved in 45 of 579 patients; early rebleeding occurred in 12 of 579 patients. Thirty-three patients were treated with modified cyanoacrylate: 27 patients had duodenal, gastric or anastomotic ulcers, 3 had post-mucosectomy bleeding, 2 had Dieulafoy's lesions, and 1 had duodenal diverticular bleeding. Of the 45 patients treated endoscopically without initial hemostasis or with early rebleeding, 33 (76.7%) were treated with modified cyanoacrylate glue, 16 (37.2%) underwent surgery, and 3 (7.0%) were treated with selective transarterial embolization. The mean age of patients treated with NBCA + MS (23 males and 10 females) was 74.5 years. Modified cyanoacrylate was used in 24 patients during the first endoscopy and in 9 patients experiencing rebleeding. Overall, hemostasis was achieved in 26 of 33 patients (78.8%): 19 out of 24 (79.2%) during the first endoscopy and in 7 out of 9 (77.8%) among early rebleeders. Two patients (22.2%) not responding to cyanoacrylate treatment were treated with surgery or transarterial embolization. One patient had early rebleeding after treatment with cyanoacrylate. No late rebleeding during the follow-up or complications related to the glue injection were recorded. Modified cyanoacrylate solved definitively NV-UGIB after failure of conventional treatment. Some reported life-threatening adverse events with other formulations, advise to use it as last option.

  3. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) KidsHealth / For Teens / Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) ... Print en español Sangrado uterino anormal What Is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name doctors ...

  4. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Mesalamine Suppositories for Treatment of Ulcerative Proctitis in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B.; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Methods Pediatric patients (5–17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Results Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 4 patients had their dose increased to 500 mg twice daily at week 3. Forty-one patients experienced at least one adverse event, most of which were deemed mild and unrelated to study therapy. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal (n = 30, 61.2%). Conclusions This study showed that a daily bedtime dose of a 500 mg mesalamine suppository is safe and efficacious in children with ulcerative proctitis. PMID:20848454

  6. Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated pediatric intensive care patients during stress ulcer prophylaxis with sucralfate, ranitidine, and omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizdas, Dincer; Yapicioglu, Hacer; Yilmaz, Hayri Levent

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of sucralfate, ranitidine, and omeprazole use on incidence of ventilatory-associated pneumonia (VAP) and mortality in ventilated pediatric critical care patients. This prospective study was conducted at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between August 2000 and February 2002. A total of 160 patients who needed mechanical ventilation were randomized into 4 groups according to the computer-generated random number table: group (S), (n = 38) received sucralfate suspension 60 mg/kg/d in 4 doses via the nasogastric tube that was flushed with 10 mL of sterile water; group (R), (n = 42) received ranitidine 2 mg/kg/d intravenously in 4 doses; group (O), (n = 38) received omeprazole 1 mg/kg/d intravenously in 2 doses; and group (P), (n = 42) did not receive any medication for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Treatment was begun within 6 hours of PICU admission. Seventy patients (44%) developed VAP. VAP rate was 42% (16 of 38) in the sucralfate group, 48% (20 of 42) in the ranitidine group, 45% (17 of 38) in the omeprazole group, and 41% (17 of 42) in the nontreated group. Overall mortality rate was 22% (35 of 160); it was 21% (8 of 38) in the sucralfate group, 23% (10 of 42) in the ranitidine group, 21% (8 of 38) in the omeprazole group, and 21% (9 of 42) in the nontreated group. Our results did not show any difference in the incidence of VAP and mortality in mechanically ventilated PICU patients treated with ranitidine, omeprazole, or sucralfate, or nontreated subjects (P =.963, confidence interval [CI] = 0.958-0.968; P =.988, CI = 0.985-0.991, respectively). Nine patients (5.6%) had macroscopic bleeding. There was no statistically significant difference in macroscopic bleeding between groups. Our results did not show any difference in the incidence of VAP, macroscopic stress ulcer bleeding, and mortality in the mechanically ventilated PICU patients treated with ranitidine, omeprazole, or sucralfate, or nontreated subjects

  7. Management of severe perioperative bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Ahmed, Aamer B; Afshari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    : The management of perioperative bleeding involves multiple assessments and strategies to ensure appropriate patient care. Initially, it is important to identify those patients with an increased risk of perioperative bleeding. Next, strategies should be employed to correct preoperative anaemia...... and to stabilise macrocirculation and microcirculation to optimise the patient's tolerance to bleeding. Finally, targeted interventions should be used to reduce intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, and so prevent subsequent morbidity and mortality. The objective of these updated guidelines is to provide...

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Tertiary United Kingdom Children’s Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nasher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32 of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19 of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19 requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19 treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19 which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19; and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19. A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13; ingestion of foreign body (2/13; gastritis (3/13; viral illness (1/13; unknown (2/13. While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential.

  9. Accuracy of rockall score for in hospital re bleeding among cirrhotic patients with variceal bleed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgher, S.; Saleem, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Roc kall scoring system for predicting in-hospital re-ble- eding in cirrhotic patients presenting with variceal bleed. Material and Methods: This descriptive case series study was conducted at Department of Medicine Combined Military Hospital Lahore from December 2013 to May 2014. We included patients with liver cirrhosis who presented with upper GI bleeding and showed varices as the cause of bleeding on endoscopy. Clinical and endoscopic features were noted to calculate Rockall score. Patients with score < 2 and > 8 were included. After treating with appropriate pharmacological and endoscopic therapy, patients were followed for re-bleeding for 10 days. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using 2 x 2 tables. Results: In the study, 175 patients were included. Mean age was 51.5 ± 1.22 years. Male to female ratio was 1.5 to 1.0 out of 175 patients, 157 patients (89.7%) were of low risk group (score = 2) while 18 patients (10.3%) were in high risk group (score > 8). In low risk group, re-bleeding occurred only in 2 patients (1.2%) while in high risk group, re-bleeding occurred in 14 patients (78%). Rockall score was found to have good diagnostic accuracy with sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 97.48%, positive predictive value of 77.8% and negative predictive value of 98.7%. Conclusion: In cases of variceal bleed, frequency of re-bleed is less in patients who are in low risk category with lower Rockall score and high in high risk patients with higher rockall score. The Rockall score has a good diagnostic accuracy in prediction of re-bleed in variceal bleeding. (author)

  10. Superficial skin ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaila, Modupeola O.; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini H.; Oluwole, Olabode P.; Adewuyi, Sunday A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the underlying cause of superficial skin ulcers over a 15-year period. A retrospective histopathological analysis of 670 cases of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed in the Dept. of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from January 1991 to December 2005. A total of 670 superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The mail to female gender ratio was 409:261(1.5:1.0) and a peakage frequency of 44.3 %( 297) in the 5th and 6th decades. Spectrum of lesions encountered was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. The malignant lesions were 309 (46.1%), non-specific inflammation 302 (45.1%), granulation tissue 25 (3.7%) and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 14 (2.1%). A total of 18(2.7%) specific infections were encountered, which included bacterial, fungal and viral infection. Benign lesions were 2(0.3%), comprising of neurofibroma and Bowen's disease. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma 203 (30.3%) with a male to female ratio of 128:75 (1.7:1.0). Of these 161 were well differentiated tumors. The lower limb was the prevalent site distribution of all the ulcers. Superficial ulcers may be harbinger of malignant diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma remains the most common malignant lesion arising from chronic superficial ulcers from our setting. Adequate tissue biopsy and early diagnosis may reduce the attendant morbidity of these ulcers. (author)

  11. Peptic ulcer disease - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or raw area in the lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or upper part of the small intestine (duodenal ... You have peptic ulcer disease (PUD). You may have had tests to help diagnose your ulcer. One of these tests may have ...

  12. To Bleed or Not to Bleed: That is the Question. The Side Effects of Apixaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Zito, Annapaola; Devito, Fiorella; Maiello, Maria; Palmiero, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    Apixaban is a new oral anticoagulant (NOACs: Novel Oral Anticoagulant), like dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban. All of them are prescribed to patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism, to replace warfarin, because of the lower probability of bleeding, however they can cause bleeding by themselves. Bleeding is an adverse event in patients taking anticoagulants. It is associated with a significant increase of morbidity and risk of death. However, these drugs should be used only for the time when anticoagulation is strictly required, especially when used for preventing deep vein thrombosis. Prolonged use increases the risk of bleeding. In the ARISTOTLE Trial Apixaban, compared with warfarin, was associated with a lower rate of intracranial hemorrhages and less adverse consequences following extracranial hemorrhage. Many physicians still have limited experience with new oral anticoagulants and about bleeding risk managment. We reviewed the available literature on extracranial and intracranial bleeding concerning apixaban. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Histamine2 Receptor Antagonists Versus Proton Pump Inhibitors for Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Drayton A; Kathe, Niranjan; Shah, Anuj; Martin, Bradley C

    2017-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis with histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) versus proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in critically ill and mechanically ventilated adults. A decision analytic model estimating the costs and effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis (with H2RAs and PPIs) from a health care institutional perspective. Adult mixed intensive care unit (ICU) population who received an H2RA or PPI for up to 9 days. Effectiveness measures were mortality during the ICU stay and complication rate. Costs (2015 U.S. dollars) were combined to include medication regimens and untoward events associated with stress ulcer prophylaxis (pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, and stress-related mucosal bleeding). Costs and probabilities for complications and mortality from complications came from randomized controlled trials and observational studies. A base case scenario was developed with pooled data from an observational study and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Scenarios based on observational and meta-analysis data alone were evaluated. Outcomes were expected and incremental costs, mortalities, and complication rates. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the influence of inputs on cost, mortality, and complication rates. Monte Carlo simulations evaluated second-order uncertainty. In the base case scenario, the costs, complication rates, and mortality rates were $9039, 17.6%, and 2.50%, respectively, for H2RAs and $11,249, 22.0%, and 3.34%, respectively, for PPIs, indicating that H2RAs dominated PPIs. The observational study-based model provided similar results; however, in the meta-analysis-based model, H2RAs had a cost of $8364 and mortality rate of 3.2% compared with $7676 and 2.0%, respectively, for PPIs. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/death averted, H2RA therapy was superior or preferred 70.3% in the base case and 97.0% in the observational study-based scenario. PPI therapy

  14. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  15. Major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage risk prediction in patients with atrial fibrillation: Attention to modifiable bleeding risk factors or use of a bleeding risk stratification score? A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chung, Fa-Po; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2018-03-01

    While modifiable bleeding risks should be addressed in all patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), use of a bleeding risk score enables clinicians to 'flag up' those at risk of bleeding for more regular patient contact reviews. We compared a risk assessment strategy for major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) based on modifiable bleeding risk factors (referred to as a 'MBR factors' score) against established bleeding risk stratification scores (HEMORR 2 HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA, ORBIT). A nationwide cohort study of 40,450 AF patients who received warfarin for stroke prevention was performed. The clinical endpoints included ICH and major bleeding. Bleeding scores were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (areas under the ROC curves [AUCs], or c-index) and the net reclassification index (NRI). During a follow up of 4.60±3.62years, 1581 (3.91%) patients sustained ICH and 6889 (17.03%) patients sustained major bleeding events. All tested bleeding risk scores at baseline were higher in those sustaining major bleeds. When compared to no ICH, patients sustaining ICH had higher baseline HEMORR 2 HAGES (p=0.003), HAS-BLED (pbleeding scores, c-indexes were significantly higher compared to MBR factors (pbleeding. C-indexes for the MBR factors score was significantly lower compared to all other scores (De long test, all pbleeding risk scores for major bleeding (all pbleeding risk scores had modest predictive value for predicting major bleeding but the best predictive value and NRI was found for the HAS-BLED score. Simply depending on modifiable bleeding risk factors had suboptimal predictive value for the prediction of major bleeding in AF patients, when compared to the HAS-BLED score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Menorrhagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... It can also be bleeding that is very heavy. How do you know if you have heavy ...

  17. Comparing Bleeding Risk Assessment Focused on Modifiable Risk Factors Only Versus Validated Bleeding Risk Scores in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yutao; Zhu, Hang; Chen, Yundai

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThere is uncertainty whether a focus on modifiable bleeding risk factors offers better prediction of major bleeding than other existing bleeding risk scores.METHODSThis study compared a score based on numbers of the modifiable bleeding risk factors recommended in the 2016 European...... guidelines ("European risk score") versus other published bleeding risk scores that have been derived and validated in atrial fibrillation subjects (HEMORR2HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA, and ORBIT) in a large hospital-based cohort of Chinese inpatients with atrial fibrillation.RESULTSThe European score had modest...... predictive ability for major bleeding (c-index 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.69) and intracranial hemorrhage (0.72, 0.65-0.79) but nonsignificantly (and poorly) predicted extracranial bleeding (0.55, 0.54-0.56; P = .361). The HAS-BLED score was superior to predict bleeding events compared...

  18. The use of 111In-labelled platelets for scintigraphic localization of gastrointestinal bleeding with special reference to occult bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerloeff Schmidt, K.; Waever Rasmussen, J.; Grove, O.; Andersen, D.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma-camera imaging of the abdomen after injection of autologous 111 In-labelled platelets was applied for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in a study of 22 patients. In 15 studies showing scintigraphic signs of bleeding, the clinical presentation included occult bleeding in 6, melaena in 4, and bloody stools in 5 patients. Scintigraphy could be done repeatedly for up to 1 week after a single tracer injection. The time interval between the injection and scintigraphic visualization of bleeding ranged from 10 min to 68 h, being longest in cases of occult bleeding. In most cases the scintigraphic findings were supported by other diagnostic modalities, including surgical removal of presumed sources of bleeding. In seven studies without scintigraphic signs of bleeding, a probable source of bleeding was identified by other means in one patient. The 111 In-platelet method seems to be a promising method for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding which may prove particularly useful in cases of occult or recurrent bleeding

  19. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  20. Anaesthesia care with and without tracheal intubation during emergency endoscopy for peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, N; Lundstrøm, L H; Vestergaard, T R

    2015-01-01

    index score, BMI, age, sex, alcohol use, referral origin (home or in-hospital), Forrest classification, ulcer localization, and postoperative care. RESULTS: The study group comprised 3580 patients under anaesthesia care: 2101 (59%) for the TI group and 1479 (41%) for the MAC group. During the first 90...... with tracheal intubation (TI group) and without airway instrumentation (monitored anaesthesia care, MAC group) during emergency OGD. METHODS: This was a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study during 2006-13. Emergency OGDs performed under anaesthesia care were included. End points were 90 day...... days after OGD, 18.9% in the TI group and 18.4% in the MAC group died, crude odds ratio=1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87-1.23, P=0.701], adjusted odds ratio=0.95 (95% CI=0.79-1.15, P=0.590). Patients in the TI group stayed slightly longer in hospital [mean 8.16 (95% CI=7.63-8.60) vs 7.63 days...

  1. Lactate Parameters Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Min, Yang Won; Bae, Joohwan; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2017-11-01

    The predictive role of lactate in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) has been suggested. This study evaluated several lactate parameters in terms of predicting outcomes of bleeding patients and sought to establish a new scoring model by combining lactate parameters and the AIMS65 score. A total of 114 patients with NVUGIB who underwent serum lactate level testing at least twice and endoscopic hemostasis within 24 hours after admission were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between five lactate parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated and the predictive power of lactate parameter combined AIMS65s (L-AIMS65s) and AIMS56 scoring was compared. The most common cause of bleeding was gastric ulcer (48.2%). Lactate clearance rate (LCR) was associated with 30-day rebleeding (odds ratio [OR], 0.931; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.872-0.994; P = 0.033). Initial lactate (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017), maximal lactate (OR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.037-1.573; P = 0.021), and average lactate (OR, 1.535; 95% CI, 1.137-2.072; P = 0.005) levels were associated with 30-day mortality. Initial lactate (OR, 1.213; 95% CI, 1.027-1.432; P = 0.023), maximal lactate (OR, 1.271; 95% CI, 1.074-1.504; P = 0.005), and average lactate (OR, 1.501; 95% CI, 1.150-1.959; P = 0.003) levels were associated with admission over 7 days. Although L-AIMS65s showed the highest area under the curve for prediction of each outcome, differences between L-AIMS65s and AIMS65 did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, lactate parameters have a prognostic role in patients with NVUGIB. However, they do not increase the predictive power of AIMS65 when combined. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. Among the criteria that were proposed in Baveno conferences, the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) has not been validated prospectively in clinical practice. We therefore aim to evaluate the measurement of ABRI as a marker of failure to control bleeding and to evaluate the consistency of ABRI in relation to other criteria of failure to control variceal bleeding. All patients with variceal bleeding who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 who were administered transfusion of packed red blood cells were included after obtaining informed consent. All patients were managed as per the standard protocol with intravenous terlipressin along with band ligation and injection of cyanoacrylate in cases of esophageal and fundal varices, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured every 6 h for 48 h and then every 12 h until 5 days of index bleed in each patient. Packed cells were transfused if hemoglobin decreased below 8 g/dl. The number of blood units transfused, change in hemoglobin values, and ABRI were calculated after each unit of blood transfusion till 120 h. In patients in whom bleed could not be controlled, an ABRI value of 0.75 or more was compared with other Baveno IV-based parameters that define failure to control variceal bleeding. During the study period, 137 eligible patients with variceal bleed were admitted. The mean age of the patients was 52±12 years. The majority of patients (50.4%) were in Child-Pugh class B, followed by 38% in Child-Pugh class C. According to the Baveno IV criteria, overall failure to control acute variceal bleeding occurred in 52 (37.9%) patients. Excluding ABRI, failure to control bleeding was found in 22/137 (16%) patients, whereas ABRI-based criteria showed that in 34/137 (24.8%) patients, bleeding could not be controlled. There were only four (2.9%) patients with variceal bleeding in whom ABRI and

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid —This medication treats heavy menstrual bleeding. • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs—These drugs, which include ibuprofen, may help control heavy bleeding and relieve menstrual cramps. • Antibiotics—If you have an infection, you may be ...

  4. The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic Activity: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Of Severity [UCEIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Simon P L; Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G; Abreu, Maria T; Altman, Douglas G; Hanauer, Stephen B; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R; Marteau, Philippe R; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A; Sandborn, William J

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS; comprising 'vascular pattern', 'bleeding', 'erosions and ulcers']. Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with ['unblinded', n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without ['blinded', n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [κ] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ≥ 0.55; VAS: p ≥ 0.07]. Intra- [κ 0.47-0.74] and inter-reader [κ 0.40-0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was 'moderate'-to-'substantial', with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [κ blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. © European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation 2015.

  5. [Comparison on Endoscopic Hemoclip and Hemoclip Combination Therapy in Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Patients Based on Clinical Practice Data: Is There Difference between Prospective Cohort Study and Randomized Study?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Jung, Jin Tae; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Si Hyung; Yang, Chang Heon; Park, Youn Sun; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic hemoclip application is an effective and safe method of endoscopic hemostasis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study on hemoclip and hemoclip combination therapy based on prospective cohort database in terms of hemostatic efficacy not in clinical trial but in real clinical practice. Data on endoscopic hemostasis for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) were prospectively collected from February 2011 to December 2013. Among 1,584 patients with NVUGIB, 186 patients treated with hemoclip were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 62), hemoclipping only; group 2 (n = 88), hemoclipping plus epinephrine injection; and group 3 (n = 36), hemocliping and epinephrine injection plus other endoscopic hemostatic modalities. Primary outcomes included rebleeding, other therapeutic management, hospitalization period, fasting period and mortality. Secondary outcomes were bleeding associated mortality and overall mortality. Active bleeding and peptic ulcer bleeding were more common in group 3 than in group 1 and in group 2 (p bleeding associated mortality and total mortality) were not different among groups. Combination therapy of epinephrine injection and other modalities with hemoclips did not show advantage over hemoclipping alone in this prospective cohort study. However, there is a tendency to perform combination therapy in active bleeding which resulted in equivalent hemostatic success rate, and this reflects the role of combination therapy in clinical practice.

  6. Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models.

  7. The effect of sequential therapy with lansoprazole and ecabet sodium in treating iatrogenic gastric ulcer after endoscopic submucosal dissection: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jang Wook; Park, Sung Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook; Chang, Sae Kyung; Han, Seung Bong

    2015-02-01

    Ecabet sodium (ES) is a new non-systemic anti-ulcer agent belonging to the category of gastroprotective agents. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy of a combination therapy with lansoprazole (LS) followed by ES with LS alone in treating endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)-induced iatrogenic gastric ulcers. Patients diagnosed with gastric adenomas or early gastric cancer were randomly divided into either the LS group (30 mg once daily for 4 weeks; n = 45) or the LS + ES group (LS 30 mg once daily for one week followed by ES 1500 mg twice daily for 3 weeks; n = 45). Four weeks after ESD, a follow-up endoscopy was conducted to evaluate the proportions of ulcer reduction and ulcer stages in the two groups. In all, 79 patients were included in the final analyses. Both treatment modalities were well-tolerated in most patients, with a drug compliance of over 80%. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the proportions of ulcer reduction (0.9503 ± 0.1215 in the LS group vs 0.9192 ± 0.0700 in the LS + ES group, P = 0.169) or ulcer stage (P = 0.446). The prevalence of adverse events related to drugs and bleeding were also similar between the two groups. Sequential therapy with LS + ES is as effective as LS alone against ESD-induced gastric ulcers. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Management of acute gastric varices bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jung Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal varices bleeding is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis. Gastric varices (GVs occur in approximately 20% of patients with portal hypertension. However, GV bleeding develops in only 25% of patients with GV and requires more transfusion and has higher mortality than esophageal variceal (EV bleeding. The best strategy for managing acute GV bleeding is similar to that of acute EV bleeding, which involves airway protection, hemodynamic stabilization, and intensive care. Blood transfusion should be cautiously administered in order to avoid rebleeding. Vasoactive agents such as terlipressin or somatostatin should be used when GV bleeding is suspected. Routine use of prophylactic antibiotics reduces bacterial infection and lowers rebleeding rates. By administering endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection, the initial hemostasis rate achieved is at least 90% in most cases; the average mortality rate of GV bleeding is approximately 10–30% and the rebleeding rate is between 22% and 37%. Although endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate is superior to sclerotherapy and band ligation, and has remained the treatment of choice for treating acute GV bleeding, the outcome of this treatment is still unsatisfactory. New treatment options, such as thrombin injection, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, have shown promising results for acute GV bleeding. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacy of these therapies with cyanoacrylate.

  9. Venous ulcers -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery to improve blood flow through your veins. Prevention If you are at risk for venous ulcers, take the steps listed above under Wound Care. ... weight if you are overweight. Manage your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. ... Venous leg ulcers - self-care; Venous insufficiency ulcers - self-care; Stasis ...

  10. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding following transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Dylan E; Abdulla, Alym H; Wong, Frank T; Alipour, Sina; Bressler, Brian L; Wood, David A; Webb, John G

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in the postprocedural period following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). As TAVR moves into intermediate- and low-risk patients, it has become increasingly important to understand its extracardiac complications. The patient population undergoing TAVR have clinical and demographic characteristics that place them at significant risk of UGIB. Practical aspects of TAVR, including use of antithrombotic therapy, further increase risk of UGIB. A retrospective single-center evaluation of 841 patients who underwent TAVR between January 2005 and August 2014 was performed in conjunction with analysis of referral patterns to the gastroenterology service for UGIB at the same site. The overall risk of UGIB following TAVR was found to be 2.0% (n = 17/841). Additionally, the risk of UGIB in patients receiving triple antithrombotic therapy was found to be 10-fold greater than patients not receiving triple antithrombotic therapy (11.8% vs 1.0%). Endoscopy findings demonstrated five high-risk esophageal lesions including erosive esophageal ulcers, visible vessels at the GE junction, erosions at distal esophagus, and an actively bleeding esophageal ring that had been intubated through by the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. This large cohort study demonstrates that TAVR is associated with a moderate risk of severe UGIB. The results of this study suggest that patients on triple antithrombotic therapy are at highest risk for severe UGIB. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Provocative Endoscopy to Identify Bleeding Site in Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Novel Approach in Transarterial Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Minobu; Fuwa, Sokun; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    This report describes a novel approach to endoscopically induce bleeding by removing a clot from the bleeding site during angiography for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage. This procedure enabled accurate identification of the bleeding site, allowing for successful targeted embolization despite a negative initial angiogram. Provocative endoscopy may be a feasible and useful option for angiography of obscure bleeding sites in patients with UGI arterial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  13. Recurrent Bleeding After Perimesencephalic Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-12-01

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only 1 well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. We describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. To validate the radiologic findings, we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and 2 neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had 2 episodes after the onset headache with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CT scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on 2 subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, the prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recurring pressure ulcers: identifying the definitions. A National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Cindy; Hettrick, Heather; Holden-Mount, Sarah; Grigsby, Rebekah; Rhodovi, Julie; Moore, Lyn; Ghaznavi, Amir M; Siddiqui, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the accepted terminology pertaining to the pressure ulcer healing progression and recidivism. This lack of uniformity can negatively impact initiation of treatment pathways, completion of appropriate interventions, clinical documentation, medical coding, patient education, discharge planning and healthcare revenue through out the healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a standard nomenclature as it pertains to pressure ulcer healing progression and any recidivism that may occur. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel has formulated a framework of terms regarding pressure ulcer progression. We also developed a clearer nomenclature for lack of progress and recidivism of pressure ulcers. This document should serve as a starting point for the discussion of the pressure ulcer care, research, and terminology. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Comparison of detectable bleeding rates of radiopharmaceuticals for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in sheep using a closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owunwanne, A.; Sadek, S.; Yacoub, T.; Awdeh, M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S.

    1989-01-01

    The closed experimental animal model system was used to compare the detectable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rates of 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-RBCs and 99m Tc tin colloid in sheep. The three radiopharmaceuticals were used to detect the upper GI bleeding sites at rates of 0.57 and 0.25 ml/min. At the lower bleeding rate of 0.1 ml/min, both 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-RBCs were successful in detecting the bleeding site. At the lowest rate of 0.07 ml/min only 99m Tc-DTPA was successful in detecting the bleeding site. The results indicate that 99m Tc-DTPA is the most useful 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical for detecting the upper GI bleeding site at the slowest bleeding rate studied. (orig.) [de

  16. Prospective analysis of delayed colorectal post-polypectomy bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Min-Gu; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Kim, Hungdai; Kim, Hyung Ook; Jung, Kyung Uk; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2018-01-17

    Although post-polypectomy bleeding is the most frequent complication after colonoscopic polypectomy, only few studies have investigated the incidence of bleeding prospectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding and its associated risk factors prospectively. Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were prospectively enrolled in this study. Trained nurses contacted patients via telephone 7 and 30 days after polypectomy and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding the development of bleeding. Delayed post-polypectomy bleeding was categorized as minor or major and early or late bleeding. Major delayed bleeding was defined as a > 2-g/dL drop in the hemoglobin level, requiring hospitalization for control of bleeding or blood transfusion; late delayed bleeding was defined as bleeding occurring later than 24 h after polypectomy. A total of 8175 colonoscopic polypectomies were performed in 3887 patients. Overall, 133 (3.4%) patients developed delayed post-polypectomy bleeding. Among them, 90 (2.3%) and 43 (1.1%) patients developed minor and major delayed bleeding, respectively, and 39 (1.0%) patients developed late delayed bleeding. In the polyp-based multivariate analysis, young age ( 10 mm (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.38-4.36) were significant risk factors for major delayed bleeding, while young age (< 50 years; OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.35-5.12) and immediate bleeding (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.49-7.30) were significant risk factors for late delayed bleeding. Young age, aspirin use, polyp size, and immediate bleeding were found to be independent risk factors for delayed post-polypectomy bleeding.

  17. Diagnostic role of capsule endoscopy in patients of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after negative CT enterography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh Sodhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Computed tomographic enterography (CT-EG has emerged a useful tool for the evaluation of small bowel in patients of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. However, CT-EG may be negative in about 50-60% of patients. We aimed to see the efficacy of capsule endoscopy (CE in patients of OGIB, who had initial negative CT-EG. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients of OGIB after initial hemodynamic stabilization were subjected to CT-EG. Those having negative CT-EG were further evaluated with CE. Results: Fifty-five patients of OGIB with mean standard deviation age, 52.7 (19.0, range 18-75 years, women 31/55 (56.4% were subjected to CT-EG. Nine (17.6% patients had positive findings on CT-EG, which included mass lesions in six, thickened wall of distal ileal loops, narrowing, and wall enhancement in two and jejunal wall thickening with wall hyperenhancement in one patient. Forty-two patients had negative CT-EG of which 25 underwent CE for further evaluation. CE detected positive findings in 11 of 25 (48% patients which included vascular malformations in three, ulcers in seven, and fresh blood without identifiable source in one. The diagnostic yield of CE in overt OGIB was more compared to occult OGIB ((7/14, 50% vs (4/11, 36.4% P = 0.2 and was higher if performed within 2 weeks of active gastrointestinal (GI bleed (P = 0.08. Conclusions: In conclusion, CE is an additional tool in the evaluation of obscure GI bleed, especially mucosal lesions which can be missed by CT-EG.

  18. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding (heavy menstrual bleeding and post-menopausal bleeding): a decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Natalie A. M.; Barton, Pelham M.; Breijer, Maria; Caffrey, Orla; Opmeer, Brent C.; Timmermans, Anne; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.; Clark, T. Justin

    2014-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and post-menopausal bleeding (PMB) together constitute the commonest gynaecological presentation in secondary care and impose substantial demands on health service resources. Accurate diagnosis is of key importance to realising effective treatment, reducing morbidity

  20. Peptic ulcer perforation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Peptic ulcer perforation is one of the surgical complications of peptic ulcer ... Treatment can be operative or non-operative followed by proton .... chronic gastritis without evidence of ... inhibits pancreatic bicarbonate secretion.

  1. Time latencies of Helicobacter pylori eradication after peptic ulcer and risk of recurrent ulcer, ulcer adverse events, and gastric cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdén, Emma; Brusselaers, Nele; Wahlin, Karl; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-12-09

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Therefore we wanted to test how various lengths of delays in H pylori eradication therapy influence the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer, ulcer adverse events, and gastric cancer. This population-based nationwide Swedish cohort study included 29,032 patients receiving H pylori eradication therapy after peptic ulcer disease in 2005 to 2013. Predefined time intervals between date of peptic ulcer diagnosis and date of eradication therapy were analyzed in relation to study outcomes. Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, history of ulcer disease, use of ulcerogenic drugs, and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Compared with eradication therapy within 7 days of peptic ulcer diagnosis, eradication therapy within 8 to 30, 31 to 60, 61 to 365, and >365 days corresponded with HRs of recurrent ulcer of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.08-1.25), 2.37 (95% CI, 2.16-2.59), 2.96 (95% CI, 2.76-3.16), and 3.55 (95% CI, 3.33-3.79), respectively. The corresponding HRs for complicated ulcer were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.35-1.78), 3.19 (95% CI, 2.69-3.78), 4.00 (95% CI, 3.51-4.55), and 6.14, (95% CI, 5.47-6.89), respectively. For gastric cancer the corresponding HRs were .85 (95% CI, .32-2.23), 1.31 (95% CI, .31-5.54), 3.64 (95% CI, 1.55-8.56), and 4.71 (95% CI, 2.36-9.38), respectively. Delays in H pylori eradication therapy after peptic ulcer diagnosis time-dependently increase the risk of recurrent ulcer, even more so for complicated ulcer, starting from delays of 8 to 30 days. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of detectable bleeding rates of radiopharmaceuticals for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in sheep using a closed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owunwanne, A.; Sadek, S.; Yacoub, T.; Awdeh, M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Surgery)

    1989-06-01

    The closed experimental animal model system was used to compare the detectable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rates of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs and {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid in sheep. The three radiopharmaceuticals were used to detect the upper GI bleeding sites at rates of 0.57 and 0.25 ml/min. At the lower bleeding rate of 0.1 ml/min, both {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs were successful in detecting the bleeding site. At the lowest rate of 0.07 ml/min only {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was successful in detecting the bleeding site. The results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA is the most useful {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical for detecting the upper GI bleeding site at the slowest bleeding rate studied. (orig.).

  3. Radiation induced esophageal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Endo, Mitsuo; Yamazaki, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to us on Dec. 22, 1986 because of dysphagia and esophageal ulcer. She had a previous history of left radical mastectomy for breast cancer, followed by postoperative 60 Co irradiation to parasternal and supraclavicular regions with 50 Gy about 15 years before. UGIs and endoscopy showed a small ulcer surrounded by submucosal tumor-like protrusion in the esophagus at the thoracic inlet. Examination one month later revealed the ulcer which became larger despite medical treatment, now measuring 1 cm in diameter. Severe dysphagia continued. Right thoractomy and subtotal esophagectomy were performed on Jan 13, 1987. Histological examination revealed nonspecific ulcer, 5 cm in diameter, surrounded by fibrous granulation tissue. Proliferation of dilated capillary vessels was also seen in the bottom of the ulcer, the surrounding wall of which was free from remarkable infiltration of inflammatory cells. Based on these findings and previous medical history, the patient was diagnosed as having a postirradiation ulcer which appeared 15 years after irradiation. Dysphagia was considered due to esophageal dysfunction caused by severe fibrosis of the proper muscle layer. (author)

  4. Bleeding rates necessary for detecting acute gastrointestinal bleeding with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.A.; Datz, F.L.; Remley, K.; Christian, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Proponents of [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid for GI bleeding studies argue that, although labeled red blood cells are useful for intermittent bleeding, they are not capable of detecting low bleeding rates. Studies of dogs with experimental GI bleeding have indicated bleeding rates of 0.05 ml/min can be detected with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid. Since similar data in the dog model were unavailable for /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells, we undertook this study. To simulate lower GI bleeding, catheters were inserted into the bowel lumen. Each dog's blood was labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using an in vitro technique. Venous blood was then withdrawn and re-infused into the lumen of the bowel using a Harvard pump. Fourteen dogs were studied, ten receiving a bleeding rate from 4.6-0.02 ml/min in the descending colon and four with proximal jejunal bleeds of 0.20-0.02 ml/min. Bleeding rates of 4.6-0.2 ml/min were detected within 10 min in the colon and bleeding rates as low as 0.04 ml/min were seen by 55 min. Slower bleeding rates were not detected. Similar findings were noted for proximal jejunal bleeds. Based on the time of appearance, a minimum volume of approximately 2-3 ml labeled blood was necessary to detect bleeding. We conclude that /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBCs are sensitive for low bleeding rates in the dog model. The rates are comparable to those described for [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid in this experimental setting. The time of appearance of activity is related to the bleeding rate

  5. THE CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND COURSE OF DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE AFTER PERFORATED ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Lyubskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare clinical manifestations, course, mental status in duodenal ulcer (DU patients with a history of perforated ulcer and its uncomplicated course.Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirteen patents with DU were examined. Group 1 included 61 patients with uncomplicated DUand Group 2 comprised 52 patients with a history of perforated ulcer. A comparison group consisted of 20 patients who had undergone laparotomy. Physical and mental status examinations, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS, and 24-hour pH-metry were performed.Results. Classical pain syndrome was observed in 75 % of the patients with uncomplicated DU. Prior to perforation, the pain and dyspeptic syndromes were distinguished only by a significantly lower degree in Group 2; following perforation, the pain syndrome was recorded more frequently, it was more extensive, meal-unrelated, and similar to that in the patients who had undergone laparotomy and had diminished appetite (36.5 %. EGDS showed that the complicated course was accompanied by the significantly higher incidence of erosive esophagitis (21.2 %, gastritis (51.9 %, duodenitis (25.0 %, multiple ulcers (28.8 %, and larger ulcers. 24-hour pH-metry indicated that the level of hyperacidity in Group 2 was higher and the circadian intragastric pH variations were less marked than those in uncomplicated DU. The patients with a history of perforated ulcer showed a high rate of anxiety and depressive changes. Conclusion. In complicated DU, marked monotonic hyperacidity causes common erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal area in relatively mild pain syndrome, late referrals, and long-term ulcer healing. After perforation followed by wound closure, the pain and dyspeptic syndromes become more pronounced, which is associated with anxiety and depressive changes in the mental status, as well as with early referrals and less healing time.

  6. Giant duodenal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Benjamin Newton; Mark R Versland; Thomas E Sepe

    2008-01-01

    Giant duodenal ulcers (GDUs) are a subset of duodenal ulcers that have historically resulted in greater morbidity than usual duodenal ulcers. Until recently,few cases had been successfully treated with medical therapy. However, the widespread use of endoscopy,the introduction of H-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, and the improvement in surgical techniques all have revolutionized the diagnosis,treatment and outcome of this condition. Nevertheless,GDUs are still associated with high rates of morbidity,mortality and complications. Thus, surgical evaluation of a patient with a GDU should remain an integral part of patient care. These giant variants, while usually benign, can frequently harbor malignancy. A careful review of the literature highlights the important differences when comparing GDUs to classical peptic ulcers and why they must be thought of differently than their more common counterpart.

  7. Pressure Ulcer Risk in the Incontinent Patient: Analysis of Incontinence and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers From the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence™ Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; Ribble, David; Emmons, Kirsten; VanGilder, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To measure the prevalence of incontinence in the 2013-2014 International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence (IPUP) surveys and determine the relative risk of developing a facility-acquired pressure ulcers (FAPUs) by stage and by Braden Scale score groupings. The IPUP survey is an observational, cross-sectional cohort database designed to determine the frequency and severity of pressure ulcers in various populations. The survey includes acute care (91.4%), long-term acute care (1.7%), rehabilitation patients (1.7%) and long-term care residents (5.2%). Geographic distribution included 182,832 patients in the United States, 22,282 patients in Canada, and the rest of the world, primarily in Europe and the Middle East. We analyzed data from the 2013 and 2014 IPUP surveys to better understand the relationship between incontinence and the frequency and severity of FAPUs. The IPUP survey is an annual voluntary survey of patients who are hospitalized or who reside in long-term care facilities. Data were collected over a 24-hour period within each participating facility. Data collection included limited demographics, presence and stage of pressure ulcers, and pressure ulcer risk assessment score (Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk, Braden Q, Norton, Waterlow, and others). In addition, data were collected on pertinent pressure ulcer risk factors including the number of linen layers, use of a pressure redistributing surface, adherence to repositioning schedule, and whether moisture management was provided in the last 24 hours. We aggregated data by urinary, urinary catheter, fecal, fecal management system, double (urinary and fecal), and ostomy incontinence category. If patients were managed by indwelling urinary catheter or fecal management systems, they were considered incontinent in this analysis. In order to analyze ulcers likely to be affected by incontinence, we defined a subset of ulcers as Relevant Pressure Ulcers, which are ulcers that are facility-acquired, non

  8. Postpartum bleeding: efficacy of endovascular management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization for the treatment of massive postpartum bleeding. Transcatheter arterial embolization was attempted in 25 patients with massive postpartum bleeding. After identification at bilateral internal iliac arteriography, the bleeding artery was embolized using gelfoam, polyvinyl alcohol particles or microcoils, and to prevent rebleeding through collateral pathways, the contralateral uterine artery or anterior division of the internal iliac artery was also embolized. Clinical success and complications were retrospectively assessed and documented. Active bleeding foci were detected in 13 patients (52%), and involved the unilateral (n=10) or bilateral (n=2) uterine artery and unilateral vaginal artery (n=1). Twelve (92%) of the 13 patients recovered completely following embolization, but one underwent hysterectomy due to persistent bleeding. The focus of bleeding was not detected in 12 patients (48%), but 11 (92%) of these also recovered following embolization of the bilateral uterine or internal iliac arteries. One patient, however, died due to sepsis. Two of the 12 patients underwent hysterectomy due ro rebleeding on the 12 th and 13 th day, respectively, after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is relatively safe and effective for the treatment massive postpartum bleeding

  9. Postpartum bleeding: efficacy of endovascular management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young; Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization for the treatment of massive postpartum bleeding. Transcatheter arterial embolization was attempted in 25 patients with massive postpartum bleeding. After identification at bilateral internal iliac arteriography, the bleeding artery was embolized using gelfoam, polyvinyl alcohol particles or microcoils, and to prevent rebleeding through collateral pathways, the contralateral uterine artery or anterior division of the internal iliac artery was also embolized. Clinical success and complications were retrospectively assessed and documented. Active bleeding foci were detected in 13 patients (52%), and involved the unilateral (n=10) or bilateral (n=2) uterine artery and unilateral vaginal artery (n=1). Twelve (92%) of the 13 patients recovered completely following embolization, but one underwent hysterectomy due to persistent bleeding. The focus of bleeding was not detected in 12 patients (48%), but 11 (92%) of these also recovered following embolization of the bilateral uterine or internal iliac arteries. One patient, however, died due to sepsis. Two of the 12 patients underwent hysterectomy due ro rebleeding on the 12{sup th} and 13{sup th} day, respectively, after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is relatively safe and effective for the treatment massive postpartum bleeding.

  10. Ulcerative Proctitis

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlow, Charles B.

    2004-01-01

    Ulcerative proctitis is an idiopathic mucosal inflammatory disease involving only the rectum and is therefore an anatomically limited form of ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis is made based on clinical presentation, endoscopic appearance, and histopathology. Additionally, other etiologies of proctitis are excluded. The course of the disease is variable ranging from complete resolution to easily maintained remission to frequent relapses or refractory disease. Extension of inflammatory changes invo...

  11. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  12. Review : Pressure Ulcer and Its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khorasani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer is a signifcant problem in elderly and critically ill patients, causing pain, decreasing quality of life and leading to prolonged hospital stay. Treatment of pressure ulcer to improve health status is a cost-effective approach. So, preventing the ulcers will be economical. Pressure ulcer is considered as a damage or necrosis of skin and its layers, which happens when there is a considerable pressure over the tissues. If the capillary arterie's pressure reaches 70 mmHg (2 times more than the normal pressure pressure ulcer happens and depending on the depth of the ulcer, will be divided into 4 stages. The most important point for preventing the ulcers is reducing the pressure. Patients should be repositioned to relieve or minimize the tissue pressure. Considering the type of the ulcer, the necessary treatment (dressing, Antibiotic Therapy, debridement or surgery should be performed.

  13. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Predictive Risk Factors for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with Simultaneous Myocardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to: (1 evaluate the epidemiology of simultaneous upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB and myocardial injury using parameters including troponin I (TnI; and (2 investigate the predictive risk factors of this syndrome. One hundred and fifty-five patients (101 men, 54 women; mean age, 64.7 ± 10.4 years; range, 38–94 years at the emergency department (ED with the major diagnosis of UGIB were included. They underwent serial electrocardiography (ECG and cardiac enzyme follow-up. Emergent gastroendoscopy was performed within 24 hours in most patients except for those who refused or were contraindicated. Mild myocardial injury was defined as the presence of any of the following: typical ST-T change on ECG, elevated creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB > 12U/L, or TnI > 0.2ng/dL. Moderate myocardial injury was defined as the presence of any two of the previously mentioned conditions. In total, 51 (32.9% and 12 (7.74% patients developed mild and moderate myocardial injuries, respectively. Myocardial injury was more common among patients with variceal bleeding (20/25 = 80.0% than those with ulcer bleeding (23/112 = 20.5%. It could partially be attributed to a higher baseline TnI level in cirrhotic patients. After adjusting for significant risk factors revealed by the univariate analysis, UGIB patients with a history of liver cirrhosis and more than three cardiac risk factors comprised a high-risk group for simultaneously developing myocardial injury. Other factors including age, gender, the color of nasogastric tube irrigation fluid, history of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, vasopressin or terlipressin administration, vital signs, and creatinine recorded at the ED were not significant predictors. Those who developed myocardial injury had a longer hospital stay (mean duration, 8.73 ± 6.94 vs. 6.34 ± 2.66 days; p = 0.03 and required transfusion of more units of packed erythrocytes.

  15. Symptoms and Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcer. How do H. pylori cause a peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer disease? H. pylori are spiral-shaped bacteria that ... peptic ulcer. How do tumors from ZES cause peptic ulcers? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that ...

  16. Pressure ulcers: development and psychometric evaluation of the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument (APuP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeckman, D; Defloor, T; Demarré, L; Van Hecke, A; Vanderwee, K

    2010-11-01

    Pressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP). Prospective psychometric instrument validation study. A literature review was performed to design the instrument. Content validity was evaluated by nine European pressure ulcer experts and five experts in psychometric instrument validation in a double Delphi procedure. A convenience sample of 258 nurses and 291 nursing students from Belgium and The Netherlands participated in order to evaluate construct validity and stability reliability of the instrument. The data were collected between February and May 2008. A factor analysis indicated the construct of a 13 item instrument in a five factor solution: (1) attitude towards personal competency to prevent pressure ulcers (three items); (2) attitude towards the priority of pressure ulcer prevention (three items); (3) attitude towards the impact of pressure ulcers (three items); (4) attitude towards personal responsibility in pressure ulcer prevention (two items); and (5) attitude towards confidence in the effectiveness of prevention (two items). This five factor solution accounted for 61.4% of the variance in responses related to attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention. All items demonstrated factor loadings over 0.60. The instrument produced similar results during stability testing [ICC=0.88 (95% CI=0.84-0.91, Ppressure ulcer prevention in patient care, education, and research. In further research, the association between attitude, knowledge and clinical performance should be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. The usefulness of MDCT in acute intestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Kim, Jae Woon; Chang, Jay Chun; Jang, Han Won

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MDCT for localizing a bleeding site and for helping make a decision on further management for acute intestinal bleeding. We conducted a retrospective review of 17 consecutive patients who presented with acute intestinal bleeding and who also underwent MDCT before angiography or surgery. The sensitivity of MDCT for detecting acute intestinal bleeding was assessed and compared with that of conventional angiography. The sensitivity of MDCT for the detection of acute intestinal bleeding was 77% (13 or 17), whereas that of angiography was 46% (6 or 13). All the bleeding points that were subsequently detected on angiography were visualized on MDCT. In three cases, the bleeding focus was detected on MDCT and not on angiography. In four cases, both MDCT and angiography did not detect the bleeding focus; for one of these cases, CT during SMA angiography was performed and this detected the active bleeding site. In patients with acute intestinal bleeding, MDCT is a useful image modality to detect the bleeding site and to help decide on further management before performing angiography or surgery. When tumorous lesions are detected, invasive angiography can be omitted

  18. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  19. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.

  20. Etiopathogenetic principles and peptic ulcer disease classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Ulceration corresponds to tissue loss, breaching the muscularis mucosae. When ulcers develop in the acid-peptic environment of the gastroduodenum, they are traditionally called peptic ulcer (PUD). Ulcers never develop spontaneously in a healthy gastroduodenal mucosa. Ulceration is the ultimate

  1. The role of endoscopy in pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Markus; Geiß, Andrea; Greiner, Peter; Wellner, Ulrich; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Bausch, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents accounts for up to 20 % of referrals to gastroenterologists. Detailed management guidelines exist for gastrointestinal bleeding in adults, but they do not encompass children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric patients and to determine an investigative management algorithm accounting for the specifics of children and adolescents. Patients and methods: Pediatric patients with gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to our endoscopy unit from 2001 to 2009 (n = 154) were identified. Retrospective statistical and neural network analysis was used to assess outcome and to determine an investigative management algorithm. Results: The source of bleeding could be identified in 81 % (n = 124/154). Gastrointestinal bleeding was predominantly lower gastrointestinal bleeding (66 %, n = 101); upper gastrointestinal bleeding was much less common (14 %, n = 21). Hematochezia was observed in 94 % of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 95 of 101). Hematemesis (67 %, n = 14 of 21) and melena (48 %, n = 10 of 21) were associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of a neural network to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 98 % and 63.6 %, respectively and to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 75 % and 96 % respectively. The sensitivity and specifity of hematochezia alone to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 94.2 % and 85.7 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hematemesis and melena to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 82.6 % and 94 %, respectively. We then developed an investigative management algorithm based on the presence of hematochezia and hematemesis or melena. Conclusions: Hematochezia should prompt colonoscopy and hematemesis or melena should prompt esophagogastroduodenoscopy. If no

  2. Scintigraphic detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.

    1988-01-01

    Successful management of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding usually depends on accurate localization of the bleeding site. History and clinical findings are often misleading in determination of the site of hemorrhage. The widespread application of flexible endoscopy and selective arteriography now provide accurate diagnoses for the majority of patients bleeding from the upper GI tract, but lower GI bleeding still poses a serious diagnostic challenge. Endoscopy and barium studies are of limited value in examining the small bowel and colon in the face of active hemorrhage. Arteriography, although successful in many cases (3-5), has limitations. The angiographic demonstration of bleeding is possible only when the injection of contrast material coincides with active bleeding at a rate greater than 0.5 ml/min, and since lower GI bleeding is commonly intermittent rather than continuous, a high rate of negative angiographic examinations has been reported. The diagnosis of lower GI bleeding is usually easy to make. In contrast, localizing the site of bleeding may be extremely difficult. Using the techniques described the nuclear physician may be able to detect the bleeding site precisely. However, if the cautions detailed are not observed, the tracer studies will show GI bleeding, but not at the true bleeding site. This must be carefully understood and avoided. Done correctly, these tests can have a major impact on patient care

  3. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  4. Synergistic shortening of the bleeding time by desmopressin and ethamsylate in patients with various constitutional bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrinsky, N L; Israels, E D; Bickis, M G

    1991-01-01

    Desmopressin and ethamsylate were evaluated for possible synergistic effects on the bleeding time. The drugs were administered individually and together to 12 patients with markedly prolonged bleeding times known to be relatively or absolutely unresponsive to desmopressin alone. The bleeding disorders studied included Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (one), other disorders of platelet function (four), pseudo-von Willebrand disease (one), and von Willebrand disease type I (three), type II (two), and type III (one). Desmopressin alone shortened the bleeding time from 23.9 +/- 1.5 to 19.5 +/- 2.3 min (p = 0.03). Ethamsylate alone was without effect. Desmopressin and ethamsylate together shortened the bleeding time to 11.2 +/- 1.4 min (p less than 0.01 compared to baseline, p = 0.02 compared to desmopressin alone). The combination was ineffective in three patients, with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (one), and von Willebrand disease type I (one) and type III (one). Toxic effects of the drugs were not observed. Five patients received desmopressin and ethamsylate prior to dental work with mandibular block (one), heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (two), and adenotonsillectomy surgery (two). Normal hemostasis was achieved in each case. A synergistic shortening of the bleeding time was observed with the combination of desmopressin and ethamsylate in a wide range of bleeding disorders.

  5. Helical CT in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Olivier; Leroy, Christophe; Sergent, Geraldine; Bulois, Philippe; Saint-Drenant, Sophie; Paris, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of helical CT in depicting the location of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A three-phase helical CT of the abdomen was performed in 24 patients referred for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of the bleeding site was established by CT when there was at least one of the following criteria: spontaneous hyperdensity of the peribowel fat; contrast enhancement of the bowel wall; vascular extravasation of the contrast medium; thickening of the bowel wall; polyp or tumor; or vascular dilation. Diverticula alone were not enough to locate the bleeding site. The results of CT were compared with the diagnosis obtained by colonoscopy, enteroscopy, or surgery. A definite diagnosis was made in 19 patients. The bleeding site was located in the small bowel in 5 patients and the colon in 14 patients. The CT correctly located 4 small bowel hemorrhages and 11 colonic hemorrhages. Diagnosis of the primary lesion responsible for the bleeding was made in 10 patients. Our results suggest that helical CT could be a good diagnostic tool in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding to help the physician to diagnose the bleeding site. (orig.)

  6. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  7. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI 1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  9. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  10. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  11. Evaluation of costs accrued through inadvertent continuation of hospital-initiated proton pump inhibitor therapy for stress ulcer prophylaxis beyond hospital discharge: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sooyoung Shin Ajou University College of Pharmacy, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Background: Stress ulcers and related upper gastrointestinal bleeding are well-known complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI-based stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP has been widely prescribed in noncritically ill patients who are at low risk for clinically significant bleeding, which is then injudiciously continued after hospital discharge. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of inappropriate prescribing of PPI-based preventative therapy in ICU versus non-ICU patients that subsequently continued postdischarge, and to estimate the costs incurred by the unwarranted outpatient continuation of PPI therapy.Methods: A retrospective review of patient data at a major teaching hospital in Korea was performed. During the 4-year study period, adult patients who were newly initiated on PPI-based SUP during hospital admission and subsequently discharged on a PPI without a medical indication for such therapy were captured for data analysis. The incidence rates of inappropriate prescribing of PPIs were compared between ICU and non-ICU patients, and the costs associated with such therapy were also examined.Results: A total of 4,410 patients, more than half of the inpatient-initiated PPI users, were deemed to have been inadvertently prescribed a PPI at discharge in the absence of a medical need for acid suppression. The incidence of inappropriate outpatient continuation of the prophylaxis was higher among ICU patients compared with non-ICU patients (57.7% versus 52.2%, respectively; P=0.001. The total expenditure accrued through the continuation of nonindicated PPI therapy was approximately US$40,175.Conclusion: This study confirmed that excess usage of PPIs for SUP has spread to low-risk, non-ICU patients. The overuse of unwarranted PPI therapy can incur large health care expenditure, as well as clinical complications

  12. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander Ahm; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The management of variceal bleeding remains a clinical challenge with a high mortality. Standardisation in supportive and new therapeutic treatments seems to have improved survival within the last 25 years. Although overall survival has improved in recent years, mortality is still closely related...... to failure to control initial bleeding or early re-bleeding occurring in up to 30-40% of patients. Initial procedures are to secure and protect the airway, and administer volume replacement to stabilize the patient. Treatment with vasoactive drugs should be started as soon as possible, since a reduction...... in portal pressure is associated with a better control of bleeding and may facilitate later endoscopic procedures. Vasopressin and its analogues Terlipressin and somatostatin and analogues are the two types of medicine, which has been evaluated. In meta-analysis, only Terlipressin have demonstrated effects...

  13. Management of ulcers in lymphoedematous limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu M Karnasula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoedema is a progressive condition that can have a marked physical and psychological impact on affected patients and significantly reduce the quality of life. The ulcers on chronic lymphoedema patient, which often also makes it impossible for them to work. If left untreated, tends to progress or worsen. Ulcers in lymphoedema patients, therefore, represent not only a medical but also a psychological problem. The treatment is often regarded as being worse than it actually is. In our study of more than 25 years shows around 10% cases are due to chronic lymphodema. Ulcers of chronic lymphoedema are classified into four stages according to their presentation. Their management depends upon their stage of presentation. Patients with chronic lymphoedema and ulceration require a different approach to treatment. The specific issues associated with managing the patient with lymphoedematous ulceration include, limb shape distortion i.e., elephantiasis, care of the skin creases and folds, and swelling of the toes and fore foot. Stage I ulcers will heal with conservative treatment without any surgical intervention. Stage II ulcers needs debridement of the wound and split-thickness skin grafting. The most difficult to treat are the stage III and IV ulcers, due to associated skin changes and reduced vascularity. These cases need debulking along with excision of the ulcer. In order to prevent recurrence of the ulcer in all the four stages needs prolonged follow-up and limb care.

  14. Management of parastomal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Yeo; Farshad Abir; Walter E Longo

    2006-01-01

    Management of surgically placed ostomies is an important aspect of any general surgical or colon and rectal surgery practice. Complications with surgically placed ostomies are common and their causes are multifactorial. Parastomal ulceration, although rare, is a particularly difficult management problem. We conducted a literature search using MD Consult, Science Direct,OVID, Medline, and Cochrane Databases to review the causes and management options of parastomal ulceration. Both the etiology and treatments are varied.Different physicians and ostomy specialists have used a large array of methods to manage parastomal ulcers;these including local wound care; steroid creams;systemic steroids; and, when conservative measures fail, surgery. Most patients with parastomal ulcers who do not have associated IBD or peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) often respond quickly to local wound care and conservative management. Patients with PPG,IBD,or other systemic causes of their ulceration need both systemic and local care and are more likely to need long term treatment and possibly surgical revision of the ostomy. The treatment is complicated, but improved with the help of ostomy specialists.

  15. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic ulcer” is not sufficiently specific for rating purposes. Manifest differences in ulcers of the stomach... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4...

  16. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffroy, Romaric; Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  17. Laparoscopic pyloroplasty for perforated peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grišin, Edvard; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Poškus, Tomas; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2017-09-01

    Peptic ulcer is a common disease affecting millions of people every year. Despite improved understanding and treatment of the disease, the number of patients admitted with duodenal peptic ulcer perforation has not decreased. Deaths from peptic ulcer disease overcome other common emergency situations. Laparoscopic repair of the perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is the gold standard approach for simple perforation. However, in patients with large perforated chronic ulcers laparotomy with pyloroplasty is the standard treatment. It is generally accepted to perform open surgery in PPU emergencies because of the greater knowledge and experience gathered over the past decades and less potential harm for the patient or surgical complications. We present a case of successful laparoscopic pyloroplasty of a perforated duodenal ulcer with stenosis.

  18. Superselective transarterial embolization for the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Kyoung; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jeong; Shin, Sang Soo; Yoon Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Cho, Chol Kyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of superselective transarterial embolization for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated 97 of 115 patients who had undergone diagnostic angiography and transarterial embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding from February 2001 to July 2004, and they subsequently underwent superselective transarterial embolization. Their ages ranged from 17 to 88 years (mean age: 58.5 years), and 73 were men and 24 were women. The etiologies were a postoperative condition (n=31), ulcer (n=23), Mallory-Weiss syndrome (n=3), trauma (n=3), pseudoaneurysm from pancreatitis (n=3), diverticula (n=2), inflammatory bowel disease (n=2), tumor (n=2), Behcet's disease (n=2), hemobilia (n=1), and unknown origin (n=25). The regions of bleeding were the esophagus (n=3), stomach and duodenum (n=41), small bowel (n=38) and colon (n=15). All the patients underwent superselective transarterial embolization using microcoils, gelfoam or a combination of microcoils and gelfoam. Technical success was defined as devascularization of targeted vascular lesion or the disappearance of extravasation of the contrast media, as noted on the angiography after embolization. Clinical success was defined as the disappearance of clinical symptoms and the reestablishment of normal cardiovascular hemodynamics after transarterial embolization without any operation or endoscopic management. The technical success rate was 100%. The primary clinical success rate was 67% (65 of 97 patients). Of the 32 primary failures, fourteen patients underwent repeat embolization; of these, clinical success was achieved in all the patients and so the secondary clinical success rate was 81% (79 of 97 patients). Of the 18 patients with primary failures, five patients underwent operation, one patient underwent endoscopic management and the others died during the observation period due to disseminated coagulopathy or complications of their underlying diseases. During the

  19. Superselective transarterial embolization for the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Kyoung; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jeong; Shin, Sang Soo; Yoon Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chol Kyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    We wanted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of superselective transarterial embolization for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated 97 of 115 patients who had undergone diagnostic angiography and transarterial embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding from February 2001 to July 2004, and they subsequently underwent superselective transarterial embolization. Their ages ranged from 17 to 88 years (mean age: 58.5 years), and 73 were men and 24 were women. The etiologies were a postoperative condition (n=31), ulcer (n=23), Mallory-Weiss syndrome (n=3), trauma (n=3), pseudoaneurysm from pancreatitis (n=3), diverticula (n=2), inflammatory bowel disease (n=2), tumor (n=2), Behcet's disease (n=2), hemobilia (n=1), and unknown origin (n=25). The regions of bleeding were the esophagus (n=3), stomach and duodenum (n=41), small bowel (n=38) and colon (n=15). All the patients underwent superselective transarterial embolization using microcoils, gelfoam or a combination of microcoils and gelfoam. Technical success was defined as devascularization of targeted vascular lesion or the disappearance of extravasation of the contrast media, as noted on the angiography after embolization. Clinical success was defined as the disappearance of clinical symptoms and the reestablishment of normal cardiovascular hemodynamics after transarterial embolization without any operation or endoscopic management. The technical success rate was 100%. The primary clinical success rate was 67% (65 of 97 patients). Of the 32 primary failures, fourteen patients underwent repeat embolization; of these, clinical success was achieved in all the patients and so the secondary clinical success rate was 81% (79 of 97 patients). Of the 18 patients with primary failures, five patients underwent operation, one patient underwent endoscopic management and the others died during the observation period due to disseminated coagulopathy or complications of their underlying diseases. During

  20. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  1. Serendipity in scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review of 80 scintigraphic bleeding studies performed with Tc-99m sulfur colloid or Tc-99m labeled red blood cells showed five cases where there were abnormal findings not related to bleeding. In some cases, the abnormalities were initially confused with bleeding or could obscure an area of bleeding, while in other cases, the abnormalities represented additional clinical information. These included bone marrow replacement related to tumor and radiation therapy, hyperemia related to a uterine leiomyoma and a diverticular abscess, and a dilated abdominal aorta (aneurysm). Recognition of such abnormalities should prevent an erroneous diagnosis and the additional information may be of clinical value

  2. Management of Patients with Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L.; Gralnek, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based upon clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper GI bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy. In the majority of patients, colonoscopy should be the initial diagnostic procedure and should be performed within 24 hours of patient presentation after adequate colon preparation. Endoscopic hemostasis therapy should be provided to patients with high risk endoscopic stigmata of bleeding including active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel, or adherent clot. The endoscopic hemostasis modality used (mechanical, thermal, injection or combination) is most often guided by the etiology of bleeding, access to the bleeding site, and endoscopist experience with the various hemostasis modalities. Repeat colonoscopy, with endoscopic hemostasis performed if indicated, should be considered for patients with evidence of recurrent bleeding. Radiographic interventions (tagged red blood cell scintigraphy, CT angiography, angiography) should be considered in high-risk patients with ongoing bleeding who do not respond adequately to resuscitation, and who are unlikely to tolerate bowel preparation and colonoscopy. Strategies to prevent recurrent bleeding should be considered. NSAID use should be avoided in patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding particularly if secondary to diverticulosis or angioectasia. In patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin (secondary prophylaxis), aspirin should not be discontinued. The exact timing depends on the severity of bleeding, perceived adequacy of hemostasis and the risk of a thromboembolic event. Surgery

  3. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  4. The VCU Pressure Ulcer Summit: Collaboration to Operationalize Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention Best Practice Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, C Tod; Creehan, Sue; Black, Joyce; Zimmermann, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This executive summary reports outcomes of an interprofessional collaboration between experts in pressure ulcer prevention, bedside clinicians, regulatory agencies, quality improvement, informatics experts, and professional nursing organizations. The goal of the collaboration was to develop a framework to assist facilities to operationalize best practice recommendations to sustain organizational culture change in hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevention, to develop a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer severity score, and to address topics related to the unavoidable pressure ulcer.

  5. Marjolin's Ulcers: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    remains a feature of this pathology even in recent times. Prognosis ... marjolin's ulcers such as chronic leg ulcers and poorly managed burns ... the distribution of the disease. ..... Squamous cell carcinoma complicating chronic venous leg.

  6. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Risk of bleeding with dabigatran in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Inmaculada; Baik, Seo Hyon; Piñera, Antonio; Zhang, Yuting

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether dabigatran etexilate mesylate is associated with higher risk of bleeding than warfarin sodium in real-world clinical practice. To compare the risk of bleeding associated with dabigatran and warfarin using Medicare data. In this retrospective cohort study, we used pharmacy and medical claims in 2010 to 2011 from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. We identified participants as those newly diagnosed as having atrial fibrillation from October 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011, and who initiated dabigatran or warfarin treatment within 60 days of initial diagnosis. We followed up patients until discontinued use or switch of anticoagulants, death, or December 31, 2011. Dabigatran users (n = 1302) and warfarin users (n = 8102). We identified any bleeding events and categorized them as major and minor bleeding by anatomical site. Major bleeding events included intracranial hemorrhage, hemoperitoneum, and inpatient or emergency department stays for hematuria, gastrointestinal, or other hemorrhage. We used a propensity score weighting mechanism to balance patient characteristics between 2 groups and Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate the risk of bleeding. We further examined the risk of bleeding for 4 subgroups of high-risk patients: those 75 years or older, African Americans, those with chronic kidney disease, and those with more than 7 concomitant comorbidities. Dabigatran was associated with a higher risk of bleeding relative to warfarin, with hazard ratios of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.20-1.41) for any bleeding event, 1.58 (95% CI, 1.36-1.83) for major bleeding, and 1.85 (95% CI, 1.64-2.07) for gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage was higher among warfarin users, with a hazard ratio of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.20-0.50) for dabigatran compared with warfarin. Dabigatran was consistently associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and gastrointestinal hemorrhage for all subgroups analyzed. The risk of

  8. Venous leg ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer

  9. Engaging patients in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgell, Lynne; Dalphinis, Julie; Blunt, Chris; Zonouzi, Maryam; Procter, Susan

    2015-05-06

    As patients increasingly care for themselves at home, they require accessible information to enable informed self-care. This article describes the development of an educational electronic application (app) designed for use by patients at risk of pressure ulcers, and their carers. The app can be downloaded to Windows, Android or Apple smartphones or tablets. The app is based on the current pressure ulcer prevention and management guidelines from the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and is designed to educate patients and carers about how to prevent a pressure ulcer, how to recognise a pressure ulcer, and what to do if they suspect they are developing a pressure ulcer. We hope the app will be used to help with educational conversations among patients, carers and healthcare professionals.

  10. Pain in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: do characteristics differ in ulcerative and non-ulcerative subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Peters, Kenneth M

    2013-08-01

    Key differences between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) subtypes (with and without Hunner's ulcer) have been noted. We hypothesized that pain characteristics in women grouped by IC/BPS subtype would differ. A survey was mailed to 749 women to assess IC/BPS pain and other characteristics. Cystoscopy/hydrodistention reports were reviewed for presence/absence of Hunner's ulcer. The McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form© (MPQ-SF), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI-PI) assessed symptoms. Data were analyzed with Pearson's chi-square, Fisher's exact, t tests, and Wilcoxon rank tests. Of the 214 women that returned a survey (36 ulcerative and 178 non-ulcerative IC/BPS), similar proportions in each group reported that certain foods, exercise, and/or stress triggered symptoms. Fewer ulcerative patients reported pain with vaginal penetration than non-ulcerative (5/33, 15.2 % vs 76/160, 47.5 %; p = 0.0006). On the BPI, the ulcerative and non-ulcerative groups reported similar numbers of painful areas (mean 4.1 ± 6.1 and 4.1 ± 3.8; p = 0.33), and lower abdominal/pelvic pain was reported most (13/35, 37 % vs 79/172, 46 %; p = 0.34) followed by lower back pain (12/35, 34 % vs 69/172, 40 %; p = 0.52). Even though ICSI-PI, MPQ-SF, and BPI scores/responses did not differ, on the MPQ-SF the three words most frequently used by ulcerative patients to describe their pain were sharp, stabbing, and hot burning, and in non-ulcerative were aching, cramping, and tender. These measures did not reveal any significant differences in pain between subtypes. More research is needed in larger samples to determine whether differences exist.

  11. [Peptic ulcer disease and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Mihály, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease revolutionised our views on the etiology and treatment of the disease. This discovery has tempted many experts to conclude that psychological factors and, specifically, stress are unimportant. However, Helicobacter pylori infection alone does not explain fully the incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. It has been demonstrated that stress can cause peptic ulcer disease even in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection, supporting a multicausal model of peptic ulcer etiology. Psychological stress among other risk factors can function as a cofactor with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  12. The VCU Pressure Ulcer Summit-Developing Centers of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Excellence: A Framework for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creehan, Sue; Cuddigan, Janet; Gonzales, Dana; Nix, Denise; Padula, William; Pittman, Joyce; Pontieri-Lewis, Vicky; Walden, Christine; Wells, Belinda; Wheeler, Robinetta

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer occurrences have declined over the past decade as reimbursement policies have changed, evidence-based practice guidelines have been implemented, and quality improvement initiatives have been launched. However, the 2006-2008 Institute for Healthcare Improvement goal of zero pressure ulcers remains difficult to achieve and even more challenging to sustain. Magnet hospitals tend to have lower hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rates than non-Magnet hospitals, yet many non-Magnet hospitals also have robust pressure ulcer prevention programs. Successful programs share commonalities in structure, processes, and outcomes. A national summit of 55 pressure ulcer experts was convened at the Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center in March 2014. The group was divided into 3 focus groups; each was assigned a task to develop a framework describing components of a proposed Magnet-designated Center of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Excellence. Systematic literature reviews, analysis of exemplars, and nominal group process techniques were used to create the framework. This article presents a framework describing the proposed Magnet-designated Centers of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Excellence. Critical attributes of Centers of Excellence are identified and organized according to the 4 domains of the ANCC model for the Magnet Recognition Program: transformational leadership; structural empowerment; exemplary professional practice; and new knowledge innovation and improvements. The structures, processes, and outcome measures necessary to become a proposed Center of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Excellence are discussed.

  13. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Related factors to re-bleeding and mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding at Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Pérez, Víctor Felipe; Raymundo Cajo, Roxana Magali; Gutiérrez de Aranguren, Constantino Fernando

    2013-01-01

    To determine related factors to 5 days re-bleeding and 6 week-mortality of an episode of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Observational, descriptive, co relational, retrospective study. In this study were included the cirrhotic patients who entered to Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru, between January 2006 and February 2012 with suspicion of variceal bleeding. Were excluded patients who bled from nonvariceal origin, or that did not have the data in clinical history to calculate the Child Pugh score, the Model for terminal diseases of the liver (MELD), or the endoscopic report detailing the bleeding source and the presence of esophageal and/or gastric varices. We include 63 patients, 35 (55.6%) were men. The median of age was of 64 years. 26 of them (41.3%) were Child Pugh C, where as the median of MELD score was 9. The multivariate analysis found that the Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality (p=0,003), where as the presence of active bleeding during endoscopy (p=0.012) and the value of creatinine (p=0.012) were related to 5 days re-bleeding. The Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Active bleeding during endoscopy and the value of creatinine were related to 5 days re-bleeding.

  15. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Methods Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbio-logical results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Results Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P=.04) and deeper infiltrates (P=.04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P=.002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n=366, 72%). Conclusions The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. PMID:21987581

  16. Radiological diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Gross-Fengels, W.; Lorenz, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopy holds the first place today. Radiological investigations are indispensable whenever endoscopy cannot precisely localise the bleeding site, whenever a tumour is present or suspected, in all cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and in haemobilia. A tailored radiological approach is recommended. The radiological basis programme should be at least a complete abdominal ultrasound study and plain abdominal radiograms. CT and ERCP scans may become necessary in selected cases. As a rule, angiographical localisation of the bleeding site will be successful only in the acute stage; selective visceral arteriograms have to be obtained, which may be executed in the digital subtraction technique in patients who are cooperating and clinically stable. Angiodysplasias and aneurysms, however, may be demonstrated angiographically in the interval as well. Upper and/or lower G.I. tract studies with barium or water-soluble contrast media may be indicated in the interval in order to demonstrate tumours, metastatic lesions, diverticula and gut malformations. (orig.) [de

  17. A rare case of bleeding disorder: Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, Jami; Gowrishankar, A; Jayakumar, S A; Jain, Karun

    2017-01-01

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare bleeding disorder, which is characterized by a lack of platelet aggregation. It is characterized by qualitative or quantitative abnormalities of the platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Physiologically, this platelet receptor normally binds several adhesive plasma proteins, and this facilitates attachment and aggregation of platelets to ensure thrombus formation at sites of vascular injury. The lack of resultant platelet aggregation in GT leads to mucocutaneous bleeding whose manifestation may be clinically variable, ranging from easy bruising to severe and potentially life-threatening hemorrhages. To highlight this rare but potentially life-threating disorder, GT. We report a case of GT that was first detected because of the multiple episodes of gum bleeding. The patient was an 18-year-old girl who presented with a history of repeated episodes of gum bleeding since childhood. Till the first visit to our hospital, she had not been diagnosed with GT despite a history of bleeding tendency, notably purpura in areas of easy bruising, gum bleeding, and prolonged bleeding time after abrasions and insect stings. GT was diagnosed on the basis of prolonged bleeding time, lack of platelet aggregation with adenosine di phosphate, epinephrine and collagen. GT should always be considered as differential diagnosis while evaluating any case of bleeding disorder.

  18. Treatment of peptic ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The current therapy of choice for all Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcer disease is eradication therapy. Although adequate therapeutic regimens are currently available, often still ineffective therapies are tried. Cure of the infection essentially eliminates the ulcer diathesis. Cure of the

  19. Pressure ulcers: effectiveness of risk-assessment tools. A randomised controlled trial (the ULCER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Coleman, Kerrie; Mudge, Alison; Marquart, Louise; Gardner, Glenn; Stankiewicz, Monica; Kirby, Julie; Vellacott, Catherine; Horton-Breshears, Margaret; McClymont, Alice

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two pressure-ulcer screening tools against clinical judgement in preventing pressure ulcers. A single blind randomised controlled trial. A large metropolitan tertiary hospital. 1231 patients admitted to internal medicine or oncology wards. Patients were excluded if their hospital stay was expected to be 2 days or less. Participants allocated to either a Waterlow (n=410) or Ramstadius (n=411) screening tool group or to a clinical judgement group (n=410) where no formal risk screening instrument was used. Incidence of hospital acquired pressure ulcers ascertained by regular direct observation. Use of any devices for the prevention of pressure ulcers, documentation of a pressure plan and any dietetic or specialist skin integrity review were recorded. On admission, 71 (5.8%) patients had an existing pressure ulcer. The incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers was similar between groups (clinical judgement 28/410 (6.8%); Waterlow 31/411 (7.5%); Ramstadius 22/410 (5.4%), p=0.44). Significant associations with pressure injury in regression modelling included requiring a dietetic referral, being admitted from a location other than home and age over 65 years. The authors found no evidence to show that two common pressure-ulcer risk-assessment tools are superior to clinical judgement to prevent pressure injury. Resources associated with use of these tools might be better spent on careful daily skin inspection and improving management targetted at specific risks. The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinicat Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000541303).

  20. [Comparison between Glascow-Blatchford, Rockall and AIMS65 scores in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital in Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Ríos, Jorge; Aguilar Sánchez, Victor; Bravo Paredes, Eduar Alban; Pinto Valdivia, José; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Identify the best score that predicts each variable outcome (mortality, rebleeding and need for transfusion for more than 2 red blood cells pack) in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding until 30 days of the event. Material y methods: Patients included were those over 18 years, who had upper gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2014 to June 2015 in a general hospital of third level. The data was analyzed by the area under the curve ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic). In total, there were 231 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 154 (66.7%) cases were male, the average age was 57.8 ± 20.02 years, the most common cause of bleeding was peptic ulcer: 111 (48.1%) cases, the mortality rate and rebleeding was 7.8% and 3.9% respectively. 5 patients were excluded from the analysis because they do not count with endoscopy study, the analysis was performed in 226 rest. In the evaluation of mortality, it was found an area under the curve ROC for Glasgow-Blatchford: 0.73, Rockall score: 0.86 and AIMS65 score: 0.90 (p<0.05) to predict rebleeding the Glasgow-Blatchford score: 0.73 Rockall score: 0.66 and AIMS65 score: 0.64 (p=0.41) and transfusion requirements of more than 2 globular packages the Glasgow-Blatchford score: 0.72, Rockall score: 0.67 and AIMS65 score: 0.77 (p=0.09). AIMS65 score is a good predictor of mortality and is useful in predicting the need for more than 2 transfusions of red blood cells pack compared to score Glasgow-Blatchford and Rockall score.

  1. [Efficacy of compression knee-high socks ULCER X in treatment of venous-genesis trophic ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanets, L I; Bogachev, V Iu; Lobanov, V N; Smirnova, E S

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at comparatively assessing the efficacy of treatment for venous trophic ulcers at stages II-III of the wound process using special compression knee-length socks of the ULCER X kit (Sigvaris AG, St. Gallen, Switzerland) and long-stretch bandages Lauma. Compression therapy was included into the programme of outpatient treatment of forty 31-to-74-year-old patients presenting with trophic ulcers (stage II-III of the wound process) with an average area of 5,36±1,1 cm2. The Study Group consisting of 20 patients used compression knitted fabrics in the form of knee-length socks ULCER X and the comparison group (n=20) used long-stretch bandages Lauma. The obtained findings (6 months) demonstrated that using compression therapy exerted a positive effect on the process of healing of venous trophic ulcers, also proving advantages of compression therapy with the knee-length socks ULCER X that create an adequate level of pressure on the crus and maintain it in long-term daily use, reliably accelerating the healing of venous trophic ulcers as compared with elastic long-stretch bandages. The use of long-stretch elastic bandages in treatment of venous trophic ulcers turned out to be not only ineffective but fraught with a possibility of the development of various complications. During 6 months of follow up the patients using the special knee-length socks ULCER X were found to have 80 % of ulcers healed (16 patients), mainly within the first 2 months, whereas using elastic bandages resulted in only 30 % of healing (6 patients) by the end of the study. Along with it, we documented a considerable decrease in the malleolar circumference in the study group patients (from 30,05±0,78 to 28,35±0,86 cm) and in the control group from 31,2±30,35 to 30,25±0,75 cm), accompanied and followed by more than a two-fold increase in quality of life of the patients along all the parameters in the study group and a 1.4-fold increase in the control group patients.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity of Echinops Persicus on Experimental Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farajzadeh-Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Echinops persicus is traditionally used for a long time in Iran for treatment of cough and constipation. This extract is produced by activity of bug (Situphilus spp. on the plant. We documented its anti-tussive effect in rats in our previous study.The aim of this study was to assess the anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus in an animal model. In this study we evaluated anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus by Shay's method in rats. In 3 groups of rats, pylorus was ligatured under anesthesia. The rats were euthanized after 19 hours later and number and level of ulcer in stomach was measured. In group 2 the extract was orally administered 45 minutes before pyloric ligature, and in group 3, it was administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before pyloric ligature. The number of ulcers in stomach was significantly low in group 2 (P = 0.01 and 3 (P = 0.037 in comparison with group 1. The level of ulcer was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.047 with comparison to group 1. We conclude that, Echinops extract can exhibit potentially cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity.

  3. The analysis of the causes of uterine bleeding occurred after cesarean section and the evaluation of interventional therapy for bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Peng; Li Yuwei; Li Yunhui; Luo Bin; Wen Wen; Yang Bo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the causes of uterine hemorrhage occurred after cesarean section and to investigate the value of angiography and transcatheter artery embolization (TAE) in the diagnosis and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section. Methods: During the period from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2011, a total of 65 cases suffering from uterine bleeding after cesarean section had underwent uterine arteriography to clarify the diagnosis, which was followed by transcatheter uterine artery embolization (TUAE). The clinical data, the causes of bleeding and the angiographic features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The causes of uterine bleeding after cesarean section included uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (n=26), uterine atony (n=18), placental factors (n=11), gestational hypertension (n=8), coexisting uterine fibroids (n=1) and uterine bleeding of unknown reason (n=1). Uterine artery angiography revealed contrast extravasation in all patients except one patient. The angiographic findings confirmed the diagnosis of uterine artery bleeding after cesarean section. The bleeding stopped after TUAE, and the patients were in stable condition. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: Pseudoaneurysm is the primary cause of postpartum uterine hemorrhage after cesarean section. Transcatheter uterine artery angiography can promptly and reliably determine the causes of bleeding, and, at the same time, embolization therapy can be carried out to effectively stop the bleeding. (authors)

  4. THROMBIN GENERATION AND BLEEDING IN HEMOPHILIA A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Whelihan, Matthew F.; Gissel, Matthew; Mann, Kenneth G.; Rivard, Georges E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A displays phenotypic heterogeneity with respect to clinical severity. Aim To determine if tissue factor (TF)-initiated thrombin generation profiles in whole blood in the presence of corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) are predictive of bleeding risk in hemophilia A. Methods We studied factor(F) VIII deficient individuals (11 mild, 4 moderate and 12 severe) with a well-characterized five-year bleeding history that included hemarthrosis, soft tissue hematoma and annual FVIII concentrate usage. This clinical information was used to generate a bleeding score. The bleeding scores (range 0–32) were separated into three groups (bleeding score groupings: 0, 0 and ≤9.6, >9.6), with the higher bleeding tendency having a higher score. Whole blood collected by phlebotomy and contact pathway suppressed by 100μg/mL CTI was stimulated to react by the addition of 5pM TF. Reactions were quenched at 20min by inhibitors. Thrombin generation, determined by ELISA for thrombin – antithrombin was evaluated in terms of clot time (CT), maximum level (MaxL) and maximum rate (MaxR) and compared to the bleeding score. Results Data are shown as the mean±SD. MaxL was significantly different (phemophilia A. PMID:19563500

  5. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients with Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Most patients bleed from esophageal or gastric varices, but bleeding from ectopic varices or portal hypertensive gastropathy is also possible. The management of acute bleeding has changed over the last years. Patients are managed with a combination of endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is variceal band ligation. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the time point of endoscopy. The first-line treatment for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding is nonselective beta blockers. Pharmacologic therapy is recommended for most patients; band ligation is an alternative in patients with contraindications for or intolerability of beta blockers. Treatment options for secondary prophylaxis include variceal band ligation, beta blockers, a combination of nitrates and beta blockers, and combination of band ligation and pharmacologic treatment. A clear superiority of one treatment over the other has not been shown. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy or ectopic varices is less common. Treatment options include beta blocker therapy, injection therapy, and interventional radiology. PMID:27335828

  6. Medical device-related pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black JM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Joyce M Black,1 Peggy Kalowes2 1Adult Health and Illness Department, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 2Nursing Research and Innovation, Long Beach Memorial Miller Children’s & Women’s Hospital, Long Beach, CA, USA Abstract: Pressure ulcers from medical devices are common and can cause significant morbidity in patients of all ages. These pressure ulcers appear in the shape of the device and are most often found from the use of oxygen delivery devices. A hospital program designed to reduce the number of pressure ulcers from medical devices was successful. The program involved the development of a team that focused on skin, the results were then published for the staff to track their performance, and it was found that using foam dressings helped reduce the pressure from the device. The incidence of ulcers from medical devices has remained at zero at this hospital since this program was implemented. Keywords: pressure ulcer, medical device related

  7. Transcatheter arterial embolization for traumatic bleeding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Choon Wook; Lee, Sang Kwon; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duck Sik

    1989-01-01

    Angiography is essential for the detection of bleeding vessels in traumatic vascular injury. Immediately after the diagnosis, transcatheter embolization can be performed for the control of bleeding effectively and easily with proper use of embolic materials. Transcatheter embolization is believed to be the treatment of choice when emergency control is needed, where surgical approach is difficult and in those who are poor candidate for surgery. We have tried bleeding control in 18 cases of trauma over recent 4 years. The results were as follows; 1. Causes of bleeding(cases): Blunt or penetrating trauma (10), latrogenic trauma (8), (Postoperative (5), Needle biopsy (2), Percutaneous hepatic procedure (1)) 2. Embolized vessels: Renal artery branches (8), Hepatic artery branches (2), Arteries supplying chest wall (2), External carotid artery branches (3), Internal carotid artery (1), Circumflex humeral artery (1), Internal iliac artery branches (1). 3. Embolic agents: Gelfoam cubes (16), Stainless steel coils (3), Detachable latex balloon (1). 4. Successful bleeding control was achieved in 17 cases and reduction of the amount of bleeding in one case without significant complications

  8. The stress ulcer syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Essen

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous

  9. Review : Pressure Ulcer and Its treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan Khorasani; Ali Ghafouri

    2004-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is a signifcant problem in elderly and critically ill patients, causing pain, decreasing quality of life and leading to prolonged hospital stay. Treatment of pressure ulcer to improve health status is a cost-effective approach. So, preventing the ulcers will be economical. Pressure ulcer is considered as a damage or necrosis of skin and its layers, which happens when there is a considerable pressure over the tissues. If the capillary arterie's pressure reaches 70 mmHg (2 ti...

  10. [Having trouble with pressure ulcers care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masako; Noda, Yasuhiro; Nohara, Yoko; Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Noriko; Renda, Akiyoshi; Yuasa, Takashi; Muramatsu, Shuichi; Furuta, Katsunori

    2004-12-01

    Since 1997, we, the community pharmacists, have established this society, Aichi Prefecture Society for the Study of Pressure Ulcers Care, in order to furnish drug information about pressure ulcers care. Moist atmosphere is required for the healing of pressure ulcers. The moist environment that could be regulated depends on the physicochemical property of ointment bases. Therefore, ointment should reasonably be chosen to adjust the moisture. Since 2000, we have been committed to providing pharmacists, who work on home care, with a booklet to instruct how to choose ointments for pressure ulcers treatment. In 2002, when the Aichi pharmaceutical association held a training conference held at various hospitals using the booklet as a teaching material, hospital pharmacists cooperated by making a field study trip to observe pressure ulcers treatments. Nowadays researchers at pharmaceutical colleges have also cooperated in studying the efficacy and economical effect of the method of blending different ointments to improve the healing process of pressure ulcers.

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Bleeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Bleeding Problems “My nurse said that chemotherapy could make ... with a clean cloth. Keep pressing until the bleeding stops. If you bruise: Put ice on the ...

  12. Giant lower oesophageal ulcer Bushman baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-26

    Feb 26, 1983 ... The case of a giant, penetrating lower oesophageal ulcer in a 14-month-old Bushman baby is reported. This would probably be classified as a Barrett's ulcer. Histological examination showed that the ulcer developed in columnar epithelium and that there was normal stratified squamous oesophageal.

  13. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  14. Bleeding in cancer patients and its treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Candice; Rich, Shayna E

    2017-12-18

    Bleeding is a common problem in cancer patients, related to local tumor invasion, tumor angiogenesis, systemic effects of the cancer, or anti-cancer treatments. Existing bleeds can also be exacerbated by medications such as bevacizumab, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticoagulants. Patients may develop acute catastrophic bleeding, episodic major bleeding, or low-volume oozing. Bleeding may present as bruising, petechiae, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematochezia, melena, hematuria, or vaginal bleeding. Therapeutic intervention for bleeding should start by establishing goals of care, and treatment choice should be guided by life expectancy and quality of life. Careful thought should be given to discontinuation of medications and reversal of anticoagulation. Interventions to stop or slow bleeding may include systemic agents or transfusion of blood products. Noninvasive local treatment options include applied pressure, dressings, packing, and radiation therapy. Invasive local treatments include percutaneous embolization, endoscopic procedures, and surgical treatment.

  15. A Hydroxyurea-induced Leg Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Seon-Wook; Hong, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jong-Keun; Lee, Deborah; Sung, Ho-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a cytostatic agent that has recently become the drug of choice in the treatment of various myeloproliferative diseases. The cutaneous side effects of hydroxyurea include xerosis, hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, and scaling. Leg ulcers have only rarely been reported in association with hydroxyurea treatment. A 75-year-old woman presented with leg ulcers, nail discoloration, and xerosis. The leg ulcers were refractory to conventional treatment. She had been taking oral hyd...

  16. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  17. Postpolypectomy lower GI bleeding: descriptive analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorbi, D.; Norton, I.; Conio, M.; Balm, R.; Zinsmeister, A.; Gostout, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpolypectomy hemorrhage may warrant intensive care monitoring, transfusions, and surgery. We sought factors predicting significant bleeding requiring blood transfusion and the benefits of critical care monitoring. METHODS: Patients with postpolypectomy bleeding between April 1989 and

  18. What to do when she's bleeding through: the recognition, evaluation, and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alyssa R; Gray, Susan H

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the current understanding and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents. The readers will learn a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of mild-to-severe uterine bleeding. In 2011, a new classification system was proposed to standardize the terminology used to describe AUB. This system is based on the pattern and etiology of bleeding and has been adopted by other organizations. The term dysfunctional uterine bleeding has been replaced by AUB. The negative effect of AUB on adolescents' quality of life is now well established. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is considered a first-line treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and should be considered, especially in those adolescents who may also need contraception. AUB is a common adolescent complaint that can vary from mild to life-threatening if not recognized and treated promptly. This article reviews the appropriate assessment and management of AUB and proposes a practical algorithm that can be used in an office or hospital setting.

  19. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.

    1980-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding may be localized using noninvasive radionuclide methods. We have favored the use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid with sequential imaging because of the rapid clearance of background activity. Definition of the site of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, however, may be obscured by intense uptake of radioactivity by liver and spleen. The sensitivity of the method is such that the bleeding rates of 0.05-0.1 ml/min can be detected compared to a sensitivity of 0.5 ml/min for angiography.

  20. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karoon; Chauhan, Neha

    2012-05-01

    Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of "prevention is better than cure" suits this condition the most.

  1. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoon Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of "prevention is better than cure" suits this condition the most.

  2. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karoon; Chauhan, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of “prevention is better than cure” suits this condition the most. PMID:23162223

  3. Giant Brunner’s Gland Hamartoma of the Duodenal Bulb Presenting with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brunner’s gland hamartomas are small benign lesions that are most commonly found in the bulb of the duodenum. They are very uncommon, and most are found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal series or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The lesions tend to be asymptomatic, but patients may present with symptoms of duodenal obstruction or hemorrhage secondary to ulceration. Histologically, a Brunner's gland hamartoma consists of the components of Brunner's gland cells, as well as glandular, adipose and muscle cells. In this study, we report the case of a 30-year-old man who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive symptoms due to a giant Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenal bulb. The hamartoma was successfully removed by endoscopic resection. No significant complications were observed. Microscopically, the lesion was found to be entirely composed of variable Brunner's glands and adipocytes.

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Variations in uterine bleeding, termed abnormal uterine bleeding, occur commonly among women and often are physiologic in nature with no significant consequences. However, abnormal uterine bleeding can cause significant distress to women or may signify an underlying pathologic condition. Most women experience variations in menstrual and perimenstrual bleeding in their lifetimes; therefore, the ability of the midwife to differentiate between normal and abnormal bleeding is a key diagnostic skill. A comprehensive history and use of the PALM-COEIN classification system will provide clear guidelines for clinical management, evidence-based treatment, and an individualized plan of care. The purpose of this Clinical Bulletin is to define and describe classifications of abnormal uterine bleeding, review updated terminology, and identify methods of assessment and treatment using a woman-centered approach. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. Location-dependent depth and undermining formation of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Isogai, Zenzo; Mizokami, Fumihiro; Furuta, Katsunori; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Masahiko

    2013-08-01

    We examined the location-specific properties of pressure ulcers, focusing on depth and undermining formation, which are often unfavorable factors for ulcer healing. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 2 independent databases on pressure ulcers. Databases from a 200-bed hospital (database A) and a 300-bed hospital (database B) were collected during different time periods. Relationships between ulcer location, ulcer depth, and undermining formation were analyzed. All pressure ulcers were accurately diagnosed and classified according to their locations. A total of 282 pressure ulcers in 189 patients from database A and 232 pressure ulcers in 154 patients fr