WorldWideScience

Sample records for postage-stamp ceiling rate

  1. Postage stamps: A convergence of metallurgy, art, and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Fathi

    2002-04-01

    Postage stamps have been used around the world to commemorate, in miniature, significant events and people, including those of importance in the history of metals and mineral production. From the presence of gold artifacts in an ancient Egyptian tomb to the role of uranium in nuclear power, stamps have captured the evolution of metallurgical processes. This article highlights some of those stamps.

  2. Ben Franklin, America’s Postage Stamp Star — on the Wane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an assessment of Ben Franklin’s evolving figure in U.S. postage stamps, focusing especially on the contrast between the 2006 tercentennial Franklin 4-stamp panel, a rather high-brow representation of Franklin as an intellectual, and his traditional image as a homely, common face. The singular history of U.S. postage stamps, with their innovative choice of historical figures as subject matter and their broader emphasis on commemoration, is briefly summarized. The evolution of the Franklin figure — the most common postal image, along with George Washington — is then detailed, showing how the traditional image prevailed until the 1950s, before being progressively displaced by a more cultural and, lately, intellectual image of the nation’s “electrizer”.Cet article vise à interpréter l’évolution de la figure de Benjamin Franklin dans les timbres-poste des Etats-Unis, en se fondant notamment sur le contraste entre le bloc de quatre timbres émis lors du tricentenaire en 2006, qui représente Franklin dans les différents métiers d’un intellectuel des Lumières, et son image traditionnelle d’Américain simple et moyen. On retrace tout d’abord l’histoire singulière des timbres américains, caractérisée par le choix innovant de figures historiques comme sujets et plus généralement par la prééminence de la fonction commémorative. Puis on étudie en détail l’évolution de la figure de Franklin — sujet le plus fréquent des timbres américains avec George Washington — en montrant que l’image traditionnelle s’est perpétuée jusqu’aux années 1950, avant de céder progressivement à une image plus culturelle et, récemment, plus intellectuelle.

  3. Picture Postage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…

  4. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlić, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinić, J.; Orlić, M.

    2010-07-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  5. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I., E-mail: ijelov@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Lofrumento, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dobrinic, J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Av. V. Holjevca 15, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  6. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Orlic, N.; Lofrumento, C.; Dobrinic, J.; Orlic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  7. Ex-Post : The Investment Performance of Collectible Stamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimson, E.; Spaenjers, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns on British collectible postage stamps over the very long run, based on stamp catalogue prices. Between 1900 and 2008, we find an annualized return on stamps of 6.7% in nominal terms, which is equivalent to an average real return of 2.7% per annum. Prices have

  8. Postage-stamp PIV’: small velocity fields at 400 kHz for turbulence spectra measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell W.; Spitzer, Seth M.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry recently has been demonstrated in high-speed flows using a pulse-burst laser at repetition rates reaching 50 kHz. Turbulent behavior can be measured at still higher frequencies if the field of view is greatly reduced and lower laser pulse energy is accepted. Current technology allows image acquisition at 400 kHz for sequences exceeding 4000 frames but for an array of only 128  ×  120 pixels, giving the moniker of ‘postage-stamp PIV’. The technique has been tested far downstream of a supersonic jet exhausting into a transonic crossflow. Two-component measurements appear valid until 120 kHz, at which point a noise floor emerges whose magnitude is dependent on the reduction of peak locking. Stereoscopic measurement offers three-component data for turbulent kinetic energy spectra, but exhibits a reduced signal bandwidth and higher noise in the out-of-plane component due to the oblique camera images. The resulting spectra reveal two regions exhibiting power-law dependence describing the turbulent decay. The frequency response of the present measurement configuration exceeds nearly all previous velocimetry measurements in high speed flow.

  9. Women Putting Our Stamp on America: Biographies and Activities for National Women's History Month, March 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Women's History Project, Windsor, CA.

    This booklet, intended for use by educators and by workplace and community organizers, introduces women who have been featured on U.S. postage stamps as well as a few of the women who clearly merit such honor in the future. Postage stamps featuring women have been relatively few and far between and have only skimmed the surface of U.S. women in…

  10. Památky starověké Núbie na známkách světa // Monuments of Ancient Nubia on postage stamps of the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Vachala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful International UNESCO Campaign to Save the Monuments of (Egyptian and Sudanese Nubia became an important motif on the postage stamps of 47 countries of the world in the years 1960–1980. The stamps host famous rescued temples (listed here according to frequency of the used motifs, including general views, details of architecture and relief decoration of Abu Simbel, Philae, Wadi es-Sebua, and Dakka, the Kiosk of Qertassi and the South - ern temple of Buhen. Moreover, some of the unique painted murals found in the episcopal cathedral at Faras were reproduced on Polish stamps. The philatelic contribution to the campaign was far from symbolic. The total philatelic revenue (including income from the Philae Medals reached 112,665.64 US dollars. The philatelic activity of 47 countries substantially contributed to the publicity of the UNESCO Nubia Campaign around the world.

  11. Helium-hydrogen microplasma device (MPD) on postage-stamp-size plastic-quartz chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2009-10-01

    A new design of a miniaturized, atmospheric-pressure, low-power (e.g., battery-operated), self-igniting, planar-geometry microplasma device (MPD) for use with liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive MPD was a hybrid, three-substrate quartz-plastic-plastic structure and it was formed on chips with area the size of a small postage stamp. The substrates were chosen for rapid prototyping and for speedy device-geometry testing and evaluation. The approximately 700-microm (diameter) and 7-mm (long) He-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Operating conditions were found to be critical in sustaining stable microplasma on plastic substrates. Spectral interference from the electrode materials was not observed. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for introduction of microliter volumes of liquids into the MPD. The microplasma was operated from an inexpensive power supply. And, operation from a 14.4-V battery has been demonstrated. Microplasma background emission in the spectral range between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer is reported. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. Element-dependent precision was between 10-25% (the average was 15%) and detection limits ranged between 1.5 and 350 ng. The system was used for the determination of Na in diluted bottled-water samples.

  12. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  13. 76 FR 9702 - Shortpaid and Unpaid Information-Based Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... protection procedures for IBI postage generated by postage evidencing systems. Comments were received from... and the postage evidencing system service provider of the revenue deficiency and deliver the mailpiece... deficiency, the Postal Service will notify the mailer's postage evidencing system service provider to...

  14. 76 FR 39299 - Shortpaid and Unpaid Information-Based Indicia (IBI) Postage and Shortpaid Express Mail Postage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... deficiency, the Postal Service will notify the mailer's postage evidencing system service provider to... mailer and the postage evidencing system service provider of the revenue deficiency and delivers the...]) 604.4, 604.8, and 604.10, to implement revenue protection procedures for mailpieces entered with...

  15. 75 FR 4031 - Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... finalized postage statements from PostalOne! facilities are available online at the Business Customer...! facilities only. Copies of finalized postage statements are available online at the Business Customer Gateway... postage statements from PostalOne! facilities are available online at the Business Customer Gateway. 2. At...

  16. Nuclear energy through Philately; La energia nuclear a traves de la filatelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres de la Pena, M. T.

    2016-08-01

    Postage stamps, apart from being signs of postage, are a valuable means of communication that reproduces, in mary ways, milestones of history. Postatge stamps have different formats and values, can be printed with different systems (offset, gravure or intaglio) and can also have several uses. Countries have used them to record important cultural, social, historical and scientific events that are often unknown, and generally to promote the image of a country. For this reason, postage stamps disclose international development in different disciplines; in this case, science and nuclear technology. (Author)

  17. Ramón y Cajal erroneously identified as Camillo Golgi on a souvenir postage stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on a philatelic oddity that erringly identifies a picture of Santiago Ramón y Cajal as that of Camillo Golgi, this brief article examines official and unofficial stamp issues honoring the two great neuroanatomists, one from Spain and the other from Italy, who were early Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine.

  18. 39 CFR 501.9 - Demonstration or test Postage Evidencing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... replicates a postage indicium for which the Postal Service has not received payment for postage. The... and must be tracked by model number, serial number, and physical location. (3) A demonstration or test...

  19. 77 FR 41336 - Authorization to Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems; Discontinued Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 501 Authorization to Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing... Service proposes to amend the rules concerning the manufacture and distribution of postage evidencing... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 1. The authority citation for 39 CFR part 501 continues...

  20. 78 FR 8407 - Authorization To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems; Discontinued Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 501 Authorization To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing... is amending the rules concerning the manufacture and distribution of postage evidencing systems to... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 0 1. The authority citation for 39 CFR part 501...

  1. 39 CFR 501.14 - Postage Evidencing System inventory control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relationship if it appears that the relationship poses a threat to Postage Evidencing System security and may... records must be available for inspection by Postal Service officials at any time during business hours. (c... security procedures equivalent to those for Registered Mail. (3) Postage meter examination/inspection...

  2. 39 CFR 501.11 - Reporting Postage Evidencing System security weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting Postage Evidencing System security... security weaknesses. (a) For purposes of this section, provider refers to the Postage Evidencing System... Evidencing System model subject to each such method. Potential security weaknesses include but are not...

  3. Event for the launch of the Georges Charpak postage stamp | 26-27 February | Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    At the end of February, the French post office is releasing a new €0.70 stamp featuring an image of Georges Charpak. CERN is taking part in this event by hosting a temporary post office on the Prévessin site, which will sell the stamp with a special “first day” postmark before it goes on general sale.     Georges Charpak arrived at CERN in 1959 and, in the late 1960s, revolutionised particle detection technology by developing the multiwire proportional chamber. This technique brought particle detectors into the electronic era, setting physicists free from the laborious task of studying photographs one by one. In 1992, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Charpak chambers are still used today in the LHC detectors and have paved the way for the technology in numerous other modern detectors. In the 1990s, Charpak was involved in developing medical applications based on particle detection technology. He was als...

  4. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate ceiling and... § 107.855 Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money... weighted average interest rate you pay on your “qualified borrowings”. “Qualified borrowings” means your...

  5. 75 FR 30309 - Revisions to the Requirements for Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems. This proposed revision clarifies the requirement for examination by an independent audit firm of a Postage Evidencing System Provider's Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) or... Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this...

  6. 77 FR 23396 - Revisions to the Requirements for Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes the responsibility of the providers of Postage Evidencing Systems (PES) to notify the U.S. Postal... as follows: PART 501--AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 0 1. The...

  7. STAMP alters the growth of transformed and ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yuanzheng; Blackford, John A Jr; Kohn, Elise C; Simons, S Stoney Jr

    2010-01-01

    Steroid receptors play major roles in the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of normal and malignant tissue. STAMP is a novel coregulator that not only enhances the ability of p160 coactivator family members TIF2 and SRC-1 to increase gene induction by many of the classical steroid receptors but also modulates the potency (or EC 50 ) of agonists and the partial agonist activity of antisteroids. These modulatory activities of STAMP are not limited to gene induction but are also observed for receptor-mediated gene repression. However, a physiological role for STAMP remains unclear. The growth rate of HEK293 cells stably transfected with STAMP plasmid and overexpressing STAMP protein is found to be decreased. We therefore asked whether different STAMP levels might also contribute to the abnormal growth rates of cancer cells. Panels of different stage human cancers were screened for altered levels of STAMP mRNA. Those cancers with the greatest apparent changes in STAMP mRNA were pursued in cultured cancer cell lines. Higher levels of STAMP are shown to have the physiologically relevant function of reducing the growth of HEK293 cells but, unexpectedly, in a steroid-independent manner. STAMP expression was examined in eight human cancer panels. More extensive studies of ovarian cancers suggested the presence of higher levels of STAMP mRNA. Lowering STAMP mRNA levels with siRNAs alters the proliferation of several ovarian cancer tissue culture lines in a cell line-specific manner. This cell line-specific effect of STAMP is not unique and is also seen for the conventional effects of STAMP on glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene transactivation. This study indicates that a physiological function of STAMP in several settings is to modify cell growth rates in a manner that can be independent of steroid hormones. Studies with eleven tissue culture cell lines of ovarian cancer revealed a cell line-dependent effect of reduced STAMP mRNA on cell growth rates. This

  8. The effect of Ontario's transmission system policies on cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that the establishment of transmission tariffs would have on the viability of cogeneration projects in Ontario was discussed. The proposal to establish such tariffs on the basis of a 'postage stamp' rate would ensure that all electricity users have access to electricity at the same price. However, this would unfairly penalize short-haul transmission transactions and would possibly result in the inappropriate location of new generation facilities. Electricity users would ultimately be burdened with these inefficiencies. This presentation also discussed another public policy which proposes to determine what parts of the electricity system should have their costs recovered at postage stamp rates. The costs would include not only transmission charges but also distribution and generation costs. The restructuring of Ontario Hydro into the Ontario Power Generation Company (OPGC) and the Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC) and its impact on the cogeneration projects was also discussed

  9. Why Stamp Duties are an Increasing Financial Burden on Australian Home Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Gavin A.

    1994-01-01

    The purchaser of housing incurs stamp duty liabilities in all Australian States. These stamp duties are levied on the conveyance of residential property and mortgage sums secured. In general, stamp duties were a growing financial burden on home buyers during the period 1985-1991. This paper examines the role of house price inflation in causing increases in average rates of stamp duty, the responsiveness of average rates of stamp duty to future changes in the nominal tax base and the effective...

  10. Cost-allocation principles for pipeline capacity and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salant, D.J.; Watkins, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of cost sharing among multiple users of transmission facilities, such as pipelines, was discussed. The various ways in which a fair and reasonable pipeline cost-allocation scheme can be implemented were examined. It was suggested that no method exists for allocating costs that will achieve all major policy goals. The advantages and disadvantages of a system of uniform rates, such as postage stamp tolls, was discussed in the context of a natural gas pipeline system. A postage stamp system is one in which all users pay the same amount per unit of capacity, regardless of transport distances. This rate structure, while sometimes appropriate, is inefficient if total costs are distance-sensitive or if there is a significant variation in the sources of demand. Two commonly accepted minimal principles that a cost allocation should satisfy include: (1) the stand-alone cost test, and (2) the incremental cost test. This means that no one should pay costs in excess of their stand-alone costs and no one should pay less than their incremental costs. Postage stamp tolls were found to fail the minimal set of commonly applied principles. More optimal ways in which to allocate pipeline network costs among users were presented. The nucleolus is a unique cost allocation that is consistent, symmetric and homogeneous. The nucleolus is calculated by splitting the costs equally among users of a common facility. Another effective cost allocation system is the Shapley value which can be derived from a set of axioms which differ slightly from those that identify the nucleolus. 2 refs., 1 tab

  11. Cost-allocation principles for pipeline capacity and usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salant, D.J.; Watkins, G.C. [Law and Economics Consulting Group, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The issue of cost sharing among multiple users of transmission facilities, such as pipelines, was discussed. The various ways in which a fair and reasonable pipeline cost-allocation scheme can be implemented were examined. It was suggested that no method exists for allocating costs that will achieve all major policy goals. The advantages and disadvantages of a system of uniform rates, such as postage stamp tolls, was discussed in the context of a natural gas pipeline system. A postage stamp system is one in which all users pay the same amount per unit of capacity, regardless of transport distances. This rate structure, while sometimes appropriate, is inefficient if total costs are distance-sensitive or if there is a significant variation in the sources of demand. Two commonly accepted minimal principles that a cost allocation should satisfy include: (1) the stand-alone cost test, and (2) the incremental cost test. This means that no one should pay costs in excess of their stand-alone costs and no one should pay less than their incremental costs. Postage stamp tolls were found to fail the minimal set of commonly applied principles. More optimal ways in which to allocate pipeline network costs among users were presented. The nucleolus is a unique cost allocation that is consistent, symmetric and homogeneous. The nucleolus is calculated by splitting the costs equally among users of a common facility. Another effective cost allocation system is the Shapley value which can be derived from a set of axioms which differ slightly from those that identify the nucleolus. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  12. 75 FR 56471 - Revisions to the Requirements for Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... evidencing systems (``Company or Companies'') engage a qualified, independent audit firm to perform an... Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal..., at 202-268-7613. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Postage Evidencing Systems are devices or systems of...

  13. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  14. Multiple Glass Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Giovanni; Hassink, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a p...

  15. Evaluation of ceiling lifts in health care settings: patient outcome and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Yu, Shicheng; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Ceiling lifts have been introduced into health care settings to reduce manual patient lifting and thus occupational injuries. Although growing evidence supports the effectiveness of ceiling lifts, a paucity of research links indicators, such as quality of patient care or patient perceptions, to the use of these transfer devices. This study explored the relationship between ceiling lift coverage rates and measures of patient care quality (e.g., incidence of facility-acquired pressure ulcers, falls, urinary infections, urinary incontinence, and assaults [patient to staff] in acute and long-term care facilities), as well as patient perceptions of satisfaction with care received while using ceiling lifts in a complex care facility. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to generate data. A significant inverse relationship was found between pressure ulcer rates and ceiling lift coverage; however, this effect was attenuated by year. No significant relationships existed between ceiling lift coverage and patient outcome indicators after adding the "year" variable to the model. Patients generally approved of the use of ceiling lifts and recognized many of the benefits. Ceiling lifts are not detrimental to the quality of care received by patients, and patients prefer being transferred by ceiling lifts. The relationship between ceiling lift coverage and pressure ulcer rates warrants further investigation. Copyright (c) 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Chang, Ying; Wang, Cunyu; Hu, Ping; Dong, Han

    2017-01-01

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M s temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  17. Comparison of the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel and the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel on microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodong [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chang, Ying, E-mail: yingc@dlut.edu.cn [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Cunyu [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Ping [School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Lab of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, Han [East China Branch of Central Iron & Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The application of high strength steels (HSS) for automotive structural parts is an effective way to realize lightweight and enhance safety. Therefore, improvements in mechanical properties of HSS are needed. In the present study, the warm stamping process of the third generation automotive medium-Mn steel was discussed, the characteristics of martensitic transformation were investigated, as well as the microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed, compared to the popular hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel in the automotive industry. The results are indicated as follows. Firstly, the quenching rate of the medium-Mn steel can be selected in a wide range based on its CCT curves, which is beneficial to the control of forming process. Secondly, the influence of stamping temperature and pressure on the M{sub s} temperature of the medium-Mn steel is not obvious and can be neglected, which is favorable to the even distribution of martensitic microstructure and mechanical properties. Thirdly, the phenomenon of decarbonization is hardly found on the surface of the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel, and the ultra-fine-grained microstructure is found inside the medium-Mn steel after warm stamping. Besides, the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel holds the better comprehensive properties, such as a lower yield ratio, higher total elongation and higher tear toughness than the hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel. Furthermore, an actual warm-stamped B-pillar of medium-Mn steel is stamped and ultra-fine-grained martensitic microstructure is obtained. The mechanical properties are evenly distributed. As a result, this paper proves that the warm-stamped medium-Mn steel part can meet the requirements of lightweight and crash safety, and is promising for the industrial production of automotive structural parts.

  18. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...

  19. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role...

  20. Deposit Rate Ceilings as a Tool of Prudential Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Krajewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present one of prudential regulation instruments in an environment that favors to engage in moral hazard behavior. The last decades proved that there is a link between financial liberalization and banking crises. In order to avoid crises and prevent banks engaging in gambling behavior, the system of prudential regulations has been implemented. The emphasis has been placed on the use of capital requirements, typically using the BIS standard developed in the Basel Accord.As the excessive reliance on capital requirements can become costly for the banks and lead to loose their franchise value and undermine incentives for prudent investing. The instrument that can create the franchise value, i.e. earning profits in the current period and in the future, is a policy of deposit rate controls. In the paper was also revealed why the policy of setting interest rate ceiling on deposits had not achieved its intended objectives, especially in the view of the fail of the Regulation Q policy.

  1. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  2. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  3. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  4. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  5. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping

  6. 76 FR 74753 - Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...) provided to customers by manufacturers or distributors. The proposed changes are intended to clarify the... (202) 268-7613. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The office formerly known as Postage Technology Management... the business relationship, distribution, control, storage, maintenance, repair, replacement, and...

  7. 39 CFR 310.5 - Payment of postage on violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... destination. (b) The amount equal to postage will be due and payable not later than 15 days after receipt of... persons who engage in, cause, or assist such activity to pay an amount or amounts not exceeding the total... 959 of this chapter. (c) Refusal to pay an unappealed demand or a demand that becomes final after...

  8. Suspended ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1991-05-01

    The retrofitting of existing conventional ceiling systems to suspended ceiling type systems represents an interesting energy savings solution since this method, in addition to providing additional protection against space heat loss and thermal bridges, also creates the possibility of housing, in the void, additional mechanical and electrical lines which may be necessary due to other savings interventions. This paper reviews the various suspended ceiling systems (e.g., those making use of mineral fibre, gypsum panels, wood, vermiculite, etc.) currently marketed in Europe, and reports, for each, some key technical, economic and architectural advantages which include thermal efficiency, noise abatement, as well as, resistance to fire and humidity. Information is also given on the relative installation and maintenance requirements.

  9. 77 FR 23618 - Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... inventory control processes of PES provided to customers by manufacturers or distributors. The office formerly known as Postage Technology Management (PTM) is now known as Payment Technology, making it... maintain sufficient facilities for and records of the business relationship, distribution, control, storage...

  10. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  11. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  12. 76 FR 77149 - Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 501 Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule clarifies the responsibility of the... reasons stated, 39 CFR part 501 is amended as follows: PART 501--AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND...

  13. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps ...... and copied stamps. Sensitivity and specificity of up to 95% could be obtained on a data set that is publicly available....

  14. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  16. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  17. E-Commerce-Objected E-Stamp Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Boosting e-stamp's advantages are conduced to promote logistics to go forward and help postal departments to improve the quality of service, many other businesses add-valued can be developed in e-stamp systems. This paper analyzeds, designs e-commerce-objected e-stamp system, and discusseds crucial technologies involved in detail.

  18. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ceiling_fans.pr_crit_ceiling_fans

  20. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  1. Stamp in honour of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    21 February 1966. The Swiss post office issued a stamp in CERN's honour. This stamp showed the flags of the thirteen Member States at the time arranged in the geometrical outline of Switzerland against a background of a track photograph.

  2. Modeling of Ceiling Fire Spread and Thermal Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    under a PMMA ceiling and flame lengths under an inert ceiling are found to be in reasonable agreement with full-scale behavior. Although fire spread...5 3 Flame Lengths under Full-Scale Ceilings 12 4 Correlation of Flame Length under Inert Ceilings 16 5 Correlation of Flame Length under No 234 Model...Ceilings 17 6 Correlation of Flame Length under No B8811 Model Ceilings 18 7 Correlation of Flame Length under No. 223 Model Ceilings 19 8

  3. 48 CFR 452.216-74 - Ceiling Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling Price. 452.216-74... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.216-74 Ceiling Price. As prescribed in 416.670, insert the following clause: Ceiling Price (FEB 1988) The ceiling price of this...

  4. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  5. Performance analysis of a new design of office diffuse ceiling ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Hviid, Christian Anker; Yang, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to document and analyse performance of a new design of diffuse ceiling ventilation system in a typical office room. A full scale measurement is carried out in a climate chamber with an office setup at the Technical University of Denmark. Indoor air temperatures, air speeds, wall...... surface temperatures, pressure loss of the ceiling and ventilation effectiveness are measured for an air change rate of 3.5 h-1 and 5.1 h -1 respectively. A computational fluid dynamics model of the office with the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is built and validated by the full scale measurement....... The measurements of pressure loss across the ceiling show a low pressure drop between the plenum and the occupied zone. Ventilation effectiveness is measured to be close to 1 on average under the tested conditions. It is shown that the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is able to remove indoor pollutant...

  6. 76 FR 62000 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature... days to 30 days after the date of mailing, and to change the Express Mail ``waiver of signature'' standard for domestic items by obtaining an addressee's signature only when the mailer selects the...

  7. 76 FR 75461 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature... to 30 days after the date of mailing, and to change the Express Mail ``waiver of signature'' standard for domestic items by obtaining an addressee's signature only when the mailer selects the ``signature...

  8. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…

  9. Sulforaphane inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the cell-cell fusion molecules DC-STAMP and OC-STAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Katsumata-Tsuboi, Rie; Uehara, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a kind of isothiocyanate, is derived from broccoli sprouts. It has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation activity. The molecular function of SFN in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not well-documented. In this study, we assessed the effect of SFN on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. SFN inhibited osteoclast differentiation in both bone marrow cells and RAW264.7 cells. Key molecules involved in the inhibitory effects of SFN on osteoclast differentiation were determined using a microarray analysis, which showed that SFN inhibits osteoclast-associated genes, such as osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and cathepsin K. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the cell-cell fusion molecules dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP) were strongly suppressed in cells treated with SFN. Furthermore, SFN increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a regulator of macrophage and osteoclast cell fusion. Thus, our data suggested that SFN significantly inhibits the cell-cell fusion molecules DC-STAMP and OC-STAMP by inducing the phosphorylation of STAT1 (Tyr701), which might be regulated by interactions with OSCAR. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast cell-fusion. • Sulforaphane suppressed not only NFATc1, but also cell-cell fusion molecules, DC-STAMP and OC-STAMP. • Sulforaphane decreased multinucleated osteoclasts, whereas increased mono-nucleated osteoclasts. • Sulforaphane inhibits the cell-cell fusion by inducing the phosphorylation of STAT1 (Tyr701).

  10. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  11. Influence of prepreg characteristics on stamp consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L. L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The development of automated lay-up technologies further extends the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and partial preconsolidation. This partial preconsolidation makes the influence of prepreg more critical compared to conventional preconsolidation methods which provide full preconsolidation. This paper aims to highlight consolidation challenges that can appear when stamp forming blanks manufactured by automated lay-up. Important prepreg characteristics were identified based on an experimental study where a comparison was made between various prepreg in their as-received, deconsolidated and stamp consolidated state. It was found that adding up small thickness variations across the width of a prepreg when stacking plies into a blank by automated lay-up can cause non-uniform consolidation. Additionally, deconsolidation of the prepreg does not seem to obstruct interlaminar bonding, while intralaminar voids initially present in a prepreg cannot be removed during stamp forming. An additional preconsolidation step after automated lay-up seems necessary to remove blank thickness variations and intralaminar voids for the current prepregs. Eliminating this process step and the successful combination of rapid automated lay-up and stamp forming requires prepregs which are void-free and have less thickness variation.

  12. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is a ceiling fan shall be labeled clearly and conspicuously on the principal display panel with the following...

  13. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  14. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  15. Synthesis of non-ionic and ionic resins for BEP intaglio inks curing by electron-beam radiation. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B.J.; Dickens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The inks currently used to print US postage stamps on web presses are dried by heat evaporation of solvents. Emission of solvents into the atmosphere is governed by Local and Federal Government Regulations. Reduction of these emissions to acceptable levels can be accomplished by either of two methods available to the BEP. The work was part of a continuing effort to produce resins for use in formulation of intaglio inks for the printing of postage stamps and security documents. The inks are to be cured by exposure to an electron beam. The uncured inks are cleaned from the roller and wiping blade by washing the wiping blade with neutral water or with caustic water. Laboratory scale work on the urethane/polyethylene oxide/methacrylate resins has now been concluded and information on the synthesis has been provided to BEP for patenting and scaleup. Some effort on nonionic resins continued into FY88

  16. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  17. Tribological Behavior of Laser Textured Hot Stamping Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Shihomatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping of high strength steels has been continuously developed in the automotive industry to improve mechanical properties and surface quality of stamped components. One of the main challenges faced by researchers and technicians is to improve stamping dies lifetime by reducing the wear caused by high pressures and temperatures present during the process. This paper analyzes the laser texturing of hot stamping dies and discusses how different surfaces textures influence the lubrication and wear mechanisms. To this purpose, experimental tests and numerical simulation were carried out to define the die region to be texturized and to characterize the textured surface topography before and after hot stamping tests with a 3D surface profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that laser texturing influences the lubrication at the interface die-hot sheet and improves die lifetime. In this work, the best texture presented dimples with the highest diameter, depth, and spacing, with the surface topography and dimples morphology practically preserved after the hot stamping tests.

  18. Vickrey Auctions in Practice: From Nineteenth-Century Philately to Twenty-First-Century E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucking-Reiley

    2000-01-01

    William Vickrey (1961) proposed an auction mechanism in which bidders submit sealed bids, and the highest bidder wins the good in return for payment of the second-highest bid amount. For decades, economists have credited Vickrey with inventing this auction format, and have believed that the Vickrey auction is rarely used in practice. This paper presents evidence that Vickrey auctions have long been the predominant auction format for mail sales of collectible postage stamps. Stamp auctioneers ...

  19. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... to be not much influenced by the flow rate to the room but dependent on the heat load. Previous studies have shown that diffuse ceiling ventilation has an ability to remove large heat loads without compromising the indoor climate. However, recent experiments indicate that the maximum accepted heat load decreases...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  20. 48 CFR 1352.216-77 - Ceiling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling price. 1352.216-77... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.216-77 Ceiling price. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1316.601-70 and 1316.602-70, insert the following clause: Ceiling Price (APR 2010) The...

  1. Corrosion resistance characteristics of stamped and hydroformed proton exchange membrane fuel cell metallic bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundar, F. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology (Turkey); Dur, Ender; Koc, M. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mahabunphachai, S. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2010-06-01

    Metallic bipolar plates have several advantages over bipolar plates made from graphite and composites due to their high conductivity, low material and production costs. Moreover, thin bipolar plates are possible with metallic alloys, and hence low fuel cell stack volume and mass are. Among existing fabrication methods for metallic bipolar plates, stamping and hydroforming are seen as prominent approaches for mass production scales. In this study, the effects of important process parameters of these manufacturing processes on the corrosion resistance of metallic bipolar plates made of SS304 were investigated. Specifically, the effects of punch speed, pressure rate, stamping force and hydroforming pressure were studied as they were considered to inevitably affect the bipolar plate micro-channel dimensions, surface topography, and hence the corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance under real fuel cell conditions was examined using both potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments. The majority of the results exhibited a reduction in the corrosion resistance for both stamped and hydroformed plates when compared with non-deformed blank plates of SS304. In addition, it was observed that there exist an optimal process window for punch speed in stamping and the pressure rate in hydroforming to achieve improved corrosion resistance at a faster production rate. (author)

  2. An Economic Theory of Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Grout; In-Uck Park; Silvia Sonderegger

    2009-01-01

    In the 'glass ceiling' debate there appear to be two strongly held and opposing interpretations of the evidence, one suggesting it is really the result of gender differences and the other that there is discrimination by gender. This paper provides an economic theory of the glass ceiling and one of the main insights of our analysis is that in some real sense these two interpretations are not in conflict with each other. The glass ceiling emerges as an equilibrium phenomenon when firms compete ...

  3. The effect of cushion-ram pulsation on hot stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Dirk; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Kunke, Andreas; Polster, Stefan; Kriechenbauer, Sebastian; Mauermann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Hot stamping is an important technology for manufacturing high-strength components. This technology offers the possibility to achieve significant weight reductions. In this study, cushion-ram pulsation (CRP), a new technology for hot stamping on servo-screw presses, was investigated and applied for hot stamping. Compared to a conventional process, the tests yielded a significantly higher drawing depth. In this paper, the CRP technology and the first test results with hot stamping were described in comparison to the conventional process.

  4. Stars on the Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy and celestial imagery have been incorporated into architectural ceilings from antiquity to the present to reference the sky on behalf of a variety of agendas. Burial chambers in Egyptian pyramids and tombs, the Osiris chapel on the roof of Ptolemaic Egypt's Temple of Dendera, ancient Chinese tombs, painted rock shelters in California and the American Southwest, the cupola above a hot bath from medieval Jordan, elaborately illustrated ceilings in Italian cathedrals and palaces, the main concourse in New York's Grand Central Terminal, and a variety of other public buildings in America all brought the sky inside to convey relationships between the architecture, people, and the cosmos. In these interior environments, the symbolic function of the astronomical ceiling is driven by the thematic function of the building. At Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles three signature spaces are equipped with astronomically illustrated ceilings. In content and location, these prominent murals operate symbolically to convey meaning through public display and unexpectedly prompt people to think more expansively about the universe. This artwork is familiar in Los Angeles, but its use in a public observatory puts it outside the range of most commentaries on public art. Although experienced by more than seventy-six million persons over the last eighty years, Griffith Observatory's celestial murals are not well known. Their history, content, character, meaning, and purpose are detailed here.

  5. 19 CFR 134.33 - J-List exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... planed, tongued and grooved T.D.s 49750; 50366(6). Flowers, artificial, except bunches. Flowers, cut... dimensions, shape or form. Monuments. Nails, spikes, and staples. Natural products, such as vegetables...) T.D. 49750. Skins, fur, dressed or dyed. Skins, raw fur. Sponges. Springs, watch. Stamps, postage...

  6. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is a novel air distribution device that combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. A diffuse ceiling distributes the supply air above the acoustic tiles and has proven performance in laboratory experiments. To study the performance in real conditi...

  7. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Application and Order for Transfer of Firearm § 479.87 Cancellation of stamp. The method of cancellation of the stamp required by this subpart as prescribed in § 479.67 shall be used. Exemptions Relating to Transfers of Firearms ...

  8. Influence of Prepreg Characteristics on Stamp Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slange, T.K.; Warnet, L.L.; Grouve, W.J.B.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The development of automated lay-up technologies further extends the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and

  9. Analysis of alternative technologies stamping compressor blades of marine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Сергійович Аніщенко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author has made an analysis of several technologies stamping forgings compressor blades from titanium alloy ВT3-1. These technologies use different types of forming equipment: crank hot press, high-speed hammers, screw presses with hydraulic drive (SPHD, as well as isothermal forging hydraulic press. He pointed out the main advantages and disadvantages of the technology, noting that high-speed punching in the shipbuilding industry of Ukraine is not used for the manufacture of forgings blades. The article contains an economic analysis of the cost of forgings blades, which are made on four technologies: punching and calibration to crank hot press, stamping and calibration to press for isothermal forging, stamping and calibration on SPHD-press, stamping on SPHD-press and calibration to press for isothermal forging. The author has identified the effective use of these technologies. He showed that the use of SPHD-presses and hydraulic presses for isothermal forging reduces the cost of forging on the average 12% in comparison with the technology at the crank hot stamping press, increases the utilization of metal 1,3-1,5 times more, reduces power consumption 1,05-3,0 times less and complexity of manufacturing 1,8-4,2 times. However SPHD-press increases capital investment in the organization of stamping technology 2,6-5,3 times more and depreciation 2-4 times. Isothermal forging technology requires the cost of the stamps in 1,4-2,0 times higher than stamps for crank presses. The author argues that stamping forging blades technology improvement should be implemented saving basic materials first of all. Efficiency of isothermal stamping and calibration will be the higher, the more geometric dimensions of stamped forgings are

  10. The Perception of 'Glass Ceiling' and its Impact on Career Progression of Female Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The glass ceiling is a transparent barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy. Glass ceiling researchers have attempted to determine whether a glass ceiling exists by examining the actual promotion decision to top management, the percentage of management positions held by women in an organization, salary of male versus female managers, and ratings of potential promotion candidates to top management. The aim of this research is to investigate the vari...

  11. DC-STAMP Is an Osteoclast Fusogen Engaged in Periodontal Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrasameewong, W; Kajiya, M; Movila, A; Rittling, S; Ishii, T; Suzuki, M; Matsuda, S; Mazda, Y; Torruella, M R; Azuma, M M; Egashira, K; Freire, M O; Sasaki, H; Wang, C Y; Han, X; Taubman, M A; Kawai, T

    2017-06-01

    Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) plays a key role in the induction of osteoclast (OC) cell fusion, as well as DC-mediated immune regulation. While DC-STAMP gene expression is upregulated in the gingival tissue with periodontitis, its pathophysiological roles in periodontitis remain unclear. To evaluate the effects of DC-STAMP in periodontitis, anti-DC-STAMP-monoclonal antibody (mAb) was tested in a mouse model of ligature-induced periodontitis ( n = 6-7/group) where Pasteurella pneumotropica ( Pp)-reactive immune response activated T cells to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which, in turn, promotes the periodontal bone loss via upregulation of osteoclastogenesis. DC-STAMP was expressed on the cell surface of mature multinuclear OCs, as well as immature mononuclear OCs, in primary cultures of RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb suppressed the emergence of large, but not small, multinuclear OCs, suggesting that DC-STAMP is engaged in the late stage of cell fusion. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also inhibited pit formation caused by RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Attachment of ligature to a second maxillary molar induced DC-STAMP messenger RNA and protein, along with elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) OCs and alveolar bone loss. As we expected, systemic administration of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb downregulated the ligature-induced alveolar bone loss. Importantly, local injection of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also suppressed alveolar bone loss and reduced the total number of multinucleated TRAP+ cells in mice that received ligature attachment. Attachment of ligature induced significantly elevated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and RANKL in the gingival tissue compared with the control site without ligature ( P < 0.05), which was unaffected by local injection with either anti-DC-STAMP-mAb or control-mAb. Neither in vivo anti- Pp IgG antibody nor in vitro anti- Pp T

  12. Martensitic microstructural transformations from the hot stamping, quenching and partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heping; Jin Xuejun; Dong Han; Shi Jie

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping, which combines forming and quenching in one process, produces high strength steels with limited ductility because the quenching is uncontrolled. A new processing technique has been proposed in which the hot stamping step is followed by a controlled quenching and partitioning process, producing a microstructure containing retained austenite and martensite. To investigate this microstructure, specimens were heated at a rate of 10 deg. C/s to the austenitizing temperature of 900 deg. C, held for 5 min to eliminate thermal gradients, and cooled at a rate of 50 deg. C/s to a quenching temperature of 300 deg. C, which is between the martensite start temperature and the martensite finish temperatures. The resulting microstructure was examined using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The material produced contains irregular, fragmented martensite plates, a result of the improved strength of the austenite phase and the constraints imposed by a high dislocation density. - Research Highlights: → A novel heat treatment of advanced high strength steels is proposed. → The processing technique is hot stamping plus quenching and partitioning process. → The material produced contains irregular, fragmented martensite plates. → The reason is strength of austenite phase and constraint of dislocation density.

  13. No Comment: Eloquent Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Loretta J.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses sex stereotypes and presents innovative ideas for dealing with them in a social studies course. Techniques suggested include collecting sexist cartoons and articles for display on the class bulletin board, photographing sexist signs on community business, and discussing sexist artifacts such as U.S. commemorative postage stamps and…

  14. Fifty years of CERN history in the spotlight

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The programme of events for CERN's Golden Jubilee year was officially unveiled at a press conference on 8 March. The first of these events took place the following day, when the Swiss commemorative postage stamp issued in the Laboratory's honour went on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland.

  15. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large ......-uniformity air distribution and further led to the draught problem in the occupied zone. This system was recommended to apply in the small offices instead of large, open spaces....

  16. Development of Methods and Equipment for Sheet Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botashev, A. Yu; Bisilov, N. U.; Malsugenov, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    New methods of sheet stamping were developed: the gas forming with double-sided heating of a blank part and the gas molding with backpressure. In case of the first method the blank part is heated to the set temperature by means of a double-sided impact of combustion products of gas mixtures, after which, under the influence of gas pressure a stamping process is performed. In case of gas molding with backpressure, the blank part is heated to the set temperature by one-sided impact of the combustion products, while backpressure is created on the opposite side of the blank part by compressed air. In both methods the deformation takes place in the temperature range of warm or hot treatment due to the heating of a blank part. This allows one to form parts of complicated shape within one technological operation, which significantly reduces the cost of production. To implement these methods, original devices were designed and produced, which are new types of forging and stamping equipment. Using these devices, an experimental research on the stamping process was carried out and high-quality parts were obtained, which makes it possible to recommend the developed methods of stamping in the industrial production. Their application in small-scale production will allow one to reduce the cost price of stamped parts 2 or 3 times.

  17. How Do Stamp Duties Affect the Housing Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, Ian; Leigh, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Land transfer taxes are a substantial portion of the cost of moving house in many developed countries. Since stamp duties are endogenous with respect to the house price, we create an instrumental variable that is the stamp duty on a property, given that postcode's starting house price and the national house price trend. In a specification with postcode and year fixed effects, this instrument effectively captures policy changes and nonlinearities in the stamp duty schedule. We find that the im...

  18. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    vertical air temperature differences and air velocities for different hybrid systems are less than 3 C and 0.2 m/s when supply air temperature is 19 C, air change rate is 4.2 h-1, and heated surface temperature of floor/ceiling heating system is 25 C. Ventilation effectiveness of mixing ventilation system...... combined with floor/ceiling heating systems is approximately equal to 1.0, and ventilation effectiveness of displacement ventilation system combined with floor/ceiling heating systems ranges from 1.0 to 1.2. The floor/ceiling heating systems combined with mixing ventilation system have more uniform indoor...... air distribution but smaller ventilation effectiveness compared with the floor/ceiling heating systems combined with displacement ventilation system. With regard to the building heat loss increased by non-uniform indoor air distribution and small ventilation effectiveness, there should be an optimal...

  19. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout.......Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  20. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... October 1, 2002, is the percentage increase projected by the hospital market basket index. (4) Target... target amount for the previous cost reporting period, updated by the market basket percentage increase... each cost reporting period, the ceiling is determined by multiplying the updated target amount, as...

  1. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  2. Patterning of polymers: precise channel stamping by optimizing wetting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, Ralf; Kramer, Edward J; Lange, Frederick F

    2004-01-01

    Channel stamping is a soft lithography technique that can be used to fabricate small structures of polymeric materials. This technique is cheap and easy but a considerable drawback is the fact that reproduction of the patterns of the stamp is often imprecise due to the wetting properties of liquid and stamp. In this paper, we report on experiments that reveal the parameters governing the behaviour of liquids in grooves and on edges. Optimizing these parameters leads to better-quality channel-stamped structures and enables the design of sophisticated structured polymeric materials, allowing channels as small as about 100 nm to be fabricated. Moreover, we show that it is even possible to build up a freestanding three-dimensional structure by stamping line patterns on top of each other

  3. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the... refuges where admission is charged. Duck Stamps and products that bear stamp images are also popular... fee the State will charge for issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State...

  4. The Glass Ceiling Initiative. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    While minorities and women have made considerable gains in entering the workforce in the last few decades, there remains a dearth of minorities and women at management levels. This phenomenon has come to be known as the "glass ceiling." The Department of Labor defines the glass ceiling as those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or…

  5. SPS commemorative stamp

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The turn on of the SPS was commemorated in France by the issue of a CERN stamp. The date of issue, 22 Octber 1976, coincided with the first tests of the beam line taking particles to experiments in the West Hall. (CERN Courier 1976 p. 382)

  6. Bridging the gap between theory and practice of transmission pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.; Felak, R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe some strategies for pricing transmission service. Traditionally, wheeling prices have been postage stamp rates based on the level of megawatt demand; a related approach would assign grid costs to customers based on their respective shares of overall megawatt-miles. Innovative regulators have recently approved transmission rates based on opportunity cost of foregone capacity and the incremental costs of additional capacity needed to enable delivery. Others determined prices designed to reflect short-run congestion costs on the grid. The authors assess these pricing approaches and their effects on the distribution of wealth and economic efficiency for both firm and interruptible services. 3 refs

  7. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  8. The glass ceiling in nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D I

    1993-01-01

    Women managers in business and health care have experienced discrimination related to advancement in management. Nurse executives must understand the strategies to overcome the barriers, the "glass ceiling," as well as implications for future practice. Women executives need an organized blueprint and the tools to dismantle the glass ceiling and overcome the political and discriminatory barriers to success.

  9. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  10. Numerical investigation of upper-room UVGI disinfection efficacy in an environmental chamber with a ceiling fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengwei; Srebric, Jelena; Rudnick, Stephen N; Vincent, Richard L; Nardell, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the disinfection efficacy of the upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UR-UVGI) system with ceiling fans. The investigation used the steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to solve the rotation of ceiling fan with a rotating reference frame. Two ambient air exchange rates, 2 and 6 air changes per hour (ACH), and four downward fan rotational speeds, 0, 80, 150 and 235 rpm were considered. In addition, the passive scalar concentration simulations incorporated ultraviolet (UV) dose by two methods: one based on the total exposure time and average UV fluence rate, and another based on SVE3* (New Scale for Ventilation Efficiency 3), originally defined to evaluate the mean age of the air from an air supply opening. Overall, the CFD results enabled the evaluation of UR-UVGI disinfection efficacy using different indices, including the fraction of remaining microorganisms, equivalent air exchange rate, UR-UVGI effectiveness and tuberculosis infection probability by the Wells-Riley equation. The results indicated that air exchange rate was the decisive factor for determining UR-UVGI performance in disinfecting indoor air. Using a ceiling fan could also improve the performance in general. Furthermore, the results clarified the mechanism for the ceiling fan to influence UR-UVGI disinfection efficacy. © 2013 The Authors Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Glass Ceiling : Women in management

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Virve

    2010-01-01

    This study has examined the phenomenon called Glass Ceiling. It has approached the phenomenon in two different views. One is career development and another one is women in management. Main purpose for this study was to inspect women working life and career opportunities. Why women’s career developments end in a certain level? What is glass ceiling and how to break it? Paper also investigates reasons behind the effect. Prejudices and biases are the worst enemies for women’s career. How to chan...

  12. Solid-state superionic stamping with silver iodide-silver metaphosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, K E; Hsu, K H; Han, X; Azeredo, B P; Ferreira, P M; Kumar, A; Fang, N X

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and analyzes the new use of the glassy solid electrolyte AgI-AgPO 3 for direct nanopatterning of thin silver films with feature resolutions of 30 nm. AgI-AgPO 3 has a high room temperature ionic conductivity with Ag + as the mobile ion, leading to silver etch/patterning rates of up to 20 nm s -1 at an applied bias of 300 mV. The glass can be melt-processed at temperatures below 200 deg. C, providing a facile and economical pathway for creating large area stamps, including the 25 mm 2 stamps shown in this study. Further, the glass is sufficiently transparent to permit integration with existing tools such as aligners and imprint tools, enabling high overlay registration accuracy and facilitating insertion into multi-step fabrication recipes.

  13. Digital time stamping system based on open source technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskinis, Rimantas; Smirnov, Dmitrij; Urba, Emilis; Burokas, Andrius; Malysko, Bogdan; Laud, Peeter; Zuliani, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    A digital time stamping system based on open source technologies (LINUX-UBUNTU, OpenTSA, OpenSSL, MySQL) is described in detail, including all important testing results. The system, called BALTICTIME, was developed under a project sponsored by the European Commission under the Program FP 6. It was designed to meet the requirements posed to the systems of legal and accountable time stamping and to be applicable to the hardware commonly used by the national time metrology laboratories. The BALTICTIME system is intended for the use of governmental and other institutions as well as personal bodies. Testing results demonstrate that the time stamps issued to the user by BALTICTIME and saved in BALTICTIME's archives (which implies that the time stamps are accountable) meet all the regulatory requirements. Moreover, the BALTICTIME in its present implementation is able to issue more than 10 digital time stamps per second. The system can be enhanced if needed. The test version of the BALTICTIME service is free and available at http://baltictime. pfi.lt:8080/btws/ and http://baltictime.lnmc.lv:8080/btws/.

  14. 48 CFR 217.7404-2 - Price ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price ceiling. 217.7404-2 Section 217.7404-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contract Actions 217.7404-2 Price ceiling. UCAs shall include a not-to-exceed price. ...

  15. A compact system for large-area thermal nanoimprint lithography using smart stamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Hansen, Ole; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple apparatus for thermal nanoimprint lithography. In this work, the stamp is designed to significantly reduce the requirements for pressure application on the external imprint system. By MEMS-based processing, an air cavity inside the stamp is created, and the required pressure...... for successful imprint is reduced. Additionally, the stamp is capable of performing controlled demolding after imprint. Due to the complexity of the stamp, a compact and cost-effective imprint apparatus can be constructed. The design and fabrication of the advanced stamp as well as the simple imprint equipment...

  16. School and the Limits of Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy and schools, children and dynamite, elephants and postage stamps: each has a place, but not necessarily in any natural combination with the other. Whether schools and philosophy belong together depends largely on what we mean by both. To the extent that schools are instruments of government regulation and a mechanism for production of…

  17. 39 CFR 551.6 - Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pricing. 551.6 Section 551.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS SEMIPOSTAL STAMP PROGRAM § 551.6 Pricing. (a) The Semipostal Authorization Act, as amended by Public Law 107-67, section 652, 115 Stat. 514 (2001), prescribes that the price...

  18. Programming the BasicStamp : using MacBS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.; Stienstra, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explains how to program a BasicStamp microcontroller using a Macintosh. It takes an absolute beginner's perspective and talks you through the whole process including how to hook up a programmer board, how to write some programs in the BasisStamp language PBASIC, and how to do some

  19. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  20. Principle, function, experiences, hybrid chilled ceilings; Prinzip, Funktion, Erfahrungen. Hybrid-Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Uwe W. [Hochschule Luzern (Switzerland). Technik und Architektur

    2010-12-15

    Hybrid chilled ceilings combine a radiation chilled ceiling with thermal activations of a concrete ceiling. The activation permits the utilization of alternative and/or small cold generators for the efficient night cooling. The traditional chilled ceiling grants a speedy reaction to load variations as well as a reduction of the reverberation periods. In addition, the combination supplies a draught-free insertion of air. Beside established solutions, MWH Barcol-Air (Staefa, Switzerland) also offers project-specific hybrid chilled ceilings.

  1. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained.

  2. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Jong Su

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained

  3. Breaking the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A

    1997-03-01

    The glass ceiling is a form of organizational bias and discrimination that prevents qualified professionals from achieving positions of top governance and leadership. This article examines glass ceiling barriers that keep physicians from the upper reaches of management. While these factors apply mainly to women and minority physicians in academia, and are attributable to sexual harassment and discrimination, physicians as a class are frequently denied executive management positions. Such denial results from inadequate preparation for a career in health care administration. Important issues in the professional development of physician executives include mentoring, training and education, administrative experience, and cultural and personality factors. All of those must be considered when making the transition from medicine to management.

  4. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    , moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  5. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free...

  6. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  7. What Glass Ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

  8. Parental leave and the glass ceiling in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, James; Skogman Thoursie, Peter; Vroman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we update and extend "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?" (Albrecht et al. 2003) by documenting the extent to which the gender log wage gap across the distribution in Sweden has changed over the period 1998-2008. We then examine the Swedish glass ceiling in 2008 in more detail by documenting how it differs for white-collar versus blue-collar workers and for private- versus public-sector workers. We also examine when in the life cycle the glass ceiling effect arises and how thi...

  9. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  10. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  11. Time Stamp Synchronization of PEFP Distributed Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; An, Eun Mi; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) proton linac consists of several types of control systems, such as soft Input Output Controllers (IOC) and embedded IOC based on Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) for each subsection of PEFP facility. One of the important factors is that IOC's time clock is synchronized. The synchronized time and time stamp can be achieved with Network Time Protocol (NTP) and EPICS time stamp record without timing hardware. The requirement of the time accuracy of IOCs is less than 1 second. The main objective of this study is to configure a master clock and produce Process Variable (PV) time stamps using local CPU time synchronized from the master clock. The distributed control systems are attached on PEFP control network

  12. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  13. METHOD FOR EVALUATING MOLD GROWTH ON CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method to extract mold spores from porous ceiling tiles was developed using a masticator blender. Ceiling tiles were inoculated and analyzed using four species of mold. Statistical analysis comparing results obtained by masticator extraction and the swab method was performed. T...

  14. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  15. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok Kim, Kevin Wubs, Byeong-Soo Bae and Woo Soo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Polyurethane (PU prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  16. 48 CFR 243.204-70-2 - Price ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price ceiling. 243.204-70..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204-70-2 Price ceiling. Unpriced change orders shall include a not-to-exceed price. [75 FR 48277, Aug. 10, 2010] ...

  17. A compact system for large-area thermal nanoimprint lithography using smart stamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, R H; Hansen, O; Kristensen, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple apparatus for thermal nanoimprint lithography. In this work, the stamp is designed to significantly reduce the requirements for pressure application on the external imprint system. By MEMS-based processing, an air cavity inside the stamp is created, and the required pressure for successful imprint is reduced. Additionally, the stamp is capable of performing controlled demolding after imprint. Due to the complexity of the stamp, a compact and cost-effective imprint apparatus can be constructed. The design and fabrication of the advanced stamp as well as the simple imprint equipment is presented. Test imprints of micrometer- and nanometer-scale structures are performed and characterized with respect to uniformity across a large area (35 mm radius). State-of-the-art uniformity for µm-scale features is demonstrated

  18. Smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling for train fire at subway station: Reduced-scale experiments and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Na; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Zhaoxia; Li, Xiao; Yang, He

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced-scale experiments on train fire at subway station. • Smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling measured and correlated. • Effect of platform-tunnel conjunction door type on smoke temperature is clarified. - Abstract: This paper is to investigate the smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling for a train on fire stopping besides a subway station. Experiments were carried out in a reduced-scale (1:10) subway station model to study the maximum smoke temperature and the longitudinal temperature distribution beneath the tunnel ceiling by considering platform-tunnel conjunction doors of two types: the full-seal platform screen door (PSD) and the full-height safety door. For the maximum temperature beneath the tunnel ceiling, it is found to be well correlated non-dimensionally with heat release rate by a 3.65 and a 2.92 power law function for the full-seal platform screen door and the full-height safety door, respectively. For the longitudinal temperature distribution along the tunnel ceiling, it can be well correlated by an exponential function for both types of platform-tunnel conjunction doors. Concerning the effect of the door type, the maximum temperature is lower and the longitudinal temperature decays faster for full-height safety door than that for full-seal PSD. This is due to that with the full-height safety door, the effective width of the tunnel ceiling is widened, which results in more heat losses from the smoke flow to the ceiling.

  19. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  20. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  1. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  2. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, R.; Kolleck, R.; Hofmann, H.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating.In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  3. The Impact of Roof Pitch and Ceiling Insulation on Cooling Load of Naturally-Ventilated Attics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxia Gu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD model is employed to simulate buoyancy-driven turbulent ventilation in attics with different pitch values and ceiling insulation levels under summer conditions. The impacts of roof pitch and ceiling insulation on the cooling load of gable-roof residential buildings are investigated based on the simulation of turbulent air flow and natural convection heat transfer in attic spaces with roof pitches from 3/12 to 18/12 combined with ceiling insulation levels from R-1.2 to R-40. The modeling results show that the air flows in the attics are steady and exhibit a general streamline pattern that is qualitatively insensitive to the investigated variations of roof pitch and ceiling insulation. Furthermore, it is predicted that the ceiling insulation plays a control role on the attic cooling load and that an increase of roof pitch from 3/12 to 8/12 results in a decrease in the cooling load by around 9% in the investigated cases. The results suggest that the increase of roof pitch alone, without changing other design parameters, has limited impact on attics cooling load and airflow pattern. The research results also suggest both the predicted ventilating mass flow rate and attic cooling load can be satisfactorily correlated by simple relationships in terms of appropriately defined Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers.

  4. Prediction of Proper Temperatures for the Hot Stamping Process Based on the Kinetics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, P.; Parsa, M. H.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the application of kinetics models for predicting microstructures of steels subjected to thermo-mechanical treatments has increased to minimize direct experimentation, which is costly and time consuming. In the current work, the final microstructures of AISI 4140 steel sheets after the hot stamping process were predicted using the Kirkaldy and Li kinetics models combined with new thermodynamically based models in order for the determination of the appropriate process temperatures. In this way, the effect of deformation during hot stamping on the Ae3, Acm, and Ae1 temperatures was considered, and then the equilibrium volume fractions of phases at different temperatures were calculated. Moreover, the ferrite transformation rate equations of the Kirkaldy and Li models were modified by a term proposed by Åkerström to consider the influence of plastic deformation. Results showed that the modified Kirkaldy model is satisfactory for the determination of appropriate austenitization temperatures for the hot stamping process of AISI 4140 steel sheets because of agreeable microstructure predictions in comparison with the experimental observations.

  5. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  6. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  7. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  8. Analysis of roll-stamped light guide plate fabricated with laser-ablated stamper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyunjun; Hong, Seokkwan; Kim, Jongsun; Hwang, Jeongho; Joo, Byungyun; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Kang, Jeongjin

    2017-12-01

    LGP (light guide plate) is one of the major components of LCD (liquid crystal display), and it makes surface illumination for LCD backlit. LGP is a transparent plastic plate usually produced by injection molding process. On the back of LGP there are micron size patterns for extraction of light. Recently a roll-stamping process has achieved the high mass productivity of thinner LGPs. In order to fabricate optical patterns on LGPs, a fabricating tool called as a stamper is used. Micro patterns on metallic stampers are made by several micro machining processes such as chemical etching, LIGA-reflow, and laser ablation. In this study, a roll-stamping process by using a laser ablated metallic stamper was dealt with in consideration of the compatibility with the roll-stamping process. LGP fabricating tests were performed using a roll-stamping process with four different roll pressures. Pattern shapes on the stamper fabricated by laser ablation and transcription ratios of the roll-stamping process were analyzed, and LGP luminance was evaluated. Based on the evaluation, optical simulation model for LGP was made and simulation accuracy was evaluated. Simulation results showed good agreements with optical performance of LGPs in the brightness and uniformity. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP has the possibility of better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP. It was also shown that the roll-stamped LGP with the laser ablated stamper is potential to have better optical performance than the conventional injection molded LGP.

  9. The perception of the glass ceiling phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. Barriers that hinder career advancement of women are both complex and varied. They have become top priority for organizations and the government. The "glass ceiling" is a term that symbolizes a variety of barriers that prevent individuals from advancing up the corporate hierarchy. Although many women hold management positions, few have made the breakthrough to toplevel positions. To determine what conditions are required for women to break the glass ceiling and attain management pos...

  10. Existence of Glass Ceiling in Public Universities of Lahore (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Asifa Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceiling is a set of unseen factors which adversely affect females upward career growth and prevent them to get to top positions. This study is meant to explore existence of glass ceiling in public universities of Lahore (Pakistan); and factors responsible for creating this glass ceiling effect. The respondents of this study are females heading different departments in their respective universities. The results of this study show that different cultural and social, family and organizatio...

  11. 27 CFR 70.332 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale....332 Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. Any person who buys, sells, offers for sale, uses, transfers... Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device...

  12. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  13. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  14. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  15. An Economic Theory of the Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Grout; In-Uck Park; Silvia Sonderegger

    2007-01-01

    The glass ceiling is one of the most controversial and emotive aspects of employment in organisations. This paper provides a model of the glass ceiling that exhibits the following features that are frequently thought to characterise the problem: (i) there is a lower number of female employees in higher positions, (ii) women have to work harder than men to obtain equivalent jobs, (iii) women are then paid less than men when promoted, and (iv) some organisations are more female friendly than ot...

  16. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  18. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  19. POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYER STAMPING IN AQUEOUS PHASE AND NON-CONTACT MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit; Lee, Ilsoon; Liu, Chun; Chan, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) transfer printing has been previously achieved by stamping under dry conditions. Here, we show for the first time, that PEM can be transferred from a stamp to the base substrate under aqueous conditions whereby the two surfaces are in a non-contact mode. Degradable multilayers of (PAA/PEG)10.5 followed by non-degradable multilayers of (PDAC/SPS)80.5 were fabricated under acidic pH conditions on either PDMS or glass (stamp), and subsequently transferred over top of another multilayer prepared on a different substrate (base substrate), with a spacing of ~ 200 μm between the stamping surface and the base substrate. This multilayer transfer was performed under physiological pH conditions. This process is referred to herein as non-contact, aqueous-phase multilayer (NAM) transfer. NAM transfer can be useful for applications such as fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) cellular scaffolds. We attempted to create a 3-D cellular scaffold using NAM transfer, and characterized the scaffolds with conventional and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21860540

  20. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given...

  1. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Ira N.; Landon-Lane, John S.; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the...

  2. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    is a numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied...

  3. Analysis of Rapidly Developing Low Cloud Ceilings in a Stable Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Barrett, Joe H., III; Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Baggett, G. Wayne

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Space Meteorology Group (SMG) issue 30 to 90 minute forecasts for low cloud ceilings at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (TTS) to support Space Shuttle landings. Mission verification statistics have shown ceilings to be the number one forecast challenge for SMG. More specifically, forecasters at SMG are concerned with any rapidly developing clouds/ceilings below 8000 ft in a stable, capped thermodynamic environment. Therefore, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to examine archived events of rapid stable cloud formation resulting in ceilings below 8000 ft, and document the atmospheric regimes favoring this type of cloud development. The AMU examined the cool season months of November to March during the years of 1993-2003 for days that had low-level inversions and rapid, stable low cloud formation that resulted in ceilings violating the Space Shuttle Flight Rules. The AMU wrote and modified existing code to identify inversions from the morning (-10 UTC) Cape Canaveral, FL rawinsonde (XMR) during the cool season and output pertinent sounding information. They parsed all days with cloud ceilings below 8000 ft at TTS, forming a database of possible rapidly-developing low ceiling events. Days with precipitation or noticeable fog burn-off situations were excluded from the database. In the first phase of this work, only the daytime hours were examined for possible ceiling development events since low clouds are easier to diagnose with visible satellite imagery. Phase II of this work includes expanding the database to include nighttime cases which is underway as this abstract is being written. For the nighttime cases, the AMU will analyze both the 00 UTC soundings and the 10 UTC soundings to examine those data for the presence of a low-level inversion. The 00 UTC soundings will probably not have a surface-based inversion, but the presence of inversions or "neutral" layers aloft and below 8,000 ft will most likely help define the stable

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Hydroelastic Oscillations of the Stamp and the Plate, Resting on Pasternak Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.; Christoforova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The forced oscillations of the elastic fixed stamp and the plate, resting on Pasternak foundation are studied. The oscillations are caused by pressure pulsation in liquid layer between the stamp and the plate. Pasternak model is chosen as an elastic foundation. The laws of the stamp movement, the plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are discovered on the basis of hydroelasticity problem analytical solution. The functions of amplitude deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed, as well as the stamp amplitude-frequency characteristic. The obtained mathematical model allows to investigate the dynamics of hydroelastic interaction of the stamp with the plate, resting on elastic foundation, to define resonance frequencies of the plate and the stamp and corresponding deflections amplitudes, as well as liquid presser amplitudes.

  5. Evaluation of ceiling lifts: transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Yu, Shicheng; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Mechanical lifting devices have been developed to reduce healthcare worker injuries related to patient handling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ceiling lifts in comparison to floor lifts based on transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions in three long-term care facilities with varying ceiling lift coverage. The time required to transfer or reposition patients along with patient comfort levels were recorded for 119 transfers. Transfers performed with ceiling lifts required on average less time (bed to chair transfers: 156.9 seconds for ceiling lift, 273.6 seconds for floor lift) and were found to be more comfortable for patients. In the three facilities, 143 healthcare workers were surveyed on their perceptions of patient handling tasks and equipment. For both transferring and repositioning tasks, staff preferred to use ceiling lifts and also found them to be less physically demanding. Further investigation is needed on repositioning tasks to ensure safe practice.

  6. Bifunctional, Chemically Patterned Flat Stamps for Microcontact Printing of Polar Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, X.; Sadhu, V.B.; Perl, A.; Péter, M.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Different methods to create chemically patterned, flat PDMS stamps with two different chemical functionalities were compared. The best method for making such stamps, functionalized with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFDTS) and 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS), appeared to be full

  7. Stochastic analysis and robust optimization for a deck lid inner panel stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wurong; Li, Shuhui; Lin, Zhongqin; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2010-01-01

    FE-simulation and optimization are widely used in the stamping process to improve design quality and shorten development cycle. However, the current simulation and optimization may lead to non-robust results due to not considering the variation of material and process parameters. In this study, a novel stochastic analysis and robust optimization approach is proposed to improve the stamping robustness, where the uncertainties are involved to reflect manufacturing reality. A meta-model based stochastic analysis method is developed, where FE-simulation, uniform design and response surface methodology (RSM) are used to construct meta-model, based on which Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to predict the influence of input parameters variation on the final product quality. By applying the stochastic analysis, uniform design and RSM, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of product quality are calculated as functions of the controllable process parameters. The robust optimization model composed of mean and SD is constructed and solved, the result of which is compared with the deterministic one to show its advantages. It is demonstrated that the product quality variations are reduced significantly, and quality targets (reject rate) are achieved under the robust optimal solution. The developed approach offers rapid and reliable results for engineers to deal with potential stamping problems during the early phase of product and tooling design, saving more time and resources.

  8. Glass ceilings of professionalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    The term glass ceiling is a political term often used to describe an unbreakable barrier that isnot visible with the human eye, but it keeps minorities from rising up i.e. it is a barrier to minoritygroups, in the past (and sometimes still) for women, that stops them from achieving theirtrue potential.

  9. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  10. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or bonus...

  12. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  13. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-01-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation

  14. Comparison between Laser and Stamping without Die (SWD for Micro Tapered Hole Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The forming of a micro tapered hole is based on nanosecond pulsed laser processing, which conforms to fast processing time and high throughput; however, the microhole quality should be improved. Micro stamping is a technology providing high precise size and speed. The greatest difficulty in forming a microhole by micro stamping is the precision alignment of the punch head to the lower die. In order to overcome the difficulty, we proposed a concept of stamping without die (SWD. Without a lower die, the tapered punch head was directly applied to the workpiece for micro stamping, and a thicker workpiece surrounding the punching area provides a better support to the stamping process. Thus, a successful forming of micro tapered holes is completed. The micro tapered hole depth is 300 μm, and the maximum ratio of inlet to outlet diameter is 18:1. In order to reduce the number of experiments, the finite element analysis software DEFORM-3D was used for forming analysis. The simulation forecast result was compared with the experimental processing, which was well validated. Under different experimental parameters of laser energy and defocusing distance, drilling results by two methods show that the microhole quality by stamping process is better than by laser processing.

  15. Characteristic Evaluation of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Prepared with Stamp Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisit Chittawanij

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported on a stamp printing technique that uses PET release film as a printing stamp to deposit TPBi thin film served as the electron transport layer of the organic light-emitting diodes. TPBi thin film was printed with a good uniformity and resolution. Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties and surface roughness of TPBi thin film have been studied under spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. It is found that characteristic of TPBi thin film is improved via controlled stamp temperature and time. Since TPBi thin film exhibits the surface morphology comparable to that of conventional spin-coating thin film, our findings suggest that PET release film-based stamp printing approach is possible to use as an alternative deposition of the organic thin film as compared with a traditional one.

  16. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  17. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  18. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC was determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process.

  19. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...

  20. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-01-01

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  1. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  2. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC values were determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process, which was proved to be working well with verification tests.

  3. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper for a diffuse ceiling ventilation concept. The analyses were carried out with two different porous surfaces mounted in a suspended ceiling: perforated tiles of aluminium and of gypsum. Ventilation air was supplied above the suspended ceiling effecti...... surface which increases the potential and applicability of the concept. Risk of thermal discomfort was not disclosed but the study did show evidence of large fluctuating air movements which could stem from transient behaviour creating sensations of draught to the occupants....

  4. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P.; Nordon, Robert E.; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  5. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (Pbehaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate, however. The lack of a significant improvement of bulls' growth response should not discourage beef farmers from using ceiling fans in indoor systems, considering the likely increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in the planet

  6. Hardware Locks with Priority Ceiling Emulation for a Java Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the safety-critical Java specification, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations, as it has preferable properties, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free on uni-core systems. In this paper we explore our hardware supported implementation...... of priority ceiling emulation on the multicore Java optimized processor, and compare it to the existing hardware locks on the Java optimized processor. We find that the additional overhead for priority ceiling emulation on a multicore processor is several times higher than simpler, non-premptive locks, mainly...

  7. Glass ceiling in SMEs? Women, managerialization and performance

    OpenAIRE

    L. Songini; L. Gnan

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the role of women in a sample of Italian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), both non-family and family owned businesses. We assume that the existence of a glass ceiling implies that women are not in a position to exercise an active role in the company; ownership per se does not assure the elimination of the glass ceiling, while the broader involvement of women in governance and management roles, as we may suppose in family firms, may represent a better situation ...

  8. MAGIC MOORE-PENROSE INVERSES AND PHILATELIC MAGIC SQUARES WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE DANIELS–ZLOBEC MAGIC SQUARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Lok Chu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We study singular magic matrices in which the numbers in the rows and columns and in the two main diagonals all add up to the same sum. Our interest focuses on such magic matrices for which the Moore–Penrose inverse is also magic. Special attention is given to the “Daniels–Zlobec magic square’’ introduced by the British magician and television performer Paul Daniels (b. 1938 and considered by Zlobec (2001; see also Murray (1989, pp. 30–32. We introduce the concept of a “philatelic magic square” as a square arrangement of images of postage stamps so that the associated nominal values form a magic square. Three philatelic magic squares with stamps especially chosen for Sanjo Zlobec are presented in celebration of his 70th birthday; most helpful in identifying these stamps was an Excel checklist by Männikkö (2009.

  9. Tariff structures for the transport of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenken, R.M.L.; Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Some possible tariff structures for electricity transport are discussed. First, the costs associated with the transport of electricity are explained. The fixed and variable costs of a transport are illustrated with some examples. Furthermore, the most common tariff structures (contract path, megawatt mile, postage stamp) and negotiated Third Party Access are discussed. Finally, the way the tariff structures reflect the costs of electricity transport are reviewed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  10. Advertising postcards in the collections of the National Museum of the History of Moldova (late 19th c. - the 1st half of the 20th c.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Griţco

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the paper is advertising postcards, discovered during the research of the museum collection of postcards. Performed in the style of their time, they reflect changes in both production and society. Unlike postage stamps and envelopes, the postcard is more convenient as a carrier of information, including advertising. The first classic promotional postcards appeared in Europe in the late 1870s, initially they presented advertising of hotels and restaurants. In Russia, inclu...

  11. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 5, Number 1, January-March 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    postage stamps and a children’s poster contest, for which SCOPE provided prize money. SCOPE is now organizing a seminar on ecotoxicological problems in...the southwest coast is near the most important site for aquaculture. 4. Studies of the pollution of the shellfish cultivation areas of the west coast. 5... Ecotoxicological Problems in the Taipei, Taiwan Dr. Jong-Chin Su, Institute of Zoology lndoPacific Region Academia Sinica, Taipei 115 April 13-17 International

  12. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M C Ferraz da; Ribeiro, H B; Kessler, F; Souza, E A T de; Fechine, G J M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS 2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way. (paper)

  13. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  14. Diversity of Physicians’ Handwriting and Name Stamp in Chemotherapy Prescriptions: Potential Target for Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiyeh Amouei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BBackgrounds: Verification and authentication of the paper-based handwritten prescriptions is of great importance for antineoplastic medications that are good targets for forgery and fraud. Pharmacists usually investigate handwriting, signature and name stamp of prescribers to verify prescriptions in Iran. Anecdotal reports of variations in handwriting and name stamp of physicians who wrote antineoplastic prescriptions raised concerns in this regard. The aim of the study was to investigate the reported diversity and evaluate the quality of writing physician identity and required items in antineoplastic prescriptions.Methods: All insured hand-written prescriptions contained at least one antineoplastic medication and were dispensed by four main authorized community pharmacies dispensing antineoplastic medications in Tehran during one month were included. Prescriptions that were written by specialties other than oncology-related fields were excluded. Prescriptions of each physician were evaluated considering handwriting and name stamp by experienced pharmacy staff and the frequency of detected handwriting and name stamp types was recorded.Results: Of the 11022 included prescriptions, 10944 were eligible and written by 241 physicians. Median (third quartile number of physicians’ prescriptions was 17 (51. Maximum number of observed handwriting and name stamp types were eight and six respectively. High prescribers tended to have several handwriting and name stamp types.Conclusion: The observed diversity and variation in handwriting and name stamp of the physicians in antineoplastic prescriptions may facilitate the entrance of forged prescription and makes fraud detection difficult. Administrative and regulatory interventions in addition to notification of health care professionals about the observed potential might be necessary.

  15. Experimental Study of an Integrated System with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per

    . And the thermal comfort is analyzed by draught rate vertical temperature gradient and radiant temperature asymmetry. Finally the effect of plenum and diffuse ceiling is discussed. This report mainly focuses on the experiment results and discussions. Therefore, some details about the measurement are not presented...

  16. Parametrical analysis on the diffuse ceiling ventilation by experimental and numerical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Sølund

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a classroom. An experimental study is carried out in a test chamber to examine the impact of diffuse ceiling opening area on the system cooling capacity and thermal comfort. The results indicate that diffuse ceiling ....... The numerical results reveal that even distribution of heat sources gives a lower draught risk environment than centralized distribution. In addition, there is a significant increase on the draught risk with increase of room height....

  17. DOUBLE SHEAR DESIGN TO REDUCED STAMPING FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurniawan Arief

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideally processing of part using stamping machine using only 70-80 % of available force to keep machine in good shape for a long periods. But in some certain case the force may equal to or exceed the available maximum force so the company must sent the process to another outsource company. A case found in a metal stamping company where a final product consist of 3 parts to assembly with one part exceeded the force of available machine. This part can only process in a 1000 tons machine while this company only have 2 of this machine with full workload. Sending this parts outsource will induce delivery problems because other parts are processed, assembled and paint inhouse, this also need additional transportation cost and extra supervision to ensure the quality and delivery schedule. The only exit action of this problem is by reducing the force tonnage. This paper using punch inclining method to reduce the force. The incline punch will distributed the force along the inclined surface that reduce stamping force as well. Inclined surface of punch also cause another major problems that the product becoming curved after process. This problems solved with additional flattening process that add more process cost but better than to outsource the process. Chisel type of inclining punch tip was choosen to avoid worst deformation of product. This paper will give the scientific recomendation to the company.

  18. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. Previous research was focused on combining PV with additional total volume air distribution, i.e. mixing ventilation or displacement ventilation......, the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher than...... temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min...

  19. The effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of thermally activated building construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    An integrated system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation with thermally activated building construction (TABS) was proposed recently. In this system, TABS is encapsulated by diffuse ceiling panel and cannot have directly heat exchange with the room. The aim of this study is to investigate...... the effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of TABS in both heat and cooling mode. Experiments are carried out in a full-scale test facility with the integrated system, and the cases without diffuse ceiling are also measured as references. The results indicate that the diffuse ceiling has...... an opposite effect on the heating and cooling capacity of TABS. In addition, a numerical model is built and validated by the measured data. The validated model is further applied to conduct a paramedical study on the materials of the diffuse ceiling panel....

  20. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  1. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    -scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...

  2. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strain hardening does not disappear after annealing if the foil’s thickness become 0.4 mm and less. Microstructure analysis has shown a good contact between layers for all samples and thicker outer layers.

  3. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  4. 27 CFR 46.116 - Issuance, distribution, and examination of special tax stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... multiple locations, TTB will send to the taxpayer's principal place of business (or principal office in the... attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t required by § 46.101(b)(2). (b) Distribution of special tax stamps for... for each location listed on the attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t and that the information on each stamp...

  5. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of stamping impacts during simulated rucking in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Bodil Y; Driscoll, Heather F; Dunn, Marcus; James, David

    2018-04-01

    Laceration injuries account for up to 23% of injuries in rugby union. They are frequently caused by studded footwear as a result of a player stamping onto another player during the ruck. Little is known about the kinetics and kinematics of rugby stamping impacts; current test methods assessing laceration injury risk of stud designs therefore lack informed test parameters. In this study, twelve participants stamped on an anthropomorphic test device in a one-on-one simulated ruck setting. Velocity and inclination angle of the foot prior to impact was determined from high-speed video footage. Total stamping force and individual stud force were measured using pressure sensors. Mean foot inbound velocity was 4.3 m ∙ s -1 (range 2.1-6.3 m ∙ s -1 ). Mean peak total force was 1246 N and mean peak stud force was 214 N. The total mean effective mass during stamping was 6.6 kg (range: 1.6-13.5 kg) and stud effective mass was 1.2 kg (range: 0.5-2.9 kg). These results provide representative test parameters for mechanical test devices designed to assess laceration injury risk of studded footwear for rugby union.

  6. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  7. Analisa Persepsi Glass Ceiling Pada Grup Hotel Accor Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Hariono, Ardhi Ananta Kurnia; Theios, Jefson

    2017-01-01

    Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persepsi karyawan perempuan akan glass ceiling pada grup hotel Accor Surabaya melalui hambatan pribadi, hambatan situasional, dan hambatan sosial. Penelitian ini di fokuskan pada kelompok umur dan status pernikahan. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan survei kepada 50 karyawan perempuan yang mejabat pada posisi manajerial di grup Hotel Accor Surabaya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan persepsi glass ceiling pada interval kecil. Untuk kelom...

  8. Characterization of thermoplastic composites for hot stamp forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, Bert; Grouve, Wouter; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art characterization methods for thermoplastic composites at high processing temperature and provides a few examples of application in simulations of the hot stamp forming process.

  9. Fabrication of Ni stamp with high aspect ratio, two-leveled, cylindrical microstructures using dry etching and electroplating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    obtained by defining a reservoir and a separating trench with different depths of 85 and 125 μm, respectively, in a single embossing step. The fabrication of the required two leveled stamp is done using a modified DEEMO (dry etching, electroplating and molding) process. Dry etching using the Bosch process...... and electroplating are optimized to obtain a stamp with smooth stamp surfaces and a positive sidewall profile. Using this stamp, hot embossing is performed successfully with excellent yield and high replication fidelity....

  10. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  11. Cooling Systems Design in Hot Stamping Tools by a Thermal-Fluid-Mechanical Coupled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping tools with cooling systems are the key facilities for hot stamping process of Ultrahigh strength steels (UHSS in automotive industry. Hot stamping tools have significant influence on the final microstructure and properties of the hot stamped parts. In serials production, the tools should be rapidly cooled by cooling water. Hence, design of hot stamping tools with cooling systems is important not only for workpieces of good quality but also for the tools with good cooling performance and long life. In this paper, a new multifield simulation method was proposed for the design of hot stamping tools with cooling system. The deformation of the tools was also analyzed by this method. Based on MpCCI (Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface, thermal-fluid simulation and thermal-fluid-mechanical coupled simulation were performed. Subsequently, the geometrical parameters of the cooling system are investigated for the design. The results show that, both the distance between the ducts and the distance between the ducts and the tools loaded contour have significant influence on the quenching effect. And better quenching effect can be achieved with the shorter distance from the tool surface and with smaller distance between ducts. It is also shown that, thermal expansion is the main reason for deformation of the hot forming tools, which causes the distortion of the cooling ducts, and the stress concentration at corner of the ducts.

  12. Numerical Prediction of Airflow in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    In ventilated rooms the air inlet device is often placed close to the ceiling. The air inlet will form a wall jet or a reattached wall jet. The wall jet may be disturbed by ceilingmounted obstacles such as light fittings or ceiling beams which, in some cases, can cause the air jet to be deflected...

  13. The comparison of two continuum damage mechanics-based material models for formability prediction of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, N.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process has experienced tremendous development in order to obtain shapes of structural components with great complexity in automotive applications. Prediction of the formability of a metal sheet is significant for practical applications of forming components in the automotive industry. Since microstructural evolution in an alloy at elevated temperature has a large effect on formability, continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based material models can be used to characterise the behaviour of metals when a forming process is conducted at elevated temperatures. In this paper, two sets of unified multi-axial constitutive equations based on material’s stress states and strain states, respectively, were calibrated and used to effectively predict the thermo-mechanical response and forming limits of alloys under complex hot stamping conditions. In order to determine and calibrate the two material models, formability tests of AA6082 using a developed novel biaxial testing system were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions. The determined unified constitutive equations from experimental data are presented in this paper. It is found that both of the stress-state based and strain-state based material models can predict the formability of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions.

  14. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G.L. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties from June–October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s (<1%. However, a substantial minority of cigarette packs had damaged tax stamps (13%. This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser. Keywords: Taxes, Smoking, Tobacco products, Government regulation, Government

  15. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor 'simultaneous localization and mapping‘ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  16. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  17. Effects of surface coating on weld growth of resistance spot-welded hot-stamped boron steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chang Wook; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yang Do; Jo, Il Guk; Choi, Il Dong; Park, Yeong Do

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum-silicon-based and zinc-based metallic coatings have been widely used for hot-stamped boron steel in automotive applications. In this study, resistance spot weldability was explored by investigating the effects of the properties of metallic coating layers on heat development and nugget growth during resistance spot welding. In the case of the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel, the intermetallic coating transformed into a liquid film that covered the faying interface. A wide, weldable current range was obtained with slow heat development because of low contact resistance and large current passage. In the case of the zinc-coated hot-stamped boron steel, a buildup of liquid and vapor formation under large vapor pressure was observed at the faying interface because of the high contact resistance and low vaporization temperature of the intermetallic layers. With rapid heat development, the current passage was narrow because of the limited continuous layer at the faying interface. A more significant change in nugget growth was observed in the zinc coated hot-stamped boron steel than in the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel.

  18. Using stamping punch force variation for the identification of changes in lubrication and wear mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Pereira, M. P.; Rolfe, B. F.; Doolan, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    The growth in use of Advanced High Strength Steels in the automotive industry for light-weighting and safety has increased the rates of tool wear in sheet metal stamping. This is an issue that adds significant costs to production in terms of manual inspection and part refinishing. To reduce these costs, a tool condition monitoring system is required and a firm understanding of process signal variation must form the foundation for any such monitoring system. Punch force is a stamping process signal that is widely collected by industrial presses and has been linked closely to part quality and tool condition, making it an ideal candidate as a tool condition monitoring signal. In this preliminary investigation, the variation of punch force due to different lubrication conditions and progressive wear are examined. Linking specific punch force signature changes to developing lubrication and wear events is valuable for die wear and stamping condition monitoring. A series of semi-industrial channel forming trials were conducted under different lubrication regimes and progressive die wear. Punch force signatures were captured for each part and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the key Principal Components of the signature data sets. These Principal Components were linked to the evolution of friction conditions over the course of the stroke for the different lubrication regimes and mechanism of galling wear. As a result, variation in punch force signatures were correlated to the current mechanism of wear dominant on the formed part; either abrasion or adhesion, and to changes in lubrication mechanism. The outcomes of this study provide important insights into punch force signature variation, that will provide a foundation for future work into the development of die wear and lubrication monitoring systems for sheet metal stamping.

  19. STAMP model and its application prospect in DCS safety analysis of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Jie; Liu Zhaohui; Liu Hua; Yu Tonglan

    2013-01-01

    The application of DCS (Digit Control System) is a certain trend for the development of nuclear power. DCS not only improves the control capability of nuclear power system, but also increases the complexity of the system. Traditional safety analysis techniques based on event-chain model are facing challenges. In order to improve the safety performance of nuclear power DCS, the latest research achievement in the field of safety engineering should be focused, studied and applied into nuclear power safety. This paper introduces a new safety analysis model named STAMP (Systems-Theoretic Accident Modeling and Processes) based on the system theory, analyzes its advantages and disadvantages compared with the traditional ones, and explains the basic steps of STPA (STAMP-Based Hazard Analysis) technology. Finally, according to the application status of STAMP at home and abroad, it prospects the development of STAMP in China's nuclear power safety. (authors)

  20. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  1. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-04-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  2. Investigation of Hardness Change for Spot Welded Tailored Blank in Hot Stamping Using CCT and Deformation-CCT Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Yasuhiro; Kurato, Nozomi; Iwata, Noritoshi

    2018-06-01

    When an outer panel of a B-pillar is manufactured with the hot stamping process, reinforcements are spot welded on its inner side. Before reinforcements are added, the microstructure of the outer panel is martensite. However, reheating during spot welding changes the martensite to ferrite, which has a lower hardness in the heat-affected zone than in other areas. If spot welding is conducted before hot stamping for making a spot welded tailored blank, the microstructure in the spot welded tailored blank after hot stamping is martensite. This sequence of processes avoids hardness reduction due to spot welding. In this study, the hardness and microstructure around spot welded parts of the tailored blank were investigated. The results clearly showed that areas close to the spot welded parts are severely stretched during hot stamping. In addition, stretching suppresses the martensitic phase transformation and reduces the hardness. To characterize this phenomenon, a simulation was conducted that considered the effects of pre-strain on the phase transformation. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and a deformation continuous cooling transformation (DCCT) diagram were made in order to quantify the effect of the cooling rate and pre-strain on the phase transformation and hardness. The hardness was then calculated using the experimentally measured CCT and DCCT diagrams and the finite element analysis results. The calculated hardness was compared with the experimental hardness. Good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results.

  3. Between Postage Stamps and Digitalization: The Changing Roles of Educational Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Frederic

    1995-01-01

    Provides a broadcasting practitioner's perspective of educational broadcasting in Europe, and how, with data compression, the emergence of more television channels can affect the educationalist and public service broadcasting. Discusses technological development, equal access to education, cultural maintenance, advertising, future outlooks, and…

  4. A Path-Independent Forming Limit Criterion for Stamping Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinhai; Chappuis, Laurent; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) has been proved to be a powerful tool for assessing necking failures in sheet metal forming analysis for majority of stamping operations over the last three decades. However, experimental evidence and theoretical analysis suggest that its applications are limited to linear or almost linear strain paths during its deformation history. Abrupt changes or even gradual deviations from linear strain-paths will shift forming limit curves from their original values, a situation that occurs in vast majority of sequential stamping operations such as where the drawing process is followed by flanging and re-strike processes. Various forming limit models have been put forward recently to provide remedies for the problem, noticeably stress-based and strain gradient-based forming limit criteria. This study presents an alternative path-independent forming limit criterion. Instead of traditional Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) which are constructed in terms of major - minor principal strains throughout deformation history, the new criterion defines a critical effective strain ε-bar* as the limit strain for necking, and it is shown that ε-bar* can be expressed as a function of current strain rate state and material work hardening properties, without the need of explicitly considering strain-path effects. It is given by ε-bar* = f(β, k, n) where β = (dε 2 /dε 1 ) at current deformation state, and k and n are material strain hardening parameters if a power law is assumed. The analysis is built upon previous work by Storen and Rice [1975] and Zhu et al [2002] with the incorporation of anisotropic yield models such as Hill'48 for quadratic orthotropic yield and Hill'79 for non-quadratic orthotropic yield. Effects of anisotropic parameters such as R-values and exponent n-values on necking are investigated in detail for a variety of strain paths. Results predicted according to current analysis are compared against experimental data gathered from literature

  5. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist?: A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; John Landon-Lane; Myeong-Su Yun

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the...

  6. Women's Career Development at the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Pamela L.

    1998-01-01

    For women, success in shattering the glass ceiling lies not in adapting to a male workplace culture but in using career strategies such as self-knowledge, multiple mentors, integration of body and soul, and fluid, customized careers. (SK)

  7. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  8. The Real Glass Ceiling. Your Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    There is a powerful and common glass ceiling (barrier that prevents capable employees from being promoted) that affects men as much as women. Between middle management and the executive level, corporate culture shifts to one based on power and a worker must play by new rules even if these have never been explained. (JOW)

  9. EFFECTS OF EBT CUSTOMER SERVICE WAIVERS ON FOOD STAMP RECIPIENTS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    OpenAIRE

    Kirlin, John A.; Logan, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Most State agencies are now using electronic benefits transfer (EBT) systems to issue food stamp benefits. To promote operational efficiency, some States have received waivers of certain rules governing EBT use. An exploratory study was conducted to ascertain the effects of these waivers on food stamp recipients. The results show that two of the waivers-those allowing recipients to select their own personal identification numbers and to receive EBT training by mail rather than in person-cause...

  10. The effect of low ceiling on the external combustion of the cabin fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shichuan; Chen, Changyun; Wang, Liang; Wei, Chengyin; Cui, Haibing; Guo, Chengyu

    2018-06-01

    External combustion is a phenomenon where the flame flares out of the window and burns outside. Because of the particularity of the ship's cabin structure, there is a great danger in the external combustion. In this paper, the numerical calculation and analysis of three kinds of low ceiling ship cabin fire are analyzed based on the large eddy numerical simulation technique. Through the analysis of temperature, flue gas velocity, heat flux density and so on, the external combustion phenomenon of fire development is calculated. The results show that when external combustion occurs, the amount of fuel escaping decreases with the roof height. The temperature above the window increases with the height of the ceiling. The heat flux density in the external combustion flame is mainly provided by radiation, and convection is only a small part; In the plume area there is a time period, in this time period, the convective heat flux density is greater than the radiation heat flux, this time with the ceiling height increases. No matter which ceiling height, the external combustion will seriously damage the structure of the ship after a certain period of time. The velocity distribution of the three roof is similar, but with the height of the ceiling, the area size is also increasing.

  11. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  12. Microstructure and Properties of a New Cr - Mn Steel without Boron Additions for Use in Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Zhu, G.; Li, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Anew hot-stamping steel that is alloyed with chromium and manganese and does not contain boron additions has been developed. The effect of reheating temperature and cooling rates on the mechanical properties and structure of the steel is determined. Atreatment regime that increases the ductility of the steel without a noticeable decrease in its strength is proposed.

  13. Field Study of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation Performance in a Landscape Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria; Wolsing, Marie; Grysbæk, Malene

    2016-01-01

    show that diffuse ceiling ventilation has substantial potential for landscape office applications because it can provide important cooling capacity while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the occupied zone. It does not generate draught in the occupied zone even at large temperature differences...... between supply and exhaust and great air change rates, while the same design parameters caused risk of draught in many points in the case with mixing ventilation. Good mixing in the occupied zone in case of both systems resulted in only small vertical temperature gradients. The results from the study...

  14. The effects of receiving room dimensions and absorption in the measurement of impact insulation class (IIC) rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rose Mary; Tocci, Gregory

    2005-09-01

    The measurement of the Impact Insulation Class (IIC) rating of any floor/ceiling construction requires the use of a certified laboratory space. In a recent investigation into the IIC rating of a new floor system, several tests were conducted in a certified laboratory. In many tests, the IIC rating was controlled by the 100-Hz 1/3-octave frequency band, despite changes in the floor/ceiling construction. The base floor/ceiling construction included a wood structural floor on open-web wood joists and a GWB ceiling below. This paper will investigate the possibility that room resonances influenced the IIC ratings of the several floor systems tested. These data will be compared with IIC data collected for the same floor construction with the GWB ceiling removed. The removal of the GWB ceiling increased the receiver room volume and exposed the glass fiber insulation to the receiver room, thus eliminating the control of the 100-Hz 1/3-octave band over the IIC rating.

  15. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  16. Stamp design effect on 100 nm feature size for 8 inch NanoImprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, S; Chaix, N; Gourgon, C; Perret, C; Leveder, T

    2006-01-01

    Sub-100 nm resolution on a 200 mm silicon stamp has been hot embossed into commercial Sumitomo NEB 22 resist. A single pattern, exposed with electron beam lithography, has been considered to define the stamp and thus make it possible to point out the impact of stamp design on the printing. These results may be considered as a first attempt to define rules to solve the proximity printing effects (PPEs). Moreover, a large range of initial resist thickness, from 56 to 506 nm, has been spin coated to assess the effect of polymer flow properties for the stamp cavity filling and the printed defects. A detailed analysis of the printed resist in dense hole patterns showed that the application volume conservation is enough to calculate the residual layer thickness as the height of the printed resist feature. Good accordance has been obtained between the theoretical approach and experimental results. Moreover, the impact of the pattern symmetry breakdown on mould deformation is clearly shown in this paper in the printed areas as well as in the unprinted areas

  17. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.-K.; Chang, C.-K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures

  18. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings.......In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  19. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  20. Investigation of floor Nusselt number in floor heating system for insulated ceiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, Refet; Teke, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    In this study, in a floor heated room, natural convection heat transfer over the floor is analysed numerically for different thermal conditions. An equation relevant to Nusselt number over the floor has been obtained by using the numerical data. Different equations are given in the literature. They consider the effect of floor Rayleigh number while neglecting the effect of wall and ceiling thermal conditions. Numerical data obtained in this study show that the Nusselt number over the floor depends on not only the floor Rayleigh number but also the wall Rayleigh number (for insulated ceiling conditions). The equations given in the literature are different from each other due to their not considering the effect of wall and ceiling Rayleigh numbers. This difference between the equations may be eliminated by obtaining an equation containing the effect of floor, wall and ceiling Rayleigh numbers. In this new approach, an equation relevant to the floor Nusselt number that depends on the floor and wall Rayleigh numbers has been obtained in the floor heating system for insulated ceiling conditions. The equation obtained in this study has been compared with the equations given in the literature. It has been seen that the equation obtained in this study matches the numerical values under more extensive thermal conditions than the equations given in the literature. The maximum deviation for the equations given in the literature is 35%, but in the current study, the maximum deviation has been found to be 10%. As a result, it is more convenient to use the equation found in the new approach as a function of Rayleigh number over the floor and wall for insulated ceiling conditions

  1. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system--a human response study in hot and humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Sekhar, S C; Melikov, A K

    2010-08-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient temperatures of 26 and 23.5 degrees C and PV air temperatures of 26, 23.5, and 21 degrees C were employed. The local and whole body thermal sensations were reduced when PV airflow rates were increased. Inhaled air temperature was perceived cooler and perceived air quality and air freshness improved when PV airflow rate was increased or temperature was reduced. The newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system offers a practical solution to the integration of PV air terminal devices (ATDs) in the vicinity of the workstation. By remotely locating the PV ATDs on the ceiling directly above the occupants and under their control, the conditioned outdoor air is now provided to the occupants through the downward momentum of the air. A secondary air-conditioning and air distribution system offers additional cooling in the room and maintains a higher ambient temperature, thus offering significant benefits in conserving energy. The results of this study provide designers and consultants with needed knowledge for design of PV systems.

  2. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  3. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Silicon micro-masonry using elastomeric stamps for three-dimensional microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Hohyun; Eisenhaure, Jeffrey D; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew; Ning, Hailong; Mihi, Agustin; Braun, Paul V; Rogers, John A

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromanufacturing method for constructing microsystems, which we term ‘micro-masonry’ based on individual manipulation, influenced by strategies for deterministic materials assembly using advanced forms of transfer printing. Analogous to masonry in construction sites, micro-masonry consists of the preparation, manipulation, and binding of microscale units to assemble microcomponents and microsystems. In this paper, for the purpose of demonstration, we used microtipped elastomeric stamps as manipulators and built three dimensional silicon microstructures. Silicon units of varied shapes were fabricated in a suspended format on donors, retrieved, delivered, and placed on a target location on a receiver using microtipped stamps. Annealing of the assembled silicon units permanently bound them and completed the micro-masonry procedure. (paper)

  5. A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome Career Barriers of Women Academics

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Öge; Alpay Karasoy; Özlem Kara

    2014-01-01

    Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher educa...

  6. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... input to the wheel during braking. (b) A rim-stamped straight-plate wheel shall not be used as a... that is periodically tread-braked for a short duration by automatic circuitry for the sole purpose of...

  7. Imprints of the Neolithic mind – clay stamps from the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Naumov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence and unusual structure of clay stamps found in Neolithic settlements often give rise to multiple interpretations to define their character. The small dimensions and specific shape of the stamps suggests that these portable objects were important in the social relations and visual communication between members within the same community and, possibly, more distant communities. The definite patterns distinguishe their function in maintaining the visual traditions of the populations inhabiting southeastern Europe. They had an important role in building the Neolithic image modularity, so that they fitted into the comprehensive decorative structure of Neolithic iconography, and the patterns present on the stamps are related to several aspects of Neolithic material culture from the Balkans and Anatolia. This homogeneity of patterns indicates that they were actively included in the transposition of cognition into visual metaphors.

  8. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  9. Pipelines of Progress: An Update on the Glass Ceiling Initiative. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    The "glass ceiling" refers to those barriers that have prevented the advancement of women and minorities into the top levels of executive management in major U.S. corporations. In 1991, the U.S. Department of Labor released a report describing the Glass Ceiling Initiative. This document reports on what occurred in the year following the…

  10. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  11. 2D and 3D GPR imaging of structural ceilings in historic and existing constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    GPR applications in civil engineering are to date quite diversified. With respect to civil constructions and monumental buildings, detection of voids, cavities, layering in structural elements, variation of geometry, of moisture content, of materials, areas of decay, defects, cracks have been reported in timber, concrete and masonry elements. Nonetheless, many more fields of investigation remain unexplored. This contribution gives an account of a variety of examples of structural ceilings investigation by GPR radar in reflection mode, either as 2D or 3D data acquisition and visualisation. Ceilings have a pre-eminent role in buildings as they contribute to a good structural behaviour of the construction. Primarily, the following functions can be listed for ceilings: a) they carry vertical dead and live loads on floors and distribute such loads to the vertical walls; b) they oppose to external horizontal forces such as wind loads and earthquakes helping to transfer such forces from the loaded element to the other walls; c) they contribute to create the box skeleton and behaviour of a building, connecting the different load bearing walls and reducing the slenderness and flexural instability of such walls. Therefore, knowing how ceilings are made in specific buildings is of paramount importance for architects and structural engineers. According to the type of building and age of construction, ceilings may present very different solutions and materials. Moreover, in existing constructions, ceilings may have been substituted, modified or strengthened due to material decay or to change of use of the building. These alterations may often go unrecorded in technical documentation or technical drawings may be unavailable. In many cases, the position, orientation and number of the load carrying elements in ceilings may be hidden or not be in sight, due for example to the presence of false ceilings or to technical plants. GPR radar can constitute a very useful tool for

  12. Control of the dew point for refreshing ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrach, R.; Nitz, T.

    1996-03-01

    The functioning of a refreshing ceiling, delivered in water, needs a global regulation which must take in consideration, the local, the building and its environment. Then efficiency and energy and investments economy are optimized. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  14. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... XVI of the Social Security Act, the State agency shall make the following determinations: (1) The...

  15. The collection of Tuvan stamps (1926–1943 in the National Museum of the Republic of Tuva and the prospects of philately in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaadyr-ool A. Bicheldey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stamps of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT, 1921-1944 as indicia and as items of collectors’ interest, are universally renowned, and as such have been the subject of a good deal of research. These works contain more than a mere story of Tuvan stamps – they provide a lot of useful information on Tuva, its history, including the history of postal service in the region. This article describes the collection of indicia (more than 500 pieces dated 1926-1943 and preserved at Aldan Maadyr National Museum of Tuva. On the basis of this analysis we have formulated the current problems and prospects of philately in the region. The stamp collection in the National Museum fills 4 albums of various sizes and a number of envelopes with 1-72 stamps in each. The compilers of 2 albums attempted to systematize stamps by issue date, but this work is far from complete. There is no definitive collection of Tuvan stamps to act as a model for others, regardless of the quality of the stamps preserved. The rest of the stamps in the museum collection is in unsorted state. Overall, the degree of preservation can be tentatively described as average. Given the great interest of scholars and collectors, Tuvan stamps are relatively little studies. The overall bulk of material on the uses of stamps in Tuva lacks an overarching study. We have summed up the main research problems that call for in-depth research, including studying Tuvan stamps as pieces of art, the financial and economic viability of issuing stamps in PRT, the official documentations licensing the issue, full catalogization of all existing issues, the study of individual stamps, etc. Especially urgent is the issue of propagating knowledge of history of Tuvan postal service as a precondition for collecting and preserving PRT stamps. Archives of many Tuvan families may contain unique stamps, rare envelopes or postcards – but few of their owners recognize the full value of what they have. This puts unique

  16. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O

    1985-01-01

    postoperatively with or without external heating from a heating ceiling. Central and peripheral temperatures, oxygen consumption, plasma catecholamines and shivering were measured. A method for continuous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during spontaneous breathing is described...

  17. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute management to men make a kind of invisible barrier, known as glass ceiling, which prevents women’s promotion to top organizational positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the lack of promotion of women to top management levels in the society. It was conducted with a descriptive analytic method through the review of the related literature and emphasis on the concept of glass ceiling to present practical solutions to solve the problem.

  18. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  19. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  20. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    PhotoVoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) panels were used for cooling water through the principle of nocturnal radiative cooling. This water was utilised for discharging Phase Change Material (PCM) which was embedded in ceiling panels in a climate chamber. Three different sets of flow rates were examined...... for the solar and the PCM loops, for five days each. The highest examined water flow rate (210 l/h) in the PCM loop provided the best thermal environment in the climate chamber, namely 92% of the occupancy time was within the range of Category III of Standard EN 15251. Although the lowest examined water flow...... rate (96 l/h) in the solar loop provided the highest average cooling power, due to the significant variations in the weather conditions during the three experimental cases, made it impossible to determine to which extent the difference in the cooling power is due to the different water flow rate...

  1. Ouch! Or ESL and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliacci, Naomi

    The realities of the glass ceiling, which prevents qualified women, minorities, and many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students from advancement and promotion, are rarely discussed in English for Special Purposes (ESP)/ESL programs and courses. This paper explores the barriers to success, focusing on the sociolinguistic factors of verbal and…

  2. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  3. ELROI Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier. A license plate for your satellite, and more.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ELROI (Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier) is a license plate for your satellite; a small tag that flashes an optical identification code that can be read by a small telescope on the ground. The final version of the tag will be the size of a thick postage stamp and fully autonomous: you can attach it to everything that goes into space, including small cubesats and inert debris like rocket stages, and it will keep blinking even after the satellite is shut down, reliably identifying the object from launch until re-entry.

  4. Ancillary reactive power service allocation cost in deregulated markets: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J. Horacio Tovar; Jimenez-Guzman, Miguel; Gutierrez-Alcaraz, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to allocate reactive power costs in deregulated markets. Reactive power supply service is decomposed into voltage regulation and reactive power spinning reserve. The proposed methodology is based on sensitivities and the postage-stamp method in order to allocate the total costs service among all participants. With the purpose of achieving this goal, the system operator identifies voltage support and/or reactive power requirements, and looks out for suitable providers. One case study is presented here to illustrate the methodology over a simplified southeastern Mexican grid. (Author)

  5. THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON GLASS CEILING: AEGEAN REGION AGENCIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    İNEL, Merve; GARAYEV, Vener; BAKAY, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between organizationalstructure (mechanistic/organic) and glass ceiling, the concept known asnegative discrimination against women in workplace. The data collected fromrandomly selected 81 organizations in Aegean Region of Turkey was analyzedthrough hierarchical stepwise multiple regression. The results of the finalregression model suggest that glass ceiling is not dependent on organizationalstructure, while the control variable gender has a negative relat...

  6. A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Debra E.; Fletcher, Joyce K.

    2000-01-01

    Approaches to the glass ceiling--encouraging women to adopt "masculine" attributes, accommodating women's unique needs, or celebrating women's differences--have shortcomings. A fourth approach links equity and effectiveness. "Small wins" recognizes that gender inequity is rooted in cultural patterns and uses small initiatives…

  7. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    Newton-Raphson iteration. The computer implementation of the generalized multi-step inverse FEM is also presented. By comparing to the simulation results using a commercial software system, the effectiveness of the new method is validated. Other than the product design, the punch motion (including punch speed and punch trajectory) of the stamping press also has significant effect on the formability and the quality of the product. In fact, this is one of the major reasons why hydraulic presses and/or servo presses are used for parts which demand high quality. In order to reveal the quantitative correlation between the punch motion and the part quality, the Cowper-Symonds strain rate constitutive model and the implicit dynamic incremental FEM are combined to conduct the research. The effects of the punch motion on the part quality, especially the plastic strain distribution and the potential springback, have been investigated for the deep drawing and the bending processes respectively. A qualitative relationship between the punch motion and the part quality is also derived. The reaction force of the punch motion causes the dynamic deformation of the press during the stamping, which in turn influences the part quality as well. This dynamic information, in the form of the strain signal, is an important basis for the on-line monitoring of the part quality. By using the actual force as the input to the press, the incremental FEM is needed to predict the strain of the press. The result is validated by means of experiments and can be used to assist the on-line monitoring.

  8. For philatelists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    From the beginning of October this year the United Nations Postal Administration has been able to issue Swiss-denomination stamps valid for correspondence posted at the Palais des Nations, Geneva. This is the first time that the UN in Geneva has been able to send mail using its own postage stamps and is therefore of great interest to philatelists. The principal aim of the UN Postal Administration is to make UN activities and those of the specialized agencies better known in the world through stamps. In 1969 there have been issues in honour of the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the Economic Commission for Latin America, the International Law Commission and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Among those next year will be a stamp to commemorate the efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO) to fight cancer. There are eight denominations in the new Swiss issue, each with special designs. They are 1 franc (designed by Rashid-ud-Din, Pakistan); 10 centimes, 30 centimes and 75 centime (Ole Hamann, Denmark); 5 centimes (Jozsef Vertel, Hungary); 3 francs, showing the statue in the Trusteeship Council Chamber, New York; 50 centimes (Olav S. Mathiesen, Denmark); and 20 centimes (Georges Hamori, Australia). (author)

  9. Failure Mechanisms of the Protective Coatings for the Hot Stamping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen

    In the present study, four different nitriding techniques were carried on the ductile irons NAAMS-D6510 and cast steels NAAMS-S0050A, which are widely used stamping die materials; duplex treatments (PVD CrN coating+nitriding) were carried on H13 steels, which are common inserts for the hot stamping dies. Inclined impact-sliding wear tests were performed on the nitriding cases under simulated stamping conditions. Surface profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the wear and failure mechanisms of the protective coatings. It was found that the nitrided ductile iron samples performed better than the nitrided cast steel specimens. High temperature inclined impact-sliding wear tests were carried out on the CrN coatings. It was found that the coating performed better at elevated temperature. XPS analysis indicated the top surface layer (about 3-4nm) of the coating was oxidized at 400 °C and formed a Cr2O3 protective film. The in-situ formation of the thin Cr2O3 protective layer likely led to the change of wear mechanisms from severe adhesive failure to mild abrasive wear.

  10. Probabilistic Design in a Sheet Metal Stamping Process under Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao, Jian; Chen, Wei; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal stamping processes have been widely implemented in many industries due to its repeatability and productivity. In general, the simulations for a sheet metal forming process involve nonlinearity, complex material behavior and tool-material interaction. Instabilities in terms of tearing and wrinkling are major concerns in many sheet metal stamping processes. In this work, a sheet metal stamping process of a mild steel for a wheelhouse used in automobile industry is studied by using an explicit nonlinear finite element code and incorporating failure analysis (tearing and wrinkling) and design under uncertainty. Margins of tearing and wrinkling are quantitatively defined via stress-based criteria for system-level design. The forming process utilizes drawbeads instead of using the blank holder force to restrain the blank. The main parameters of interest in this work are friction conditions, drawbead configurations, sheet metal properties, and numerical errors. A robust design model is created to conduct a probabilistic design, which is made possible for this complex engineering process via an efficient uncertainty propagation technique. The method called the weighted three-point-based method estimates the statistical characteristics (mean and variance) of the responses of interest (margins of failures), and provide a systematic approach in designing a sheet metal forming process under the framework of design under uncertainty

  11. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  12. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  13. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR.

  14. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 2 – Human response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Pastuszka, Zuzanna; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    The response of 24 subjects to the local environment established by localized chilled beam combined with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) was studied and compared with response to the environment generated by mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV) at two temperature conditions of 26°C and...

  15. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 1 – Physical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kosonen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the indoor environment generated by localized chilled beam coupled with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) and compares it with the environment generated by mixing ventilation coupled with chilled ceiling (CCMV). The experiments were performed in a mock-up of single office (4.1 m × 4...

  16. Breaking through the glass ceiling: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, S K

    1996-11-01

    Many companies have recognized that the workforce of the future will be significantly more diverse than in the past. A substantial number of these new employees will be women. Industry must create an environment that attracts the best, brightest, and most talented women and provide an environment that empowers them to reach their full potential. Barriers to advancement, such as the real or perceived "glass ceiling," inhibit the individual and ultimately negatively affect the company. Successful companies will recognize that gender diversity is a critical business strategy and implement aggressive programs to assist women in breaking through the glass ceiling. Gender diversity initiatives should include examination of quality of life issues, training and development, organizational policies and practices, and management accountability. Mentoring programs clearly play an important role in gender diversity programs. Personal mentoring experiences in academic and corporate environments, as well as a pilot mentoring program at Land O'Lakes, will be discussed.

  17. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H M A; Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software

  18. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  19. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang; Hu, Ping; Shen, Guozhe

    2013-01-01

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part

  20. Smashing into the Glass Ceiling for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Camilla; Gold, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 10 women administrators in a British metropolitan district council revealed the glass ceiling to be a complex phenomenon reaching beyond the employment sphere. Their career progression was hindered by lack of career counseling, family-work conflicts, lack of management development for women, and particularly a managerial culture…

  1. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  2. design and development of a soap stamping and tableting machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... for these two operations. The manual ... chine, the cutting and stamping operations were done at different .... slack side belt tensions Tj were determined as 131.66N and 162.71N for the .... vironmental Management, Vol. 6, No.

  3. Graphite-modified cooling ceiling. A comparative evaluation of the performance; Graphitmodifizierte Kuehldecken. Eine vergleichende Bewertung zur Leistungsfaehigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Gerd [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Hausladen, Gerhard [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Ingenieurbuero Hausladen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Jacobsen, Cornelia; Hutter, Christina; Hanusch, Christoph [Ingenieurbuero Hausladen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schlitzberger, Stephan [Ingenieurbuero fuer Bauphysik Prof. Dr. Hauser GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    In most cases, the utilization of graphite-modified building materials enhances their thermal conductivity. Thus, chilled ceiling systems achieve an enhanced thermal absorption in comparison to commercial chilled ceiling systems. For this, a simulation for the estimation of the thermal comfort as well as for the quantification of the impacts on the demand of electricity for the refrigeration is performed. The enhanced cooling capacity of the graphite-modified cooling ceiling 'Ecophit' affects the operation positively.

  4. Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout

  5. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. The PV alone can be used for room ventilation when applied in conjunction with ceiling radiant cooling system, which removes sensible heat loads...... from the space. Combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at air temperature higher than the recommended in the standards upper limit of 26°C (category II), because the operative temperature will be lower. However, combination of high air temperature...

  6. American Society of Mechanical Engineers' N stamp requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    Incorporated with ASME Section III, Nuclear Power Plant Components, is an Appendix on Quality Assurance Systems which includes provision for ASME surveys. Manufacturers and installers passing the survey successfully receive an N Symbol Stamp and an ASME Certificate of Authorization. An outline is given of the prerequisites for a survey to be scheduled and of the requirements and procedures adopted by the survey team. (U.K.)

  7. Effect of Al-Si Coating on Weld Microstructure and Properties of 22MnB5 Steel Joints for Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenhu; Li, Fang; Wu, Dongsheng; Chen, Xiaoguan; Hua, Xueming; Pan, Hua

    2018-03-01

    22MnB5 hot stamping steels are gradually being used in tailor-welded blank applications. In this experiment, 1-mm-thick Al-Si coated and de-coated 22MnB5 steels were laser-welded and then hot-stamped. The chemical compositions, solidification process, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated to reveal the effect of Al-Si coating and heat treatment. In the welded condition, the coated joints had an Al content of approximately 2.5 wt.% in the fusion zone and the de-coated joints had 0.5 wt.% Al. The aluminum promoted the δ-ferrite formation as the skeletal structure during solidification. In the high-aluminum weld, the microstructure consisted of martensite and long and band-like δ-ferrite. Meanwhile, the low-aluminum weld was full of lath martensite. After the hot stamping process, the δ-ferrite fraction increased from 10 to 24% in the coated joints and the lath martensite became finer in the de-coated joints. The tensile strengths of the coated joints or de-coated joints were similar to that before hot stamping, but the strength of the coated joints was reduced heavily after hot stamping compared to the de-coated joints and base material. The effect of δ-ferrite on the tensile properties became stronger when the fusion zone was soft and deformed first in the hot-stamped specimens. The coated weld showed a brittle fracture surface with many cleavage planes, and the de-coated weld showed a ductile fracture surface with many dimples in hot-stamped conditions.

  8. Importance of Electricity Transport Pricing in Liberalised Energy Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity has traditionally been supplied by vertically integrated companies providing generation, transmission and distribution services. Consumers have purchased a bundled commodity - delivered electricity - and there has been no need to price the components individually. This is no longer the case in competitive and unbundled electricity markets. One of the outstanding issues in the restructuring of the electricity markets is the way in which transmission costs are translated into tariffs. The efforts to create a single European electricity market are difficult to reconcile due to different national network pricing approaches. The European Commission's draft regulation on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges of electricity sets general principles for the pricing of international electricity exchanges. Nodal pricing provides incentives for an efficient use of generation and transmission assets. Experience shows that nodal pricing is workable, and its use may be expected to increase progressively. Postage stamp pricing does not generally provide adequate incentives for efficiency. However, inefficiencies may be small under certain conditions, and postage stamp pricing has the advantage of being relatively transparent and easy to implement. This paper presents an overview of objectives related to an effective design of transmission pricing approaches, of transmission pricing models and presents recent developments in Europe in this respect. Due to the great number of institutional designs of electricity market organisations, it will be difficult to design and implement a model of cross-border transmission pricing that results in a high degree of non-discriminatory international competition in electricity markets, a key objective of the Electricity Directive.(author)

  9. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  10. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  11. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  12. Breaking through the uncertainty ceiling in LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstwood, M.

    2016-12-01

    Sources of systematic uncertainty associated with session-to-session bias are the dominant contributor to the 2% (2s) uncertainty ceiling that currently limits the accuracy of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology. Sources include differential downhole fractionation (LIEF), `matrix effects' and ablation volume differences, which result in irreproducibility of the same reference material across sessions. Current mitigation methods include correcting for LIEF mathematically, using matrix-matched reference materials, annealing material to reduce or eliminate radiation damage effects and tuning for robust plasma conditions. Reducing the depth and volume of ablation can also mitigate these problems and should contribute to the reduction of the uncertainty ceiling. Reducing analysed volume leads to increased detection efficiency, reduced matrix-effects, eliminates LIEF, obviates ablation rate differences and reduces the likelihood of intercepting complex growth zones with depth, thereby apparently improving material homogeneity. High detection efficiencies (% level) and low sampling volumes (20um box, 1-2um deep) can now be achieved using MC-ICP-MS such that low volume ablations should be considered part of the toolbox of methods targeted at improving the reproducibility of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology. In combination with other strategies these improvements should be feasible on any ICP platform. However, reducing the volume of analysis reduces detected counts and requires a change of analytical approach in order to mitigate this. Appropriate strategies may include the use of high efficiency cell and torch technologies and the optimisation of acquisition protocols and data handling techniques such as condensing signal peaks, using log ratios and total signal integration. The tools required to break the 2% (2s) uncertainty ceiling in LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology are likely now known but require a coherent strategy and change of approach to combine their implementation and realise

  13. 26 CFR 301.7209-1 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., transfers, takes or gives in exchange, or pledges or gives in pledge, except as authorized in the Code or in regulations made pursuant thereto, any stamp, coupon, ticket, book, or other device prescribed by the...

  14. Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatier, Mareva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research, we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allowed us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that ...

  15. Glass Ceiling in the Workplace: An Analysis within the Stated-owned Enterprises and Multi-national Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Mengxi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, although the increasingly number of women has gained leadership positions, the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists in China, especially in multi-national enterprise. In brief, the road to the upper rungs for female is still challenging and difficult. Due to the nature of the enterprises, the performance of glass ceiling is different. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss different performance and influence of glass ceiling in the context of the multi-national enterprises (MN...

  16. Nanostructured submicron block copolymer dots by sacrificial stamping: a potential preconcentration platform for locally resolved sensing, chemistry and cellular interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Peilong; Han, Weijia; Philippi, Michael; Schäfer, Helmut; Steinhart, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Classical contact lithography involves patterning of surfaces by embossing or by transfer of ink. We report direct lithographic transfer of parts of sacrificial stamps onto counterpart surfaces. Using sacrificial stamps consisting of the block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), we deposited arrays of nanostructured submicron PS-b-P2VP dots with heights of about 100 nm onto silicon wafers and glass slides. The sacrificial PS-b-P2VP stamps were topographically patterned w...

  17. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  18. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  19. Has the Copayment Ceiling Improved Financial Protection in the Korean National Health Insurance System? Evidence From the 2009 Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Jin; Cheong, Chelim

    2017-11-01

    To relieve the financial burden faced by households, the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system introduced a "copayment ceiling," which evolved into a differential ceiling in 2009, with the copayment ceiling depending on patients' income. This study aimed to examine the effect of the differential copayment ceiling on financial protection and healthcare utilization, particularly focusing on whether its effects varied across different income groups. This study obtained data from the Korea Health Panel. The number of households included in the analysis was 6555 in 2008, 5859 in 2009, 5539 in 2010, and 5372 in 2011. To assess the effects of the differential copayment ceiling on utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, and catastrophic payments, various random-effects models were applied. Utilization was measured as treatment days, while catastrophic payments were defined as OOP payments exceeding 10% of household income. Among the right-hand side variables were the interaction terms of the new policy with income levels, as well as a set of household characteristics. The differential copayment ceiling contributed to increased utilization regardless of income levels both in all patients and in cancer patients. However, the new policy did not seem to reduce significantly the incidence of catastrophic payments among cancer patients, and even increased the incidence among all patients. The limited effect of the differential ceiling can be attributed to a high proportion of direct payments for services not covered by the NHI, as well as the relatively small number of households benefiting from the differential ceilings; these considerations warrant a better policy design.

  20. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  1. Time stamp technique using a nuclear emulsion multi-stage shifter for gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Rokujo, Hiroki; Hamada, Kaname; Komatsu, Masahiro; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Sato, Osamu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Kodama, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion has a potential use as a gamma-ray telescope with high angular resolution. For this application it is necessary to know the time when each track was recorded in the emulsion. In previous experiments using nuclear emulsion, various efforts were used to associate time to nuclear emulsion tracks and to improve the time resolution. Using a high speed readout system for nuclear emulsion together with a clock-based multi-stage emulsion shifter, we invented a technique to give a time-stamp to emulsion tracks and greatly improve the time resolution. A test experiment with a 2-stage shifter was used to demonstrate the principle of multi-stage shifting, and we achieved a time resolution 1.5 s for 12.1 h (about 1 part in 29 000) with the time stamp reliability 97% and the time stamp efficiency 98%. This multi-stage shifter can achieve the time resolution required for a gamma-ray telescope and can also be applied to another cosmic ray observations and accelerator experiments using nuclear emulsion.

  2. Studi Deskriptif Persepsi Karyawan Hotel Tentang Glass Ceiling Pada Wanita Dalam Pencapaian Jabatan Puncak Manajemen Hotel Di Kota Tanjung Selor

    OpenAIRE

    Merang, Merycona

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui persepsi karyawan hotel tentang glass ceiling pada wanita dalam pencapaian jabatan puncak manajemen hotel di kota Tanjung Selor. Glass ceiling memiliki enam variable yaitu diri sendiri, tingkat pendidikan, lingkungan keluarga, kesehatan, lingkungan sosial, dan lingkungan kerja.Teknik analisa yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif deskriptif, crosstab dan chi square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan, persepsi karyawan tentang glass ceil...

  3. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee

    2008-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold

  4. Comparative Analysis Of Mid-Level Women Managers Perception Of The Existence Of Glass Ceiling In Singaporean And Malaysian Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Skerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporean and Malaysian mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider t...

  5. Causal Analysis to a Subway Accident: A Comparison of STAMP and RAIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident investigation and analysis after the accident, vital to prevent the occurrence of similar accident and improve the safety of the system. Different methods led to a different understanding of the accident. In this paper, a subway accident was analysed with a systemic accident analysis model – STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Modelling and Processes. The hierarchical safety control structure was obtained, and the system-level safety constraints were obtained, controllers of the physical layer were analysed one by one, and put forward the relevant safety requirements and constraints, the dynamic analysis of the structure of the safety control is carried out, and the targeted recommendations are pointed out. In comparison with the analysis results obtained by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB. Some useful findings have been concluded. STAMP treats safety as a control problem and reduces or eliminates causes of the accident from the controlling perspective. Whereas RAIB obtains causes of the accident by analysing the sequence of events related to the accident and reasons of these events, then chooses one(or moreevent(s as the immediate cause and some of the key events as causal factors. RAIB analysis is based on the sequential event models, but STAMP analysis provides us with a holistic, dynamic way to control system to maintain safety.

  6. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration

  7. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri, E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Deleon Nascimento [Technical–Scientific Police Superintendency, Criminalistic Institute Dr. Octávio Eduardo de Brito Alvarenga—IC-SPTC-SP, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration.

  8. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  9. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...... with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences...

  10. Has the Copayment Ceiling Improved Financial Protection in the Korean National Health Insurance System? Evidence From the 2009 Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jin Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To relieve the financial burden faced by households, the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI system introduced a “copayment ceiling,” which evolved into a differential ceiling in 2009, with the copayment ceiling depending on patients’ income. This study aimed to examine the effect of the differential copayment ceiling on financial protection and healthcare utilization, particularly focusing on whether its effects varied across different income groups. Methods This study obtained data from the Korea Health Panel. The number of households included in the analysis was 6555 in 2008, 5859 in 2009, 5539 in 2010, and 5372 in 2011. To assess the effects of the differential copayment ceiling on utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP payments, and catastrophic payments, various random-effects models were applied. Utilization was measured as treatment days, while catastrophic payments were defined as OOP payments exceeding 10% of household income. Among the right-hand side variables were the interaction terms of the new policy with income levels, as well as a set of household characteristics. Results The differential copayment ceiling contributed to increased utilization regardless of income levels both in all patients and in cancer patients. However, the new policy did not seem to reduce significantly the incidence of catastrophic payments among cancer patients, and even increased the incidence among all patients. Conclusions The limited effect of the differential ceiling can be attributed to a high proportion of direct payments for services not covered by the NHI, as well as the relatively small number of households benefiting from the differential ceilings; these considerations warrant a better policy design.

  11. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  12. A diagnosis of discrimination. Women physicians and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, C

    1994-01-01

    Author Christy Sebastian writes about some of the limits facing women physicians, from the glass ceiling on down. She relates the limits faced by women physicians to the gender differences--both subtle and blatant--evident in society as a whole.

  13. Polymer microlens replication by Nanoimprint Lithography using proton beam fabricated Ni stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Kan, J.A. van; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    It is essential to have a simplified and a rapid method for fabricating micro/nano structures in different kinds of polymeric materials. Though it is possible to fabricate arrays of microlens directly by P beam writing (PBW), it is restricted to a few types of resist materials. Therefore we have fabricated a Ni electroplated metallic stamp comprising of arrays of inverse/negative features of microlenses. The metallic stamp of about 500 μm thick is made on a silicon wafer coated with 10 μm thick polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) resist and the desired structures are written by PBW followed by thermal reflow and Ni electroplating. An array of microlenses is imprinted on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate by the Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) technique and the replicated microlenses featuring various numerical apertures, diameters and pitches are characterized

  14. WOMEN WORKFORCE LOOKING THROUGH THE GLASS CEILING

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıçiçek, Reyhan; Çopuroğlu, Filiz; Aytekin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Women have begun to take part in business lifeintensively in the last century. However, despite the rapid rise in the numberof women in business world, the proportion of women among senior managers andleaders has been very low. Research on the subject demonstrates that women facedifficulties called ‘Glass Ceiling’, which cannot be seen apparently and at thesame time which is hard to overcome in order to reach the senior executivepositions. Glass ceiling refers to the difficulties that take pl...

  15. Leco. Thermo-active Ceilings & Free Cooling. Using free cooling in combination with thermo-active ceilings for integrated heating and cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mark Allen

    2010-01-01

    The largest potential for decreasing green house gas emissions, and therewith mitigating the effects of global climate change, comes from improving energy efficiency. Through the integration of heating and cooling systems into building elements, such as the thermo-active ceiling, improvements in energy efficiency can be achieved. Utilizing thermal mass to buffer temperature variations and to level out peak loads reduces the instantaneous power demands and enables traditional cooling e...

  16. Leco. Thermo-active Ceilings & Free Cooling. Using free cooling in combination with thermo-active ceilings for integrated heating and cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mark Allen

    2010-01-01

    - The largest potential for decreasing green house gas emissions, and therewith mitigating the effects of global climate change, comes from improving energy efficiency. Through the integration of heating and cooling systems into building elements, such as the thermo-active ceiling, improvements in energy efficiency can be achieved. Utilizing thermal mass to buffer temperature variations and to level out peak loads reduces the instantaneous power demands and enables traditional cool...

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excess of ceiling amount. 1.501(h)-3 Section 1.501(h)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 501(h) for determining whether an organization that has...

  18. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    . The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... with swirling flow generates a flow pattern in the room which is rather uninfluenced by the thermal load. The flow is highly mixed above the occupied zone and the air movement penetrates the occupied zone close to the walls. All systems are tested in the same room with the same heat load consisting of two...... manikins, each sitting at a desk, two pc's and two desk lamps producing a total heat load of 480 W. The design of the air distribution system is in all five cases based on flow elements from the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room...

  19. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  20. Disruption of Ttll5/stamp gene (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like protein 5/SRC-1 and TIF2-associated modulatory protein gene) in male mice causes sperm malformation and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; He, Yuanzheng; Dougherty, Edward J; Jimenez-Movilla, Maria; Avella, Matteo; Grullon, Sean; Sharlin, David S; Guo, Chunhua; Blackford, John A; Awasthi, Smita; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Armstrong, Stephen P; London, Edra C; Chen, Weiping; Dean, Jurrien; Simons, S Stoney

    2013-05-24

    TTLL5/STAMP (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5) has multiple activities in cells. TTLL5 is one of 13 TTLLs, has polyglutamylation activity, augments the activity of p160 coactivators (SRC-1 and TIF2) in glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene induction and repression, and displays steroid-independent growth activity with several cell types. To examine TTLL5/STAMP functions in whole animals, mice were prepared with an internal deletion that eliminated several activities of the Stamp gene. This mutation causes both reduced levels of STAMP mRNA and C-terminal truncation of STAMP protein. Homozygous targeted mutant (Stamp(tm/tm)) mice appear normal except for marked decreases in male fertility associated with defects in progressive sperm motility. Abnormal axonemal structures with loss of tubulin doublets occur in most Stamp(tm/tm) sperm tails in conjunction with substantial reduction in α-tubulin polyglutamylation, which closely correlates with the reduction in mutant STAMP mRNA. The axonemes in other structures appear unaffected. There is no obvious change in the organs for sperm development of WT versus Stamp(tm/tm) males despite the levels of WT STAMP mRNA in testes being 20-fold higher than in any other organ examined. This defect in male fertility is unrelated to other Ttll genes or 24 genes previously identified as important for sperm function. Thus, STAMP appears to participate in a unique, tissue-selective TTLL-mediated pathway for α-tubulin polyglutamylation that is required for sperm maturation and motility and may be relevant for male fertility.

  1. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  2. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Chun, Changmook; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Seung Hak; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2017-10-17

    Swallowing impairment is a common complication in various geriatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Swallowing kinematic analysis is essential to quantitatively evaluate the swallowing motion of the oropharyngeal structures. This study aims to develop a novel swallowing kinematic analysis software, called spatio-temporal analyzer for motion and physiologic study (STAMPS), and verify its validity and reliability. STAMPS was developed in MATLAB, which is one of the most popular platforms for biomedical analysis. This software was constructed to acquire, process, and analyze the data of swallowing motion. The target of swallowing structures includes bony structures (hyoid bone, mandible, maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus. Numerous functions are available for the spatiotemporal parameters of the swallowing structures. Testing for validity and reliability was performed in 10 dysphagia patients with diverse etiologies and using the instrumental swallowing model which was designed to mimic the motion of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis. The intra- and inter-rater reliability tests showed excellent agreement for displacement and moderate to excellent agreement for velocity. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the measured and instrumental reference values were nearly 1.00 (P software is expected to be useful for researchers who are interested in the swallowing motion analysis.

  3. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  4. Astronomia.pl: Ideas for the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, K.; Pomierny, J.

    2008-06-01

    Astronomia.pl is an internet portal for Polish-speaking people. As a website, most of our activities in IYA2009 will focus on the internet and other electronic media. We will prepare a content-rich website, in cooperation with the Polish committee for IYA2009. We present some extended suggestions for ideas proposed by the IAU, like postage stamps or mobile phone wallpapers, ring tones and themes and some original propositions like naming a small Solar System body for each country, a computer game, a stadium as a solar clock, a media event with thousands of amateur astronomers in one place and a network of cities.

  5. Determination of Unit Pressure Force in Material Volume in the Course of Refractory Stamping Press Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.

  6. Breaking the Educational Glass Ceiling: An Interview with Harry Lenderman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Harry; Sandelands, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To examine the role that corporations can and are playing in removing restrictions to a college or university education for their employees - the educational glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach - An interview format is used with an experienced academic, and learning and development practitioner, drawing upon experiences and…

  7. An Integrated Numerical and Experimental Analysis for Enhancing the Performance of the Hidden Ceiling Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheam-Chyun Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the inlet and outlet of hidden ceiling fan are almost located at the same Plane; thus, an improper housing may cause inhale-return phenomenon which significantly affects its power consumption and performance. In this study, a comprehensive investigation by numerical and experimental techniques was used to predict and identify the flow pattern, airflow rate, efficiency, and noise for ceiling fans with different design parameters. The results showed that the unique inhale-return phenomenon happens for an inappropriate housing. Several key parameters, such as fan guard, housing ring, inlet-to-outlet area ratio, and blockage height, are evaluated for finding out the criterion to avoid the inhale-return flow. Consequently the study finds that fan guard changes the airflow to a wider distribution with a lower velocity. A minimum blockage distance and a maximum height of ring-plate are set at 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. Also, it is suggested that the inlet area must be bigger than the outlet area. Moreover, all the parameters show the same trend under various rotational speeds. In conclusion, this systematic investigation not only provides the fan engineer's design ability to avoid the inhale-return phenomenon, but also the predicting capability on its aerodynamic and acoustic performances.

  8. Silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp fabrication by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon oxide nanoimprint stamp employing edge lithography in combination with silicon nitride deposition is presented. The fabrication process is based on conventional photolithography an weg etching methods. Nanoridges with width dimension of sub-20 nm were fabricated by edge

  9. [Impact of passing items above the ceiling on the assessment results of Peabody developmental motor scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gai; Bian, Yang; Li, Ming

    2013-12-18

    To analyze the impact of passing items above the roof level in the gross motor subtest of Peabody development motor scales (PDMS-2) on its assessment results. In the subtests of PDMS-2, 124 children from 1.2 to 71 months were administered. Except for the original scoring method, a new scoring method which includes passing items above the ceiling were developed. The standard scores and quotients of the two scoring methods were compared using the independent-samples t test. Only one child could pass the items above the ceiling in the stationary subtest, 19 children in the locomotion subtest, and 17 children in the visual-motor integration subtest. When the scores of these passing items were included in the raw scores, the total raw scores got the added points of 1-12, the standard scores added 0-1 points and the motor quotients added 0-3 points. The diagnostic classification was changed only in two children. There was no significant difference between those two methods about motor quotients or standard scores in the specific subtest (P>0.05). The passing items above a ceiling of PDMS-2 isn't a rare situation. It usually takes place in the locomotion subtest and visual-motor integration subtest. Including these passing items into the scoring system will not make significant difference in the standard scores of the subtests or the developmental motor quotients (DMQ), which supports the original setting of a ceiling established by upassing 3 items in a row. However, putting the passing items above the ceiling into the raw score will improve tracking of children's developmental trajectory and intervention effects.

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of providing a special subsistence allowance to military personnel who qualify for food stamps

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Curtis A., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Recent reports cite that military Food Stamp Program beneficiaries may range from 6,400 to 20,000. The need for food stamps has been attributed to several factors, one of which is the perceived military "pay gap". Although, significant strides have been made in recent years to improve quality of life for our service men and women and their families, the military pay system tends to lag behind the civilian employment cost growth index. ...

  11. Fabrication of a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress and high hardness for large area display applications by a pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joongeok; Han, Jungjin; Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Shinill

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for large scale micro/nano components in the fields of display, energy and electrical devices, etc, the establishment of a roll imprinting process has become a priority. The fabrication of a roll stamp with high dimensional accuracy and uniformity is one of the key issues in the roll imprinting process, because the roll stamp determines the properties of the replicated micro/nano structures. In this study, a method to fabricate a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress, high flatness, and high hardness was proposed by a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. The effects of PRC electroforming processes on the internal stress, hardness, and grain size of the electroformed stamp were examined, and the optimum process conditions were suggested. As a practical example of the proposed method, various micro-patterns for electronic circuits were fabricated via the roll imprinting process using a PRC electroformed stamp. (paper)

  12. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    OpenAIRE

    Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate ...

  13. A burial with a stamp seal depicting a Bes-like figure from Abusir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulíková, V.; Odler, M.; Březinová, Helena; Havelková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 15 (2015), s. 69-75 ISSN 1214-3189 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Abusir * Old Kingdom * First Intermediate Period * stamp seal * amulet * Bes * reed coffin * entheses Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  15. Ceiling of care decisions at an older person's mental health unit in Gloucestershire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Philip; Rose, Anneka

    2015-01-01

    This quality improvement project was inspired as an answer to a problem that many fellow psychiatric trainees had been struggling with while on-call covering the old age mental health hospital which includes a specialist dementia ward. The issue was that decisions around ceilings of care for patients were often not discussed or at least recorded in the electronic notes and as a result when reviewing deteriorating patients out of hours trainees would find themselves without any guidance on the treating medics opinion on what was in the best interests of the patient. This led to situations where unnecessary transfers to the acute hospital would occur overnight which could have been avoided with more consistent planning. Prior to initiating the changes it was recorded that nine out of 47 inpatients had documented decisions on ceiling of care of treatment in the consultant's ward round entries. Next policies from acute hospitals were reviewed, opinions were discussed in departmental meetings, and eventually there was agreed a change in procedure with the consultant on the dementia ward around resuscitation and ceiling of care status and consistent recording of this. Following the intervention there was seen an improvement in the recording of decisions around treatment and transfer of patients on the dementia ward of 80% (4/5) fully compliant with new criteria and then 71% (5/7) in successive cycles. Further communication both with relevant professionals on the old age ward and with the trainees on the on-call rota will be necessary to sustain any change but the centralised recording of resuscitation status and ceiling of care in the ward round entries have provided much more guidance than was previously available. In the future it may be possible to spread this policy throughout the entire old age mental health unit.

  16. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombuwela P. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the same time, hypotheses are developed to find out whether there is a significant effect of Individual Factors, Family Factors, Organizational Factors and Cultural Factors on Women Career development. Merely this study has been completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and the sample consisted of 150 women executives. For presenting and analyzing the data both descriptive andinferential statistics were used. The findings reveal that the Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development have a moderate negative relationship, and also show that Individual Factors, OrganizationalFactors and Cultural Factors have a significant effect on Women Career Development whereas Family Factor has effects on the Glass Ceiling. Following the study results, a conclusion was eventually made that there are significant effects of the Glass Ceiling on WomenCareer Development of Executive level female employees working in private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. By taking all these facts into consideration, better recommendations have been made in this study. Finally, the most valuable suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study have been outlined.

  17. Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Tina C.; Beehr, Terry A.; Hansen, Curtiss P.; Webster, Jennica

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling refers to the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels. The present study examined managers' potential explanations, implicit or explicit, for why women rarely reach the top hierarchical levels in their own organization. Among 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, a model was…

  18. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Ploeg, Michele L; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between misperception of body weight and sociodemographic factors such as food stamp participation status, income, education, and race/ethnicity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004 and multivariate logistic regression are used to estimate how sociodemographic factors are associated with (i) the probability that overweight adults misperceive themselves as healthy weight; (ii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as underweight; and (iii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as overweight. NHANES data are representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The analysis included 4,362 men and 4,057 women. BMI derived from measured weight and height was used to classify individuals as healthy weight or overweight. These classifications were compared with self-reported categorical weight status. We find that differences across sociodemographic characteristics in the propensity to underestimate or overestimate weight status were more pronounced for women than for men. Overweight female food stamp participants were more likely to underestimate weight status than income-eligible nonparticipants. Among healthy-weight and overweight women, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women, and women with less education were more likely to underestimate actual weight status. We found few differences across sociodemographic characteristics for men. Misperceptions of weight are common among both overweight and healthy-weight individuals and vary across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The nutrition education component of the Food Stamp Program could increase awareness of healthy body weight among participants.

  19. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling.

  20. Circumventing the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives in American State Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Angela M.; Wright, Deil S.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 1984 (n=489) and 1988 (n=658) surveys show that female executives in state government have progressed in top positions in certain types of agencies, but much progress has occurred by avoiding, not breaking, the glass ceiling. Most notable male-female differences are in party affiliation, age, interagency mobility, career progress, and…

  1. Reduced energy reqirement for air conditioning by using air diffusion with air flow from floor to ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H; Dittes, W; Mangelsdorf, R; Detzer, R; Jungbaeck, E; Fitzner, K; Radtke, W; Soethout, F

    1982-02-01

    The condition of the air in the occupied zone in airconditioned rooms is influenced by the mixing of supply air with room air. When supplying air from the ceiling there is a mixing all over the room, when supplying from the floor or from desks there is a mixing region only in the lower area. Above this their is warm air from which the return air is drawn. For air supply from below the cooling load can be decreased. In combination with the possible enthalpy difference between room air and supply air this decrease of the cooling load influences the necessary air rate. The interdependence of various air conditioning systems and various air temperatures is shown with a computer program. The load factor for various air distribution system at various cooling loads have been measured in a room of (8 x 5)m/sup 2/ x 3m. Experiments in a smaller model room (scale 1:3) showed how the heat was transported from the mixing region to the stratification region. The theoretically gained influence of the supply air jets of the height of the mixing region and on the load rate could be verified by the experiments. For the design of the fresh air rate, experience has been gained by measurements with tracegas (N/sub 2/O) in a third room. In comparing calculations the annual energy consumption has been computed for a building assuming various air conditioning systems and typical operation data. From experience with the existing systems the conclusions have been drawn how air distribution from floor to ceiling can be installed and operated.

  2. Breakthrough: The Career Woman's Guide to Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Margaret L.

    This practical guide for all working women shows the reader how to recognize the barriers likely to confront her and to find the most effective way of breaking through. Chapter 1 summarizes causes of the glass ceiling and provides pointers on recognizing which situations are likely to cause problems. Chapter 2 helps the reader to understand her…

  3. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, I.; Correlje, A.; Huerta, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain

  5. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  6. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  7. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Misawa AB, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-03

    CODES DIST AVAIL AND/OR SPECIAL DATE ACCESSIONED DISTRIBUTION STAMP DATE RECEIVED IN DTIC PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT...UOOIM.S FORM AM )W Ii. ’I - GLUdFAL CLIvlsTOLO0Y BRANCH ,SE V f-A’ CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYiAIA ,,.,Te .. SEF-VICI/MAC ~ ’ ISAIA AS JP

  8. Collusion through Price Ceilings? In Search of a Focal-Point Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmann, D.; Müller, W.

    2008-01-01

    With this study we resume the search for a collusive focal-point effect of price ceilings in laboratory markets. We argue that market conditions in previous studies were unfavorable for collusion which may have been responsible for not finding such a focal-point effect. Our design aims at maximizing

  9. Collusion through price ceilings? In search of a focal-point effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmann, D.; Müller, W.

    2011-01-01

    We resume the search for a collusive focal-point effect of price ceilings in laboratory markets. We argue that market conditions in previous studies were unfavorable for collusion which may have been responsible for not finding such a focal-point effect. Our design aims at maximizing the likelihood

  10. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified by the Commandant; or (2) Listed by Underwriters Laboratories, does not exceed 2 millimeters (.075...) or UL 723 by an independent laboratory. (c) Bulkheads, linings, and ceilings in high risk... reasonable number of coats of paint or with a marine finish meeting the requirements of § 164.012 in...

  12. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, C.; Caldon, R.; Lorenzoni, A.

    1999-01-01

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them [it

  13. 77 FR 72960 - International Mail: Product Rate and Fee Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ..., English, Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, and/ or Russian. 381.2 Previously Sold Coupons and Exchange Value The... postage validation imprinter (PVI) label, and dispatch it to the appropriate International Service Center...

  14. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  15. Influence of temperature and friction on the 22MnB5 formability under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturato, G.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2018-05-01

    The need to increase the safety and decrease the weight of the car body-in-white has determined the success of the direct hot stamping process as a primary technology for the automotive sector. Thanks to this process, parts with high strength-to-weight ratio can be obtained along with high stiffness and increase of the crashworthiness properties. Moreover, the thinner metal sheets used to manufacture the pieces lead to a decrease of the total weight of the car body-in-white, with a consequent reduction of the CO2 emissions. The direct hot stamping process is becoming the key to obtain pieces with high mechanical properties, thanks to the quenching stage that allows the manufacture of complex shapes characterized by a fully martensitic structure, thanks to the forming stage at elevated temperature and subsequent hardening inside the cooled dies. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the influence that the forming temperature may have on the formability of 22MnB5 steel sheets, commonly used in the hot stamping process of automotive components. Nakajima tests were carried out at different temperatures and the Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) at rupture were obtained and analysed. The temperature influenced both the major and the minor strain at which the sheet failed, indicating that not only the formability increased at increasing temperature, but there was also a modification of the strain path, which means a modification of the strain states through which the part passes during the deformation process. Moreover, the influence of friction is studied using a model developed in the LS-Dyna FEM environment. The obtained data are of great importance for an accurate calibration of Finite Element (FE) models of the hot stamping of real components in order to get optimal process parameters to obtain defects-free pieces.

  16. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  17. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Spaces with high occupant densities result in high heat gains and need for relatively high air change rate.By means of traditional mechanical ventilation diffusers it becomes a challenge to supply large amountsof fresh air into the space without creating a local discomfort for occupants. One...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow...

  18. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bombuwela P. M.; De Alwis A. Chamaru

    2013-01-01

    The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the...

  19. Tribological behavior of a new green industrial lubricant for stamping operations - Application to Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteri, A.; Borgeot, M.; Roizard, X.; Lallemand, F.; Melot, J.-M.; Morand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Thanks to a fruitful collaboration between different academic and industrial research entities, a new green lubricant solution AFULudine has been developed for stamping operations in substitution to the usual mineral oils, with the idea and the wish to combine different essential properties such as a low environmental impact and ease-of-use according to the market needs and the more and more restrictive environmental legislation (e.g. REACH). Based on the Self-Assembled-Monolayer (SAM) principle and so, on a perfect control of the chemical reaction between the solution and the substrate (grafting of molecules onto the surface), AFULudine offers an efficient technical answer for improving stamping processes. The present study, focused on stainless steel stampings (comparison between a 441-1.4509 grade and a 304-1.4301 grade), investigates the performances of this new green industrial lubricant at different levels: from laboratory tests to industrial conditions through the production of hundreds of parts. Additional results coming from tests made on a rotational pin- on-disk tribometer will allow us to appreciate and retrieve more local information about the tribofilm creation during sliding. Moreover, the comparison with different mineral oils currently used at industrial scale, will strengthen the AFULudine performances. Indeed, this new solution usually outperforms a majority of such oils whatever their viscosity and their own composition: formulation, content of extreme pressure additives (Cl, S, P)...

  20. Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szewieczek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland The paper analyzes the glass ceiling phenomenon in the accounting practice in Poland. The essence and characteristics of this phenomenon are presented in relation to the accounting profession and statutory auditors. Research on the ‘glass ceiling’ carried out in various countries, with a particular reference to the profession of a statutory auditor, was reviewed. The paper presents results of the research on the phenomenon conducted among a selected sample of audit firms in Poland. The results of the study confirmed the occurrence of this phenomenon in Poland with greater intensity in larger entities. The large scale of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the professional life of women in accounting is reflected by a high percentage of women in the profession of statutory auditor contrasted by the very low participation in senior managerial positions, e.g. partners in auditing companies. The paper uses the method of critical analysis of the literature and empirical data. Moreover, qualitative analysis was used for the data reported by audit firms

  1. Disruption of Ttll5/Stamp Gene (Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase-like Protein 5/SRC-1 and TIF2-associated Modulatory Protein Gene) in Male Mice Causes Sperm Malformation and Infertility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; He, Yuanzheng; Dougherty, Edward J.; Jimenez-Movilla, Maria; Avella, Matteo; Grullon, Sean; Sharlin, David S.; Guo, Chunhua; Blackford, John A.; Awasthi, Smita; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Armstrong, Stephen P.; London, Edra C.; Chen, Weiping; Dean, Jurrien; Simons, S. Stoney

    2013-01-01

    TTLL5/STAMP (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5) has multiple activities in cells. TTLL5 is one of 13 TTLLs, has polyglutamylation activity, augments the activity of p160 coactivators (SRC-1 and TIF2) in glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene induction and repression, and displays steroid-independent growth activity with several cell types. To examine TTLL5/STAMP functions in whole animals, mice were prepared with an internal deletion that eliminated several activities of the Stamp gene. This mutation causes both reduced levels of STAMP mRNA and C-terminal truncation of STAMP protein. Homozygous targeted mutant (Stamptm/tm) mice appear normal except for marked decreases in male fertility associated with defects in progressive sperm motility. Abnormal axonemal structures with loss of tubulin doublets occur in most Stamptm/tm sperm tails in conjunction with substantial reduction in α-tubulin polyglutamylation, which closely correlates with the reduction in mutant STAMP mRNA. The axonemes in other structures appear unaffected. There is no obvious change in the organs for sperm development of WT versus Stamptm/tm males despite the levels of WT STAMP mRNA in testes being 20-fold higher than in any other organ examined. This defect in male fertility is unrelated to other Ttll genes or 24 genes previously identified as important for sperm function. Thus, STAMP appears to participate in a unique, tissue-selective TTLL-mediated pathway for α-tubulin polyglutamylation that is required for sperm maturation and motility and may be relevant for male fertility. PMID:23558686

  2. Glass ceiling effects: the case of taiwanese top executives

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-i Wang; Jennjou Chen

    2010-01-01

    Gender discrimination in labor markets has been an important issue in labor economics. The main purpose of this paper is to empirically study glass ceiling effects, and investigate whether female workers are indeed being discriminated against, particularly during the promotion process, in top management positions in Taiwan. This paper uses data from 4,485 large firms in Taiwan to study whether there are gender preferences when the chairperson of a company chooses a chief executive officer (CE...

  3. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  4. Does drywall installers' innovative idea reduce the ergonomic exposures of ceiling installation: A field case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Priyadarshini Sengupta; Punnett, Laura; Moir, Susan; Kuhn, Sarah; Buchholz, Bryan

    2016-07-01

    The study was conducted to assess an intervention suggested by the workers to reduce the physical or ergonomic exposures of the drywall installation task. The drywall installers were asked to brainstorm on innovative ideas that could reduce their ergonomic exposures during the drywall installation work. The workers proposed the idea of using a 'deadman' (narrow panel piece) to hold the panels to the ceiling while installing them. The researcher collected quantitative exposure data (PATH, 3DSSPP) at the baseline and intervention phases and compared the phases to find out any change in the exposure while using the 'deadman'. Results showed that ergonomic exposures (such as overhead arm and awkward trunk postures and heavy load handling) were reduced at the intervention phase while using the 'deadman' with an electrically operated lift. The concept of the 'deadman', which was shown to help reduce musculoskeletal exposures during ceiling installation, can be used to fabricate a permanent ergonomic tool to support the ceiling drywall panel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chuan Gang; Li, Ying Zhen; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of tunnel cross section together with ventilation velocity was studied. • Ceiling temperature varies clearly with tunnel height, but little with tunnel width. • Downstream temperature decreases with increasing tunnel dimensions. • HRR is an important factor that influences decay rate of excess gas temperature. • An equation considering both tunnel dimensions and HRR was developed. - Abstract: Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10 m long with varying width (0.3 m, 0.45 m and 0.6 m) and height (0.25 m and 0.4 m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100 MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  6. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  7. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  8. Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, K S; Thompson, D E

    1997-06-01

    In this study the authors compare career and work experiences of executive women and men. Female (n = 51) and male (n = 56) financial services executives in comparable jobs were studied through archival information on organizational outcomes and career histories, and survey measures of work experiences. Similarities were found in several organizational outcomes, such as compensation, and many work attitudes. Important differences were found, however, with women having less authority, receiving fewer stock options, and having less international mobility than men. Women at the highest executive levels reported more obstacles than lower level women. The gender differences coupled with women's lower satisfaction with future career opportunities raise questions about whether women are truly above the glass ceiling or have come up against a 2nd, higher ceiling.

  9. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Making Healthy Food Choices Easier: Ideas From Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...

  10. Expatriate Glass Ceiling : The Perception of Malaysian Female Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from research has repeatedly pointed to the small number of women managers sent on expatriation. The percentage of female expatriates during the 1990’s was as low as 14% of all expatriate managers (Windham/NFTC, 1997). Researchers found that, similar to the glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching top management levels, there seems to be another glass barrier that stops them from taking up international assignments. This subtle, invisible barrier has been referred to as the ex...

  11. Policy statement on gas distribution in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-30

    This paper presented Nova Scotia's policy related to gas distribution. The government of Nova Scotia views natural gas as an economic enabler and is committed to ensuring that natural gas is available and accessible to Nova Scotians where it is economically feasible. Natural gas will give the province an efficient and clean burning energy supply that will make existing businesses more competitive. The province will support and facilitate the construction and operation of a gas distribution system by the private sector and will ensure that there is regulatory oversight by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board to protect the public interest. The government will also develop a plan for early conversion of government buildings to natural gas. This paper described the province's policy on gas distribution in relation to: (1) a province-wide franchise, (2) a supplemental franchise, (3) cost of service/performance based rates, (4) postage stamp rates, (5) a Maritimes and Northeast lateral policy, (6) direct access/bypass, (7) existing direct access user, (8) bundling of gas sales and other products and services, (9) licensing of gas marketers, (10) benefits, (11), regulatory efficiency, (12) municipal taxes, and (13) municipal operating agreements.

  12. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-01-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful. PMID:21765568

  13. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  14. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-7T - Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). 1.103(n)-7T Section 1.103(n)-7T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-7T Election to allocate State ceiling to... amount that would have been New York's State ceiling (as defined in section 103(n)(4) and A-1 of § 1.103...

  15. Women and work : an exploratory study on problems and perspectives relating to the apparent inability of women teachers to break through the glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. The aim of this research is to determine whether a glass ceiling does exist in education, and if so, possible reasons why women teachers fail to break through the so-called "glass ceiling". Objectives The objectives identified include the following: To determine historical perspectives on women and work To explore the incidence of glass ceilings To ascertain the value the Department of Education places on women teachers To determine by means of questionnaires whether there is a 'gla...

  16. Complete Model-Based Equivalence Class Testing for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new test model written in SysML and an associated blackbox test suite for the Ceiling Speed Monitor (CSM) of the European Train Control System (ETCS). The model is publicly available and intended to serve as a novel benchmark for investigating new testing theories...

  17. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... consumers' decisions about purchasing air conditioning equipment. For example: How much more or less likely are consumers to own or purchase an air conditioner if they already have a ceiling fan? How much more... and to facilitate this process, DOE has identified several related issues in this RFI on which DOE...

  18. Organic thin film transistors and polymer light-emitting diodes patterned by polymer inking and stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dawen; Guo, L Jay

    2008-01-01

    To fully realize the advantages of organic flexible electronics, patterning is very important. In this paper we show that a purely additive patterning technique, termed polymer inking and stamping, can be used to pattern conductive polymer PEDOT and fabricate sub-micron channel length organic thin film transistors. In addition, we applied the technique to transfer a stack of metal/conjugated polymer in one step and fabricated working polymer light-emitting devices. Based on the polymer inking and stamping technique, a roll-to-roll printing for high throughput fabrication has been demonstrated. We investigated and explained the mechanism of this process based on the interfacial energy consideration and by using the finite element analysis. This technique can be further extended to transfer more complex stacked layer structures, which may benefit the research on patterning on flexible substrates

  19. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Field measurements of moisture variation in cold ventilated attics with different ceiling constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Adding insulation material on ceilings against cold ventilated attics is one of the most straightforward tasks of adding insulation. Theoretically, a higher amount of insulation in the attic decreases the temperature and consequently the capability of removing infiltrated indoor humid air. Field...

  1. Between Meditation and Propaganda. Explicit and Implicit Religious Imagery in Baroque Ceiling Painting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1/2 (2011), s. 11-28 ISSN 1408-0419 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/0745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque * ceiling painting * iconography * church Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. Effects of Pre-Strain on the Aging Behavior of Al 7075 Alloy for Hot-Stamping Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ho Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the significance of pre-strain on the T6 aging behavior of an Al 7075 alloy for evaluating the applicability of hot stamping. In practice, the alloy was pre-strained up to 15% during solution heat treatment at 480 °C prior to quenching, and artificial aging was conducted at 120 °C. The peak aging time and precipitation behavior were compared with the alloy with pre-straining at room temperature after quenching but immediately before the artificial aging. The results showed that increasing amounts of pre-strain tend to reduce the aging time up to 50% for achieving peak hardness, which is consistent with the alloy at the T6 condition. There is a limitation for the maximum attainable amount of pre-strain of 10% for the homogeneous distribution of strain when the alloy is strained at room temperature (RT due to the low formability. The pre-strained alloy as hot stamping exhibited lowering of the peak reaction temperatures for dissolution and formation of Guinier–Preston (GP-Zones and precipitated with increasing amounts of pre-strain towards 15% through the differential scanning calorimetry analysis, thereby confirming the shortening of the peak aging time. The present study confirms the excellent potential of the hot-stamping process to extend the capability of an Al 7075 alloy.

  3. Comparison of the methods for calculating the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Kunmin; Wang, Bin; Chang, Ying; Tang, Xinghui; Yan, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hot stamping experimentation and three methods for calculating the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient (IHTC) of 22MnB5 boron steel. Comparison of the calculation results shows an average error of 7.5% for the heat balance method, 3.7% for the Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method (the Beck's method), and 10.3% for the finite-element-analysis-based optimization method (the FEA method). The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying the IHTC in hot stamping applications. The numerical simulation using the IHTC identified by the Beck's method can predict the temperature field with a high accuracy. - Highlights: • A theoretical formula was derived for direct calculation of IHTC. • The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying IHTC. • Finite element method can be used to identify an overall equivalent IHTC

  4. Rent sharing as a driver of the glass ceiling effect

    OpenAIRE

    Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that rent sharing plays a role in accounting for the glass ceiling effect. We make use of a unique employer-employee panel database for Italy from 1996 to 2003, which allows controlling for observed individual and firm heterogeneity and for collective bargaining. Moreover, by means of IV quantile fixed effects estimates we can cope with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity. We then go on to discuss the possible related explanations.

  5. Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat I9ad, and in...

  6. Combined effect of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel on dynamic performance of turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear mathematical model and Hopf bifurcation analysis of turbine regulating system are presented. • Dynamic performance of turbine regulating system under 0.5 times Thoma sectional area is analyzed and a novel dynamic performance is revealed. • Relationship between two bifurcation lines and wave superposition is studied. • Combined effect mechanisms of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel on stability are revealed and optimization methods are proposed. - Abstract: Based on the nonlinear mathematical model of the turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant with upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel and the Hopf bifurcation theory, this paper firstly studies the dynamic performance of the turbine regulating system under 0.5 times Thoma sectional area of surge chamber, and reveals a novel dynamic performance. Then, the relationship between the two bifurcation lines and the wave superposition of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel is analyzed. Finally, the effect mechanisms of the wave superposition on the system stability are investigated, and the methods to improve the system stability are proposed. The results indicate that: Under the combined effect of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel, the dynamic performance of the turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant shows an obvious difference on the two sides of the critical sectional area of surge chamber. There are two bifurcation lines for the condition of 0.5 times Thoma sectional area, i.e. Bifurcation line 1 and Bifurcation line 2, which represent the stability characteristics of the flow oscillation of “penstock-sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel” and the water-level fluctuation in upstream surge chamber, respectively. The stable domain of the system is determined by Bifurcation line 2. The effect of upstream surge chamber mainly depends on its sectional area, while the

  7. 18 CFR 342.4 - Other rate changing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other rate changing methodologies. 342.4 Section 342.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... regard to the applicable ceiling level under § 342.3. (b) Market-based rates. A carrier may attempt to...

  8. From the glass door to the glass ceiling: An analysis of the gender wage gap by age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dalla Chiara; Eleonora Matteazzi; Ilaria Petrarca

    2014-01-01

    Using 2009 EU-SILC data for France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, we decompose the gender wage gap for prime age workers. We adopt an age group approach to identify when and how the glass door and the glass ceiling effects arise and their persistency over time. The empirical results verify that the raw gender wage gap increases with age. In all considered countries, the glass ceiling effect is completely realized by the age of 30 and increases over time. French, Italian and B...

  9. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.

  10. Tiny Devices Project Sharp, Colorful Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Displaytech Inc., based in Longmont, Colorado and recently acquired by Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, first received a Small Business Innovation Research contract in 1993 from Johnson Space Center to develop tiny, electronic, color displays, called microdisplays. Displaytech has since sold over 20 million microdisplays and was ranked one of the fastest growing technology companies by Deloitte and Touche in 2005. Customers currently incorporate the microdisplays in tiny pico-projectors, which weigh only a few ounces and attach to media players, cell phones, and other devices. The projectors can convert a digital image from the typical postage stamp size into a bright, clear, four-foot projection. The company believes sales of this type of pico-projector may exceed $1.1 billion within 5 years.

  11. The TESS Input Catalog and Selection of Targets for the TESS Transit Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Paegert, Martin; Oelkers, Ryan; De Lee, Nathan Michael; Torres, Guillermo; TESS Target Selection Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The TESS mission will photometrically survey millions of the brightest stars over almost the entire the sky to detect transiting exoplanets. A key step to enable that search is the creation of the TESS Input Catalog (TIC), a compiled catalog of 700 million stars and galaxies with observed and calculated parameters. From the TIC we derive the Candidate Target List (CTL) to identify target stars for the 2-minute TESS postage stamps. The CTL is designed to identify the best stars for the detection of small planets, which includes all bright cool dwarf stars in the sky. I will describe the target selection strategy, the distribution of stars in the current CTL, and how both the TIC and CTL will expand and improve going forward.

  12. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health.

  13. Titanium nitride stamps replicating nanoporous anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Sanchez, O; Asenjo, A; Jaafar, M; Baldonedo, J L; Vazquez, M; Hernandez-Velez, M

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructured TiN films by magnetron sputtering using nanoporous anodic alumina films (NAAF) as substrates is reported. These hard nanostructured films could be used for pre-patterning aluminium foils and to obtain nanoporous films replicating the starting NAAF over a wide range of pore diameters and spacings. Pre-patterned Al foils are obtained by compression with pressures lower than those previously reported, then a new NAAF can be fabricated by means of only one anodization process. As an example, one of the TiN stamps was used for pre-patterning an Al foil at a pressure of 200 kg cm -2 and then it was anodized in oxalic acid solution obtaining the corresponding replica of the starting NAAF

  14. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  15. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  16. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor

  17. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 μm selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] ≤ 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg 2 . The typical photometric redshift accuracy is Δz/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 μm data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z ∼> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 μm data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  18. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...... the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling....

  19. Hydro turbine governor’s power control of hydroelectric unit with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Wu, Changli; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-01

    The primary frequency regulation and load regulation transient process when the hydro turbine governor is under the power mode of hydropower unit with sloping ceiling tailrace are analysed by field test and numerical simulation in this paper. A simulation method based on “three-zone model” to simulate small fluctuation transient process of the sloping ceiling tailrace is proposed. The simulation model of hydraulic turbine governor power mode is established by governor’s PLC program identification and parameter measurement, and the simulation model is verified by the test. The slow-fast-slow “three-stage regulation” method which can improve the dynamic quality of hydro turbine governor power mode is proposed. The power regulation strategy and parameters are optimized by numerical simulation, the performance of primary frequency regulation and load regulation transient process when the hydro turbine governor is under power mode are improved significantly.

  20. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Toughening Mechanisms of a New Hot Stamping-Bake Toughening Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Song, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Cheng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Jie; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the hot stamping-bake toughening process has been proposed following the well-known concept of bake hardening. The influences of the bake time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the hot stamped-baked part were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that the amount of the retained austenite was nearly not changed by the bake process. Also observed were spherical Cu-rich precipitates of about 15 nm in martensite laths. According to the Orowan mechanism, their contribution of the Cu-rich precipitates to the strength is approximately 245 MPa. With the increase of the bake time, the tensile strength of the part was decreased, whereas both the ductility and the product of the tensile strength and ductility were increased then decreased. The tensile strength and ductility product and the tensile strength are as high as 21.9 GPa pct, 2086 MPa, respectively. The excellent combined properties are due to the transformation-induced plasticity effect caused by retained austenite.

  1. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    of sol-gel was applied onto spherical injection mold inserts and subsequently imprinted using a flexible stamp. A hard curing step transformed the sol-gel into a quartz-like and durable material. As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on semi......-spherical mold surfaces. Imprints were realized on three different radii of circumferenceof the spherical mold: R = 0.5 mm, R = 1.0 mm, and R = 2 mm. After hard-curing of theimprinted sol-gel, the inserts were used for cold-mold as well as vario-therm injection molding.The polymer replicas and the inserts were...

  2. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refatul Haq, Muhammad; Kim, Youngkyu; Kim, Jun; Oh, Pyoung-hwa; Ju, Jonghyun; Kim, Seok-Min; Lim, Jiseok

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC) stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated. PMID:29286341

  3. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated.

  4. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  5. Modeling Outcomes with Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In gifted education research, it is common for outcome variables to exhibit strong floor or ceiling effects due to insufficient range of measurement of many instruments when used with gifted populations. Common statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance, linear regression) produce biased estimates when such effects are present. In practice,…

  6. You Can't Get There from Here: Working Women and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Over the past two decades women and minorities have made unprecedented strides into the work force, yet discrimination due to gender and race is still a problem. The dearth of women in management is due to the "glass ceiling" phenomenon--the organizational, attitudinal, and societal barriers that effectively keep women and minorities…

  7. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm PREZIOSO (FR), the lowest bidder, for the provision of paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 538 419 euros (830 381 Swiss francs), not subject to revision for the first two years. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial threeyear period.

  8. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  9. Glass Ceiling Converted Into Glass Transparency: A Study On The Factors Making Women Executives Successful In The Indian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Dr Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Economic reforms in the Indian economy along with gradual opening up of a conservative society to a modern society preceded breaking the glass ceiling or conversion Glass ceiling into a Glass Transparency in the Indian Banking Sector. This is backed by a recent study of 240 top Indian companies by EMA Partners, the global executive-search firm, which says more than a half of India's women chief executives are accounted for by the banking and financial services industry. This paper studie...

  10. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  11. Time stamp generation with inverse FIR filters for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namias, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Photon coincidence detection is the process by which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) works. This requires the determination of the time of impact of each coincident photon at the detector system, also known as time stamp. In this work, the timestamp was generated by means of digital time-domain deconvolution with FIR filters for a INa(Tl) based system. The detector deadtime was reduced from 350 ns to 175 ns while preserving the system's energy resolution and a direct relation between the amount of light collected and the temporal resolution was found.(author)

  12. Nonlinear modeling and stability analysis of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel under load disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Mingjiang; Lai, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel nonlinear mathematical model of hydro-turbine governing system is proposed. • Hopf bifurcation analysis on the governing system is conducted. • Stability of the system under load disturbance is studied. • Influence of four factors on stability is analyzed. • Optimization methods of improving system stability are put forward. - Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of nonlinear dynamics of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel, which is caused by the interface movement of the free surface-pressurized flow in the tailrace tunnel, and the difficulty of analyzing the stability of system, this paper uses the Hopf bifurcation theory to study the stability of hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel. Firstly, a novel and rational nonlinear mathematical model of the hydro-turbine governing system is proposed. This model contains the dynamic equation of pipeline system which can accurately describe the motion characteristics of the interface of free surface-pressurized flow in sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel. According to the nonlinear mathematical model, the existence and direction of Hopf bifurcation of the nonlinear dynamic system are analyzed. Furthermore, the algebraic criterion of the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation is derived. Then the stability domain and bifurcation diagram of hydro-turbine governing system are drawn by the algebraic criterion, and the characteristics of stability under different state parameters are investigated. Finally, the influence of step load value, ceiling slope angle and section form of tailrace tunnel and water depth at the interface in tailrace tunnel on stability are analyzed based on stable domain. The results indicate that: The Hopf bifurcation of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel is supercritical. The phase space trajectories of characteristic variables stabilize at the equilibrium points

  13. Development and evaluation of a ceiling ventilation system enhanced by solar photovoltaic thermal collectors and phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenye; Ma, Zhenjun; Sohel, M. Imroz; Cooper, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ceiling ventilation system enhanced by PVT and PCMs was proposed. • PCM was used to increase the local thermal mass and to serve as a storage unit. • The proposed system can enhance indoor thermal comfort in winter and summer. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a novel ceiling ventilation system integrated with solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors and phase change materials (PCMs). The PVT collectors are used to generate electricity and provide low grade heating and cooling energy for buildings by using winter daytime solar radiation and summer night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PCM is integrated into the building ceiling as a part of the ceiling insulation and at the same time, as a centralized thermal energy storage to temporally store low grade energy collected from the PVT collectors. The performance of the proposed system was numerically evaluated based on a Solar Decathlon house using TRNSYS. The results showed that, in winter conditions, the proposed PVT–PCM integrated ventilation system can significantly improve the indoor thermal comfort of passive buildings without using air-conditioning systems with a maximum air temperature rise of 23.1 °C from the PVT collectors. Compared with the system using PCM but without using PVT collectors, the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the kitchen, dining room and living room of the case building studied using the proposed system improved from almost zero to 0.9823 while the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the study room improved from 0.0060 to 0.9921. In summer conditions, the proposed system can also enhance indoor thermal comfort through night-time sky radiative cooling

  14. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  15. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  16. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...

  17. Career Barriers for Women Executives and the Glass Ceiling Syndrome: The Case Study Comparison between French and Turkish Women Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Sposito, Cansu

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The situation where gender pay gaps are typically wider at the top of the wage distribution is known as the 'glass ceiling'. It is one of the most compelling metaphors recently used for analyzing inequality between men and women in the workplace, in order to describe a barrier to further advancement once women have attained a certain level. The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that not only is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up level...

  18. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status, the advantage experienced by Swedish males is consistent in the private manufacturing and private service sectors, compared to the experience of immigrants and women. The public sector generally suggests a similar pattern according to linguistic background. In this sector, certain groups of women are, however, observed to experience an advantage from low occupational status origins.

  19. Analysis Of Die Design For The Stamping Of A Bathtub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojny M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents example results of numerical and photogrammetric analysis leading to identify the causes of cracking and wrinkling during bathtub W1200 production. The verification of tools for the stamping of bathtub W1200 was performed using finite element method and photogrammetric system ATOS Triple Scan. A series of industrial tests was conducted to identify the model parameters. The major and minor strain distributions obtained from the finite element simulations were used in conjunction with the forming limit diagram to predict the onset of fracture. In addition, the effects of blank holder pressure and friction on the occurrence of fracture and wrinkling were investigated.

  20. An interactive and flexible approach to stamping design and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subir; Kunju, Ravi; Kirby, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method that integrates finite element analysis (FEA), mesh morphing and response surface based optimization in order to implement an automated and flexible software tool to optimize stamping tool and process design. For FEA, a robust and extremely fast inverse solver is chosen. For morphing, a state of the art mesh morpher that interactively generates shape variables for optimization studies is used. The optimization algorithm utilized in this study enables a global search for a multitude of parameters and is highly flexible with regards to the choice of objective functions. A quality function that minimizes formability defects resulting from stretching and compression is implemented

  1. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  2. Pipelines update : new tolls and new opportunities in gas gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, E.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the new TransCanada energy transmission system was given. TransCanada has ownership interests in seven other North American natural gas pipelines and the integration of former NOVA Gas Transmission, TransCanada Energy Transmission and ANG Pipeline organizations into a single organization is nearing completion. Integration efforts have been driven by TransCanada's commitment to provide customers with lower costs and improved service levels. The service enhancements will include one-stop shopping, customer advisory councils, harmonized design criteria, optimized operations/maintenance, and consistent billing processes. The new toll design which will replace the current postage-stamp pricing regime offered by NGTL was also reviewed, emphasizing key features such as pricing, term linked tolls, interruptible/short term tolls, renewal incentive, risk/reward collar, transition period and new services

  3. Introduction to number theory with cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, James S

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDiophantine EquationsModular ArithmeticPrimes and the Distribution of PrimesCryptographyDivisibilityDivisibilityEuclid's Theorem Euclid's Original Proof The Sieve of Eratosthenes The Division Algorithm The Greatest Common Divisor The Euclidean Algorithm Other BasesLinear Diophantine EquationsThe Postage Stamp Problem Fermat and Mersenne Numbers Chapter Highlights Problems Unique FactorizationPreliminary Results The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic Euclid and the Fundamental Theorem of ArithmeticChapter Highlights Problems Applications of Unique Factorization A Puzzle Irrationality Proofs The Rational Root Theorem Pythagorean Triples Differences of Squares Prime Factorization of Factorials The Riemann Zeta Function Chapter Highlights Problems CongruencesDefinitions and Examples Modular Exponentiation Divisibility TestsLinear Congruences The Chinese Remainder TheoremFractions mod m Fermat's Theorem Euler's Theorem Wilson's Theorem Queens on a Chessboard Chapter Highlights Problems Cryptographic App...

  4. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  5. Making Sense of the Glass Ceiling in Schools: An Exploration of Women Teachers' Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Osgood, Jayne; Halsall, Anna

    2007-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of a "glass ceiling" for women across the labour market. Though schools have widely been described as "feminized" work environments, the under-representation of women at school management level is well established. Based on a study of women teachers' careers and promotion in the English school sector…

  6. Defect detection and classification of galvanized stamping parts based on fully convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhitao; Leng, Yanyi; Geng, Lei; Xi, Jiangtao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new convolution neural network method is proposed for the inspection and classification of galvanized stamping parts. Firstly, all workpieces are divided into normal and defective by image processing, and then the defective workpieces extracted from the region of interest (ROI) area are input to the trained fully convolutional networks (FCN). The network utilizes an end-to-end and pixel-to-pixel training convolution network that is currently the most advanced technology in semantic segmentation, predicts result of each pixel. Secondly, we mark the different pixel values of the workpiece, defect and background for the training image, and use the pixel value and the number of pixels to realize the recognition of the defects of the output picture. Finally, the defect area's threshold depended on the needs of the project is set to achieve the specific classification of the workpiece. The experiment results show that the proposed method can successfully achieve defect detection and classification of galvanized stamping parts under ordinary camera and illumination conditions, and its accuracy can reach 99.6%. Moreover, it overcomes the problem of complex image preprocessing and difficult feature extraction and performs better adaptability.

  7. Role of the provincial government of Saskatchewan in encouraging growth in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautermilch, E.

    1997-01-01

    The year 1996 was one of the most successful years for the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan. In the view of the author this may be said to be due, at least in part, to the provincial government's efforts to establish and implement policies that stimulate economic activity. Government regulation is essential to ensure safe and sensible development, a level playing field for all participants, and to ensure that residents of the province receive a fair share of the benefits of resource development. Some of the positive government actions taken in 1996 include: revisions to the royalty rate structure, simplification of the natural gas administration system, a program to encourage exploration in less-explored areas, re-balancing electrical rates, and a review of all regulations with the goal of streamlining or eliminating them. New technologies such as horizontal drilling were also encouraged. Issues presently before the government include postage stamp tolls, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions and environmental concerns from farmers. On the whole, the oil and gas industry received high marks for taking a responsible approach to self-regulation, but continued public support will depend on how well the industry addresses environmental concerns and demonstrates the benefits of oil and development to the people

  8. Fabrication of a silicon oxide stamp by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, M.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a stamp reinforced with silicon nitride is presented for its use in nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication process is based on edge lithography using conventional optical lithography and wet anisotropic etching of 110 silicon wafers. SiO2 nano-ridges of 20 nm in width were

  9. Giuseppe Bragalli and Bolognese ceiling painting in the Czech Lands in the 17th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 350-379 ISSN 0049-5123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/0745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque art * painting * ceiling painting * architecture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. Women in boards: Dichotomising the glass ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krambia-Kapardis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the reasons why glass ceiling and in the case of Cyprus “concrete ceiling” exists in both the private and public sectors despite enacted relevant legislation to ensure equality in work. Initially a qualitative research was carried out with the use of focus groups to identify the issues at hand. Following the results of the qualitative research, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the CEOs or the highest rank official of 120 organisations, 38% of those responded. This research, the first of its kind, addressed both the private and public sectors and confirms what has already been addressed in literature in other countries, namely that the main barrier hindering the career prospects of women is the family factor. In the public sector however where human intervention is eliminated women are better represented in the top-level positions.

  11. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  12. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Radiant Ceilings Combined with Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Domínguez, L. Marcos; Rage, Niels

    2018-01-01

    using TABS, most building simulation models assume an uncovered ceiling; however, this might not be the case in practice, due to the use of free-hanging horizontal (or vertical) sound absorbers for the control of room acoustic conditions. The use of sound absorbers will decrease the performance...... of radiant ceiling cooling systems. Therefore, the quantification of the effects during the design phase is important for predicting the resulting thermal indoor environment and for system dimensioning. In this study, a two-person office room equipped with TABS was simulated using a commercially available...... simulation software with a recently developed plug-in that allows simulating the effects of horizontal sound absorbers on the performance of TABS and on the thermal indoor environment. The change in thermal indoor environment and in performance of TABS were quantified, and the simulation results were...

  13. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to the ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: Axisymmetric impinging and far regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amin, M.F.; Kanayama, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    As hydrogen leaks into a partially open space with a ceiling wall, a boundary layer of hydrogen can be constructed under that wall due to the impingement on the wall and the buoyancy force. The resulting boundary layer can be divided into two regions, namely the stagnation-point region and the far region. When the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is circular, such as a pinhole or an o-ring, the behavior of leakage flow will be axisymmetric due to the resulting radial jet. In contrast, when the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is planar, such as a crack, the behavior of leakage flow will be planar due to the resulting planar jet. Previously, we studied the planar case in the context of both the stagnation-point flow region [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00] and the far region [El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7]. This paper is concerned with both the stagnation-point flow region and the far region of the axisymmetric concentration boundary layer adjacent to a ceiling wall. Flow in the stagnation-point region is treated as Hiemenz flow, while it is treated as Blasius flow in the far region. The current results are compared with the planar cases [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00; El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7] for both stagnation-point flow and far regions. Both momentum and concentration boundary layer

  14. Improvement in current density of nano- and micro-structured Si solar cells by cost-effective elastomeric stamp process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kiseok; Jee, Hongsub; Lim, Sangwoo; Park, Min Joon; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2018-03-01

    Effective incident light should be controlled for improving the current density of solar cells by employing nano- and micro-structures on silicon surface. The elastomeric stamp process, which is more cost effective and simpler than conventional photolithography, was proposed for the fabrication of nano- and micro-structures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was poured on a mother pattern with a diameter of 6 μm and a spacing of 2 μm; then, curing was performed to create a PDMS mold. The regular micropattern was stamped on a low-viscosity resin-coated silicon surface, followed by the simple reactive ion etching process. Nano-structures were formed using the Ag-based electroless etching process. As etching time was increased to 6 min, reflectance decreased to 4.53% and current density improved from 22.35 to 34.72 mA/cm2.

  15. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  16. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty......-two participants completed a single session of self-directed practice of the mastoidectomy procedure in a virtual reality simulator. Participants were randomised for additional simulator-integrated tutoring. Performances were assessed at 10-minute intervals using final-product analysis. RESULTS: In all, 45.5 per...

  17. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3....... Inkjet printing of the material was only possible if a short-chain polyurethane was used as elastomer to overcome strain hardening at the neck of the droplets produced for printing. Reproducible line widths down to 200 μm could be achieved by inkjet printing. Both methods were used to fabricate test...

  18. Identification of a process window for tailored carburization of sheet metals in hot stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Alexander; Merklein, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Due to governmental regulations concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions and increasing safety standards, hot stamping of high strength boron manganese steel sheets has evolved into a state of the art process for manufacturing structural car body parts. The combined forming and in-die quenching process enables the formation of a fully martensitic microstructure. Therefore, press hardened steels offer high strength, but low ductility. In order to further improve passenger safety, a tailored configuration of mechanical properties is desired. Besides state of the art methods, like the application of locally different heat treatment temperatures or varying quenching rates, the adjustment of mechanical properties of sheet metals by a tailored carburization is a novel approach. For the carburization process, the specimens are first coated with graphite and subsequently heat treated. Within this contribution, different coating strategies as well as heat treatment temperatures and dwell times are investigated. For the determination of a process window, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and microhardness will be analyzed and correlated with the resulting microstructure.

  19. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thon, S. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    AltaLink is Canada's first stand-alone power transmission company, serving all major centres in Alberta and 85 per cent of Alberta's population. It has more than $1 billion in assets, 11,500 km of transmission lines and 300 substations. It was noted that there has not been any significant investment in power transmission in Alberta for the past 20 years, partly because transmission assets have a very long lifespan. The new role of the power grid is to ensure reliability, safety, efficiency, market effectiveness and supply diversity. The benefits and costs of AltaLink's 500 kV North-South upgrade project were outlined. It was noted that a healthy transmission system is the basis for economic growth throughout the province and for the development of Alberta's resource base. The transmission policy in Alberta endorses that all consumers pay postage stamp tariffs. It also promotes a proactive plan for transmission projects, the time to maximum rate (TMR) in limited cases only, a congestion-free grid under normal conditions, the financial commitment of generators, specific time limits on permitting processes, and regional interconnections to benefit all customers. tabs., figs.

  20. Ceiling erosion in caves: early studies and Zdeněk Roth as author of the concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 139-144 ISSN 0583-6050 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ceiling channel * paragenesis * antigravitative erosion * definition * Zdeněk Roth * Domica Cave * Slovak Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2015

  1. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Longitudinal Study of Women’s Progress on French Corporate Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Dang; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Linh-Chi Vo

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we conduct a longitudinal study of women’s progress on French corporate boards of directors. We particularly focus on the extent to which women directors have circumvented the glass ceiling. Using a sample of SBF 120 companies over a 10

  2. The Glass Ceiling for Women in Legal Education: Contract Positions and the Death of Tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Marina

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the glass ceiling for women in legal education first examines categories of law school personnel, especially the fast-growing category of legal-writing teachers, and then considers trends in law school hiring. Concludes that law school trends mirror those in college and university hiring generally, suggesting the weakening and…

  3. Application of a permanent magnet biased E-Core reluctance actuator in a magnetically suspended ceiling actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overboom, T.T.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper a novel actuator is presented for a magnetically suspended ceiling actuator. The actuator consists of several stator segments which contain the coils and the magnets. The armature, therefore, has a totally passive design. Because of its salient structure, a translational force can be

  4. Numerical analysis of the potential of using light radiant ceilings in combination with diffuse ventilation to achieve thermal comfort in NZEB buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusaa, Marie Rugholm; Hviid, Christian Anker; Kolarik, Jakub

    ceiling panels. These panels make it possible to combine the heating/cooling ceiling with the diffuse ventilation method. The diffuse ventilation method or leak ventilation use larger surfaces to provide air into the room instead of diffusers. An office building is investigated an analysed on an annual...... basis in the dynamic building simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The office building contains both offices and meeting rooms. Worst-case scenarios are investigated in the office building considering heat gains, solar gains and the temperature offset between supply water temperature...

  5. Does Organizational Culture Affect the Perception Towards the Barriers of the Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Muruatetu, Ndunge

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of the glass ceilling in Africa; and to investigate whether organizational culture affected the perception towards the barriers of the glass ceiling. Design/Methodology : This research used a quatitative approach, based on a descriptive design. Data was gathered from surveys issued to employees at a Non-Governmental organization; with the participants based in the Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo offices. Fi...

  6. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations...

  7. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    geometrical model and the other is a porous media model. The numerical models are validated by the full-scale experimental studies in a climate chamber. The results indicate that porous media model performed better on predicting air flow characteristic below diffuse ceiling and air velocity near the floor...

  8. Springback Reduction in Stamping of Front Side Member with a Response Surface Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jung-Han; Huh, Hoon; Kim, Se-Ho; Park, Sung-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Springback is a common phenomenon in sheet metal forming since the elastic recovery of the internal stresses is induced after removal of the tooling. The numerical analysis of springback is a complicated time-consuming job and its result is greatly effected by a type of the yield function, finite elements used and the constraint condition for eliminating a rigid body motion. In this paper, optimization of the draw-bead force is carried out utilizing the response surface method in order to reduce springback and improve shape accuracy of a deep drawn product. In the optimization process, the tendency of springback is evaluated qualitatively without springback simulation usually done with the implicit solving scheme. Instead of springback simulation, the amount of stress deviation along the thickness direction in the deep drawn product is used as an indicator of springback. The stamping process is analyzed for a front side member formed with advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets such as DP60. The analysis procedure fully covers the binder-wrap, stamping, trimming and springback processes with the commercial elasto-plastic finite element code LS-DYNA 3D. The effect of the restraining force of draw-beads is confirmed with the decreased stress deviation. The analysis result shown in the final springback simulation demonstrates that the present analysis provides a guideline for controlling the evolution of springback based on the finite element simulation of complicated auto-body members

  9. 78 FR 16213 - Refunds and Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... service failure on a guaranteed product or for an extra service, refund requests for postage purchased... (cards and envelopes), that are damaged or otherwise unusable for postage (because of humidity, moisture... envelopes (mutilated no more than is necessary to remove contents): Postage value plus value of postage...

  10. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  11. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C; Viallet, B; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  12. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  13. Auto-représentations de l’Irlande à travers les timbres et la monnaie Self-representations of Ireland through Stamps and Coinage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dilys-Slaby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The representation of Ireland on stamps and coinage is the locus of the formulation by the government of national identity—a crucial stage in the development of a newly independent state. Charles Sanders Peirce’s semiotic trilogy—symbol, icon and index—enables one to better understand the intentions and the evolution informing the State’s self-representation. The stakes vary from one medium to another. Coins and notes are images of Ireland which circulate inside the country only and last longer, the government intervening only occasionally to change those images. It can be noted that these media, which are more apolitical and atemporal, retain a symbolic function longer. As for stamps, they are meant to represent Ireland inside the country as well as abroad. They are then particularly entitled to representing the events or characters which Ireland includes in the development of its identity as a young State. Thus, stamps display a general evolution from being symbols to being indexes as the government acknowledges as foundations of its identity no longer merely nationalism and religion, but also scientific development, sports and art. On the level of the form, this evolution is backed by a movement towards simplification and universal legibility.

  14. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  15. An Improved Prediction Model for the Impact Sound Level of Lightweight Floors: Introducing Decoupled Floor-Ceiling and Beam-Plate Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosharrof, Mohammad Sazzad; Brunskog, Jonas; Ljunggren, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    the impact sound pressure level in a receiving room for a coupled floor structure where floor and ceiling are rigidly connected by beams. A theoretical model for predicting the impact sound level for a decoupled floor structure, which has no rigid mechanical connections between the floor and the ceiling......, is developed. An analytical method has been implemented, where a spatial Fourier transform method as well as the Poisson’s sum formula is applied to model transformed plate displacements. Radiated sound power was calculated from these displacements and normalized sound pressure levels were calculated in one...... and is found to be dependent on frequency, showing significant improvement in predicting impact sound level at high frequency region....

  16. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it is twice as high at the top. At the same time, the share of women in top positions appears to be twice as high as at the middle ranks. Hence, it seems that in the context of a very patriarchal cult...

  17. Academe's Glass Ceiling: Societal, Professional-Organizational, and Institutional Barriers to the Career Advancement of Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olga; Cummings, William

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 10 national systems of higher education found that less than 10 percent of professors were women, and the proportion of female professors was negatively related to institutional prestige. This academic "glass ceiling" was related to women's shorter careers, tenure issues during hard times, and women's lower level of academic…

  18. Female healthcare managers and the glass ceiling. The obstacles and opportunities for women in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, C

    1991-01-01

    Despite the large number of women in the healthcare field, healthcare management resembles other industries in its severe lack of women in upper-management positions and in the "glass ceiling" that contributes to this dearth. Although not enough has been specifically written on women healthcare managers, the author reviews what is available, along with some of the general management literature.

  19. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  20. De Soweto à Ceilândia: siglas de segregação racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira Lemos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposta desse trabalho é pensar relações comuns ou, pelo menos, aproximadas sobre os processos e os instrumentos de segregação urbana racial, generificada e social nas cidades de Soweto (Joanesburgo - África do Sul e Ceilândia (Distrito Federal - Brasil durante as décadas de 1950 e 1970. Para tanto, comparamos os dois processos de remoção das populações dos centros para as periferias e a (reinvenção dos tipos corpóreos (“candango”, “black”, “african”, “coloured” destinados a ocupar os limites da não-vida, ou seja, as  chamadas cidades satélites. Metodologicamente a pesquisa, de caráter inicial, fez-se através da análise indiciaria e comparativa de documentos oficiais, relatos orais e bibliografias referentes às duas cidades. A aproximação analítica/histórica entre esses casos se tornou possível através do conceito de necropolítica e da correlação entre escravidão, colonialismo e apartheid: três eventos imaginados historiograficamente como distintos, mas onde a dissociação do ser ao direito de sua própria vida rompem as barreiras do tempo e, no caso Soweto-Ceilândia, as fronteiras do Atlântico.

  1. Coupling ant colony and the degraded ceiling algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem of series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahas, Nabil; Nourelfath, Mustapha; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    2007-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is a well known NP-hard problem which involves the selection of elements and redundancy levels to maximize system reliability given various system-level constraints. As telecommunications and internet protocol networks, manufacturing and power systems are becoming more and more complex, while requiring short developments schedules and very high reliability, it is becoming increasingly important to develop efficient solutions to the RAP. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to solve this reliability optimization problem. The idea of a heuristic approach design is inspired from the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method and the degraded ceiling local search technique. Our hybridization of the ant colony meta-heuristic with the degraded ceiling performs well and is competitive with the best-known heuristics for redundancy allocation. Numerical results for the 33 test problems from previous research are reported and compared. The solutions found by our approach are all better than or are in par with the well-known best solutions

  2. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Bozovic, P.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Antic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H * (10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  3. Stamps, Stickers and Stigmata. A Social Practice of Antisemitism Presented in a Slide-show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Enzenbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Antisemitic stickers were disseminated in Germany from the 1880s/1890s onwards. They were glued on letters or postcards, placed visibly in public space or collected in the private sphere. In rethinking antisemitism as a social practice, these stickers, stamps and adhesive labels can be seen as a prototypical source demonstrating the performative dimension of antisemtism. The antisemitic movement used various media such as leaflets, cartoons, speeches, historical novels, articles or newspapers to mobilize people and to build up a community.

  4. Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, A.R.; Khaparde, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

  5. Thresholds and Glass Ceilings: Career Pattern of Women Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  6. The glass ceiling and women in management in the Middle East: Myth or reality

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Although globalization and equal employment have created opportunities for female managers, they are still underrepresented in the corporate ladder. Gender and gender role stereotypes are persistent in organizations that operate in the Middle East, challenging women’s employment and showing evidence of the glass ceiling in management. This paper explores the position of women in management in the Kingdom of Bahrain, as well as the barriers they face in climbing the career ladder. The findings...

  7. New technique for laryngotracheal mucosa transplantation. 'Stamp' welding using indocyanine green dye and albumin interaction with diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pankratov, M M; Gleich, L L; Rebeiz, E E; Shapshay, S M

    1995-07-01

    To investigate (1) the possibility of survival of free mucosa "stamp" grafts fixed in the airway with a new technique using indocyanine green-dyed albumin solder activated with a diode laser and (2) the degree of improvement of wound healing in the airway by applying modified microskin transplantation techniques from burn surgery to cover a relatively large wound with a few small pieces of mucosa anchored in place with the previously mentioned technique. Three (one control and two experimental) rectangular (10 x 8 mm) wounds in tracheal mucosa were produced in four experimental animals (dogs) using a carbon dioxide laser. The control wound was left uncovered. In the first experimental wound, a mucosal flap was raised and then fixed in place by a trapdoor flap method. In the second experimental wound, two small (each 2 x 3 mm) autogenous mucosa grafts were anchored onto the surface with indocyanine green-dyed albumin activated with an 810-nm diode laser. Histomorphologically, the postoperative results from three wounds were compared. The experimental wounds were completely covered by regenerated squamous cells in 1 week and by ciliated epithelium in 2 weeks after the operation despite the discrepancy in size of the graft to wound area (1:6.7) covered with the stamp mucosa. No thermal damage from the diode laser was noted in the second experimental wounds. In the control wounds, no coverage was observed at 1 week, and only squamous cells were noted 2 weeks postoperatively. All the wounds had normal ciliated epithelium coverage at 4 weeks. Transplanted stamp grafts provided similar or better healing than trapdoor flap transplants. This new technique made endoscopic mucosal grafting possible and offers a potential breakthrough in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis.

  8. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Naoki; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe; Kuroda, Masayuki; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Bujo, Hideaki; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-01-01

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings

  9. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  10. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    the opposite effect on energy performance when TABS is activated in heating or cooling mode. Finally, the air temperature distribution in the plenum and the surface temperature distribution of the diffuse ceiling point out that the air does not perfectly mix in the plenum, the air is not evenly distributed...

  11. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  12. On the Determination of the Blank Shape Contour for Thin Precision Parts Obtained by Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azaouzi, M.; Delameziere, A.; Naceur, H.; Batoz, J. L.; Sibaud, D.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the 'automatic' determination of the initial blank shape contour for 3D thin metallic precision parts obtained by stamping, knowing the 3D CAD geometry of the final part (the desired product). The forming process can involve several steps presented in this paper that consists in applying a heuristic method of optimization to find out the initial blank shape of thin precision metallic part in order to obtain a final part, with a required 3D geometry (specified). The purpose of the present approach is to replace the experimental trial and error optimization method used currently, which is expensive and time consuming. The principle of the 'heuristic' optimization method is to first estimate the blank shape using the Inverse Approach, then to compensate the shape error calculated in each node of the blank contour. The 'heuristic' optimization loop is done using a precise incremental code (Abaqus Explicit or Stampack) and, the iterations loop is stopped when the shape errors are within some initially fixed tolerances. The method is tested in the case of a special stamping process where the parts are pressed in one or more steps using a manual press, without blank holder and by the mean of tools having complex shape. The sensitivities of the process parameters regarding the optimal solution are investigated

  13. The new Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN available at the Organization's Meyrin post office on Tuesday, 9 March!

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    For some people, the stamp's rays are spreading outwards towards the infinitely large, while for others they focus inwards towards the infinitely small. It's a bit like the proverbial half-full or half-empty glass or a picture that conveys two different images, depending on how you look at it.

  14. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  15. Experimental analysis of electro-pneumatic optimization of hot stamping machine control systems with on-delay timer

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole I. Oladapo; Vincent A. Balogun; Adeyinka O.M. Adeoye; Ige E. Olubunmi; Samuel O. Afolabi

    2017-01-01

    The sustainability criterion in the manufacturing industries is imperative, especially in the automobile industries. Currently, efforts are being made by the industries to mitigate CO2 emission by the total vehicle weight optimization, machine utilization and resource efficiency. In lieu of this, it is important to understudy the manufacturing machines adopted in the automobile industries. One of such machine is the hot stamping machine that is used for about 35% of the manufacturing operatio...

  16. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  17. Women's participation in parliament: 'Glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 'glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection on participation of women in parliament and other political institutions are examined in this article. 'Glass ceiling' syndrome, which means invisible, but almost impenetrable border that women face in professional life, keeping them away from positions of influence and progress in career, is the main reason for the small number of women involved in politics. According to the focus of the research, there are three groups of barriers to women's political participation. Most researchers examine the influence of the political system, institutional and legal mechanisms, the question of their transparency and functional improvement. Significantly less frequent approach came from authors who are concentrated on the social and economic barriers, financial conditions and the broader social context. The third group consists of those who are considering the ideological and psychological barriers, patriarchal cultural patterns, traditional gender roles, self-confidence, ambition and women's desire to be involved in politics. Political parties are key actors in the process of discrimination against women, because they do not allow them to be selected in a number of political functions. There are many factors that determine that the issue of gender equality is variously interpreted in political parties. The most present are contextual and ideological factors, referring to a different definition of the status of women on the political agenda, the social climate in terms of gender equality and respect for human rights, the level of social development and political freedom. Then come organizational factors pertaining to the structure of parties, the manner in which the leadership is elected, whether there are internal women's pressure groups and lobbying, and are women leaders are visible on high positions in decision-making process. Finally, there are institutional-legal factors, which include the type

  18. Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Buscema, Michele; Molenaar, Rianda; Singh, Vibhor; Janssen, Laurens; Van der Zant, Herre S J; Steele, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    The deterministic transfer of two-dimensional crystals constitutes a crucial step towards the fabrication of heterostructures based on the artificial stacking of two-dimensional materials. Moreover, controlling the positioning of two-dimensional crystals facilitates their integration in complex devices, which enables the exploration of novel applications and the discovery of new phenomena in these materials. To date, deterministic transfer methods rely on the use of sacrificial polymer layers and wet chemistry to some extent. Here, we develop an all-dry transfer method that relies on viscoelastic stamps and does not employ any wet chemistry step. This is found to be very advantageous to freely suspend these materials as there are no capillary forces involved in the process. Moreover, the whole fabrication process is quick, efficient, clean and it can be performed with high yield. (letter)

  19. Cooling ceilings: Silent, comfortable and productive. Percentage of sickness absenteeism. Kuehldecken eroeffnen neue Moeglichkeiten: Still, behaglich und produktiv. Krankenstand von 11,8 auf 3,8% reduziert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laege, F.K.

    1992-07-01

    This article is a report about the second symposium on cooling ceilings held in Essen, which had been organized by the technical institute for building ventilation. On the one hand the topic was the state of technology as well as the standardization have been treated, on the other hand, user experiences of non technicians have been reported. It was ascertained that the variety of references convinced the auditors. Germany has obviously the leading position for the construction of cooling ceilings. (BWI).

  20. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  1. Efficiency of overhead ceiling lifts in reducing musculoskeletal injury among carers working in long-term care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Fast, Catherine; Hennessy, Stephanie; Kidd, Catherine; Yassi, Annalee

    2008-05-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in three long-term care facilities to evaluate the effectiveness and cost benefit of overhead lifts in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injury among healthcare workers. Analysis of injury trends spanning 6 years before intervention (1996-2001) and 4 years after intervention (2002-2005) found a significant and sustained decrease in workers' compensation claims per number of beds and in working days lost per bed. The payback period was estimated under various assumptions and varied from 6.3 to 6.2 years if only direct claim-cost savings were included, and from 2.06 to 3.20 years when indirect savings were added. The significant reductions in injury rates and compensation claims support intervention with overhead ceiling lifts. A more comprehensive evaluation of such programmes should incorporate in the analysis important variables such as staffing ratios, job stresses, injury reporting systems and compensation policies during the study period.

  2. Simulation Study of Active Ceilings with Phase Change Material in Office Buildings for Different National Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhan, Hajan; Stefansen, Casper; Bourdakis, Eleftherios

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of phase change material (PCM) in active ceilings for an office room under different Danish building regulations for both heating and cooling purposes. A model of a two-person office room was simulated with the only heating and cooling source...... being radiant ceiling panels containing PCM. The target was to reduce energy use for the simulation models and still meet the recommended criteria of Category II for the European Standard EN 15251:2007 namely, 23°C – 26°C (73.4°F – 78.8°F) during summer and between 20°C – 24°C (68.0°F – 73.4°F) during...... winter. The office model was simulated for a whole year and analyzed for three Danish building regulations BR10 (2010), BR15 (2015) and BR20 (2020). The results show that the indoor environment was within the desired Category II, according to EN 15251 for the whole occupancy period. The predicted...

  3. The Time Bounded Glass Ceiling and Young Women Managers: Career Progress and Career Success--Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ruth; Altman, Yochanan

    2000-01-01

    A study of 130 male and 91 female managers found that more younger women than men were in senior roles. Younger women achieved seniority faster than women over 35. However, once younger women have broken the glass ceiling at lower levels, they encounter new barriers at higher levels. (SK)

  4. 77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Agriculture's costs of administering the licensing system under this regulation. The regulation at 7 CFR 6.33... system, and $125,280.00 represents other miscellaneous costs, including travel, postage, publications... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import...

  5. 76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... for the 2012 calendar year. Notice: The total cost to USDA of administering the licensing system for... administering the licensing system, and $125,280 represents other miscellaneous costs, including travel, postage... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import...

  6. Nowcasting and Forecasting the Monthly Food Stamps Data in the US Using Online Search Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantazzini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of Google online search data for nowcasting and forecasting the number of food stamps recipients. We perform a large out-of-sample forecasting exercise with almost 3000 competing models with forecast horizons up to 2 years ahead, and we show that models including Google search data statistically outperform the competing models at all considered horizons. These results hold also with several robustness checks, considering alternative keywords, a falsification test, different out-of-samples, directional accuracy and forecasts at the state-level. PMID:25369315

  7. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Older Adult Participants of the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rasnake, Crystal Michelle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine food safety knowledge and practices of older adult participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) in Virginia. One hundred and sixty-five FSNEP participants were assigned to two possible intervention groups, group one received the food safety lesson from the Healthy Futures Series currently used in FSNEP, while group two received the food safety lesson plus an additional food safety video. FSNEP participants completed food safet...

  8. Constant temperatures and the rate of seed germination in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of germination of the NEM cultivar was faster than that of the QPM cultivar at all temperatures. The thermal times for median germination were 46 for QPM and 40.7 oCd for the NEM cultivar. The cardinal temperatures (base, Tb, optimum, To and ceiling, Tc) for the NEM cultivar were Tb: 7, To: 30 and Tc: 48.2 oC.

  9. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  10. Design of governmental policies for oil production rates and oil income spending. A long-term perspective. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxnes, E

    1982-09-01

    In 1980, oil production in Norway amounted to 1 million barrels per day. Taxes and royalties to the government from this production provides 9 per cent of the GNP. With current estimates of recoverable reserves, the 1980 production rate would last for 100 years. Decisions about oil production rates and oil income spending have tremendous impact on society. Attemps to design an appropriate oil policy are complicated by uncertainty about total reserves, future oil prices and complex economic responses to production and income. This report provides and integrating framework to aid government officials in their evaluation of policy options. A system dynamics model of the Norwegian national economy is developed for the analysis. The model determines endogenously the spending of oil income, GNP, consumption and investments, imports and exports, unemployment and labor migration from exporting industries to service industries; all variables result from exogenous decisions about oil production. Though the model is based on behavioral theory of economic decision making at the microeconomic level, it reproduces well major behavior modes of macroeconomic indicators from the 1970s. The most attractive oil policy has been found to be a dynamic and firm ceiling on spending. Dynamic means that growth in spending should be limited, spending should not increase unless the economy is appropriately buffered against oil price drops by foreign savings and spending should never exceed a maximum ceiling set to ensure a desirabel distribution of benefits and problems over time. Firm means that the ceiling cannot be changed by Parliament within an election period. If a firm ceiling on spending is politically infeasible, oil production should be kept lower than otherwise.

  11. Radar meteor rates and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1983-01-01

    The short-term variation of diurnal radar meteor rates with solar activity represented by solar microwave flux Fsub(10.7), and sunspots relative number Rsub(z), is investigated. Applying the superposed-epoch analysis to the observational material of radar meteor rates from Christchurch (1960-61 and 1963-65), a decrease in the recorded radar rates is found during days of enhanced solar activity. No effect of geomagnetic activity similar to the one reported for the Swedish and Canadian radar meteor data was found by the author in the Christchurch data. A possible explanation of the absence of the geomagnetic effect on radar meteor rates from New Zealand due to a lower echo ceiling height of the Christchurch radar is suggested. The variation of the atmospheric parameters as a possible cause of the observed variation in radar meteor rates is also discussed. (author)

  12. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  13. ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ISSUES SIGN OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AND STAMP OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM DİLİN İŞARET SİSTEMİYLE DİLİN DAMGA SİSTEMİ ARASINDAKİ MESELELERİN İLİŞKİSİ HAKKINDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekmağanbetov ŞANJARHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is elaborated that ‘stamp system’ which is considered as one of basic issues of linguistics. Stamps of language and some particular features of these stamps are mentioned. In Turkish consideration, there are dimension, size of stamp and the stamp’s being profound and substantive. In modern linguistics, notion of stamp is used instead of notion znak ‘symbol’ in Russian, and notion sign ‘sign’ in English. In the article, after the explanation of the notion of UP (flat universe emerged with worldly basis, it is made mention that language is all associated with the stamp system(s. Bu makalede, genel dil bilimin temel konularından biri kabul edilen dilin ‘damga sistemi’ üzerinde durulmuştur. Dil damgalarından ve bu damgaların belli özelliklerinden söz edilmiştir. Türk’ün düşüncesinde damganın genişliği, büyüklüğü, derin ve anlamlı oluşu vardır. Çağdaş dil biliminde damga kavramı, Rusçada znak ‘simge’, İngilizcede sign ‘işaret’ kavramının yerine kullanılmaktadır. Makalede, dünyevî temel ile ortaya çıkan UP (âlem daire kavramı açıklandıktan sonra dilin damga/lar sistemi üzerine oturtulduğundan söz edilmiştir.

  14. Dose rate in the reactor room and environment during maintenance in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Satoh, Satoshi; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Seki, Yasushi

    1995-01-01

    According to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) conceptual design activity, after reactor shutdown, damaged segments are pulled up from the reactor and hung from the reactor room ceiling by a remote handling device. The dose rate in the reactor room and the environment is estimated for this situation, and the following results are obtained. First, the dose rate in the room is > 10 8 μSv/h. Since this dose rate is 10 7 times greater than the biological radiation shielding design limit of 25 μSv/h, workers cannot enter the room. Second, lenses and optical fiber composed of glass that is radiation resistant up to 10 6 Gy would be damaged after <100 h near the segment, and devices using semiconductors could not work after several hours or so in the aforementioned dose-rate conditions. Third, during suspension of one blanket segment from the ceiling, the dose rate in the site boundary can be reduced by one order by a 23-cm-thicker reactor building roof. To reduce dose rate in public exposure to a value that is less than one-tenth of the public exposure radiation shielding design limit of 100 μSv/yr, the distance of the site boundary from the reactor must be greater than 200 m for a reactor building with a 160-cm-thick concrete roof. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Maximizing the lightshelf performance by interaction between lightshelf geometries and a curved ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freewan, Ahmed A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between different lightshelf geometries combined with a curved ceiling was investigated using radiance to maximize the daylight performance of a lightshelf. Two main performance parameters were investigated; illuminance level and distribution uniformity in a large space located in a sub-tropical climate region like Jordan. It was found that a curved lightshelf could improve the daylight level by 10% compared to a horizontal lightshelf. A curved lightshelf help to bounce more daylight deep into a space thus improve the illuminance level and uniformity level. The best lightshelf shapes found are curved and chamfered lightshelves compared to horizontal lightshelves. (author)

  16. Rubber stamp templates for improving clinical documentation: A paper-based, m-Health approach for quality improvement in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczka, Bernadette; Musiega, Anita; Rabut, Grace; Wekesa, Phoebe; Mwaniki, Paul; Marx, Michael; Kumar, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones. The Guidelines Adherence in Slums Project targeted ten private sector primary healthcare clinics serving informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Each clinic was provided with rubber stamp templates to support documentation and management of commonly encountered outpatient conditions. Participatory design methods were used to customize templates to the workflows and infrastructure of each clinic. Rubber stamps were used to print templates into paper charts, providing clinicians with checklists for use during consultations. Templates used bubble format data entry, which could be digitized from images taken on mobile phones. Besides rubber stamp templates, the intervention included booklets of guideline compilations, one Android phone for digitizing images of templates, and one data feedback/continuing medical education session per clinic each month. In this paper we focus on the effect of the intervention on documentation of three non-communicable diseases in one clinic. Seventy charts of patients enrolled in the chronic disease program (hypertension/diabetes, n=867; chronic respiratory diseases, n=223) at one of the ten intervention clinics were sampled. Documentation of each individual patient encounter in the pre-intervention (January-March 2016) and post-intervention period (May-July) was scored for information in four dimensions - general data, patient assessment, testing, and management. Control criteria included

  17. Constitutive relationships of hot stamping boron steel B1500HS based on the modified Arrhenius and Johnson–Cook model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhao, Guoqun; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive relationship of boron steel is one of the most necessary mathematical models in the numerical simulation of hot stamping; it describes the relationship of the flow stress with strain, strain rate and temperature. In order to attain the constitutive relationship of boron steel B1500HS, four types of samples with microstructure of austenite, ferrite+pearlite, bainite or martensite are prepared by the Gleeble 1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Isothermal uniaxial tension testings for these specimens are performed at 20–900 °C at the strain rates of 0.01 s –1 , 0.1 s –1 , 1.0 s –1 and 10 s –1 by Gleeble 1500D, and the true stress–strain curves at the relative conditions are gained. The experimental results show that, the flow stress of samples with relative microstructure rises with the decrease of the deformation temperature, and with the increase of the strain rate. The modified Arrhenius model is used to describe the hot deformation of samples with austenite microstructure, and the modified Johnson–Cook model is used to describe the deformation process of samples with ferrite+pearlite, bainite or martensite microstructure. The constitutive equations depending on the strain, strain rate and temperature are attained by the regression analysis for the experimental data of flow stress, strain, strain rate, temperature, etc. The comparison of the computational data and the experimental results shows that, the computational data using the constitutive relationships are well consistent with the experimental data

  18. Participação Popular em Saúde: Um Estudo Sobre o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrecinda Rocha PINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão da participação popular para o exercício do controle social do Sistema Único de Saúde é especialmente importante para o debate da política de saúde no Brasil e, conforme estabelecido na Lei 8142 de 1990, essa participação deve ser realizada por meio dos conselhos e conferências de saúde. O presente artigo estuda a participação popular em saúde no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, problematizando em torno do exercício do controle social exercido pelos conselheiros do respectivo colegiado. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo geral entender como se dá a Participação Social no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia na gestão 2010-2011, buscando especificamente entender sua dinâmica de funcionamento. Partindo de uma abordagem metodológica qualiquantitativa, utilizamos como procedimento a análise documental, com levantamento de dados relativos à dinâmica de suas reuniões. Depreende-se do estudo realizado a participação expressiva dos segmentos integrantes. A grande maioria dos assuntos pautados foi proposta, especialmente, pelo segmento gestor. Entretanto, os itens em discussão revelam que os interesses dos usuários e trabalhadores permeavam com mais frequência os debates. Por fim, conclui-se que, em um contexto geral, o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia é um fórum político legítimo e atuante, com atuação decisiva nas deliberações das ações e serviços de saúde a nível local. ABSTRACT The issue of popular participation in the exercise of social control Health System is especially important for the health policy debate in Brazil and, as stated in the Law 8142/1990, this participation must be done through the advice and health conferences. This paper studies popular participation in health in the Regional Health Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, questioning around the exercise of social control exercised by the directors of the respective collegiate. This research aimed

  19. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...... manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance...

  20. Albert Einstein Centenary

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele; Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva

    1979-01-01

    The scientist and his work by D. AMATI and S. FUBINI. A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books published, postage stamps is...