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Sample records for post-procedural late gadolinium

  1. Accurate late gadolinium enhancement prediction by early T1- based quantitative synthetic mapping

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    Dijk, Randy van; Harst, Pim van der [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Kuijpers, Dirkjan [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cardiovascular Imaging HMC-Bronovo, The Hague (Netherlands); Kaandorp, Theodorus A.M.; Dijkman, Paul R.M. van [Department of Cardiovascular Imaging HMC-Bronovo, The Hague (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2018-02-15

    Early synthetic gadolinium enhancement (ESGE) imaging from post-contrast T1 mapping after adenosine stress-perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was compared to conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for assessing myocardial scar. Two hundred fourteen consecutive patients suspected of myocardial ischaemia were referred for stress-perfusion CMR. Myocardial infarct volume was quantified on a per-subsegment basis in both synthetic (2-3 min post-gadolinium) and conventional (9 min post-gadolinium) images by two independent observers. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were calculated on a per-patient and per-subsegment basis. Both techniques detected 39 gadolinium enhancement areas in 23 patients. The median amount of scar was 2.0 (1.0-3.1) g in ESGE imaging and 2.2 (1.1-3.1) g in LGE imaging (p=0.39). Excellent correlation (r=0.997) and agreement (mean absolute difference: -0.028±0.289 ml) were found between ESGE and LGE images. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ESGE imaging were 96 (78.9-99.9), 99 (97.1-100.0)%, 96 (76.5-99.4) and 99.5 (96.6-99.9) in patient-based and 99 (94.5-100.0), 100 (99.9-100.0)%, 97.0 (91.3-99.0) and 100.0 (99.8-100.0) in subsegment-based analysis. ESGE based on post-contrast T1 mapping after adenosine stress-perfusion CMR imaging shows excellent agreement with conventional LGE imaging for assessing myocardial scar, and can substantially shorten clinical acquisition time. (orig.)

  2. Accurate late gadolinium enhancement prediction by early T1- based quantitative synthetic mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Randy van; Harst, Pim van der; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Kaandorp, Theodorus A.M.; Dijkman, Paul R.M. van; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2018-01-01

    Early synthetic gadolinium enhancement (ESGE) imaging from post-contrast T1 mapping after adenosine stress-perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was compared to conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for assessing myocardial scar. Two hundred fourteen consecutive patients suspected of myocardial ischaemia were referred for stress-perfusion CMR. Myocardial infarct volume was quantified on a per-subsegment basis in both synthetic (2-3 min post-gadolinium) and conventional (9 min post-gadolinium) images by two independent observers. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were calculated on a per-patient and per-subsegment basis. Both techniques detected 39 gadolinium enhancement areas in 23 patients. The median amount of scar was 2.0 (1.0-3.1) g in ESGE imaging and 2.2 (1.1-3.1) g in LGE imaging (p=0.39). Excellent correlation (r=0.997) and agreement (mean absolute difference: -0.028±0.289 ml) were found between ESGE and LGE images. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ESGE imaging were 96 (78.9-99.9), 99 (97.1-100.0)%, 96 (76.5-99.4) and 99.5 (96.6-99.9) in patient-based and 99 (94.5-100.0), 100 (99.9-100.0)%, 97.0 (91.3-99.0) and 100.0 (99.8-100.0) in subsegment-based analysis. ESGE based on post-contrast T1 mapping after adenosine stress-perfusion CMR imaging shows excellent agreement with conventional LGE imaging for assessing myocardial scar, and can substantially shorten clinical acquisition time. (orig.)

  3. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement in specific cardiomyopathies by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Caterina; Moon, James C; Elkington, Andrew G; John, Anna S; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Pennell, Dudley J

    2007-12-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can visualize myocardial interstitial abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess whether regions of abnormal myocardium can also be visualized by late enhancement gadolinium CMR in the specific cardiomyopathies. A retrospective review of all referrals for gadolinium CMR with specific cardiomyopathy over 20 months. Nine patients with different specific cardiomyopathies were identified. Late enhancement was demonstrated in all patients, with a mean signal intensity of 390 +/- 220% compared with normal regions. The distribution pattern of late enhancement was unlike the subendocardial late enhancement related to coronary territories found in myocardial infarction. The affected areas included papillary muscles (sarcoid), the mid-myocardium (Anderson-Fabry disease, glycogen storage disease, myocarditis, Becker muscular dystrophy) and the global sub-endocardium (systemic sclerosis, Loeffler's endocarditis, amyloid, Churg-Strauss). Focal myocardial late gadolinium enhancement is found in the specific cardiomyopathies, and the pattern is distinct from that seen in infarction. Further systematic studies are warranted to assess whether the pattern and extent of late enhancement may aid diagnosis and prognostic assessment.

  4. Correlation between late gadolinium enhancement and diastolic function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyasu, Munenobu; Kurita, Tairo; Onishi, Katsuya

    2008-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is common in patients with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Steady-state cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables measurement of the diastolic function of the left ventricle (LV), and late gadolinium enhanced MRI can delineate the presence and extent of fibrosis in HCM. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the extent of myocardial fibrosis demonstrated by late gadolinium-enhanced MRI and diastolic dysfunction. Seventeen patients (13 men, mean age 57.7±9.8 years) with HCM were studied. The severity index of late gadolinium enhancement was determined by scoring the extent of enhanced tissue in 30 myocardial segments. The peak filling rate (PFR), LV ejection fraction and LV mass were determined by cine MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement in 97 of 510 segments (19%) and 13 of the 17 patients (77%). The severity index of late gadolinium enhancement demonstrated a significant negative correlation with PFR (r=-0.86, p<0.01) and with the LV ejection fraction (r=-0.59, p<0.05). No significant correlation was observed between the severity index of late gadolinium enhancement and LV mass (r=0.23, p=0.30). The extent of myocardial fibrosis revealed by late gadolinium-enhanced MRI has a strong relationship to diastolic dysfunction in patients with HCM. (author)

  5. Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safriel, Yair; Ang, Roberto; Ali, Muhammed

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualized using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered

  6. Comparison between (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI with late gadolinium enhancement in evaluating cardiac involvement in patients with transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Fabio; Di Bella, Gianluca; Mazzeo, Anna; Donato, Rocco; Russo, Massimo; Scribano, Emanuele; Baldari, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac involvement is not rare in systemic amyloidosis and is associated with poor prognosis. Both (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and cardiac MRI with late gadolinium enhancement are considered valuable tools in revealing amyloid deposition in the myocardium; however, to our knowledge, no comparative study between the two techniques exists. We compared findings of these two techniques in patients with transthyretin-familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Eighteen patients with transthyretin-FAP underwent (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI with late gadolinium enhancement. Images were visually evaluated by independent readers to determine the presence of radiotracer accumulation or late gadolinium enhancement-positive areas at the level of cardiac chambers. Interobserver agreement ranged from moderate to very good for (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging findings and was very good for findings of MRI with late gadolinium enhancement. Left ventricle (LV) radiotracer uptake was found in 10 of 18 patients, whereas LV late gadolinium enhancement-positive areas were found in eight of 18 patients (χ(2) = 0.9; p = 0.343). One hundred fifty-nine LV segments showed (99m)Tc-diphosphonate accumulation, and 57 LV segments were late gadolinium enhancement positive (p < 0.0001). Radiotracer uptake was found in the right ventricle (RV) in eight patients and in both atria in five patients, whereas MRI showed that RV was involved in three patients and both atria in six patients; the differences were not statistically significant (RV, p = 0.07; atria, p = 1). Intermodality agreement between (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI ranged from fair to good. Our study shows that, although (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI with late gadolinium enhancement have similar capabilities to identify patients with myocardial amyloid deposition, cardiac amyloid infiltration burden can be significantly underestimated by visual analysis of MRI with late gadolinium enhancement compared with (99m

  7. Atypical Distribution of Late Gadolinium Enhancement of the Left Ventricle on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Classical Anderson-Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kasuya, Shusuke; Suzuki, Masayo; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Odashima, Masayuki; Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Rumiko; Tokuyama, Wataru; Terada, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. Approximately 50% of patients with AFD may have cardiac involvement. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement of AFD by recognizing typical late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns. We report a 48-year-old man with cardiac involvement in classical AFD, showing atypical distribution of the LGE at the mid-lateral...

  8. Brain MR post-gadolinium contrast in multiple sclerosis: the role of magnetization transfer and image subtraction in detecting more enhancing lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavra, M.M.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Vlahos, L.J. [Department of Radiology, ' ' Aretaieion' ' Hospital,University of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Voumvourakis, C.; Sfagos, C. [Department of Neurology, ' ' Eginiteion' ' Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2004-03-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the role of magnetization transfer and image subtraction in detecting more enhancing lesions in brain MR imaging of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty-one MS patients underwent MR imaging of the brain with T1-weighted spin echo sequences without and with magnetization transfer (MT) using a 1.5 T imager. Both sequences were acquired before and after intravenous injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent. Subtraction images in T1-weighted sequences were obtained by subtracting the pre-contrast images from the post-contrast ones. A significant difference was found between the numbers of enhanced areas in post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without and with MT (p=0.020). The post-gadolinium T1-weighted images with MT allowed the detection of an increased (13) number of enhancing lesions compared with post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without MT. A significant difference was also found between the numbers of enhanced areas in post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without MT and subtraction images without MT (p=0.020). The subtraction images without MT allowed the detection of an increased (10) number of enhancing lesions compared with post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without MT. Magnetization transfer contrast and subtraction techniques appear to be the simplest and least time-consuming applications to improve the conspicuity and detection of contrast-enhancing lesions in patients with MS. (orig.)

  9. Brain MR post-gadolinium contrast in multiple sclerosis: the role of magnetization transfer and image subtraction in detecting more enhancing lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavra, M.M.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Vlahos, L.J.; Voumvourakis, C.; Sfagos, C.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the role of magnetization transfer and image subtraction in detecting more enhancing lesions in brain MR imaging of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty-one MS patients underwent MR imaging of the brain with T1-weighted spin echo sequences without and with magnetization transfer (MT) using a 1.5 T imager. Both sequences were acquired before and after intravenous injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent. Subtraction images in T1-weighted sequences were obtained by subtracting the pre-contrast images from the post-contrast ones. A significant difference was found between the numbers of enhanced areas in post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without and with MT (p=0.020). The post-gadolinium T1-weighted images with MT allowed the detection of an increased (13) number of enhancing lesions compared with post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without MT. A significant difference was also found between the numbers of enhanced areas in post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without MT and subtraction images without MT (p=0.020). The subtraction images without MT allowed the detection of an increased (10) number of enhancing lesions compared with post-gadolinium T1-weighted images without MT. Magnetization transfer contrast and subtraction techniques appear to be the simplest and least time-consuming applications to improve the conspicuity and detection of contrast-enhancing lesions in patients with MS. (orig.)

  10. Late gadolinium enhancement and adverse outcomes in a contemporary cohort of adult survivors of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Richard J; Mordi, Ify; Danton, Mark H; Walker, Niki L; Walker, Hamish A; Tzemos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis has been associated with poorer outcomes in tetralogy of Fallot, however only a handful of studies have assessed its significance in the current era. Our aim was to quantify the amount of late gadolinium enhancement in both the LV and RV in a contemporary cohort of adults with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot, and assess the relationship with adverse clinical outcomes. Single centre cohort study SETTING: National tertiary referral center Patients: One hundred fourteen patients with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot with median age 29.5 years (range 17.5-64.2). Prospective follow-up for mean 2.4 years (SD 1.29). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed, and late gadolinium enhancement mass was estimated for the LV using the 5-SD remote myocardium method, and for the RV using a segmental scoring system. Cohort characterization was determined through the use of a computerized database. Survival analysis from time of scan to first adverse event, defined as an episode of atrial arrhythmia, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, hospitalization with heart failure, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion. Eleven patients experienced an adverse outcome in the follow-up period, although there were no deaths. LV late gadolinium enhancement was associated with adverse outcomes in a univariate model (P = .027). However, when adjusted for age at scan the significant variables included NYHA class (P = .006), peak oxygen uptake (P = .028), number of prior sternotomies (P = .044), and higher indexed RV and LV end diastolic volumes (P = .002 and P tetralogy of Fallot survivors, however assessment particularly of the LV holds promise for the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Utility of gadolinium as a contrast medium in endovascular therapeutic procedures; Utilidad del gadolinio como medio de contraste en procedimientos terapeuticos endovasculares

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    Reyes, R.; Pardo, M. D.; Gorriz, E.; Gallardo, L. (Hospital de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin); Carreira, J. M. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela)

    2001-07-01

    To assess the utility of gadolinium associated with CO{sub 2}, as a contrast medium in angiographic studies related to endovascular therapeutic procedures in patients with suboptimal renal function. Between January 2000 and June 2001, endovascular treatments using CO{sub 2} and gadolinium as contrast medium were performed in 10 patients presenting renal function deterioration (creatinine>1.5 mg/ml). A mean dose of 42 ml of gadolinium was administered. The images acquired in diagnostic and therapeutic studied were satisfactory in every case. There was no evidence of significant increases in the previous urea and creatine levels when measured 24, 48 and 72 hours after the procedure. In combination with CO{sub 2} gadolinium is a useful contrast medium for endovascular therapeutic procedures in patients with suboptimal renal function. (Author) 21 refs.

  12. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac imaging on a 3T scanner with parallel RF transmission technique: prospective comparison of 3D-PSIR and 3D-IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Anthony; Caspar, Thibault; Schaeffer, Mickael; Labani, Aissam; Jeung, Mi-Young; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    To qualitatively and quantitatively compare different late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences acquired at 3T with a parallel RF transmission technique. One hundred and sixty participants prospectively enrolled underwent a 3T cardiac MRI with 3 different LGE sequences: 3D Phase-Sensitive Inversion-Recovery (3D-PSIR) acquired 5 minutes after injection, 3D Inversion-Recovery (3D-IR) at 9 minutes and 3D-PSIR at 13 minutes. All LGE-positive patients were qualitatively evaluated both independently and blindly by two radiologists using a 4-level scale, and quantitatively assessed with measurement of contrast-to-noise ratio and LGE maximal surface. Statistical analyses were calculated under a Bayesian paradigm using MCMC methods. Fifty patients (70 % men, 56yo ± 19) exhibited LGE (62 % were post-ischemic, 30 % related to cardiomyopathy and 8 % post-myocarditis). Early and late 3D-PSIR were superior to 3D-IR sequences (global quality, estimated coefficient IR > early-PSIR: -2.37 CI = [-3.46; -1.38], prob(coef > 0) = 0 % and late-PSIR > IR: 3.12 CI = [0.62; 4.41], prob(coef > 0) = 100 %), LGE surface estimated coefficient IR > early-PSIR: -0.09 CI = [-1.11; -0.74], prob(coef > 0) = 0 % and late-PSIR > IR: 0.96 CI = [0.77; 1.15], prob(coef > 0) = 100 %. Probabilities for late PSIR being superior to early PSIR concerning global quality and CNR were over 90 %, regardless of the aetiological subgroup. In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, 3D-PSIR is qualitatively and quantitatively superior to 3D-IR. (orig.)

  13. Fat-saturated post gadolinium T1 imaging of the brain in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saeed, Osama; Sheikh, Mehraj; Ismail, Mohammed; Athyal, Reji

    2011-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of vital importance in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Imaging sequences better demonstrating enhancing lesions can help in detecting active MS plaques. Purpose To evaluate the role of fat-saturated gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1W) images of the brain in MS and to assess the benefit of performing this additional sequence in the detection of enhancing lesions. Material and Methods In a prospective study over a six-month period, 70 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed MS were enrolled. These constituted 14 male and 56 female patients between the ages of 21 and 44 years. All the patients underwent brain MRIs on a 1.5 Tesla Magnet. Gadolinium-enhanced T1 images with and without fat saturation were compared and results were recorded and analyzed using a conspicuity score and McNemar test. Results There were a total of 157 lesions detected in 70 patients on post-contrast T1W fat-saturated images compared with 139 lesions seen on the post-contrast T1W fast spin-echo (FSE) images. This was because 18 of the lesions (11.5%) were only seen on the fat-saturated images. In addition, 15 lesions were more conspicuous on the fat saturation sequence (9.5%). The total conspicuity score obtained, including all the lesions, was 2.24 +/-0.60 (SD). Using the two-tailed McNemar test for quantitative analysis, the P value obtained was <0.0001. Conclusion T1W fat-saturated gadolinium-enhanced images show better lesion enhancement than T1W images without fat saturation

  14. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, J. C.; Sheppard, M.; Reed, E.; Lee, P.; Elliott, P. M.; Pennell, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic d...

  15. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the suben...

  16. Late post-operative hypoxaemia and organ dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    an adverse effect of tissue hypoxia on wound healing and on resistance to bacterial wound infections. Finally, mental confusion and surgical delirium may be related to inadequate arterial oxygenation during the late post-operative period. Late post-operative constant and episodic hypoxaemia may therefore......Constant and episodic hypoxaemia are common after major operations in the late post-operative period in the surgical ward. Recent studies have shown that hypoxaemia may be related to the development of myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated...

  17. Perbedaan Intensitas Penyengatan Meningeal Hasil MRI antara Sekuens T2 FLAIR Post Contrast dan T1WI Post Contrast Gadolinium-DTPA dalam Mendeteksi Penyangatan Meningeal pada Kasus Meningitis Tuberkulosis

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    Arie Hendarin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis meningitis TB terutama pada kasus possible dan probable sulit ditegakkan. Pemeriksaan MRI kepala dengan kontras Gadolinium-DTPA adalah modalitas radiologi yang paling sensitif untuk membantu mendiagnosis penyakit ini. Penyangatan meningeal di daerah basal merupakan gambaran MRI yang paling banyak ditemukan pada meningitis TB. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbedaan peningkatan intensitas sinyal meningen sekuens T2-FLAIR dengan T1WI pada pasien meningitis tuberkulosis menggunakan pemeriksaan MRI kepala dengan kontras Gadolinium-DTPA di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada bulan Januari 2015–Juni 2016. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 21 orang dengan meningitis TB dilakukan pemeriksaan MRI kepala dengan kontras Gadolinium-DTPA. Analisis statistik komparatif dilakukan untuk menguji perbedaan peningkatan intensitas sinyal meningen sekuens T2-FLAIR post contrast dengan T1WI post contrast. Hasil penelitian menujukkan rerata peningkatan intensitas sinyal meningen sekuen T2-FLAIR (∆T2-FLAIR sebesar 360,59±182,19 aμ sedangkan T1WI (∆T1WI sebesar 126,47±72,57 aμ. Hasil uji statistik menggunakan uji T pada derajat kepercayaan 95% menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna ∆T2-FLAIR dengan ∆T1WI pada nilai p=0,000. Sebagai simpulan didapatkan peningkatan intensitas sinyal meningen sekuens T2-FLAIR post contrast lebih besar daripada T1WI post contrast pada kasus meningitis TB.  [MKB. 2017;49(3:172–78] Kata kunci: Meningitis tuberkulosis, MRI sekuens T1WI dan T2-FLAIR, penyangatan meningeal Difference between Gadolinium-DTPA Enhanced T2 FLAIR Sequence and T1WI Sequence MRI in Detecting Meningeal Enhancement in Tuberculous Meningitis The diagnosis of TB meningitis, especially in possible and probable cases, is difficult. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the head with Gadolinium-DTPA is the most sensitive imaging modality that supports diagnosis of this disease. The most common presentation of TB meningitis in MRI is basal meningeal enhancement

  18. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C; Sheppard, Mary; Reed, Emma; Lee, Phillip; Elliott, Perry M; Pennell, Dudley J

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic death. The reasons for this distribution of fibrosis are unclear, but may reflect inhomogeneous left ventricular wall stress.

  19. Myocardial Impairment Detected by Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Comparison with 99mTc-MIBI/Tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimura, Hiromi; Kiso, Keisuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kono, Atsushi; Morita, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Kazuto; Higashi, Masahiro; Noguchi Teruo; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial fibrosis is considered to be an important factor in myocardial dysfunction and sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The purpose of this study was to compare myocardial fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac MRI with myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism assessed by single photon emission computed tomography in HCM.Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 20 consecutive HCM patients (female, 7; mean age, 5...

  20. Scoring of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can predict cardiac events in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Ayumi; Hongo, Kenichi; Kawai, Makoto; Komukai, Kimiaki; Sakuma, Toru; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents myocardial fibrosis and may be related to the clinical outcome of various heart diseases. This study evaluated the relationship between LGE and cardiac events in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using a new scoring method. This study retrospectively followed 46 HCM patients without heart failure symptoms for 3.8±1.8 years. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI was performed in all patients. Cardiac events including newly developed heart failure or ventricular tachyarrhythmia were evaluated during the follow-up period. We evaluated the predictive factors to identify the patients with cardiac events. None of the risk factors reported to be related to poor outcome or the existence of LGE alone could predict cardiac events, which might be due to the small number of subjects investigated in this study. A new scoring method for LGE-positive areas (LGE score) was applied and higher LGE score can predict cardiac events in this study population. The proposed LGE score for cardiac MRI is considered to be a potentially valid method for assessing cardiac events in HCM patients. (author)

  1. Utility of late gadolinium enhancement in pediatric cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etesami, Maryam; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence is increasingly used in the evaluation of pediatric cardiovascular disorders, and although LGE might be a normal feature at the sites of previous surgeries, it is pathologically seen as a result of extracellular space expansion, either from acute cell damage or chronic scarring or fibrosis. LGE is broadly divided into ischemic and non-ischemic patterns. LGE caused by myocardial infarction occurs in a vascular distribution and always involves the subendocardial portion, progressively involving the outer regions in a waveform pattern. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies can have a mid-myocardial (either linear or patchy), subepicardial or diffuse subendocardial distribution. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy can have a linear mid-myocardial pattern, while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can have fine, patchy enhancement in hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied segments as well as right ventricular insertion points. Myocarditis and sarcoidosis have a mid-myocardial or subepicardial pattern of LGE. Fabry disease typically affects the basal inferolateral segment while Danon disease typically spares the septum. Pericarditis is characterized by diffuse or focal pericardial thickening and enhancement. Thrombus, the most common non-neoplastic cardiac mass, is characterized by absence of enhancement in all sequences, while neoplastic masses show at least some contrast enhancement, depending on the pathology. Regardless of the etiology, presence of LGE is associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we describe the technical modifications required for performing LGE cardiac MR sequence in children, review and illustrate the patterns of LGE in children, and discuss their clinical significance. (orig.)

  2. Utility of late gadolinium enhancement in pediatric cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Maryam; Gilkeson, Robert C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-07-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence is increasingly used in the evaluation of pediatric cardiovascular disorders, and although LGE might be a normal feature at the sites of previous surgeries, it is pathologically seen as a result of extracellular space expansion, either from acute cell damage or chronic scarring or fibrosis. LGE is broadly divided into ischemic and non-ischemic patterns. LGE caused by myocardial infarction occurs in a vascular distribution and always involves the subendocardial portion, progressively involving the outer regions in a waveform pattern. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies can have a mid-myocardial (either linear or patchy), subepicardial or diffuse subendocardial distribution. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy can have a linear mid-myocardial pattern, while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can have fine, patchy enhancement in hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied segments as well as right ventricular insertion points. Myocarditis and sarcoidosis have a mid-myocardial or subepicardial pattern of LGE. Fabry disease typically affects the basal inferolateral segment while Danon disease typically spares the septum. Pericarditis is characterized by diffuse or focal pericardial thickening and enhancement. Thrombus, the most common non-neoplastic cardiac mass, is characterized by absence of enhancement in all sequences, while neoplastic masses show at least some contrast enhancement, depending on the pathology. Regardless of the etiology, presence of LGE is associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we describe the technical modifications required for performing LGE cardiac MR sequence in children, review and illustrate the patterns of LGE in children, and discuss their clinical significance.

  3. Enrichment of gadolinium-157 and gadolinium-155 by laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinjun, Su; Xiaowei, Zhang; Zhiquan, Li

    2008-01-01

    Laser isotope separation experiments of gadolinium by atomic vapor method have been performed. Gadolinium-157 and gadolinium-155 were selectively photoionized by means of three linearly polarized dye lasers, the excitation process of which is based on the polarization selection rules. Gramme-magnitude of enriched gadolinium was obtained and the total abundance of gadolinium-157 and gadolinium-155 was in excess of 80%, and the product rating exceeded 200 mg/h. (author)

  4. Radio response of human lymphocytes pretreated with boron and gadoliniums assessed by the, comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Park, T. W.; Cebulska-Wasiewska, A.; Nili, M.

    2009-01-01

    Boron and gadolinium are among the nuclides that hold a unique property of being a neutron capture therapy agent. Neutron beams have often a considerable portion of gamma rays with fast neutrons. Gamma rays, as beam contaminants, can cause considerable damage to normal tissues even if such tissues do contain high boron concentrations. Materials and Methods: The modification of radio response in human lymphocytes pretreated with boron or gadolinium compound was studied by assessing the DNA damage using single cell gel electrophoresis, the comet assay. The lymphocytes from the human peripheral blood were irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy of gamma rays from a 60 Co isotopic source with or without pretreatment of boron or gadolinium compound for 10 minutes at 4 d egree C . Post-irradiation procedures included slide preparation, cell-lysing, unwinding and electrophoresis, neutralization, staining, and analytic steps, gel electrophoresis. Results: The results indicate that pretreatment with boron compound (50 n M or 250 n M of 10 B) is effective in reducing the radiosensitivity of the lymphocyte DNA. Conversely, pretreatment with gadolinium compound (50 n M) led to a dose-dependent increase in the radiosensitivity, most prominently with a dose of 4 Gy (P<0.001). Furthermore, when the lymphocytes were pretreated with a Combined mixture (1:1) of boron (250 n M) and gadolinium (50 n M) compounds, the reduced radiosensitivity was also observed.

  5. Effect of inversion time on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement quantification evaluated with synthetic inversion recovery MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U.J.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Fuller, Stephen R.; Suranyi, Pal [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Geest, Rob J. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Spottiswoode, Bruce S. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Chicago, IL (United States); Muscogiuri, Giuseppe [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital IRCCS, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Merkely, Bela [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Litwin, Sheldon E. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the influence of inversion time (TI) on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification using synthetic inversion recovery (IR) imaging in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty-three patients with suspected prior MI underwent 1.5-T cardiac MRI with conventional magnitude (MagIR) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) LGE imaging and T1 mapping at 15 min post-contrast. T1-based synthetic MagIR and PSIR images were calculated with a TI ranging from -100 to +150 ms at 5-ms intervals relative to the optimal TI (TI{sub 0}). LGE was quantified using a five standard deviation (5SD) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) thresholds. Measurements were compared using one-way analysis of variance. The MagIR{sub sy} technique provided precise assessment of LGE area at TIs ≥ TI{sub 0}, while precision was decreased below TI{sub 0}. The LGE area showed significant differences at ≤ -25 ms compared to TI{sub 0} using 5SD (P < 0.001) and at ≤ -65 ms using the FWHM approach (P < 0.001). LGE measurements did not show significant difference over the analysed TI range in the PSIR{sub sy} images using either of the quantification methods. T1 map-based PSIR{sub sy} images provide precise quantification of MI independent of TI at the investigated time point post-contrast. MagIR{sub sy}-based MI quantification is precise at TI{sub 0} and at longer TIs while showing decreased precision at TI values below TI{sub 0}. (orig.)

  6. Early Gadolinium Enhancement for Determination of Area at Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Leung, Steve W; Hsu, Li-Yueh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in a canine model of reperfused myocardial infarction depicts the area at risk (AAR) as determined by microsphere blood flow analysis. BACKGROUND: It remains controver......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in a canine model of reperfused myocardial infarction depicts the area at risk (AAR) as determined by microsphere blood flow analysis. BACKGROUND: It remains...... requires pathological validation. METHODS: Eleven dogs underwent 2 h of coronary artery occlusion and 48 h of reperfusion before imaging at 1.5-T. EGE imaging was performed 3 min after contrast administration with coverage of the entire left ventricle. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging was performed...... on native T1 and T2 maps. The size of EGE was significantly greater than the infarct by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (44.1 ± 15.8% vs. 20.7 ± 14.4%; p gadolinium enhancement (44.1 ± 15.8% vs. 23.5 ± 12.7%; p

  7. High-pressure liquid chromatography of trace elements: Determination of terbium in terbium doped gadolinium oxide sulphide phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucotelli, A.; Dadone, A.; Frache, R.; Baffi, F.; Genoa Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of isocratic and gradient elution separations of lanthanides has been carried out. Analyses of industrially and scientifically interesting products such as luminescent phosphors have been carried out by gradient elution with DL-2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. The determination of small amounts of terbium in gadolinium oxide sulphide phosphors is described in which an HCl solution was eluted through a stainless steel column packed with microparticulate silica, with bonded cation-exchange groups. Complete separation of gadolinium and terbium is achieved. Detection is with a variable wavelength detector following post-column complex formation with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol monosodium salt. Results obtained on test solutions show good reproducilbity and sensitivtiy and the method may be considered sufficiently reliable to be used in routine quality control procedures. (orig.)

  8. High spatial resolution free-breathing 3D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy: quantitative assessment of scar mass and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizino, Maurice B; Tao, Qian; Amersfoort, Jacob; Siebelink, Hans-Marc J; van den Bogaard, Pieter J; van der Geest, Rob J; Lamb, Hildo J

    2018-04-06

    To compare breath-hold (BH) with navigated free-breathing (FB) 3D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI (LGE-CMR) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were retrospectively included (34 ischaemic cardiomyopathy, 14 non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, three discarded). BH and FB 3D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequences were performed at 3T. FB datasets were reformatted into normal resolution (FB-NR, 1.46x1.46x10mm) and high resolution (FB-HR, isotropic 0.91-mm voxels). Scar mass, scar edge sharpness (SES), SNR and CNR were compared using paired-samples t-test, Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Scar mass was similar in BH and FB-NR (mean ± SD: 15.5±18.0 g vs. 15.5±16.9 g, p=0.997), with good correlation (r=0.953), and no bias (mean difference ± SD: 0.00±5.47 g). FB-NR significantly overestimated scar mass compared with FB-HR (15.5±16.9 g vs 14.4±15.6 g; p=0.007). FB-NR and FB-HR correlated well (r=0.988), but Bland-Altman demonstrated systematic bias (1.15±2.84 g). SES was similar in BH and FB-NR (p=0.947), but significantly higher in FB-HR than FB-NR (pFB-NR (pFB-HR than FB-NR (p<0.01). Navigated free-breathing 3D LGE-CMR allows reliable scar mass quantification comparable to breath-hold. During free-breathing, spatial resolution can be increased resulting in improved sharpness and reduced scar mass. • Navigated free-breathing 3D late gadolinium enhancement is reliable for myocardial scar quantification. • High-resolution 3D late gadolinium enhancement increases scar sharpness • Ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy patients can be imaged using free-breathing LGE CMR.

  9. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  10. Bone marrow blood supply in gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Bann, K.; Ridgway, J.P.; Butt, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine whether bone blood supply can be assessed on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of 49 patients attending for post-laminectomy examination were reviewed (30 male, 19 female, mean age 46.4 years, age range 23-84 years). Each study included sagittal T1-weighted spin echo sequences before and after gadolinium administration. Regions of interest were drawn within the L3 vertebral body from a parasagittal slice from each sequence. Signal intensity (SI) values were ascertained and the percentage increase in SI was calculated. For each patient, changes in receiver gain for pre- and post-gadolinium images were corrected by an image scaling factor. In all cases, a measurable increase in SI was found (mean 15.3%, range 4.4-55.7) due to bone vascularity. The results give no indication of the quantity or timing of blood supply but provide a basis for further work. (orig.)

  11. Actual clinical use of gadolinium-chelates for non-MRI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunk, Holger M; Schild, H [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53105, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    For many years, alternatives to iodinated X-ray contrast media have been sought. Of the contrast media investigated to date, only CO{sub 2} and the gadolinium-chelates have been shown to be viable alternatives for selected X-ray examinations. Therefore, we have reviewed the general literature and that specific for gadopentetate (Magnevist) in particular, since this agent has been studied the most. This review indicates that diagnostic CT examinations can be achieved following the intravenous administration of gadolinium-containing contrast media (CM) for evaluation of aortic abnormalities. Gadolinium-containing CM at the dose approved for MR imaging are not useful for CT evaluation of the abdominal parenchymal organs. Intravenous/intraarterial injections have also been used in a variety of angiographic and interventional procedures. Image quality, however, is generally inferior to iodinated contrast media. Gadolinium-containing CM require no special handling and can be administered by hand injection or via conventional angiographic automated injectors with the same flow rates and pressures as are used with iodinated contrast media. For CT, a peripheral bolus injection of a diluted gadolinium agent (1:1 with saline) of 60-90 ml at 3-5 ml/s is usually performed. Similar to all other gadolinium-chelates, the non-MRI use of gadopentetate (Magnevist) is not approved by regulatory agencies. However, the literature suggests that a dose of 0.3-0.4 mmol/kg b.w. has been safely administered for CT as well as for angiography and interventional procedures intravenously and intraarterially. Even at this dose, though, this results in a relatively small overall volume to be injected, which limits utility somewhat. (orig.)

  12. Actual clinical use of gadolinium-chelates for non-MRI applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunk, Holger M.; Schild, H.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, alternatives to iodinated X-ray contrast media have been sought. Of the contrast media investigated to date, only CO 2 and the gadolinium-chelates have been shown to be viable alternatives for selected X-ray examinations. Therefore, we have reviewed the general literature and that specific for gadopentetate (Magnevist) in particular, since this agent has been studied the most. This review indicates that diagnostic CT examinations can be achieved following the intravenous administration of gadolinium-containing contrast media (CM) for evaluation of aortic abnormalities. Gadolinium-containing CM at the dose approved for MR imaging are not useful for CT evaluation of the abdominal parenchymal organs. Intravenous/intraarterial injections have also been used in a variety of angiographic and interventional procedures. Image quality, however, is generally inferior to iodinated contrast media. Gadolinium-containing CM require no special handling and can be administered by hand injection or via conventional angiographic automated injectors with the same flow rates and pressures as are used with iodinated contrast media. For CT, a peripheral bolus injection of a diluted gadolinium agent (1:1 with saline) of 60-90 ml at 3-5 ml/s is usually performed. Similar to all other gadolinium-chelates, the non-MRI use of gadopentetate (Magnevist) is not approved by regulatory agencies. However, the literature suggests that a dose of 0.3-0.4 mmol/kg b.w. has been safely administered for CT as well as for angiography and interventional procedures intravenously and intraarterially. Even at this dose, though, this results in a relatively small overall volume to be injected, which limits utility somewhat. (orig.)

  13. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of late gadolinium enhancement to improve outcomes prediction in patients referred for cardiovascular magnetic resonance after echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Echocardiography (echo) is a first line test to assess cardiac structure and function. It is not known if cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) ordered during routine clinical practice in selected patients can add additional prognostic information after routine echo. We assessed whether CMR improves outcomes prediction after contemporaneous echo, which may have implications for efforts to optimize processes of care, assess effectiveness, and allocate limited health care resources. Methods and results We prospectively enrolled 1044 consecutive patients referred for CMR. There were 38 deaths and 3 cardiac transplants over a median follow-up of 1.0 years (IQR 0.4-1.5). We first reproduced previous survival curve strata (presence of LGE and ejection fraction (EF) echocardiography, CMR with LGE further improves risk stratification of individuals at risk for death or death/cardiac transplant. PMID:23324403

  15. MR imaging of gestational trophoblastic tumor: role of gadolinium enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Si Young; Byun, Jae Young; Kim, Bum Su; Yun, Young Hyun; Mun, Kyung Mi; Park, Kyung Sin; Kim, Byung Kee; Bae, Seog Nyeon; Shinn, Kyung Sub.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of gadolinium enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of gestational trophoblastic tumors (invasive mole and choriocarcinoma). Pre-enhanced T1-and T2-weighted images and gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images of 34 gestational trophoblastic tumors (15 choriocarcinomas, 19 invasive moles) were retrospectively evaluated and enhancement patterns were analyzed. Morphologica differences and structural characteristics were analyzed by the evaluation of tumor margin, patterns of hemorrhagic necroses, the development of intratumoral vascularity, and molar villi. Graded scores of MR findings between pre- and gadolinium enhanced images were based on the following criteria : 1) visualization of tumor margin 2) distinction between tumor necrosis and zone of trophoblastic proliferation ; and 3) molar villi. Statistical differences between graded scores of pre- and post-enhanced images were analyzed. Gadolinium enhanced MR imaging was helpful for the visualization of tumor characteristics in gestational trophoblastic tumors and in differential diagnosis between invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Giant cisterna chyli: MRI depiction with gadolinium-DTPA enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.C.Y.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the use of MRI with Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement in the diagnosis of giant cisterna chyli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of contrast enhanced MRI with ultrasound and CT correlation in three patients with a giant cisterna chyli. An analysis of the morphology, location and post-contrast MR signal characteristics in relation to time was performed. RESULTS: Cisterna chyli has a characteristic lobulated morphology and location but the unenhanced MRI appearances are not specific. The post-Gadolinium-DTPA MRI appearances are critically dependent on the time elapsed after injection of contrast medium. Within the first 5 min, there is no enhancement at all, but by 10 min there is early layering of contrast medium evident, which by 30 min produces a clear fluid-fluid level. Delayed images at 4-5 h demonstrate a uniform enhancement of the cisternal contents producing a homogeneous intermediate signal. All of these features are best visualized on T1 fast saturation sequences. CONCLUSION: MRI with Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement is valuable in confirming the nature of the lymphatic ducts in the retroperitoneal space and helps to differentiate these normal structures from alternative lesions such as lymphadenopathy and tumour recurrence. Lee, K.C.Y., Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. (2000)

  17. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, P.R.M. van; Wall, E.E. van der; Roos, A. de; Doornbos, J.; Laarse, A. van der; Voorthuisen, A.E. van; Bruschke, A.V.G.; Rossum, A.C. van

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate he usefulness of the paramagnetic contrast agent Gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in Magnetic Resonance. Imaging of acute myocardial infarction, we studied a total of 45 patients with a first acute myocardial infarction by ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging before and after intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA. All patients received thrombolytic treatment by intravenous streptokinase. The magnetic resonance imaging studies were preformed after a meam of 88 h (range 15-241) after the acute onset of acute myocardial infarction. Five patients without evidence of cardiac disease served as controls. Spin-echo measurements (TE 30 ms) were made using a Philips Gyroscan (0.5 Tesla) or a Teslacon II (0.6 Tesla). The 45 patients were divided into four groups of patients. In Group I( patients) Gadolinium-DTPA improved the detection of myocardial infarction by Gadolinium-DTPA. In Group II (20 patients) the magnetic resonance imaging procedure was repeated every 10 min for up to 40 min following administration of Gadolinium-DTPA. Optimal contrast enhancement was obtained 20-25 min after Gadolinium-DTPA. In Group III (27 patients) signal intensities were significantly higher in the patients who underwent the magnetic resonance imaging study more than 72 h (mean 120) after the acute event, suggesting increased acculumation of Gadolinium-DTPA in a more advanced stage of the infarction process. In Group IV (45 patients) Gadolinium-DTPA was administered in an attempt to distinguish between reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial areas after thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction. The signal intensities did not differ, but reperfused areas showed a more homogeneous aspect whereas nonreperfused areas were visualized as a more heterogeneous contrast enhancement. It is concluded that magnetic resonance imaging using the contrast agent Gadolinium-DTPA significantly improves the detection of infarcted myocardial areas

  18. Study of burnable poisons and gadolinium qualification in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Mohamed.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a calculation procedure for analyzing light water moderated reactors utilizing gadolinium as a burnable poison. The main points of this work can be summarized as follows: the available cross section data of gadolinium were analysed and corrected whenever it was necessary. The processes which include required precautions for obtaining multigroup cross sections were defined; an exhaustive study of the assumptions used in multicell calculation methods allowed the definition of option to be used for obtaining good results without excessive calculation cost. This study was followed by the interpretation of experimental results; when gadolinium is used in grain structure, a problem of double heterogeneity is encountered. A new calculation method was developed for such situations. Its validity was confirmed by a comparison with the Monte Carlo method; the problems encountered in performing a study of burn up of fuel elements containing gadolinium were analysed and the necessary precautions were established. The effect of the initial charge and geometrical form of the gadolinium and the behavior of lattices during the burn up were examined [fr

  19. Extended diagnosis of liver tumor with gadolinium DTPA supplementary to routine procedure in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenheim, C.; Heintz, P.; Schwarzrock, R.; Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Several imaging methods and especially their combined application are proven to be useful in the diagnosis and differentiation of liver tumors: Ultrasound, roentgen computed tomography, sequential hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBSS), blood pool scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. 38 patients with liver tumors (hemangioma, hepatocellular carcinoma, focal nodular hyperplasia) underwent MRI of the liver before and after i.v. injection of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA in addition to other imaging methods. Written informed consent we achieved in all cases. The normal and pathological findings in MRI were documented in T1- and T2-weighted images, proton density image, calculated T1- and T2-images and a T1-weighted image after application of the contrast agent. The application of Gadolinium-DTPA as contrast agent improves the delimitation of the most intrahepatic lesions. Concerning the hemangiomas of the liver the improved contrast behaviour induced by Gadolinium-DTPA does not reach the contrast and sensitivity of a native T2-weighted SE image. The demarcation of focal nodular hyperplasia is not improved by use of the contrast agent. This finding supports the assumption that the FNH is not basically different from normal liver tissue. Gadolinium-DTPA provides additional information concerning the delineation of internal tumor details in hepatocellular carcinoma (hyperperfused areas, necroses, fibrous capsular structures). (orig.)

  20. Myocardial area at risk after ST-elevation myocardial infarction measured with the late gadolinium enhancement after scar remodeling and T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the myocardial area at risk (AAR) measured by the endocardial surface area (ESA) method on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) when applied after scar remodeling (3 months after index infarction) compared to T2-weighted CMR imaging. One hundred...... and sixty nine patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, underwent one CMR within 1 week after index treatment to determine the AAR with T2-weighted imaging and a second scan 3 months after to measure AAR with the ESA method...

  1. Myocardial area at risk after ST-elevation myocardial infarction measured with the late gadolinium enhancement after scar remodeling and T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the myocardial area at risk (AAR) measured by the endocardial surface area (ESA) method on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) when applied after scar remodeling (3 months after index infarction) compared to T2-weighted CMR imaging. One hundred...... and sixty nine patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, underwent one CMR within 1 week after index treatment to determine the AAR with T2-weighted imaging and a second scan 3 months after to measure AAR with the ESA method...

  2. [Studies of three-dimensional cardiac late gadolinium enhancement MRI at 3.0 Tesla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Takeshi; Ishihara, Masaru; Ikeda, Takayuki; Kawakami, Momoe

    2008-12-20

    Cardiac late Gadolinium enhancement MR imaging has been shown to allow assessment of myocardial viability in patients with ischemic heart disease. The current standard approach is a 3D inversion recovery sequence at 1.5 Tesla. The aims of this study were to evaluate the technique feasibility and clinical utility of MR viability imaging at 3.0 Tesla in patients with myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathy. In phantom and volunteer studies, the inversion time required to suppress the signal of interests and tissues was prolonged at 3.0 Tesla. In the clinical study, the average inversion time to suppress the signal of myocardium at 3.0 Tesla with respect to MR viability imaging at 1.5 Tesla was at 15 min after the administration of contrast agent (304.0+/-29.2 at 3.0 Tesla vs. 283.9+/-20.9 at 1.5 Tesla). The contrast between infarction and viable myocardium was equal at both field strengths (4.06+/-1.30 at 3.0 Tesla vs. 4.42+/-1.85 at 1.5 Tesla). Even at this early stage, MR viability imaging at 3.0 Tesla provides high quality images in patients with myocardial infarction. The inversion time is significantly prolonged at 3.0 Tesla. The contrast between infarction and viable myocardium at 3.0 Tesla are equal to 1.5 Tesla. Further investigation is needed for this technical improvement, for clinical evaluation, and for limitations.

  3. Comparison of acquisition time and dose for late gadolinium enhancement imaging at 3.0 T in patients with chronic myocardial infarction using Gd-BOPTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doltra, A.; Skorin, A.; Gebker, R.; Klein, C.; Fleck, E.; Kelle, S.; Hamdan, A.; Schnackenburg, B.; Nagel, E.

    2014-01-01

    To compare contrast doses and acquisition times for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging at 3.0 T using gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. Thirty-four patients with chronic myocardial infarction were randomised to 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mmol/kg of Gd-BOPTA. T1-weighted inversion recovery gradient echo sequences were performed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min post-administration of contrast in a 3.0-T scanner. Scar-to-myocardium contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), scar-to-blood CNR, scar size and image quality were assessed. Imaging at 5 min was associated with a lower scar-to-blood CNR in comparison to 10, 15 and 20 min at 0.10 mmol/kg, and in comparison to 15 and 20 min at 0.20 mmol/kg. At 0.10-mmol/kg, imaging at 5 min yielded smaller infarct sizes in comparison to 15 and 20 min. Finally, at 0.20-mmol/kg, imaging at 5 min was associated with poorer image quality in comparison to later times. In LGE imaging at 3.0 T, low doses of Gd-BOPTA perform equally well as higher doses. Early acquisition (5 min) is associated with lower infarct sizes and image quality. Studies with sufficient diagnostic quality can be obtained after 10 min using 0.10 mmol/kg Gd-BOPTA. (orig.)

  4. Subcellular SIMS imaging of gadolinium isotopes in human glioblastoma cells treated with a gadolinium containing MRI agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duane R.; Lorey, Daniel R.; Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary radiotherapeutic modality for the treatment of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme. Recently, neutron capture therapy with gadolinium-157 has gained attention, and techniques for studying the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157 are needed. In this preliminary study, we have been able to image the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157, as well as the other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium, with SIMS ion microscopy. T98G human glioblastoma cells were treated for 24 h with 25 mg/ml of the metal ion complex diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Gd(III) dihydrogen salt hydrate (Gd-DTPA). Gd-DTPA is a contrast enhancing agent used for MRI of brain tumors, blood-brain barrier impairment, diseases of the central nervous system, etc. A highly heterogeneous subcellular distribution was observed for gadolinium-157. The nuclei in each cell were distinctly lower in gadolinium-157 than in the cytoplasm. Even within the cytoplasm the gadolinium-157 was heterogeneously distributed. The other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium were imaged from the same cells and exhibited a subcellular distribution consistent with that observed for gadolinium-157. These observations indicate that SIMS ion microscopy may be a viable approach for subcellular studies of gadolinium containing neutron capture therapy drugs and may even play a major role in the development and validation of new gadolinium contrast enhancing agents for diagnostic MRI applications.

  5. Free-breathing motion-corrected late-gadolinium-enhancement imaging improves image quality in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall J.; Cross, Russell; Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Hansen, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The value of late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging in the diagnosis and management of pediatric and congenital heart disease is clear; however current acquisition techniques are susceptible to error and artifacts when performed in children because of children's higher heart rates, higher prevalence of sinus arrhythmia, and inability to breath-hold. Commonly used techniques in pediatric LGE imaging include breath-held segmented FLASH (segFLASH) and steady-state free precession-based (segSSFP) imaging. More recently, single-shot SSFP techniques with respiratory motion-corrected averaging have emerged. This study tested and compared single-shot free-breathing LGE techniques with standard segmented breath-held techniques in children undergoing LGE imaging. Thirty-two consecutive children underwent clinically indicated late-enhancement imaging using intravenous gadobutrol 0.15 mmol/kg. Breath-held segSSFP, breath-held segFLASH, and free-breathing single-shot SSFP LGE sequences were performed in consecutive series in each child. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the quality of the images and rated them on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = superior) based on blood pool-myocardial definition, presence of cardiac motion, presence of respiratory motion artifacts, and image acquisition artifact. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare groups. Patients ranged in age from 9 months to 18 years, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of 13.3 +/- 4.8 years. R-R interval at the time of acquisition ranged 366-1,265 milliseconds (ms) (47-164 beats per minute [bpm]), mean +/- SD of 843+/-231 ms (72+/-21 bpm). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for long-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.1+/-0.9, 3.4+/-0.9 and 4.0+/-0.9, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for short-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.4+/-1, 3.8+/-0.9 and 4.3+/-0.7, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Single-shot late

  6. Free-breathing motion-corrected late-gadolinium-enhancement imaging improves image quality in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, Laura; O' Brien, Kendall J. [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cross, Russell [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Hansen, Michael S. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The value of late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging in the diagnosis and management of pediatric and congenital heart disease is clear; however current acquisition techniques are susceptible to error and artifacts when performed in children because of children's higher heart rates, higher prevalence of sinus arrhythmia, and inability to breath-hold. Commonly used techniques in pediatric LGE imaging include breath-held segmented FLASH (segFLASH) and steady-state free precession-based (segSSFP) imaging. More recently, single-shot SSFP techniques with respiratory motion-corrected averaging have emerged. This study tested and compared single-shot free-breathing LGE techniques with standard segmented breath-held techniques in children undergoing LGE imaging. Thirty-two consecutive children underwent clinically indicated late-enhancement imaging using intravenous gadobutrol 0.15 mmol/kg. Breath-held segSSFP, breath-held segFLASH, and free-breathing single-shot SSFP LGE sequences were performed in consecutive series in each child. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the quality of the images and rated them on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = superior) based on blood pool-myocardial definition, presence of cardiac motion, presence of respiratory motion artifacts, and image acquisition artifact. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare groups. Patients ranged in age from 9 months to 18 years, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of 13.3 +/- 4.8 years. R-R interval at the time of acquisition ranged 366-1,265 milliseconds (ms) (47-164 beats per minute [bpm]), mean +/- SD of 843+/-231 ms (72+/-21 bpm). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for long-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.1+/-0.9, 3.4+/-0.9 and 4.0+/-0.9, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for short-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.4+/-1, 3.8+/-0.9 and 4.3+/-0.7, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Single-shot late

  7. Gadolinium depletion event in a CANDU® moderator - causes and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.W.; Price, J.; Swami, D.; Fracalanza, E.; Brett, M.E.; Puzzuoli, F.V.; Garg, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Herrmann, O.; Rudolph, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Stuart, C.; Glowa, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Smee, J. [Niagara Technical Consultants, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gadolinium nitrate is added to the moderator of CANDU units to maintain the reactor in a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS). In April 2008, after being in stable GSS for over 30 hours, one of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering-B units showed a gradual depletion of the dissolved gadolinium, despite purification being isolated. Further additions of gadolinium stabilized the moderator gadolinium concentration, however, since the root cause of the depletion was not immediately identified, the unit was placed in the drained shutdown state, per established procedures. The cumulative gadolinium depletion amounted to about 3200 grams, the equivalent of about 12 ppm. Analysis showed the presence of oxalate in the moderator water. It is well-known that gadolinium forms a very insoluble oxalate (log K{sub sp} = -29.1). Although sub-micron filtration of water samples did not show the presence of gadolinium particulate, the measured levels of oxalate, 1.2 to 2 ppm, were sufficient to react with 1.4 to 2.4 ppm of gadolinium. The source of oxalate was traced to radiolysis of dissolved CO{sub 2} species. This unit had been experiencing chronic low-level ingress of CO{sub 2} from the Annulus Gas System. Free oxalate ion is normally susceptible to radiolytic breakdown back to CO{sub 2}, but Gd{sup 3+} provides a stable sink for radiogenic oxalate, 2 Gd{sup 3+} + 3 C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} → Gd{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}. Subsequent testing confirmed that gadolinium oxalate is quite stable with respect to gamma irradiation. Inspections showed well-crystallized gadolinium oxalate deposited on moderator system surfaces. Estimates indicated that about 1200 grams of gadolinium could have deposited on in-core surfaces, including the outside of the calandria tubes. That amount of negative reactivity was a concern, since it would prevent re-start of the unit. OPG, with support from AECL-Chalk River and Kinectrics, embarked on a two-pronged chemistry recovery program aimed at 1

  8. Does Late Gadolinium Enhancement still have Value? Right Ventricular Internal Mechanical Work, Ea/Emax and Late Gadolinium Enhancement as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Hypertension via Cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelnour, Amr Ei; Doyle, Mark; Thompson, Diane V; Yamrozik, June; Williams, Ronald B; Shah, Moneal B; Soma, Siva Kr; Murali, Srinivas; Benza, Raymond L; Biederman, Robert Ww

    2017-01-01

    Investigate the impact of Right Ventricular (RV) Internal Work (IW), ratio of arterial to ventricular end-systolic elastance (E a /E max ), and RV Insertion Point (IP) Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) on outcome in Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) patients. LGE is well known to be present within the RVIPs and Inter Ventricular Septum (IVS) in PH patients, but its prognostic role remains complex and potentially overestimated via 2D qualitative relative to the 3D quantitative measures now available. However, E a /E max , a measure of ventricular-arterial coupling and IW, when added to external cardiac work i.e. the P-V loop area as correlates to the heart's energy demands, might fundamentally improve measures of prognosis as they interrogate physiology beyond just the RV. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) of 124 PH patients (age = 60±13, 85F) referred to a large tertiary PH center, was retrospectively examined for RV volumetric and functional indices and RVIP LGE%. Right Heart Catheterizations (RHC) performed within 1±2 months of the CMR were reviewed. E a /E max was derived as RV End-Systolic Volume (ESV/RVSV). IW was estimated as RVESV ×(RV end-systolic pressure-RV diastolic pressure). Patients were followed from date of CMR for up to 5 years for MACE (death, hospitalized RV failure, initiation of parenteral prostacyclin, sustained ventricular arrhythmia or referral for lung transplantation). MACE was high; 48/124 (39%) patients had MACE by 1.6±1.3 years. Neither RVIP nor IVS LGE using visual assessment or even 3D quantization predicted MACE. The strongest predictor of MACE was RVIW (OR=1.00013, pright-sided human myocardial pathologies.

  9. Preclinical studies on gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki

    1994-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy is based on radiations (photons and electrons) produced in the tumor by a nuclear reaction between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons. Studies with Chinese hamster cells have shown that the radiation effect resulting from gadolinium neutron capture reactions is mostly of low LET and that released electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. Biological dosimetry revealed that the dose does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, leading to a conclusion that there is a range of gadolinium concentrations most efficient for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The in vivo studies with transplantable tumors in mice and rabbits have revealed that close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation and that gadolinium delivery selective to tumors is crucial. The results show that the potential of gadolinium neutron capture therapy as a therapeutic modality appears very promising. (author)

  10. Assessment of myocardial infarction in mice by Late Gadolinium Enhancement MR imaging using an inversion recovery pulse sequence at 9.4T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlihy Amy H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using an inversion recovery pulse sequence and to define the optimal inversion time (TI to assess myocardial infarction in mice by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE MRI at 9.4T, and to obtain the maximal contrast between the infarcted and the viable myocardium. Methods MRI was performed at 9.4T in mice, two days after induction of myocardial infarction (n = 4. For cardiovascular MR imaging, a segmented magnetization-prepared fast low angle shot (MP-FLASH sequence was used with varied TIs ranging from 40 to 420 ms following administration of gadolinium-DTPA at 0.6 mmol/kg. Contrast-to-noise (CNR and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were measured and compared for each myocardial region of interest (ROI. Results The optimal TI, which corresponded to a minimum SNR in the normal myocardium, was 268 ms ± 27.3. The SNR in the viable myocardium was significantly different from that found in the infarcted myocardium (17.2 ± 2.4 vs 82.1 ± 10.8; p = 0.006 leading to a maximal relative SI (Signal Intensity between those two areas (344.9 ± 60.4. Conclusion Despite the rapid heart rate in mice, our study demonstrates that LGE MRI can be performed at 9.4T using a protocol similar to the one used for clinical MR diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  11. Influence of acquired obesity on coronary vessel wall late gadolinium enhancement in discordant monozygote twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Marcus R.; Jansen, Christian H.P.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Spector, Tim D.; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza; Mangino, Massimo; Botnar, Rene M.; Greil, Gerald F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry). A coronary 3D-T2prep-TFE MR angiogram and 3D-IR-TFE vessel wall scan were performed prior to and following the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA on a 1.5 T MR scanner. The number of enhancing coronary segments and contrast to noise ratios (CNRs) of the coronary wall were quantified. An increase in BMI was associated with an increased number of enhancing coronary segments (5.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, p < 0.0001) and increased coronary wall enhancement (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.0027) compared to matched twins with lower BMI. This study in monozygous twins indicates that acquired factors predisposing to obesity, including lifestyle and environmental factors, result in increased LGE of the coronary arteries, potentially reflecting an increase in coronary atherosclerosis in this female study population. (orig.)

  12. Influence of acquired obesity on coronary vessel wall late gadolinium enhancement in discordant monozygote twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, Marcus R. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Christian H.P. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, Ullrich; Spector, Tim D. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Mangino, Massimo [King' s College London, Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, London (United Kingdom); National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at Guy' s and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Greil, Gerald F. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry). A coronary 3D-T2prep-TFE MR angiogram and 3D-IR-TFE vessel wall scan were performed prior to and following the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA on a 1.5 T MR scanner. The number of enhancing coronary segments and contrast to noise ratios (CNRs) of the coronary wall were quantified. An increase in BMI was associated with an increased number of enhancing coronary segments (5.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, p < 0.0001) and increased coronary wall enhancement (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.0027) compared to matched twins with lower BMI. This study in monozygous twins indicates that acquired factors predisposing to obesity, including lifestyle and environmental factors, result in increased LGE of the coronary arteries, potentially reflecting an increase in coronary atherosclerosis in this female study population. (orig.)

  13. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  14. 14 CFR 302.715 - Post-conference procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desirable in the interest of further clarification and understanding of the issues. The granting of an... PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules Applicable to Mail Rate Proceedings and Mail Contracts Informal Mail Rate Conference Procedure § 302.715 Post-conference procedure. No...

  15. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-07-26

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the subendocardial or transmural LGE. LGE in NICM generally does not correspond to any particular coronary artery distribution and is located mostly in the mid-wall to subepicardial layer. The analysis of LGE distribution is valuable to differentiate NICM with diffusely impaired systolic function, including dilated cardiomyopathy, end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac sarcoidosis, and myocarditis, and those with diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy including HCM, cardiac amyloidosis and Anderson-Fabry disease. A transient low signal intensity LGE in regions of severe LV dysfunction is a particular feature of stress cardiomyopathy. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, an enhancement of right ventricular (RV) wall with functional and morphological changes of RV becomes apparent. Finally, the analyses of LGE distribution have potentials to predict cardiac outcomes and response to treatments.

  16. Comparison of Image Processing Techniques for Nonviable Tissue Quantification in Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, M Chiara; Boniotti, Cinzia; Fusini, Laura; Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Pepi, Mauro; Caiani, Enrico G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of quantitative methods, either semiautomated or automated, for left ventricular (LV) nonviable tissue analysis from cardiac magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement (CMR-LGE) images. The investigated segmentation techniques were: (i) n-standard deviations thresholding; (ii) full width at half maximum thresholding; (iii) Gaussian mixture model classification; and (iv) fuzzy c-means clustering. These algorithms were applied either in each short axis slice (single-slice approach) or globally considering the entire short-axis stack covering the LV (global approach). CMR-LGE images from 20 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were retrospectively selected, and results from each technique were assessed against manual tracing. All methods provided comparable performance in terms of accuracy in scar detection, computation of local transmurality, and high correlation in scar mass compared with the manual technique. In general, no significant difference between single-slice and global approach was noted. The reproducibility of manual and investigated techniques was confirmed in all cases with slightly lower results for the nSD approach. Automated techniques resulted in accurate and reproducible evaluation of LV scars from CMR-LGE in ischemic patients with performance similar to the manual technique. Their application could minimize user interaction and computational time, even when compared with semiautomated approaches.

  17. Phenotypic expression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Francisca; Botelho, Ana; Trigo, Joana; Silva, Joana; Almeida, Inês; Venâncio, Margarida; Pais, João; Sanches, Conceição; Leitão Marques, António

    2014-05-01

    The prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is the subject of disagreement. We set out to examine the association between clinical and morphological variables, risk factors for sudden cardiac death and LGE in HCM patients. From a population of 78 patients with HCM, we studied 53 who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance. They were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of LGE. Ventricular arrhythmias and morbidity and mortality during follow-up were analyzed. Patients with LGE were younger at the time of diagnosis (p=0.046) and more often had a family history of sudden death (p=0.008) and known coronary artery disease (p=0.086). On echocardiography they had greater maximum wall thickness (p=0.007) and left atrial area (p=0.037) and volume (p=0.035), and more often presented a restrictive pattern of diastolic dysfunction (p=0.011) with a higher E/É ratio (p=0.003) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (p=0.038). Cardiac magnetic resonance supported the association between LGE and previous echocardiographic findings: greater left atrial area (p=0.029) and maximum wall thickness (p<0.001) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.056). Patients with LGE more often had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (p=0.015). At follow-up, no differences were found in the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias, appropriate ICD therapies or mortality. The presence of LGE emerges as a risk marker, associated with the classical predictors of sudden cardiac death in this population. However, larger studies are required to confirm its independent association with clinical events. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Gadolinium deposition within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents - current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Dragan [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia); Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra [Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia)

    2016-05-15

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used clinically since 1988 for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Generally, GBCAs are considered to have an excellent safety profile. However, GBCA administration has been associated with increased occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with severely compromised renal function, and several studies have shown evidence of gadolinium deposition in specific brain structures, the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus, in patients with normal renal function. Gadolinium deposition in the brain following repeated CE-MRI scans has been demonstrated in patients using T1-weighted unenhanced MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Additionally, rodent studies with controlled GBCA administration also resulted in neural gadolinium deposits. Repeated GBCA use is associated with gadolinium deposition in the brain. This is especially true with the use of less-stable, linear GBCAs. In spite of increasing evidence of gadolinium deposits in the brains of patients after multiple GBCA administrations, the clinical significance of these deposits continues to be unclear. Here, we discuss the current state of scientific evidence surrounding gadolinium deposition in the brain following GBCA use, and the potential clinical significance of gadolinium deposition. There is considerable need for further research, both to understand the mechanism by which gadolinium deposition in the brain occurs and how it affects the patients in which it occurs. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of gadolinium monophosphide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordienko, S.P.; Gol'nik, V.F.; Mironov, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Gadolinium monophosphide has been studied in vacuum at high temperatures using mass-spectrometric, chemical, X-ray phase and derivatographical analyses. It is established that gadolinium monophosphide at 2080-2465 K dissociates into atomic gadolinium, phosphorus and, P 2 molecules. According to Vant-Hoff and Gibbs-Helmholtz equations standard enthalpy of atomization ΔHsub(at) deg (298)=1027.3 kJ/mol and of formation ΔHsub(f) deg (298)=313.8 kJ/mol of gadolinium monophosphide are determined

  20. Use of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and awareness of brain gadolinium deposition among pediatric providers in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mithal, Leena B.; Patel, Payal S.; Mithal, Divakar; Palac, Hannah L.; Rozenfeld, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous recent articles have reported brain gadolinium deposition when using linear but not macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). To determine the current landscape of gadolinium use among pediatric institutions and the knowledge base of radiologists and referring providers with regard to GBCAs and brain gadolinium deposition. We e-mailed voluntary closed surveys to 5,390 physicians in various pediatric professional societies between January 2016 and March 2016. We used chi-square and Fisher exact tests to compare response distributions among specialties. We found that 80% of surveyed pediatric hospitals use macrocyclic contrast agents. In the last year, 58% switched their agent, most commonly to gadoterate meglumine, with the most common reason being brain gadolinium deposition. Furthermore, surveys indicated that 23% of hospitals are considering switching, and, of these, 83% would switch to gadoterate meglumine; the most common reasons were brain gadolinium deposition and safety. Radiologists were more aware of brain gadolinium deposition than non-radiologist physicians (87% vs. 26%; P<0.0001). Radiologists and referring providers expressed similar levels of concern (95% and 89%). Twelve percent of radiologists and 2% of referring providers reported patients asking about brain gadolinium deposition. Radiologists were significantly more comfortable addressing patient inquiries than referring pediatric physicians (48% vs. 6%; P<0.0001). The number of MRIs requested by referring pediatric physicians correlated with their knowledge of brain gadolinium deposition, contrast agent used by their hospital, and comfort discussing brain gadolinium deposition with patients (P<0.0001). Since the discovery of brain gadolinium deposition, many pediatric hospitals have switched to or plan to switch to a more stable macrocyclic MR contrast agent, most commonly gadoterate meglumine. Despite this, there is need for substantial further education of radiologists and

  1. Use of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and awareness of brain gadolinium deposition among pediatric providers in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mithal, Leena B. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Patel, Payal S. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Mithal, Divakar [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Chicago, IL (United States); Palac, Hannah L. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rozenfeld, Michael N. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Numerous recent articles have reported brain gadolinium deposition when using linear but not macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). To determine the current landscape of gadolinium use among pediatric institutions and the knowledge base of radiologists and referring providers with regard to GBCAs and brain gadolinium deposition. We e-mailed voluntary closed surveys to 5,390 physicians in various pediatric professional societies between January 2016 and March 2016. We used chi-square and Fisher exact tests to compare response distributions among specialties. We found that 80% of surveyed pediatric hospitals use macrocyclic contrast agents. In the last year, 58% switched their agent, most commonly to gadoterate meglumine, with the most common reason being brain gadolinium deposition. Furthermore, surveys indicated that 23% of hospitals are considering switching, and, of these, 83% would switch to gadoterate meglumine; the most common reasons were brain gadolinium deposition and safety. Radiologists were more aware of brain gadolinium deposition than non-radiologist physicians (87% vs. 26%; P<0.0001). Radiologists and referring providers expressed similar levels of concern (95% and 89%). Twelve percent of radiologists and 2% of referring providers reported patients asking about brain gadolinium deposition. Radiologists were significantly more comfortable addressing patient inquiries than referring pediatric physicians (48% vs. 6%; P<0.0001). The number of MRIs requested by referring pediatric physicians correlated with their knowledge of brain gadolinium deposition, contrast agent used by their hospital, and comfort discussing brain gadolinium deposition with patients (P<0.0001). Since the discovery of brain gadolinium deposition, many pediatric hospitals have switched to or plan to switch to a more stable macrocyclic MR contrast agent, most commonly gadoterate meglumine. Despite this, there is need for substantial further education of radiologists and

  2. Informative value of MR tomography using gadolinium-DTPA in the diagnosis of the lumbar post-discotomy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.K.; Hoetzinger, H.; Toedt, C.; Oppel, U.

    1989-03-01

    Our results have shown that MR tomography - especially if gadolinium-DTPA is used as a contrast medium - is an excellent method to differentiate between the various possible causes of the post-discotomy syndrome. In particular, it is definitely possible to differentiate between a relapsed hernia of an intervertebral dis and a postoperative development of cicatricial tissue which is practically inevitable. This differentiation is of vital importance to the clinician, because a second operation should be performed only in case of a relapse, whereas cicatricial tissue is best left alone, because no matter how carefully the operation is performed with preparation of the neural structures, even more extensive cicatricial plates are bound to develop. Instability of the vertebral column in the operated disc segment, or other causes of complaints, can be identified via MR equally well if not better than by other means. Hence, the method should be the method of choice in postdiscotomy syndrome, since it facilitates the difficult choice between conservative therapy and reoperation.

  3. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  4. Implications of post-gadolinium MRI results in 13 cases with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugurel, Mehmet Sahin; Hayakawa, Minako

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a relative lack of definitive information about the contrast-enhancement characteristics of lesions in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Objective: Evaluation of contrast-enhanced MRI findings in PRES with a special emphasis on pathophysiology of post-gadolinium behavior of these lesions. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced 1.5 T MRI findings and relevant clinical data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed on 13 cases (six males, seven females; age range: 22-78; mean age 47). Although fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted MR images were considered for identification of the entity, primarily post-contrast T1-weighted MR images were searched for traces of enhancement in the lesions. Results: No definitely enhancing lesion was identified in the MR images obtained in 6-48 h after onset of symptoms (mostly headaches, seizures and cortical visual field deficits) in this series. Severity of disease indicated by small hemorrhages, confluence of lesions or progression to cytotoxic edema did not seem to alter this result. Typical lesion characteristics were consistent with vasogenic edema on FLAIR and diffusion MR images. Acute elevation of blood pressure on chronic hypertensive background was responsible in four, eclampsia in three, uremia with blood pressure fluctuations in three, and cyclosporine-toxicity in three cases. Conclusion: Although occasional enhancing brain lesions have been reported in the literature on PRES, contrast-enhancement of lesions may be a factor of scan timing and underlying etiology. Prospective studies with larger series on PRES are required for better evaluation of contrast-enhancement in MRI with respect to scan timing, which in turn may help understand its pathophysiology better

  5. Appearance of microvascular obstruction on high resolution first-pass perfusion, early and late gadolinium enhancement CMR in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redwood Simon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence and extent of microvascular obstruction (MO after acute myocardial infarction can be measured by first-pass gadolinium-enhanced perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR or after gadolinium injection with early or late enhancement (EGE/LGE imaging. The volume of MO measured by these three methods may differ because contrast agent diffusion into the MO reduces its apparent extent over time. Theoretically, first-pass perfusion CMR should be the most accurate method to measure MO, but this technique has been limited by lower spatial resolution than EGE and LGE as well as incomplete cardiac coverage. These limitations of perfusion CMR can be overcome using spatio-temporal undersampling methods. The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of MO by high resolution first-pass k-t SENSE accelerated perfusion, EGE and LGE. Methods 34 patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction, treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI, underwent CMR within 72 hours of admission. k-t SENSE accelerated first-pass perfusion MR (7 fold acceleration, spatial resolution 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 10 mm, 8 slices acquired over 2 RR intervals, 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA, EGE (1–4 minutes after injection with a fixed TI of 440 ms and LGE images (10–12 minutes after injection, TI determined by a Look-Locker scout were acquired. MO volume was determined for each technique by manual planimetry and summation of discs methodology. Results k-t SENSE first-pass perfusion detected more cases of MO than EGE and LGE (22 vs. 20 vs. 14, respectively. The extent of MO imaged by first-pass perfusion (median mass 4.7 g, IQR 6.7 was greater than by EGE (median mass 2.3 g, IQR 7.1, p = 0.002 and LGE (median mass 0.2 g, IQR 2.4, p = 0.0003. The correlation coefficient between MO mass measured by first-pass perfusion and EGE was 0.91 (p Conclusion The extent of MO following acute myocardial infarction appears larger on

  6. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium oxides for rare earths impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, L.C.P.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method is described for the determination of Sm, Eu, La, Gd, Dy, Pr, Ho, Nd, Tb and Y in purified oxides of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium. The method enables a simple, precise and readily available determination. Dissolution of the samples is achieved with diluted hydrochloric acid (1:1). The solutions are diluted to volume for a concentration of 1mg/ml. The lowest determination limit is 0,01% for most elements and 0,05 or 0,1% for a few rare earths in samarium and gadolinium matrices. Lanthanum, Samarium and Gadolinium concentrates with purity grade of 99,9%, 99,6% and 99,8%, respectively, can be analysed by this procedure. (author)

  7. Diabetes mellitus is associated with late-onset post-stroke depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; He, Ji-Rong; Liang, Huai-Bin; Lu, Wen-Jing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Liu, Jian-Rong; Zeng, Li-Li

    2017-10-15

    To explore the associated factors of late-onset post-stroke depression (PSD). A total of 251 patients with acute ischemic stroke were recruited. The evaluation of depression was performed 2 weeks after ischemia. 206 patients showing no depression in 2 weeks were followed up. They were divided into late-onset PSD group and non-depressed group by clinical interview with Hamilton depression scale score 3 months after stroke. On the first day following hospitalization, the clinical data including age, gender, educational level and vascular risk factors were recorded. The severity, etiological subtype and location of stroke were evaluated. The inflammatory mediators, glucose and lipid levels were recorded on the day of admission. The association between clinical factors and late-onset PSD was explored by logistic regression analysis. The ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the predicting power of the clinical factors. 187 of 206 patients completed the assessment 3 months after stroke. 19 (10.16%) patients were diagnosed as late onset PSD. Diabetes mellitus was an independent risk factor for late-onset PSD (OR 2.675, p = 0.047). ROC analysis demonstrated that glucose and HbA1C could predict late-onset PSD with specificity of 84.4%. The sample of our study was small. The results should be further confirmed in a larger cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus were more tendered to suffer late-onset PSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K; Almén, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence of neph...... guidelines regarding gadolinium contrast agents minimises the risk of NSF • Potential long-term harm from gadolinium accumulation in the body is discussed.......PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence...... of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the current understanding of its pathophysiology. The risk factors for NSF are discussed and prophylactic measures are recommended. The stability of the different gadolinium-based contrast media and the potential long-term effects of gadolinium in the body have also been...

  9. Ultra low-dose of gadobenate dimeglumine for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging in acute myocardial infarction: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galea, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.galea@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, Pathology and Oncology, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 315, 00161 Rome (Italy); Francone, Marco, E-mail: marco.francone@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, Pathology and Oncology, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 315, 00161 Rome (Italy); Zaccagna, Fulvio, E-mail: f.zaccagna@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Sciences, Pathology and Oncology, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 315, 00161 Rome (Italy); Ciolina, Federica, E-mail: federica.ciolina@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Sciences, Pathology and Oncology, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 315, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cannata, David, E-mail: davidrum@yahoo.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, Pathology and Oncology, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 315, 00161 Rome (Italy); Algeri, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela_algeri@yahoo.com [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Cardiovasculaire, Hôpital Cardiologique, Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Lille, Avenue Oscar Lambret, 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Agati, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.agati@uniroma1.it [Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrologic, Anestesiologic and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Via del Policlinico 165, 00161 Rome, Rome (Italy); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We compared two gadolinium dose for late enhancement imaging in acute infarction. • We evaluated image quality both qualitatively and quantitatively. • Low dose regimen is feasible and provides better image quality at 5–10 min delay. • Standard dose warrants better image quality and should be routinely preferred. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using an ultra-low dose (0.05 mmol/kg of body weight [BW]) of high relaxivity contrast agent for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and methods: 17 consecutive patients (mean age, 60.1 ± 10.3 years) with ST-segment elevation AMI underwent two randomized cardiac magnetic resonance studies (exam intervals between 24 and 48 h) on a 1.5 T unit during the first week after the event using gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) at the dose of 0.1 mmol/kg BW (standard dose or SD group) and 0.05 mmol/kg BW (half dose or HD group). Image quality was qualitatively assessed. Quantitative analysis of LGE were performed by measuring signal intensity (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the infarcted myocardium (IM), non-infarcted myocardium (N-IM) and left ventricular cavity (LVC) in images acquired at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after administration of Gd-BOPTA using both contrast media protocol. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between IM and N-IM (CNR IM/N-IM) and between IM and LVC (CNR IM/LVC) were also quantified for each time point. Moreover the extent of infarcted myocardium was measured. Results: 102 LGE images were evaluated for each dose group. Quality score was significantly higher for SD at 1, 15 and 20 min (0.002 < p < 0.046) and for HD at 5 min (p = 0.013). SNR has been higher in the SD group compared to the HD group even though not statistically significant at any time-point for both IM (SD vs. HD: 87.7 ± 73 vs. 65 ± 66; 0.15 < p < 0.38) and N-IM (SD vs. HD: 22 ± 61 vs. 9.9 ± 6.5; 0.09 < p < 0.43). LVC SNR was

  10. Late stillbirth post mortem examination in New Zealand: Maternal decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robin S; Li, Minglan; Wise, Michelle; Bradford, Billie; Culling, Vicki; Zuccollo, Jane; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2018-03-05

    For parents who experience stillbirth, knowing the cause of their baby's death is important. A post mortem examination is the gold standard investigation, but little is known about what may influence parents' decisions to accept or decline. We aimed to identify factors influencing maternal decision-making about post mortem examination after late stillbirth. In the New Zealand Multicentre Stillbirth Study, 169 women with singleton pregnancies, no known abnormality at recruitment, and late stillbirth (≥28weeks gestation), from seven health regions were interviewed within six weeks of birth. The purpose of this paper was to explore factors related to post mortem examination decision-making and the reasons for declining. We asked women if they would make the same decision again. Maternal decision to decline a post mortem (70/169, 41.4%) was more common among women of Māori (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.99 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70-14.64) and Pacific (aOR 3.94 95% CI 1.47-10.54) ethnicity compared to European, and parity two or more (aOR 2.95 95% CI 1.14-7.62) compared to primiparous. The main reason for declining was that women 'did not want baby to be cut'. Ten percent (7/70) who declined said they would not make this decision again. No woman who consented regretted her decision. Ethnic differences observed in women's post mortem decision-making should be further explored in future studies. Providing information of the effect of post mortem on the baby's body and the possible emotional benefits of a post mortem may assist women faced with this decision in the future. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. The informative value of MR tomography using gadolinium-DTPA in the diagnosis of the lumbar post-discotomy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.K.; Hoetzinger, H.; Toedt, C.; Oppel, U.

    1989-01-01

    Our results have shown that MR tomography - especially if gadolinium-DTPA is used as a contrast medium - is an excellent method to differentiate between the various possible causes of the post-discotomy syndrome. In particular, it is definitely possible to differentiate between a relapsed hernia of an intervertebral dis and a postoperative development of cicatricial tissue which is practically inevitable. This differentiation is of vital importance to the clinician, because a second operation should be performed only in case of a relapse, whereas cicatricial tissue is best left alone, because no matter how carefully the operation is performed with preparation of the neural structures, even more extensive cicatricial plates are bound to develop. Instability of the vertebral column in the operated disc segment, or other causes of complaints, can be identified via MR equally well if not better than by other means. Hence, the method should be the method of choice in postdiscotomy syndrome, since it facilitates the difficult choice between conservative therapy and reoperation. (orig.) [de

  12. Studies on gadolinium precipitation in moderator system of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Akhilesh C.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rufus, A.L.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium is used in the moderator system of many Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for start-up, shut-down and reactivity control during operation. It is very much essential to maintain gadolinium concentration in the system as desired. It has been reported that gadolinium gets precipitated in as oxalate in carbonated water under the influence of γ-radiation. Hence, studies were carried out to investigate the effect of dose, presence of other metal ions and metal surfaces on the precipitation of gadolinium. The results showed that the amount of carboxylic acids viz., formic acid and oxalic acid, formed due to radiolysis is dependent on the dose and that the curve passes though a maxima. Gadolinium is added in higher concentration in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. So, experiments with high concentration of gadolinium were also carried out. Ultra pure water saturated with high purity CO 2 containing gadolinium and desired ion/surface was irradiated with γ-radiation from 60 Co source at 25°C to doses ranging from 2.5-16.6 Mrad. At lower doses, formation of carboxylic acids takes place but as the dose increases, decomposition of these acids starts and hence the concentration Vs dose passes through a maximum. It was found that precipitation of gadolinium as oxalate occurred at lower doses. At higher doses, it was seen that pH of the solution decreases and hence solubility of gadolinium oxalate increases. It was also observed that the amount of gadolinium precipitated varied linearly with the initial concentration of gadolinium varying from 2 ppm to 20 ppm. While for gadolinium concentration from 20 ppm to 400 ppm, gadolinium in particulate form was observed. The amount of carboxylic acids formed depends on the nature of cations present in solution. It was found that the amount of oxalic acid formed in the case of gadolinium was more than that formed in the case of sodium. Presence of metal oxides such as ZrO 2 formed over zircoloy surfaces was found to

  13. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: late skin manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Marckmann, Peter; Rossen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists...... and nephrologists recognize the disease. OBSERVATIONS: We studied 17 patients with NSF late in the disease. All patients showed epidermal atrophy and hairlessness of the affected regions, primarily the lower legs. Affected areas were symmetrically distributed and hyperpigmented in most cases. Eleven patients showed......: This descriptive case series of patients with NSF gives a detailed clinical picture of the skin manifestations late in the disease. It demonstrates that the clinical picture in the late stage has a varied presentation and that NSF has a significant effect on the quality of life....

  14. Clinical impact of gadolinium in the MRI diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Young, Robert S.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta [Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The incremental value of gadolinium in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection by MRI is controversial. To compare diagnostic utility of noncontrast with contrast MRI in the evaluation of pediatric musculoskeletal infections. We reviewed 90 gadolinium-enhanced MRIs in children with suspected musculoskeletal infection. Noncontrast and contrast MRI scans were evaluated to determine sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection and identification of abscesses. Pre- and post-contrast diagnosis of osteomyelitis sensitivity was 89% and 91% (P = 1.00) and specificity was 96% and 96% (P = 1.00), respectively; septic arthritis sensitivity was 50% and 67% (P = 1.00) and specificity was 98% and 98% (P = 1.00), respectively; cellulitis/myositis sensitivity was 100% and 100% (P = 1.00) and specificity was 84% and 88% (P = 0.59), respectively; abscess for the total group was 22 (24.4%) and 42 (46.6%), respectively (P < 0.0001). Abscesses identified only on contrast sequences led to intervention in eight additional children. No child with a final diagnosis of infection had a normal pre-contrast study. Intravenous gadolinium should not be routinely administered in the imaging work-up of nonspinal musculoskeletal infections, particularly when pre-contrast images are normal. However, gadolinium contrast significantly increases the detection of abscesses, particularly small ones that might not require surgical intervention. (orig.)

  15. Clinical impact of gadolinium in the MRI diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.H.; Young, Robert S.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Yu, Chang

    2010-01-01

    The incremental value of gadolinium in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection by MRI is controversial. To compare diagnostic utility of noncontrast with contrast MRI in the evaluation of pediatric musculoskeletal infections. We reviewed 90 gadolinium-enhanced MRIs in children with suspected musculoskeletal infection. Noncontrast and contrast MRI scans were evaluated to determine sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection and identification of abscesses. Pre- and post-contrast diagnosis of osteomyelitis sensitivity was 89% and 91% (P = 1.00) and specificity was 96% and 96% (P = 1.00), respectively; septic arthritis sensitivity was 50% and 67% (P = 1.00) and specificity was 98% and 98% (P = 1.00), respectively; cellulitis/myositis sensitivity was 100% and 100% (P = 1.00) and specificity was 84% and 88% (P = 0.59), respectively; abscess for the total group was 22 (24.4%) and 42 (46.6%), respectively (P < 0.0001). Abscesses identified only on contrast sequences led to intervention in eight additional children. No child with a final diagnosis of infection had a normal pre-contrast study. Intravenous gadolinium should not be routinely administered in the imaging work-up of nonspinal musculoskeletal infections, particularly when pre-contrast images are normal. However, gadolinium contrast significantly increases the detection of abscesses, particularly small ones that might not require surgical intervention. (orig.)

  16. Thermal diffusivity of samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wan, C.L.; Xu, Q.; Wang, J.D.; Qu, Z.X.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions and determined their thermal diffusivities, Young's moduli and thermal expansion coefficients, which are very important for their application in thermal barrier coatings. Samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions have extremely low thermal diffusivity between 20 and 600 deg. C. The solid solutions have lower Young's moduli and higher thermal expansion coefficients than those of pure samarium and gadolinium zirconates. This combination of characteristics is promising for the application of samarium and gadolinium zirconates in gas turbines. The mechanism of phonon scattering by point defects is discussed

  17. Use of gadolinium chelate to confirm epidural needle placement in patients with an iodinated contrast reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Sanjay K.; Nelson, Erik N.; Lawrimore, Tara M.; Palmer, William E.

    2007-01-01

    When performing epidural steroid injections for the management of chronic back pain, imaging guidance and a limited epidurogram improve accuracy of needle placement and ensure appropriate delivery of the injectate into the epidural space. We describe our experience using a gadolinium chelate as an alternative contrast agent for limited epidurography in patients with a history of an iodinated contrast reaction. Thirty-eight of 2,067 (1.8%) epidural steroid injections performed in our department over a 25-month period (December 2003-January 2006) employed gadolinium. All injections were performed in the lumbar spine employing a paramedian interlaminar approach. Procedural notes and patient charts were reviewed to evaluate for immediate or delayed complications related to incorrect intrathecal or intravascular needle placement. A retrospective analysis of selected fluoroscopic spot images was performed to evaluate confidence of epidural needle placement; this analysis compared these spot images against those obtained from age- and gender-matched control patients in whom iodinated contrast was used to confirm needle placement. Real-time fluoroscopic guidance permitted confident visualization of an epidurogram at the time of procedure in all 38 cases as documented in the procedural report, and no procedure resulted in a complication due to incorrect needle placement. Retrospective review of fluoroscopic spot images revealed at least moderate confidence of epidural needle placement by both readers in 29/38 cases (76.3%). Fluoroscopic spot images obtained using gadolinium yielded significantly less confidence than images obtained in control patients whose procedures were performed using iodinated contrast (P < 0.01). However, operators were sufficiently confident in needle placement based on real-time fluoroscopic images (not available in our subsequent review) to inject anesthestic in all 38 cases, despite the immediate consequences that could result from intrathecal

  18. Use of gadolinium chelate to confirm epidural needle placement in patients with an iodinated contrast reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Sanjay K. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Nelson, Erik N.; Lawrimore, Tara M.; Palmer, William E. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-04-15

    When performing epidural steroid injections for the management of chronic back pain, imaging guidance and a limited epidurogram improve accuracy of needle placement and ensure appropriate delivery of the injectate into the epidural space. We describe our experience using a gadolinium chelate as an alternative contrast agent for limited epidurography in patients with a history of an iodinated contrast reaction. Thirty-eight of 2,067 (1.8%) epidural steroid injections performed in our department over a 25-month period (December 2003-January 2006) employed gadolinium. All injections were performed in the lumbar spine employing a paramedian interlaminar approach. Procedural notes and patient charts were reviewed to evaluate for immediate or delayed complications related to incorrect intrathecal or intravascular needle placement. A retrospective analysis of selected fluoroscopic spot images was performed to evaluate confidence of epidural needle placement; this analysis compared these spot images against those obtained from age- and gender-matched control patients in whom iodinated contrast was used to confirm needle placement. Real-time fluoroscopic guidance permitted confident visualization of an epidurogram at the time of procedure in all 38 cases as documented in the procedural report, and no procedure resulted in a complication due to incorrect needle placement. Retrospective review of fluoroscopic spot images revealed at least moderate confidence of epidural needle placement by both readers in 29/38 cases (76.3%). Fluoroscopic spot images obtained using gadolinium yielded significantly less confidence than images obtained in control patients whose procedures were performed using iodinated contrast (P < 0.01). However, operators were sufficiently confident in needle placement based on real-time fluoroscopic images (not available in our subsequent review) to inject anesthestic in all 38 cases, despite the immediate consequences that could result from intrathecal

  19. Gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist) as a contrast medium for arterial DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.H.; Weber, W.; Boeck, E.; Mildenberger, P.; Strunk, H.; Dueber, C.; Grebe, P.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M.

    1994-01-01

    16 DSA investigations using intra-arterial Gd-DTPA were performed on 12 patients. The contrast medium was administered either as a 0.5 molar gadolinium solution (commercially available) or diluted with distilled water to a 0.2 -0.4 molar gadolinium solution. The injection was made either by pressure injector or by hand. The aortic arch, abdominal aorta and pelvic and lower limb arteries were examined. 14 of the 16 procedures were diagnostically adequate, but compared with iodinated contrast materials, contrast was less marked. There were no cardiovascular, neurological or allergic side effects. Three patients suffered a feeling of heat and one patient had mild pain during the injection. Even large volumes rapidly injected (up to 20 ml/s of the commercially available solution) were well tolerated. DSA with intra-arterial Gd-DTPA seems to be a suitable alternative for vascular imaging if iodine-containing contrast materials are contraindicated. (orig.) [de

  20. Dual contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver with superparamagnetic iron oxide followed by gadolinium for lesion detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaska, Samantha; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Saini, Sanjay; Hahn, Peter F.; Halpern, Elkan

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Iron oxide contrast agents are useful for lesion detection, and extracellular gadolinium chelates are advocated for lesion characterization. We undertook a study to determine if dual contrast enhanced liver imaging with sequential use of ferumoxides particles and gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA can be performed in the same imaging protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients underwent dual contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver for evaluation of known/suspected focal lesions which included, metastases (n = 5), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC;n = 3), cholangiocharcinoma(n = 1) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH;n = 3). Pre- and post-iron oxide T1-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences were obtained, followed by post-Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg) multi-phase dynamic T1-weighted out-of-phase GRE imaging. Images were analysed in a blinded fashion by three experts using a three-point scoring system for lesion conspicuity on pre- and post-iron oxide T1 images as well as for reader's confidence in characterizing liver lesions on post Gd-DTPA T1 images. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference in lesion conspicuity was observed on pre- and post-iron oxide T1-GRE images in this small study cohort. The presence of iron oxide did not appreciably diminish image quality of post-gadolinium sequences and did not prevent characterization of liver lesions. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that characterization of focal liver lesion with Gd-enhanced liver MRI is still possible following iron oxide enhanced imaging. Kubaska, S. et al. (2001)

  1. Role of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Tevfik F; Jabbour, Andrew; Gulati, Ankur; Mallorie, Amy; Raza, Sadaf; Cowling, Thomas E; Das, Bibek; Khwaja, Jahanzaib; Alpendurada, Francisco D; Wage, Ricardo; Roughton, Michael; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Varnava, Amanda; Shakespeare, Carl; Cowie, Martin R; Cook, Stuart A; Elliott, Perry; O'Hanlon, Rory; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2014-12-01

    Myocardial fibrosis identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but its value as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We investigated the role of LGE-CMR in the risk stratification of HCM. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a tertiary referral centre. Consecutive patients with HCM (n=711, median age 56.3 years, IQR 46.7-66.6; 70.0% male) underwent LGE-CMR and were followed for a median 3.5 years. The primary end point was SCD or aborted SCD. Overall, 471 patients (66.2%) had myocardial fibrosis (median 5.9% of left ventricular mass, IQR: 2.2-13.3). Twenty-two (3.1%) reached the primary end point. The extent but not the presence of fibrosis was a significant univariable predictor of the primary end point (HR per 5% LGE: 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45; p=0.007 and HR for LGE: 2.69, 95% CI 0.91 to 7.97; p=0.073, respectively). However, on multivariable analysis, only LV-EF remained statistically significant (HR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.95; p<0.001). For the secondary outcome of cardiovascular mortality/aborted SCD, the presence and the amount of fibrosis were significant predictors on univariable but not multivariable analysis after adjusting for LV-EF and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. The amount of myocardial fibrosis was a strong univariable predictor of SCD risk. However, this effect was not maintained after adjusting for LV-EF. Further work is required to elucidate the interrelationship between fibrosis and traditional predictors of outcome in HCM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Late gadolinium enhancement by magnetic resonance explains adverse cardiac events in individuals with ventricular arrhythmia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtis, J.; Vasallo, J.; Arabia, L.; Dimitroff, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Tibaldi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predict adverse cardiac events in patients with ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: We selected 74 consecutive patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmia (premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardia) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >55% sent to CMR for evaluation of structural heart disease previously undetected by other complementary methods. LGE, systolic function and volumes of both ventricles were analyzed. At follow-up was assessed a combined end point: hospitalization for ventricular arrhythmia, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and cardiac death. Results: During a median follow up of 575 days (interquartile range 24-1120 days) and by analyzing the population according to the presence (n=9, 12%) or not (n=65, 88%) LGE was observed that the group with positive Gd had lower LVEF (58% vs. 66% respectively, p=0.01) and larger volumes (EDV: 185 ml vs. 123 ml respectively, p=0.01 and ESV: 81 ml vs. 42 ml respectively, p=0.01) than the other group. Two (22%) patients in the LGE + group vs. one (4%) of those without LGE showed the combined endpoint (p=0.01) and when performing a logistic regression analysis it was found that the LGE is a predictor of adverse cardiac events analyzed (p=0.029). Conclusions: In this consecutive series of patients with ventricular arrhythmia we demonstrate a strong association between myocardial LGE and adverse cardiac events; this supports the hypothesis that myocardial fibrosis is an important arrhythmogenic substrate. In addition, almost all individuals without LGE were free of events during follow-up suggesting that it is possible to identify through the CMR low-risk individuals who can be treated conservatively. (authors) [es

  3. Critical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Deposition in the Brain and Body After Injections of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Safety, and Clinical Recommendations in Consideration of the EMA's Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee Recommendation for Suspension of the Marketing Authorizations for 4 Linear Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M

    2017-06-01

    For magnetic resonance, the established class of intravenous contrast media is the gadolinium-based contrast agents. In the 3 decades since initial approval, these have proven in general to be very safe for human administration. However, in 2006, a devastating late adverse reaction to administration of the less stable gadolinium-based contrast agents was identified, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The result of actions taken by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration, stratifying the agents by risk and contraindicating specific agents in severe renal dysfunction, has led to no new cases being identified in North America or Europe. Subsequently, in 2014, long-term deposition in the brain of gadolinium was first shown, after administration of 2 nonionic linear chelates, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. This has led to an intense focus on the question of in vivo distribution, possible dechelation, and subsequent deposition of gadolinium, together with substantial clarification of the phenomenon as well as stratification of the agents on this basis. This review focuses on 8 critical questions regarding gadolinium deposition in the brain and body, with the answers and discussion therein important for future regulatory decisions and clinical practice. It is now clear that dechelation of gadolinium occurs in vivo with the linear agents and is responsible for this phenomenon, with key experts in the field recommending, except where there is no suitable alternative, a shift in clinical practice from the linear to macrocyclic agents. In addition, on March 10, 2017, the Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of the marketing authorization for 4 linear gadolinium contrast agents-specifically Omniscan, Optimark, Magnevist, and MultiHance (gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadobenate dimeglumine)-for intravenous injection. Cited in the report was

  4. Gadolinium Contrast Agent is of Limited Value for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Synovial Hypertrophy in Hemophiliacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, B.; Berntorp, E.; Pettersson, H.; Wirestam, R.; Jonsson, K.; Staahlberg, F.; Ljung, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ Hospital of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine the influence of different doses of gadolinium contrast agent on synovial enhancement, to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of synovial hypertrophy and radiographic joint changes in hemophiliacs, and to investigate the value of gadolinium in MRI assessment of synovial hypertrophy in hemophiliacs using dynamic MRI and MRI scoring. Material and Methods: Twenty-one hemophiliacs on prophylactic factor treatment without recent bleeds were subjected to radiography and gadolinium contrast-enhanced dynamic and static MRI of the knee using a standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg b.w. gadoteridol. In 17 of the patients, the MRI procedure was repeated after a triple dose of gadoteridol. Results: MRI findings of synovial hypertrophy were significantly correlated with Pettersson radiographic scores. In 19 of the 21 MRI investigated joints, administration of contrast agent did not alter the result of the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy. Conclusion: The optimal time interval for volume assessment of synovial hypertrophy after injection of gadolinium contrast agent is dose dependent. Hemophiliacs without recent bleeds have minor to abundant synovial hypertrophy in joints with pronounced radiographic changes. Dynamic MRI is not useful for evaluating hemophilic arthropathy, and gadolinium contrast agent is not routinely indicated for MRI scoring of joints in hemophiliacs.

  5. Gadolinium Contrast Agent is of Limited Value for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Synovial Hypertrophy in Hemophiliacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, B.; Berntorp, E.; Pettersson, H.; Wirestam, R.; Jonsson, K.; Staahlberg, F.; Ljung, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of different doses of gadolinium contrast agent on synovial enhancement, to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of synovial hypertrophy and radiographic joint changes in hemophiliacs, and to investigate the value of gadolinium in MRI assessment of synovial hypertrophy in hemophiliacs using dynamic MRI and MRI scoring. Material and Methods: Twenty-one hemophiliacs on prophylactic factor treatment without recent bleeds were subjected to radiography and gadolinium contrast-enhanced dynamic and static MRI of the knee using a standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg b.w. gadoteridol. In 17 of the patients, the MRI procedure was repeated after a triple dose of gadoteridol. Results: MRI findings of synovial hypertrophy were significantly correlated with Pettersson radiographic scores. In 19 of the 21 MRI investigated joints, administration of contrast agent did not alter the result of the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy. Conclusion: The optimal time interval for volume assessment of synovial hypertrophy after injection of gadolinium contrast agent is dose dependent. Hemophiliacs without recent bleeds have minor to abundant synovial hypertrophy in joints with pronounced radiographic changes. Dynamic MRI is not useful for evaluating hemophilic arthropathy, and gadolinium contrast agent is not routinely indicated for MRI scoring of joints in hemophiliacs

  6. Use of a 3-Telsa magnet to perform delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the distal interphalangeal joint of horses with and without naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, Andrea S; Fürst, Anton E; Torgerson, Paul R; Carstens, Ann; Hilbe, Monika; Kircher, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) features of healthy hyaline cartilage of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of horses, to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to differentiate various stages of naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the DIPJ, and to correlate relaxation times determined by dGEMRIC with the glycosaminoglycan concentration, water content, and macroscopic and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage of DIPJs with and without osteoarthritis. SAMPLE 1 cadaveric forelimb DIPJ from each of 12 adult warmblood horses. PROCEDURES T1-weighted cartilage relaxation times were obtained for predetermined sites of the DIPJ before (T1 preGd ) and after (T1 postGd ) intra-articular gadolinium administration. Corresponding cartilage sites underwent macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluation, and cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were determined. Median T1 preGd and T1 postGd were correlated with macroscopic, histologic, and biochemical data. Mixed generalized linear models were created to evaluate the effects of cartilage site, articular surface, and macroscopic and histologic scores on relaxation times. RESULTS 122 cartilage specimens were analyzed. Median T1 postGd was lower than the median T1 preGd for normal and diseased cartilage. Both T1 preGd and T1 postGd were correlated with macroscopic and histologic scores, whereby T1 preGd increased and T1 postGd decreased as osteoarthritis progressed. There was topographic variation of T1 preGd and T1 postGd within the DIPJ. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were significantly correlated with T1 preGd and macroscopic and histologic scores but were not correlated with T1 postGd . CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dGEMRIC relaxation times varied for DIPJs with various degrees of osteoarthritis. These findings may help facilitate early detection of osteoarthritis.

  7. Gadolinium atom on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Takagaki, M.; Miyatake, S.; Kikuchi, H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes our measurements of gadolinium concentrations in several brain tumors obtained from fresh surgical specimens, as compared with corresponding concentrations in the blood. Moreover we tried to find out if the gadolinium concentration is high enough to use this compound in the treatment of brain tumors by neutron capture therapy. (J.P.N.)

  8. Whole-heart 3D late gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Investigation of optimal scan parameters and clinical usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorimitsu, Misako; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Hideaki; Isono, Sachiko; Kuhara, Shigehide

    2012-01-01

    Whole-heart 3-dimensional (3D) late-gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (WH-LGE) uses respiratory gating combined with acquisition of 3D data for the entire heart in a single scan, which permits reconstruction of any plane with high resolution. We investigated the optimal scan parameters and compared WH-LGE with the conventional scanning method. We employed inversion recovery 3D fast field echo using a 1.5-tesla system and scan parameters: repetition time (TR), 6.6 ms; echo time (TE), 2.5 ms; number of segments, 2; parallel imaging factor, 1.8; matrix size, 128 x 256; field of view (FOV), 320 x 320 mm; and acquisition slice thickness, 3 mm (reconstruction slice thickness, 1.5 mm). Five healthy volunteers underwent scanning during free breathing with real-time motion correction, from which we determined optimal scan parameters. We then used those parameters to scan 25 patients with myocardial infarction to compare scan time and image quality between the WH-LGE and conventional 3D breath-holding methods (slice thickness, 10 mm; matrix size, 128 x 256). Results in volunteers showed optimal scan parameters of 12deg flip angle, fat suppression turned off in combination, and interleaved ordering. In clinical cases, scan times did not differ significantly. Sharpness of the margins of normal myocardium at the apex of the heart and contrast between enhanced and nonenhanced myocardium improved significantly with WH-LGE. WH-LGE yields high resolution images during free breathing and is considered useful for accurately estimating the area and transmural extent of myocardial infarction. (author)

  9. Long-term retention of gadolinium in the skin of rodents following the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, Hubertus; Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Huetter, Joachim; Sieber, Martin A.; Lengsfeld, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Several publications suggest a potential association between the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and the onset of a rare but serious disease, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF). The aim of this study was to determine the elimination time-course of Gadolinium (Gd) from skin tissue after application of GBCAs in rats. Seven different marketed GBCAs were injected on five consecutive days at a dose of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight into the tail vein of Han-Wistar rats and the Gd concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in skin biopsies taken at various time-points up to a year after the last injection. Most of the administered Gd was eliminated from the skin within a time-period of about 2 months. However, the repeated administration of linear GBCAs resulted in long-term retention of a small portion of the administered Gd in the skin tissue of rats, with substantially higher values observed in animals treated with non-ionic linear agents than in those that received ionic linear GBCAs. Following treatment with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd values in the skin were in the same range as observed in the controls from day 24 post-injection onwards. In summary, we observed a correlation between the complex stability of GBCAs and the amount of residual Gd in the skin up to a year after application of GBCAs. (orig.)

  10. Long-term retention of gadolinium in the skin of rodents following the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Hubertus; Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Huetter, Joachim; Sieber, Martin A. [Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG Contrast, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, Philipp [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Medical Affairs Diagnostic Imaging, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Several publications suggest a potential association between the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and the onset of a rare but serious disease, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF). The aim of this study was to determine the elimination time-course of Gadolinium (Gd) from skin tissue after application of GBCAs in rats. Seven different marketed GBCAs were injected on five consecutive days at a dose of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight into the tail vein of Han-Wistar rats and the Gd concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in skin biopsies taken at various time-points up to a year after the last injection. Most of the administered Gd was eliminated from the skin within a time-period of about 2 months. However, the repeated administration of linear GBCAs resulted in long-term retention of a small portion of the administered Gd in the skin tissue of rats, with substantially higher values observed in animals treated with non-ionic linear agents than in those that received ionic linear GBCAs. Following treatment with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd values in the skin were in the same range as observed in the controls from day 24 post-injection onwards. In summary, we observed a correlation between the complex stability of GBCAs and the amount of residual Gd in the skin up to a year after application of GBCAs. (orig.)

  11. Stainless-Steel-Gadolinium Alloys; Alliages Acier Inoxydable-Gadolinium; Splavy iz nerzhaveyushchej stali i gadoliniya; Aleaciones de Acero Inoxidable-Gadolinio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, M.; Kato, H. [Albany Metallurgy Research Center, Bureau Of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, Albany, OR (United States)

    1964-06-15

    Because of the excellent corrosion resistance of stainless steels and the interest in gadolinium as a poison material, alloys of the two compounds were studied.Gadolinium was alloyed with AISE 304-type and chromium-type stainless steels; and then phase relationships, fabricability and properties were studied. The melting points of minor phases in alloys containing low percentages of gadolinium were noted to have a large effect on the structures resulting from equilibrating treatments and fabricability of the steels. When gadolinium was alloyed with the chromium-nickel-type steel, two minor phases, Fe{sub 9}Gd and Ni{sub 7}Gd, were observed to melt at 1080 Degree-Sign C, which limited the heat treatment and fabrication temperatures. Alloys with up to 5 wt.% gadolinium were successfully fabricated, and mechanical and corrosion properties were determined. No changes in the mechanical properties or resistance to hot-water corrosion of the steel were observed on alloying with up to about 3 wt.% gadolinium. Because of fabrication temperature limitations placed on chromium-nickel steels by the melting point of the minor phases, the effects of gadolinium on chromium steels were studied. Only one minor phase that melted at 1320 Degree-Sign C was noted on investigation of the 10 wt. % gadolinium isopleth in the chromium-iron-gadolinium alloy system. This property would enable one to equilibrate and fabricate these gadolinium steels at normally used temperatures. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie des alliages d'acier inoxydable et de gadolinium en raison de l'excellente resistance a la corrosion des aciers inoxydables et de l 'interet que presente le gadolinium comme poison. Ils ont allie du gadolinium a des aciers inoxydables AISI de nuance 304 et des aciers au chrome et ils ont etudie le diagramme des phases, les possibilites de transformation et les proprietes de ces alliages. Dans les alliages d'une faible teneur en gadolinium, les points de fusion des phases

  12. Growth and scintillation properties of gadolinium and yttrium orthovanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, O.V.; Baumer, V.N.; Bondar, V.G.; Kurtsev, D.A.; Gorbacheva, T.E.; Zenya, I.M.; Zhukov, A.V.; Sidletskiy, O.Ts.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to explore the possibility of using the undoped rare-earth orthovanadates as scintillation materials, we developed the procedure for growth of gadolinium (GdVO 4 ) and yttrium (YVO 4 ) orthovanadate single crystals by Czochralski method, and determined the optimal conditions of their after-growth annealing. Optical, luminescent, and scintillation properties of YVO 4 and GdVO 4 were discussed versus known literature data. Scintillation characteristics of GdVO 4 were determined for the first time.

  13. Importance of timing of post-contrast MRI in rheumatoid arthritis: what happens during the first 60 minutes after IV gadolinium-DTPA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Klarlund, Mette

    2001-01-01

    compromises the differentiation of synovium from joint fluid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the time period after IV MRI contrast (gadolinium-DTPA (Gd)) injection in which synovial membrane volume determination is reliable. METHODS: MRI of five RA knees with clinical synovitis was carried out, with axial, T(1...... threshold. Thereafter, the measured volumes remained practically unchanged. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that MR image acquisition in arthritic knee joints should be performed within the initial approximately 10 minutes after gadolinium contrast injection to achieve the most accurate distinction between...

  14. Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1985-06-01

    Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that gadolinium, one of 16 rare earth elements, appears in the marketplace as a by-product and that its present supply is a function of the production rate of other more prevalent rare earths. The potential demand for gadolinium in a fuel reprocessing facility serving a future fast reactor industry amounts to only a small fraction of the supply. At the present rate of consumption, domestic supplies of rare earths containing gadolinium are adequate to meet national needs (including fuel reprocessing) for over 100 years. With access to foreign sources, US demands can be met well beyond the 21st century. It is concluded therefore that the supply of gadolinium will quite likely be more than adequate for reprocessing spent fuel for the early generation of fast reactors. The current price of 99.99% pure gadolinium oxide lies in the range $50/lb to $65/lb (1984 dollars). By the year 2020, in time for reprocessing spent fuel from an early generation of large fast reactors, the corresponding values are expected to lie in the $60/lb to $75/lb (1984 dollars) price range. This increase is modest and its economic impact on nuclear fuel reprocessing would be minor. The economic potential for recovering gadolinium from the wastes of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (which use gadolinium neutron poison) was also investigated. The cost of recycled gadolinium was estimated at over twelve times the cost of fresh gadolinium, and thus recycle using current recovery technology is not economical. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Gadolinium recovery from aqueous pharmaceutical residuals by pulsed electrical discharge; Rueckgewinnung von Gadolinium aus pharmazeutischen Abwaessern mittels gepulster elektrischer Entladung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Tom; Froehlich, Peter [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Seifert, Martin; Jacob-Seifert, Karin [FNE Entsorgungsdienste GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is an oxidation step releasing reactive oxygen species by pulsed electrical discharge in aqueous systems. In contrast to processes generating ozone by external UV radiation this method is feasible for turbid liquids with solid particles. This method is currently used in particular in the field of purification of chemically polluted waste waters. In the present application AOP is applied for partial degradation of the organic ligand system of a gadolinium X-ray contrast agent to separate gadolinium subsequently by adding caustic soda to precipitate > 99% of gadolinium.

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetic gadolinium silicide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadimani, Magundappa Ravi L.; Gupta, Shalabh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David C.

    2018-03-06

    A particle usable as T1 and T2 contrast agents is provided. The particle is a gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particle that is ferromagnetic at temperatures up to 290 K and is less than 2 .mu.m in diameter. An MRI contrast agent that includes a plurality of gadolinium silicide (Gd.sub.5Si.sub.4) particles that are less than 1 .mu.m in diameter is also provided. A method for creating gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particles is also provided. The method includes the steps of providing a Gd5Si4 bulk alloy; grinding the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy into a powder; and milling the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy powder for a time of approximately 20 minutes or less.

  17. Gadolinium photoionization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Haynam, Christopher A.; Eggert, Jon H.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for selective photoionization of the odd-numbered atomic mass gadolinium isotopes 155 and 157. The selective photoionization is accomplished by circular or linear parallel polarized laser beam energy effecting a three-step photoionization pathway.

  18. Contrast opacification for CT from iodine, gadolinium and ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicker, C.; Langer, M.; Ullrich, V.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    The absorption of the elements iodine, gadolinium und ytterbium in various dilutions was studied in relation to CT. Regression analysis and specific CT density measurements showed that absorption decreases from gadolinium to ytterbium and iodine. These results were confirmed by experiments using ten dogs. Boli of 0.5 molar gadolinium used for angio-CT without table movement showed the largest increase in density in the aorta and liver with an average of 190 HU and 21 HU respectively compared with iodine which gave 157 HU and 12 HU respectively. The animal experimental studies suggest that gadolinium and ytterbium are suitable contrast media for dynamic CT investigations. (orig.) [de

  19. Calculation qualification of gadolinium burnable poisons in water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaucheprat, P.

    1988-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis constitutes the qualification on the one end of Appolo-Neptune scheme for the gadolinium burnable poison in a pressurized water reactor, and on the other end of basis nuclear data on natural gadolinium. This study has permitted to reduce by a factor 3 the actual incertitude on the gadolinium poison comparatively at precisions cited in international benchmarks calculations [fr

  20. Prevalence and signal characteristics of late gadolinium enhancement on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Shiro; Matsuoka, Koji; Onishi, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    The background of this study was to determine the prevalence and signal intensity (SI) characteristics of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). Cine, black-blood T2-weighted and LGE MR images were acquired in 23 patients with TC within 72h of onset. Wall motion abnormality (WMA), edema and LGE were evaluated with a 16-segment model. The SI characteristics of LGE were analyzed using SI distribution in remote normal segments as reference. Follow-up MRI was performed 3 months later. Retrospective analysis of LGE MRI was also performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to compare the SI characteristics between TC and AMI. In acute phase, WMA and edema were observed in 236 (64%) and 205 (56%) of 368 segments. LGE was observed in 10 (2.7%) of 368 segments and in 5 (22%) of 23 patients. All LGE lesions in TC exhibited transmural enhancement. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in TC was significantly lower than that of AMI (3.1±0.3 standard deviations (SD) vs. 6.1±1.2 SD, P<0.01), and CNR value of 4 was useful for distinguishing TC from AMI. Both LGE and WMA disappeared within 12 months. Grey myocardial signal on LGE MRI may be observed in patients with TC. However, the extent of LGE is substantially less than that of WMA and edema, and disappears within 12 months. (author)

  1. Endovascular thrombectomy and post-procedural headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Hansen, Klaus; Florescu, Anna Maria; Fakhril-Din, Zainab; Petersen, Julie Falkenberg; Ghanizada, Hashmat; Ayata, Cenk; Gaist, David; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of post-procedural headache in patients who have undergone thrombectomy for ischemic stroke, and correlated history of migraine with risk of peri-procedural complications. A total of 314 patients underwent thrombectomy at the Danish National Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3, beta version criteria. Among 96 eligible subjects, there was a significant decrease in migraine (p = 0.022) within the first 3 months after EVT compared to 1 year before treatment, which was further evident at interview time (on average 1.6 years after EVT, p = 0.013). A minority of patients experienced headaches for the first time within 3 months of their EVT (migraine 2, TTH 9), which persisted at interview time for subjects with migraine. Out of 12 subjects with peri-procedural complications, 2 had a history of migraine with aura. Thrombectomy leads to a significant decrease in previously known migraine, and new onset of headache in a small subset of patients. A history of migraine does not appear to predispose to peri-procedural complications.

  2. Post-Lau Event (late Ludfordian, Silurian) recovery of conodont faunas of Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Ladislav; Carls, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2012), s. 815-832 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : late Silurian * Ludfordian * post-Lau Event, * conodont recovery * Lau Event, Prague Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.141, year: 2012

  3. Effect of gadolinium on hepatic fat quantification using multi-echo reconstruction technique with T2* correction and estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Mingmei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Zhiqin; Song, Hai; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wu, Xinhuai [The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jing [The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether hepatic fat quantification is affected by administration of gadolinium using a multiecho reconstruction technique with T2* correction and estimation. Forty-eight patients underwent the investigational sequence for hepatic fat quantification at 3.0T MRI once before and twice after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with pairwise comparisons was conducted to evaluate the systematic bias of fat fraction (FF) and R2* measurements between three acquisitions. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreements between pre- and post-contrast FF measurements in the liver. A P value <0.05 indicated statistically significant difference. FF measurements of liver, spleen and spine revealed no significant systematic bias between the three measurements (P > 0.05 for all). Good agreements (95 % confidence interval) of FF measurements were demonstrated between pre-contrast and post-contrast1 (-0.49 %, 0.52 %) and post-contrast2 (-0.83 %, 0.77 %). R2* increased in liver and spleen (P = 0.039, P = 0.01) after administration of gadolinium. Although under the impact of an increased R2* in liver and spleen post-contrast, the investigational sequence can still obtain stable fat quantification. Therefore, it could be applied post-contrast to substantially increase the efficiency of MR examination and also provide a backup for the occasional failure of FF measurements pre-contrast. (orig.)

  4. Effect of gadolinium on hepatic fat quantification using multi-echo reconstruction technique with T2* correction and estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Mingmei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Zhiqin; Song, Hai; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wu, Xinhuai; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether hepatic fat quantification is affected by administration of gadolinium using a multiecho reconstruction technique with T2* correction and estimation. Forty-eight patients underwent the investigational sequence for hepatic fat quantification at 3.0T MRI once before and twice after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with pairwise comparisons was conducted to evaluate the systematic bias of fat fraction (FF) and R2* measurements between three acquisitions. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreements between pre- and post-contrast FF measurements in the liver. A P value <0.05 indicated statistically significant difference. FF measurements of liver, spleen and spine revealed no significant systematic bias between the three measurements (P > 0.05 for all). Good agreements (95 % confidence interval) of FF measurements were demonstrated between pre-contrast and post-contrast1 (-0.49 %, 0.52 %) and post-contrast2 (-0.83 %, 0.77 %). R2* increased in liver and spleen (P = 0.039, P = 0.01) after administration of gadolinium. Although under the impact of an increased R2* in liver and spleen post-contrast, the investigational sequence can still obtain stable fat quantification. Therefore, it could be applied post-contrast to substantially increase the efficiency of MR examination and also provide a backup for the occasional failure of FF measurements pre-contrast. (orig.)

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways. PMID:24381049

  6. Determination of gadolinium by the method of derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, N.N.; Mishchenko, V.T.; Poluehktov, N.S.; Mukomel', V.L.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for gadolinium determination at the presence of interfering rare earth elements, which is based on the derivative spectrophotometry method, is suggested. The technique is of increased selectivity and allows to determine gadolinium in the mixtures with elements, which presence in solution makes impossible to determine gadolinium directly. At binary mixtures analysis Sr relative standard deviation does not exceed 0.03, while at the analysis of more complex mixtures Sr increases up to 0.06

  7. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC): Intra- and Interobserver Variability in Standardized Drawing of Regions of Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiderius, C.J.; Tjoernstrand, J.; Aakeson, P.; Soedersten, K.; Dahlberg, L.; Leander, P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the reproducibility of a standardized region of interest (ROI) drawing procedure in delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC). Material and Methods: A large ROI in lateral and medial femoral weight-bearing cartilage was drawn in images of 12 healthy male volunteers by 6 investigators with different skills in MRI. The procedure was done twice, with a 1-week interval. Calculated T1-values were evaluated for intra- and interobserver variability. Results: The mean interobserver variability for both compartments ranged between 1.3% and 2.3% for the 6 different investigators without correlation to their experience in MRI. Post-contrast intra-observer variability was low in both the lateral and the medial femoral cartilage, 2.6% and 1.5%, respectively. The larger variability in lateral than in medial cartilage was related to slightly longer and thinner ROIs. Conclusion: Intra-observer variability and interobserver variability are both low when a large standardized ROI is used in dGEMRIC. The experience of the investigator does not affect the variability, which further supports a clinical applicability of the method

  8. The many shades of enhancement: timing of post-gadolinium images strongly influences the scoring of juvenile idiopathic arthritis wrist involvement on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieter, Jasper F.M.M.; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tanturri de Horatio, Laura [Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Avenarius, Derk F.M. [Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Tromsoe, Tromsoe (Norway); Rossum, Marion A.J. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Emma Children' s Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Malattia, Clara [Ospedale Pediatrico Gaslini, Department of Paediatrics, Genoa (Italy); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Radiology Department, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    Potential long-term side effects of treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis are concerning. This has necessitated accurate tools, such as MRI, to monitor treatment response and allow for personalized therapy. To examine the extent to which timing of post-contrast MR images influences the scoring of inflammatory change in the wrist in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We studied two sets of post-contrast 3-D gradient echo MRI series of the wrist in 34 children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. These images were obtained immediately after administration of intravenous contrast material and again after approximately 10 min. The dataset was drawn from a prospective multicenter project conducted 2006-2010. We assessed five wrist locations for synovial enhancement, effusion and overall inflammation. Examinations were scored by one radiologist in two sessions - the first was based on the early post-contrast images, and the later session, for which the previous findings were masked, was based on the later post-contrast images. Fifty-two of the 170 locations (30.6%) received a higher synovial enhancement score based on the late post-contrast images as compared to the early images. Sixty of the 170 (35%) locations received a higher total inflammation score. The mean scores of synovial enhancement and total inflammation were significantly higher when based on the late post-contrast images as compared to the early post-contrast images. An MRI-based scoring system for the presence and degree of synovitis should be based on a standardized MR-protocol with a fixed interval between intravenous contrast injection and post-contrast images. (orig.)

  9. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  10. Gadolinium-based contrast agent toxicity: a review of known and proposed mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosnitzky, Moshe; Branch, Stacy

    2016-06-01

    Gadolinium chelates are widely used as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging. The approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have historically been considered safe and well tolerated when used at recommended dosing levels. However, for nearly a decade, an association between GBCA administration and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been recognized in patients with severe renal impairment. This has led to modifications in clinical practices aimed at reducing the potential and incidence of NSF development. Newer reports have emerged regarding the accumulation of gadolinium in various tissues of patients who do not have renal impairment, including bone, brain, and kidneys. Despite the observations of gadolinium accumulation in tissues regardless of renal function, very limited clinical data regarding the potential for and mechanisms of toxicity is available. This significant gap in knowledge warrants retrospective cohort study efforts, as well as prospective studies that involve gadolinium ion (Gd(3+)) testing in patients exposed to GBCA. This review examines the potential biochemical and molecular basis of gadolinium toxicity, possible clinical significance of gadolinium tissue retention and accumulation, and methods that can limit gadolinium body burden.

  11. Room temperature ferromagnetic gadolinium silicide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadimani, Magundappa Ravi L.; Gupta, Shalabh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David C.

    2018-03-06

    A particle usable as T1 and T2 contrast agents is provided. The particle is a gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particle that is ferromagnetic at temperatures up to 290 K and is less than 2 .mu.m in diameter. An MRI contrast agent that includes a plurality of gadolinium silicide (Gd.sub.5Si.sub.4) particles that are less than 1 .mu.m in diameter is also provided. A method for creating gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particles is also provided. The method includes the steps of providing a Gd5Si4 bulk alloy; grinding the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy into a powder; and milling the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy powder for a time of approximately 20 minutes or less.

  12. Post-Processing of Dynamic Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Exams of the Liver: Explanation and Potential Clinical Applications for Color-Coded Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Bos, I.C. Van den; Hussain, S.M.; Pattynama, P.M.; Vogel, M.W.; Kr estin, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain and illustrate the current status and potential applications of automated and color-coded post-processing techniques for the analysis of dynamic multiphasic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver. Post-processing of these images on dedicated workstations allows the generation of time-intensity curves (TIC) as well as color-coded images, which provides useful information on (neo)-angiogenesis within a liver lesion, if necessary combined with information on enhancement patterns of the surrounding liver parenchyma. Analysis of TIC and color-coded images, which are based on pharmacokinetic modeling, provides an easy-to-interpret schematic presentation of tumor behavior, providing additional characteristics for adequate differential diagnosis. Inclusion of TIC and color-coded images as part of the routine abdominal MRI workup protocol may help to further improve the specificity of MRI findings, but needs to be validated in clinical decision-making situations. In addition, these tools may facilitate the diagnostic workup of disease for detection, characterization, staging, and monitoring of antitumor therapy, and hold incremental value to the widely used tumor response criteria

  13. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M.; Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren; Ladd, Mark E.; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  14. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High-Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  15. Endovascular thrombectomy and post-procedural headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Holtmannspötter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of post-procedural headache in patients who have undergone thrombectomy for ischemic stroke, and correlated history of migraine with risk of peri-procedural complications. A total of 314 patients underwent thrombectomy at the Danish National Hospital from...... January 2012 to December 2014. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3, beta version criteria. FINDINGS: Among 96 eligible subjects, there was a significant decrease in migraine...... (p = 0.022) within the first 3 months after EVT compared to 1 year before treatment, which was further evident at interview time (on average 1.6 years after EVT, p = 0.013). A minority of patients experienced headaches for the first time within 3 months of their EVT (migraine 2, TTH 9), which...

  16. Evaluation of state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms for left ventricle infarct from late Gadolinium enhancement MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rashed; Bhagirath, Pranav; Claus, Piet; James Housden, R; Chen, Zhong; Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Lara Rodríguez, Laura; Vera, Sergio; Albà, Xènia; Hennemuth, Anja; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Arbel, Tal; Gonzàlez Ballester, Miguel A; Frangi, Alejandro F; Götte, Marco; Razavi, Reza; Schaeffter, Tobias; Rhode, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated the feasibility of late Gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for guiding the management of patients with sequelae to myocardial infarction, such as ventricular tachycardia and heart failure. Clinical implementation of these developments necessitates a reproducible and reliable segmentation of the infarcted regions. It is challenging to compare new algorithms for infarct segmentation in the left ventricle (LV) with existing algorithms. Benchmarking datasets with evaluation strategies are much needed to facilitate comparison. This manuscript presents a benchmarking evaluation framework for future algorithms that segment infarct from LGE CMR of the LV. The image database consists of 30 LGE CMR images of both humans and pigs that were acquired from two separate imaging centres. A consensus ground truth was obtained for all data using maximum likelihood estimation. Six widely-used fixed-thresholding methods and five recently developed algorithms are tested on the benchmarking framework. Results demonstrate that the algorithms have better overlap with the consensus ground truth than most of the n-SD fixed-thresholding methods, with the exception of the Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) fixed-thresholding method. Some of the pitfalls of fixed thresholding methods are demonstrated in this work. The benchmarking evaluation framework, which is a contribution of this work, can be used to test and benchmark future algorithms that detect and quantify infarct in LGE CMR images of the LV. The datasets, ground truth and evaluation code have been made publicly available through the website: https://www.cardiacatlas.org/web/guest/challenges. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K.E.; Quistgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58...... years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol....../l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. RESULTS Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR...

  18. Validation of gadolinium burnout using PWR benchmark specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettingen, Mikołaj, E-mail: moettin@agh.edu.pl; Cetnar, Jerzy, E-mail: cetnar@mail.ftj.agh.edu.pl

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present methodology for validation of gadolinium burnout in PWR. • We model 17 × 17 PWR fuel assembly using MCB code. • We demonstrate C/E ratios of measured and calculated concentrations of Gd isotopes. • The C/E for Gd154, Gd156, Gd157, Gd158 and Gd160 shows good agreement of ±10%. • The C/E for Gd152 and Gd155 shows poor agreement below ±10%. - Abstract: The paper presents comparative analysis of measured and calculated concentrations of gadolinium isotopes in spent nuclear fuel from the Japanese Ohi-2 PWR. The irradiation of the 17 × 17 fuel assembly containing pure uranium and gadolinia bearing fuel pins was numerically reconstructed using the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB. The reference concentrations of gadolinium isotopes were measured in early 1990s at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It seems that the measured concentrations were never used for validation of gadolinium burnout. In our study we fill this gap and assess quality of both: applied numerical methodology and experimental data. Additionally we show time evolutions of infinite neutron multiplication factor K{sub inf}, FIMA burnup, U235 and Gd155–Gd158. Gadolinium-based materials are commonly used in thermal reactors as burnable absorbers due to large neutron absorption cross-section of Gd155 and Gd157.

  19. Gadolinium-enhanced turbo FLASH MR imaging of renal perfusion and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, A.; Teresi, L.M.; Herbst, M.; O'Sullivan, R.M.; Lee, R.; Smith, C.; Renner, J.; Rappaport, A.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to MR imaging of renal perfusion and excretion using gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted TURBP, fast low-angle shot (FLASH) imaging. Five normal volunteers and four patients were studied on a 1.5-T imaging system. Time-intensity curves of the appearance of gadolinium in each kidney and the bladder were then generated. In normal volunteers, marked first-pass enhancement of renal cortex followed by renal pyramids and collecting systems could be demonstrated on the first-pass gadolinium images. Delayed images showed hyperintense gadolinium within the bladder

  20. Extent of late gadolinium enhancement at right ventricular insertion points in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation with diastolic dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yinsu [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal; Chu, Ajung; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Seoul National University Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) at right ventricular insertion points (RVIP) and left ventricular (LV) functional parameters in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixty-one HCM patients underwent echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) within one week. Mitral annular velocities (E/E') were obtained from echocardiography; LV ejection fraction (EF), LV mass index, LV wall maximal thickness, and left atrial volume index (LAVI) were obtained from MR. LGE extent was quantified (proportion of total LV myocardial mass) according to location: % RVIP-LGE and % non-RVIP-LGE. Although LGE was commonly present in both apical (74 %) and non-apical HCMs (88 %) (p = 0.163), RVIP-LGE was more frequent (86 % vs. 47 %, p = 0.002) in non-apical HCMs in which E/E' was significantly higher (19.23 ± 8.40 vs. 13.13 ± 5.06, p = 0.009). In addition, RVIP-LGE extent was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (r = 0.45, p < 0.001 for E/E'; r = 0.53, p < 0.001 for LAVI) and lower LVEF (r = -0.42, p = 0.001). There was no correlation between non-RVIP-LGE extent and other parameters. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed RVIP-LGE extent as an independent predictor of E/E' (β = 0.45, p < 0.001) and LAVI in HCM patients (β = 0.53, p < 0.001). The extent of LGE at RVIPs in HCM patients is associated with increased estimated LV filling pressure and chronic diastolic burden. (orig.)

  1. Behavior of gadolinium-based diagnostics in water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyris, Maike

    2013-04-25

    Wastewater treatment plants throughout Europe are retrofitted for a sufficient removal of micropollutants. Most target compounds are eliminated efficiently at reasonable costs by oxidation. Sorption processes, on the other hand, are favored as no transformation products are formed. For oxidation, ozone is preferred presently. Its action is divided in two main reaction pathways: Via ozone and via hydroxyl radicals formed by ozone-matrix reactions. Oxidation efficiency strongly depends on reaction rate constants. Sorption processes are usually characterized, including sorption strength, by determination of isotherms. Also, for description of filtration processes isotherm data are necessary. So far, gadolinium chelates, used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, have not been investigated in both advanced wastewater treatment processes. The stable chelates are excreted without metabolization. Conventional wastewater treatment does not remove them substantially. They remain intact and no free Gd(III) is released. This may be changed due to oxidative treatment which potentially destroys the chelates, and Gd(III) ions which are toxic, contrary to the chelated form, may be liberated. Monitoring campaigns in wastewater and drinking water have been performed to demonstrate the relevance of gadolinium in such treatment steps. In a European monitoring campaign an average concentration of 118 ng L{sup -1} gadolinium has been determined for 75 wastewater treatment plants effluents, corresponding to a non-geogenic gadolinium concentration of 116 ng L{sup -1}. In drinking water in the Ruhr area, a densely populated region in Germany, gadolinium and the anomaly were measurable by a factor of five lower than the average in the investigated wastewater samples. The determined concentrations in drinking water are lower than acute toxic effect concentration. The speciation of gadolinium in the investigated samples is unknown, as only total element concentration has been

  2. Behavior of gadolinium-based diagnostics in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyris, Maike

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants throughout Europe are retrofitted for a sufficient removal of micropollutants. Most target compounds are eliminated efficiently at reasonable costs by oxidation. Sorption processes, on the other hand, are favored as no transformation products are formed. For oxidation, ozone is preferred presently. Its action is divided in two main reaction pathways: Via ozone and via hydroxyl radicals formed by ozone-matrix reactions. Oxidation efficiency strongly depends on reaction rate constants. Sorption processes are usually characterized, including sorption strength, by determination of isotherms. Also, for description of filtration processes isotherm data are necessary. So far, gadolinium chelates, used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, have not been investigated in both advanced wastewater treatment processes. The stable chelates are excreted without metabolization. Conventional wastewater treatment does not remove them substantially. They remain intact and no free Gd(III) is released. This may be changed due to oxidative treatment which potentially destroys the chelates, and Gd(III) ions which are toxic, contrary to the chelated form, may be liberated. Monitoring campaigns in wastewater and drinking water have been performed to demonstrate the relevance of gadolinium in such treatment steps. In a European monitoring campaign an average concentration of 118 ng L -1 gadolinium has been determined for 75 wastewater treatment plants effluents, corresponding to a non-geogenic gadolinium concentration of 116 ng L -1 . In drinking water in the Ruhr area, a densely populated region in Germany, gadolinium and the anomaly were measurable by a factor of five lower than the average in the investigated wastewater samples. The determined concentrations in drinking water are lower than acute toxic effect concentration. The speciation of gadolinium in the investigated samples is unknown, as only total element concentration has been determined

  3. Effect of organic bases on extraction of gadolinium carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhan, V.V.; Frankovskij, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pyridine, 2-aminopyridine, benzylamine, antipyrine and o-phenanthroline on the extraction of capronates and bromocapronates of gadolinium with chloroform is studied. Out of the studied organic bases benzylamine produces the highest synergetic effect. In the absence of organic bases gadolinium carboxylates, solvated by three molecules of carbonic acids, are extracted into organic phase. A possihility of extractional separation of gadolinium from comparable amounts of iron with the mixture of 1 M solutions of caproic or bromocaproic acids with 1 M benzylamine from 0.1 M solution of tartaric acids is shown [ru

  4. Gadolinium-containing contrast media for radiographic examinations: a position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Almen, Torsten; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that gadolinium-based contrast media could be used for radiological examinations in patients with significant renal impairment, previous severe generalized reaction to iodinated contrast media or thyroid disease about to undergo radioactive iodine treatment; however, the indications for and risks of using gadolinium agents in this way are not well known; hence, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology reviewed the literature to issue a position paper on this subject. A comprehensive literature review was performed and the resulting report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy, June 2002. Review of the literature indicates that according to experimental data on animals gadolinium-based contrast media have more nephrotoxic potential than iodinated contrast media in equivalent X-ray attenuating doses; therefore, gadolinium-based contrast media should not replace iodinated contrast media in patients with renal insufficiency for radiographic examinations. For patients with previous severe generalized reactions to iodinated contrast media, and in patients about to undergo thyroid treatment with radioactive iodine gadolinium-based contrast media in approved intravenous doses, up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight will not give diagnostic radiographic information in most cases. Gadolinium-based contrast media are not approved for radiographic examinations. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance characteristics and susceptibility weighted imaging of the brain in gadolinium encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, Dejan; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    To report the brain imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in inadvertent intrathecal gadolinium administration. A 67-year-old female with gadolinium encephalopathy from inadvertent high dose intrathecal gadolinium administration during an epidural steroid injection was studied with multisequence 3T MRI. T1-weighted imaging shows pseudo-T2 appearance with diffusion of gadolinium into the brain parenchyma, olivary bodies, and membranous labyrinth. Nulling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal is absent on fluid attenuation recovery (FLAIR). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrates features similar to subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT may demonstrate a pseudo-cerebral edema pattern given the high attenuation characteristics of gadolinium. Intrathecal gadolinium demonstrates characteristic imaging features on MRI of the brain and may mimic subarachnoid hemorrhage on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Identifying high dose gadolinium within the CSF spaces on MRI is essential to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. Production of gadolinium nitrate for TAPS 3 and 4 PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.L.; Ramakrishnan, P.; Iyer, N.S.; Singh, Harvinderpal

    2004-01-01

    In India, gadolinium nitrate is being used for the first time in PHWR at Tarapur. Gadolinium is preferred over boron due to high neutron cross section and the water soluble nitrate form works efficiently for reactivity control through moderator liquid poison addition system (MLPS) as well as for reactor shut down system (SDS2). Low concentration of gadolinium (0.1-0.2 g/l) in heavy water is sufficient to shut down the reactor in a very short time. After use, the small amount of gadolinium can be separated quickly from heavy water by ion exchange process. In this paper separation of Gd using of 2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid mono 2-ethyl hexyl ester EHEHPA as an extractant has been described

  7. Application of extracellular gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents and the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis; Anwendung von extrazellulaeren gadoliniumhaltigen MR-Kontrastmitteln und Risiko der Nephrogenen Systemischen Fibrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heverhagen, J.T. [Univ. Hospital Bern (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital; Krombach, G.A. [Justus Liebig Univ. Hopsital Giessen (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Gizewski, E. [Medical Univ. Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2014-07-15

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious, sometimes fatal disease. Findings in recent years have shown that a causal association between gadolinium containing contrast media and NSF is most likely. Therefore, the regulatory authorities have issued guidelines on the use of gadolinium-containing contrast media which have reduced the number of new cases of NSF to almost zero. However, it is for precisely this reason that the greatest care must still be taken to ensure that these guidelines are complied with. The most important factors are renal function, the quantity of gadolinium administered and coexisting diseases such as inflammation. All of these factors crucially influence the quantity of gadolinium released from the chelat in the body. This free gadolinium is thought to be the trigger for NSF. Other important factors are the stability of the gadolinium complex and furthermore the route of its elimination from the body. Partial elimination via the liver might be an additional protective mechanism. In conclusion, despite the NSF risk, contrast-enhanced MRI is a safe diagnostic procedure which can be used reliably and safely even in patients with severe renal failure, and does not necessarily have to be replaced by other methods.

  8. Late outcomes after the Cox maze IV procedure for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Matthew C; Lancaster, Timothy S; Miller, Jacob R; Sinn, Laurie A; Schuessler, Richard B; Moon, Marc R; Melby, Spencer J; Maniar, Hersh S; Damiano, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    The Cox maze IV procedure (CMPIV) has been established as the gold standard for surgical ablation; however, late outcomes using current consensus definitions of treatment failure have not been well described. To compare to reported outcomes of catheter-based ablation, we report our institutional outcomes of patients who underwent a left-sided or biatrial CMPIV at 5 years of follow-up. Between January 2002 and September 2014, data were collected prospectively on 576 patients with AF who underwent a CMPIV (n = 532) or left-sided CMPIV (n = 44). Perioperative variables and long-term freedom from AF, with and without AADs, were compared in multiple subgroups. Follow-up at any time point was 89%. At 5 years, overall freedom from AF was 93 of 119 (78%), and freedom from AF off AADs was 77 of 177 (66%). No differences were found in freedom from AF, with or without AADs, at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years for patients with paroxysmal AF (n = 204) versus with persistent/longstanding persistent AF (n = 305), or for those who underwent standalone versus a concomitant CMP. Duration of preoperative AF and hospital length of stay were the best predictors of failure at 5 years. The outcomes of the CMPIV remain good at late follow-up. The type of preoperative AF or the addition of a concomitant procedure did not affect late success. The results of the CMPIV remain superior to those reported for catheter ablation and other forms of surgical AF ablation, especially for patients with persistent or longstanding AF. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fundamental study of DSA images using gadolinium contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Akihisa; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Hajime; Sano, Yoshitomo

    2002-01-01

    Most contrast agents used in digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are non-ionic iodinated contrast agents, which can cause severe side effects in patients with contraindications for iodine or allergic reactions to iodine. Therefore, DSA examinations using carbon dioxide gas or examinations done by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) were carried out in these patients. However, none of these examinations provided mages as clear as those of DSA with an iodinated contrast agent. We experienced DSA examination using a gadolinium contrast agent in a patient contraindicated for iodine. The patient had undergone MRI examination with a gadolinium contrast agent previously without side effects. The characteristics of gadolinium and the iodinated contrast agent were compared, and the DSA images obtained clinically using these media were also evaluated. The signal-to-noise (SN) ratio of the gadolinium contrast agent was the highest at tube voltages of 70 to 80 kilovolts and improved slightly when the image intensifier (I.I.) entrance dose was greater than 300 μR (77.4 nC/kg). The dilution ratios of five iodinated contrast agents showed the same S/N value as the undiluted gadolinium contrast agent. Clinically, the images obtained showed a slight decrease in contrast but provided the data necessary to make a diagnosis and made it possible to obtain interventional radiology (IVR) without any side effects. DSA examinations using a gadolinium contrast agent have some benefit with low risk and are thought to be useful for patients contraindicated for iodine. (author)

  10. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of gadolinium complexes based on PAMAM as MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guo-Ping; Hu, Bin; Liu, Mai-Li; Li, Li-Yun

    2005-03-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and pyridoxamine (PM) were incorporated into the amine groups on the surface of ammonia-core poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM, Generation 2.0-5.0) to obtain dendritic ligands. These dendritic ligands were reacted with gadolinium chloride to yield the corresponding dendritic gadolinium (Gd) complexes. The dendritic ligands and their gadolinium complexes were characterized by(1)HNMR, IR, UV and elemental analysis. Relaxivity studies showed that the dendritic gadolinium complexes possessed higher relaxation effectiveness compared with the clinically used Gd-DTPA. After administration of the dendritic gadolinium complexes (0.09 mmol kg(-1) ) to rats, magnetic resonance imaging of the liver indicated that the dendritic gadolinium complexes containing pyridoxamine groups enhanced the contrast of the MR images of the liver, provided prolonged intravascular duration and produced highly contrasted visualization of blood vessels.

  12. The Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marthe A J; Cornel, Jan H; van de Ven, Peter M; van Rossum, Albert C; Allaart, Cornelis P; Germans, Tjeerd

    2018-04-13

    This review and meta-analysis reviews the prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) CMR is a noninvasive method to determine the underlying cause of DCM and previous studies reported the prognostic value of the presence of LGE to identify patients at risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. PubMed was searched for studies describing the prognostic implication of LGE in patients with DCM for the specified endpoints cardiovascular mortality, major ventricular arrhythmic events including appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, rehospitalization for heart failure, and left ventricular reverse remodeling. Data from 34 studies were included, with a total of 4,554 patients. Contrast enhancement was present in 44.8% of DCM patients. Patients with LGE had increased cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.04 to 5.67), ventricular arrhythmic events (OR: 4.52; 95% CI: 3.41 to 5.99), and rehospitalization for heart failure (OR: 2.66; 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.24) compared with those without LGE. Moreover, the absence of LGE predicted left ventricular reverse remodeling (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.36). The presence of LGE on CMR substantially worsens prognosis for adverse cardiovascular events in DCM patients, and the absence indicates left ventricular reverse remodeling. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fully automatic segmentation of left atrium and pulmonary veins in late gadolinium-enhanced MRI: Towards objective atrial scar assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Ipek, Esra Gucuk; Shahzad, Rahil; Berendsen, Floris F; Nazarian, Saman; van der Geest, Rob J

    2016-08-01

    To realize objective atrial scar assessment, this study aimed to develop a fully automatic method to segment the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PV) from late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent and distribution of atrial scar, visualized by LGE-MRI, provides important information for clinical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Forty-six AF patients (age 62 ± 8, 14 female) who underwent cardiac MRI prior to RF ablation were included. A contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) sequence was acquired for anatomy assessment followed by an LGE sequence for LA scar assessment. A fully automatic segmentation method was proposed consisting of two stages: 1) global segmentation by multiatlas registration; and 2) local refinement by 3D level-set. These automatic segmentation results were compared with manual segmentation. The LA and PVs were automatically segmented in all subjects. Compared with manual segmentation, the method yielded a surface-to-surface distance of 1.49 ± 0.65 mm in the LA region when using both MRA and LGE, and 1.80 ± 0.93 mm when using LGE alone (P automatic and manual segmentation was comparable to the interobserver difference (P = 0.8 in LA region and P = 0.7 in PV region). We developed a fully automatic method for LA and PV segmentation from LGE-MRI, with comparable performance to a human observer. Inclusion of an MRA sequence further improves the segmentation accuracy. The method leads to automatic generation of a patient-specific model, and potentially enables objective atrial scar assessment for AF patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:346-354. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identification and characterization of gadolinium(III) complexes in biological tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahakachchi, Chethaka L; Moore, Dennis A

    2010-07-01

    The gadolinium species present in a rat kidney following intravenous administration of a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agent (Optimark™, Gadoversetamide injection) to a rat was examined in the present study. The major gadolinium species in the supernatant of the rat kidney tissue extracts was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with online inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-OES). The identity of the compound was established by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The principal gadolinium(III) complex in a rat kidney tissue extract was identified as Gd-DTPA-BMEA 24 Hrs and 7 days after a single intravenous injection of Optimark™ (gadoversetamide; Gd-DTPA-BMEA) at a dose of 5 mmol Gd/kg body weight. The study demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of the use of two complementary techniques, HPLC-ICP-OES and HPLC-ESI-MS to study the in vivo behavior of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast media.

  15. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  16. Studies on polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guoping; Liu Maili; Li Liyun

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A series of polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes containing pyridoxamine groups were studied as the potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for liver enhancement. Methods: These polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes were prepared and evaluated by relaxivity, acute toxicity studies and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in rats. Results: These polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes have higher relaxation effectiveness than that of the clinically used gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and possess the low intravenous acute toxicities to Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in rats indicated that they greatly enhance the contrast of magnetic resonance images and provide prolonged intravascular duration in the liver. Conclusion: These results indicated that the polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes containing pyridoxamine groups could be considered as the appropriate MRI contrast agents for liver enhancement

  17. Optimization of gadolinium burnable poison loading by the conjugate gradients method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Improved use of burnable poison is suggested for pressurized water reactors (PWR's) to insure a sufficiently negative moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity for extended burnup cycles and low leakage refueling patterns. The use of gadolinium as a burnable poison can lead to large axial fluctuations in the power distribution through the cycle. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal axial distribution of gadolinium burnable poison in a PWR to overcome the axial fluctuations, yielding an improved power distribution. The conjugate gradients optimization method is used in this work because of the high degree of nonlinearity of the problem. The neutron diffusion and depletion equations are solved for a one-dimensional one-group core model. The state variables are the flux, the critical soluble boron concentration, and the burnup. The control variables are the number of gadolinium pins per assembly and the beginning-of-cycle gadolinium concentration, which determine the gadolinium cross section. Two separate objectives are considered: 1) to minimize the power peaking factor, which will minimize the capital cost of the plant; and 2) to maximize the cycle length, which will minimize the fuel cost for the plant. It is shown in this work that optimizing the gadolinium distribution can yield an improved power distribution

  18. Magnon contribution to electrical resistance of gadolinium-dysprosium alloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, S.A.; Slobodchikov, S.S.; Solomkin, I.K.

    1978-01-01

    The magnon, phonon and interelectron collision contributions to the electric resistance of single crystals of gadolinium-dysprosium alloys were quantified. A relationship was found to exist between the electric resistance and the variation of the topology of the Fermi surface on melting of gadolinium with dysprosium. It was found that gadolinium-dysprosium alloys, which have no helicoidal magnetic structure in magnetically ordered state, feature a spin-spin helicoidal-type correlations in the paramagnetic field

  19. Differential diagnosis between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas with gadolinium MR in delayed scans: another diagnostic possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo J.; Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Stoisa, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of measuring delayed post gadolinium signal intensity by displaying a curve, to make the differential diagnosis between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas, and compare it to chemical shift MR imaging and unenhanced/delayed contrast enhanced CT. Material and methods: Nine adrenal masses have been evaluated by unenhanced/delayed contrast enhanced CT, chemical shift MR imaging and Dynamic Scan at 5, 15, 30 minutes or more, with measurement curves. The 'in phase' imaging have been compared to the 'out phase' ones. Results: Adenomas have shown drop of the curve at 30 minutes of the contrast injection. Non-adenomas have conserved an ascending curve with the same delay. Conclusion: Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging at delayed scans can characterize adrenal masses as adenomas or non-adenomas. This technique could be considered as a new complementary diagnostic method. (author)

  20. The Combined Incremental Prognostic Value of LVEF, Late Gadolinium Enhancement, and Global Circumferential Strain Assessed by CMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordi, Ify; Bezerra, Hiram; Carrick, David; Tzemos, Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the incremental prognostic value of global circumferential strain (GCS), as measured using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging, in addition to baseline clinical characteristics, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in an unselected cohort of patients. LVEF is a powerful predictor of mortality and is used for guiding treatment decisions. It is, however, subject to limitations. The value of GCS measured by CMR tagging in patients with suspected cardiac disease has not been fully explored despite its being considered as the gold standard noninvasive method of assessment of LV deformation. We prospectively evaluated data from 539 consecutive patients referred for CMR who underwent a CMR protocol that included cine imaging, tagging, and LGE. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, heart failure-related hospitalization, and aborted sudden cardiac death. MACE occurred in 62 of 539 patients (11.5%) over a mean follow-up period of 2.2 years. History of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and beta-blocker use were both significant clinical predictors of adverse outcomes. All 3 CMR parameters were significant multivariate predictors of the primary outcome when added to significant clinical predictors (LVEF, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.96 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94 to 0.99; p = 0.005]; presence of LGE, HR: 2.07 [95% CI: 1.03 to 4.14; p = 0.04]; GCS, HR: 1.11 [95% CI: 1.02 to 1.21; p = 0.041]). Global chi-square increased significantly with the addition of both LGE and GCS. Both the presence of LGE and reduced GCS had independent prognostic value in the overall cohort. Patients with LVEF ≥35% but LGE present and reduced GCS had a poor outcome similar to that in those with LVEF value. This measure could provide further risk stratification, especially in patients with mild LV impairment

  1. Optimizing dose and administration regimen of a high-relaxivity contrast agent for myocardial MRI late gadolinium enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Papini, Giacomo D.E. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Chirurgiche, Milan (Italy); IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Giacomazzi, Francesca [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unit of Cardiac Surgery, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Di Donato, Marisa [University of Florence, Department of Critical Care Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.sardanelli@unimi.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Chirurgiche, Milan (Italy); IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Objectives: To investigate the time-course of late gadolinium enhancement of infarcted myocardium using gadobenate dimeglumine at different dosages and administration regimens. Materials and methods: After institutional review board approval and informed consent, we studied 13 patients (aged 63 {+-} 11 years) with chronic myocardial infarction. They underwent two gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR examinations (interval 24-48 h) using short-axis inversion-recovery gradient-echo sequences, with the following two different protocols, in randomized order: 0.05 mmol/kg and imaging at the 2.5th, 5th, 7.5th and 10th minute plus 0.05 mmol/kg and imaging at the 12.5th, 15th, 17.5th and 20th minute; the same as before but using 0.1 mmol/kg for both contrast injections. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between infarcted myocardium, non-infarcted myocardium and left ventricle cavity were calculated for each time-point (2.5-min steps). Friedman ANOVA was used for comparing the CNR time-course; Wilcoxon test for comparing CNR at the 10th and the 20th minute. Results: The CNR between infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium obtained at the 20th minute with 0.05 plus 0.05 mmol/kg resulted significantly higher than that obtained at the 10th minute with 0.05 mmol/kg (P = 0.033) while not significantly different from that obtained at the 10th (0.1 mm/kg) or at the 20th minute with 0.1 plus 0.1 mmol/kg. The CNR between infarcted myocardium and the left ventricle cavity obtained at the 20th minute with 0.05 plus 0.05 mmol/kg resulted significantly higher than all other measured values (P {<=} 0.017). Conclusion: Using gadobenate dimeglumine, 0.05 plus 0.05 mmol/kg allows for a higher CNR between infarcted myocardium and the left ventricle cavity allowing for reliable assessment of the sub-endocardial infarctions.

  2. Characteristics of gadolinium-DTPA complex: a potential NMR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H.J.; Brasch, R.C.; Press, W.R.; Wesbey, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Chelation of the rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) results in a strongly paramagnetic, stable complex that is well tolerated in animals. The strongly paramagnetic gadolinium complex reduces hydrogen-proton relaxation times even in low concentrations (less than 0.01 mmol/L). The pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously delivered Gd-DTPA is similar to the well known iodinated contrast agents used in urography and angiography; excretion is predominately through the kidneys with greater than 90% recovery in 24 hr. The intravenous LD 50 of the meglumine salt of Gd-DTPA is 10 mmol/kg for the rat; in vivo there is no evidence of dissociation of the gadolinium ion from the DTPA ligand. The combination of strong proton relaxation, in-vivo stability, rapid urinary excretion, and high tolerance favors the further development and the potential clinical application of gadolinium-DTPA as a contrast enhancer in magnetic resonance imaging

  3. Formation of nanoclusters of gadolinium atoms in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, Kh.M.; Saparniyazova, Z.M.; Ismajlov, K.A.; Madzhitov, M.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    A technology of stage wise low temperature diffusion of gadolinium into silicon that makes it possible to form nanoclusters of impurity atoms with a significant magnetic moment distributed throughout the volume of the material has been developed. It is shown that, unlike the samples obtained by high temperature diffusion doping, the samples prepared by the new technology do not have surface erosion, and alloys and silicides are not formed in the near surface region. Nanoclusters of impurity atoms of gadolinium in the volume of the crystal lattice of the silicon are studied using an MIK-5 infrared microscope. It is found that, in the stage wise low temperature diffusion, the temperature and time of the diffusion have an effect not only on the depth of penetration of the impurities but also on the sizes of the resulting clusters; these factors can also prevent the formation of clusters. The study of the effect of low temperature treatments on the size and distribution of clusters shows that, upon annealing in the temperature range of 500-700 degrees Celsius, the ordering of the clusters of gadolinium impurity atoms is observed. A further increase in the annealing temperature leads to the destruction of gadolinium clusters in the silicon bulk. (authors)

  4. The obtaining a high-grade gadolinium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltysiak, I.; Ozga, W.

    1982-01-01

    Gadolinium concentrates obtained by the fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromates were separated by ion exchange with 0,4 M lactic acid solution in the presence of 0,1 M ammonium nitrate at pH of the medium 2,95-3,4. It was found out, that using the fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromates (as the fast and cheap method that does not need special equipment) together with ion exchange separation with lactic acid solution as the eluent gave a highgrade gadolinium concentrate in a quick and economical way. (author)

  5. Use of gadolinium as neutron poison in 540 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, P.K.; Fernando, M.P.S.; Kumar, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    In Pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs), neutron poison in the moderator is used to compensate the excess reactivity present in the core on different occasions such as xenon decay during synchronization just after poison out period or start ups from xenon free conditions. It is also used in secondary shutdown system (SDS-2), where required amount of neutron poison is injected directly into the moderator within 2.5 seconds. Further, it is also used for over poisoning the moderator to achieve the guaranteed shutdown state when the regular shutdown systems are taken for maintenance. Generally, two types of moderator poisons are used in power reactors to balance the reactivity of the core and they are boron and gadolinium. Gadolinium is used in the form of gadolinium nitrate (Gd(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O). The paper gives the details of estimation of reactivity coefficients of gadolinium for 540 MWe PHWR for different operating conditions. These neutron poisons are converted into non-absorbing elements and therefore their effective worth will decrease as reactor operation proceeds. The rate of burning of neutron absorbing isotopes depends on its magnitude of absorption cross-section and thermal flux seen by them. The present study discusses the burning characteristics of gadolinium during power operation in 540 MWe PHWR. It is established by detailed analysis that the rate of positive reactivity realized due to burning of neutron absorbing Gd isotopes almost match with the build up rate of xenon. The burning half lives of boron and gadolinium is worked out for different power levels. (author)

  6. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohring, M.W.

    1987-04-01

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced 153 Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for 153 Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the 153 Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (≥60% enriched in 152 Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of 153 Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed

  7. Chemical aspects of gadolinium nitrate as soluble nuclear poison in Savannah River Plant reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    The aqueous solution chemistry of gadolinium nitrate was studied to identify conditions that interfere with successful cleanup of gadolinium in Savannah River Plant reactor systems. Injecting a gadolinium nitrate solution into the D 2 O coolant-moderator constitutes a supplementary mode of reactor shutdown. The resulting approximately 0.001M gadolinium nitrate solution is then deionized by recirculation through mixed-bed ion exchange resins before reactor operation is resumed

  8. Use of gadolinium-DTPA in inflammatory skeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Miny, H.; Reiser, M.; Erlemann, R.; Peters, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    In bacterial osteomyelitis and arthritis paraossal spreading is sensitively detected by gadolinium-DTPA. Abscessous cavities and membranes are better imaged than with T1- and T2-weighted MRT sequences without contrast medium. In chronic osteomylitis it is of advantage, that also florid inflammatory processes can be detected. Gadolinium-DTPA selectively induces a signal increase in the synovitic pannus, that allows the differentiation from articular effusion. In inflammed particular soft tissue only a retarded signal increase is detectable. (author)

  9. Differentiation between acute and chronic myocardial infarction by means of texture analysis of late gadolinium enhancement and cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroza, Andrés; Materka, Andrzej; López-Lereu, María P; Monmeneu, José V; Bodí, Vicente; Moratal, David

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial infarction using machine learning techniques and texture features extracted from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study group comprised 22 cases with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 22 cases with chronic myocardial infarction (CMI). Cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI were analyzed independently to differentiate AMI from CMI. A total of 279 texture features were extracted from predefined regions of interest (ROIs): the infarcted area on LGE MRI, and the entire myocardium on cine MRI. Classification performance was evaluated by a nested cross-validation approach combining a feature selection technique with three predictive models: random forest, support vector machine (SVM) with Gaussian Kernel, and SVM with polynomial kernel. The polynomial SVM yielded the best classification performance. Receiver operating characteristic curves provided area-under-the-curve (AUC) (mean±standard deviation) of 0.86±0.06 on LGE MRI using 72 features; AMI sensitivity=0.81±0.08 and specificity=0.84±0.09. On cine MRI, AUC=0.82±0.06 using 75 features; AMI sensitivity=0.79±0.10 and specificity=0.80±0.10. We concluded that texture analysis can be used for differentiation of AMI from CMI on cardiac LGE MRI, and also on standard cine sequences in which the infarction is visually imperceptible in most cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Myocardial impairment detected by late gadolinium enhancement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: comparison with 99mTc-MIBI/tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimura, Hiromi; Kiso, Keisuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kono, Atsushi; Morita, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Kazuto; Higashi, Masahiro; Noguchi, Teruo; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-06-17

    Myocardial fibrosis is considered to be an important factor in myocardial dysfunction and sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The purpose of this study was to compare myocardial fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac MRI with myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism assessed by single photon emission computed tomography in HCM. We retrospectively evaluated 20 consecutive HCM patients (female, 7; mean age, 53.4 years) who underwent LGE, technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile/tetrofosmin (99mTc-MIBI/tetrofosmin), and iodine-123 beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) imaging. We calculated the myocardium-to-lumen signal ratio (M/L) for LGE in 17 segments based on the American Heart Association statement. Scoring of 99mTc-MIBI/tetrofosmin (PI) and 123I-BMIPP (BM) was performed for each segment using a 5-point scale (0, normal; 4, highly decreased). Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) and 153 of 340 segments (45%) showed LGE. M/Ls were 0.42±0.16, 0.55±0.17, and 0.65±0.24 in PI0/BM0, PI0/BM1-4 and PI1-4/BM1-4, respectively. All M/Ls were significantly higher than that of a normal control (0.34±0.14) (pacid metabolism, and is more strongly associated with disorders of fatty acid metabolism than with perfusion abnormalities. M/L may be a useful indicator of disease severity.

  11. Hyperintense hepatocellular carcinoma on gadolinium-enhanced hepatic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Gabata, Toshifumi; Arai, Kazunori; Takashima, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    We reported a phenomenon in which some hepatocellular carcinomas (HHCs) visualized as hypointense on plain T1 weighted MR images became hyperintense on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) (0.06∼0.23 mmol/kg) enhanced delayed images. Gd-DTPA enhanced images (using a super conducting magnet operating at 1.5T) of 44 HCCs were studied in comparison with contrast enhanced CT using 30∼80g of iodine. Six of 44 HCCs (14%) which were visualized as hypointense on plain T1 weighted image became hyperintense on delayed Gd-DTPA enhanced images. Although these were visualized as low intensity areas on both plain and enhanced CT, the contrast between HCC and the surrounding liver was small on post contrast CT. These findings were thought to be due to a stronger enhancement effect of Gd-DTPA than that of iodine. (author)

  12. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ouladsaiad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years. Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it.

  13. Microwave and optical diagnostics in a gadolinium plasma; Diagnostics hyperfrequence et optique dans un plasma magnetise de gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larousse, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The optimization of the separation process of the gadolinium isotopes by Ion Cyclotron Resonance requires a precise knowledge of the physical characteristics of the plasma. Thus, two kinds of diagnostics have been developed: the first one to estimate the microwave power inside the source and the second one to measure the density of atomic and ionic of the gadolinium inside the plasma source and in front of the collector. Microwave diagnostic: A microstrip antenna has been designed and developed in order to characterize the microwave at 36 GHz frequency in the plasma source. The experimental results for different plasma regimes are presented. The measurements inside the plasma source show a maximum of microwave absorption for an argon pressure of 10{sup -4} mb (93% of absorption of the incident wave in the conditions of isotope separation). Laser absorption diagnostic: The theory of laser absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and the first results are presented. In the spectral range between 560 and 620 nm, corresponding to high energy levels of gadolinium, no signal is obtained so that the density is below the detection limit 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. In the spectral range between 380 and 400 nm, two lines are observed, issue from the fundamental and metastable (633 cm{sup -1}) levels. The density of metastable level of gadolinium ions is about 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} with a relative precision of 15 % and its variation is studied as a function of argon pressure, at different sections of the plasma column (source, collector). The achieved set of measurements has been performed in order to check the theoretical models. (author) 32 refs.

  14. Magnetic resonance ventriculography with gadolinium DTPA: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebner, H.R.; Einsiedel, H. von; Conrad, B.

    1997-01-01

    We report intrathecal use of gadolinium DTPA for MRI of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In two patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, we injected 0.01 mmol gadolinium DTPA into the lateral ventricle via an Ommaya device. Coronal T1-weighted images of the head were obtained at 0.2 T prior to and after injection. There was pronounced enhancement of CSF close to the injection site, allowing good delineation of CSF and surrounding brain tissue. No side effects occurred. MRI with intrathecal administration of highly diluted gadolinium DTPA may be a promising alternative to conventional investigation of CSF-filled cavities using iodinated X-ray contrast media or radionuclides. (orig.). With 3 figs

  15. Structural and Chemical Analysis of Gadolinium Halides Encapsulated within WS 2 Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Anumol, E A

    2016-05-18

    The hollow cavities of nanotubes could serve as templates for the growth of size- and shape-confined functional nanostructures, giving rise to novel materials and properties. In this work, considering their potential application as MRI contrast agents, gadolinium halides are encapsulated within the hollow cavities of inorganic nanotubes of WS2 by capillary filling to obtain GdX3@WS2 nanotubes (where X = Cl, Br or I and @ means encapsulated in). Aberration corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and spectroscopy is employed to understand the morphology and composition of the GdI3@WS2 nanotubes. The three dimensional morphology is studied with STEM tomography but understanding the compositional information is a non-trivial matter due to the presence of multiple high atomic number elements. Therefore, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tomography was employed revealing the three dimensional chemical composition. Molecular dynamics simulations of the filling procedure shed light into the mechanics behind the formation of the confined gadolinium halide crystals. The quasi-1D system employed here serves as an example of a TEM-based chemical nanotomography method that could be extended to other materials, including beam-sensitive soft materials.

  16. Structural and Chemical Analysis of Gadolinium Halides Encapsulated within WS 2 Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Anumol, E A; Enyashin, Andrey; Batra, Nitin M; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Francis, Leonard Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The hollow cavities of nanotubes could serve as templates for the growth of size- and shape-confined functional nanostructures, giving rise to novel materials and properties. In this work, considering their potential application as MRI contrast agents, gadolinium halides are encapsulated within the hollow cavities of inorganic nanotubes of WS2 by capillary filling to obtain GdX3@WS2 nanotubes (where X = Cl, Br or I and @ means encapsulated in). Aberration corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and spectroscopy is employed to understand the morphology and composition of the GdI3@WS2 nanotubes. The three dimensional morphology is studied with STEM tomography but understanding the compositional information is a non-trivial matter due to the presence of multiple high atomic number elements. Therefore, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tomography was employed revealing the three dimensional chemical composition. Molecular dynamics simulations of the filling procedure shed light into the mechanics behind the formation of the confined gadolinium halide crystals. The quasi-1D system employed here serves as an example of a TEM-based chemical nanotomography method that could be extended to other materials, including beam-sensitive soft materials.

  17. Impact of New Gadolinium Cross Sections on Reaction Rate Distributions in 10 * 10 BWR Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G.; Murphy, M.F.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, (Switzerland); Sublet, J.Ch.; Bouland, O. [DEN, Commissariat Energie Atom, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, (France); Chawla, R. [Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Radial distributions of the total fission rate and the {sup 238}U-capture-to-total-fission (C{sub 8}/F{sub tot}) ratio were measured in SVEA-96+ and SVEA-96 Optima2 assemblies during the LWR-PROTEUS program. Fission rates predicted using MCNPX with JEFF-3.1 cross sections underestimated the measured values in the gadolinium-poisoned pins of the SVEA-96 Optima2 assembly; similarly, C{sub 8}/F{sub tot} ratios were overestimated in some gadolinium-poisoned pins of the SVEA-96+ assembly. A considerable effort was invested at the Paul Scherrer Institut to explain the discrepancies in gadolinium pins, without success. Recently, gadolinium cross sections were measured at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by Leinweber et al. and differed significantly from current library values. ENDF/B-VII.0 gadolinium cross sections have currently been modified to include the new measurements, and these data have been processed with NJOY to yield files usable by MCNPX. Fission rates in the gadolinium-poisoned fuel pins of the SVEA-96 Optima2 pins were increased by 1.4 to 2.0% using the newly produced cross sections, yielding to a better agreement with the experimental values. Predicted C{sub 8}/F{sub tot} ratios were decreased on average by 1.7% in both clustered and un-clustered groups of gadolinium-poisoned fuel pins of the SVEA-96+ assembly correcting the over predictions previously reported in the clustered gadolinium pins. Earlier reported discrepancies observed in PROTEUS integral experiments, between measured and calculated reaction rates in the gadolinium-poisoned pins, might thus be due to inaccurate gadolinium cross sections. The PROTEUS results support the new thermal and epithermal gadolinium data measured by Leinweber et al. (authors)

  18. Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is...Final Technical Report BRBAA08-Per5-Y-1-2-0030 Title: “Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination ” Grant...Analysis  .............................................................................................  23   6.   Gamma-ray Discrimination

  19. Effects of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents on liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercantepe, Tolga; Tümkaya, Levent; Çeliker, Fatma Beyazal; Topal Suzan, Zehra; Çinar, Seda; Akyildiz, Kerimali; Mercantepe, Filiz; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2018-04-01

    MRI with contrast is often used clinically. However, recent studies have reported a high accumulation of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues in several mouse models. To compare the effects on liver tissue of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in the light of biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved controlled longitudinal study. In all, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a healthy control group subjected to no procedure (Group 1), a sham group (Group 2), a gadodiamide group (Group 3), and a gadoteric acid group (Group 4). Not applicable. Liver tissues removed at the end of the fifth week and evaluated pathologically (scored Knodell's histological activity index [HAI] method by two histopathologists) immunohistochemical (caspase-3 and biochemical tests (AST, ALT, TAS, TOS, and OSI method by Erel et al) were obtained. Differences between groups were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Tamhane test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey's HSD test. An increase was observed in histological activity scores in sections from rats administered gadodiamide and gadoteric acid, and in caspase-3, AST and ALT values (P total antioxidant and antioxidant capacity. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. performance calculations of gadolinium oxide and boron nitride coated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanker, E.; Uslu, I.; Disbudak, H.; Guenduez, G.

    1997-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on the behaviour of natural uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide mixture fuel and boron nitride coated low enriched fuel in a pressurized water reactor. A fuel element containing one burnable poison fuel pins was modeled with the computer code WIMS, and burn-up dependent critically, fissile isotope inventory and two dimensional power distribution were obtained. Calculations were performed for burnable poison fuels containing 5% and 10% gadolinium oxide and for those coated with 1μ,5μ and 10μ of boron nitride. Boron nitride coating was found superior to gadolinium oxide on account of its smoother criticality curve, lower power peaks and insignificant change in fissile isotope content

  1. Robust assessment of the transmural extent of myocardial infarction in late gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies using appropriate angular and circumferential subdivision of the myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenoura, Nadjia; Herment, Alain; Frouin, Frederique; Redheuil, Alban; Mousseaux, Elie

    2008-01-01

    A computer-assisted method is proposed to estimate transmural extent of myocardial infarction. In 40 patients with chronic myocardial infarction and 3 control subjects, late gadolinium enhancement images were acquired with magnetic resonance imaging. Segmental infarct transmural extent was visually assessed by two experts on a 5-point scale. A fuzzy c-means algorithm was applied on both the cavity and myocardium to estimate an enhancement index for 12 sub-regions of each segment. A threshold was defined on a training database (n=29) to establish the transmurality extent of each sub-segment and was applied to the validation database (n=14). Inter-observer reproducibility reached an absolute agreement (Aa) of 85% and a kappa value (κ) of 0.83 when considering the whole training database; Aa decreased to 62% and κ to 0.68 when excluding homogeneous segments. On the validation database, segments were subdivided into three angular sub-segments. Then, inter-observer visual reproducibility reached Aa of 93% and κ of 0.92. Moreover, the absolute comparison of each expert with the computer-assisted method yielded Aa higher than 88% and κ higher than 0.86. The computer-assisted method quantifies infarct transmurality without defining remote and infarcted regions, and the transmural extent is accurately characterized when dividing each segment into three angular sub-segments. (orig.)

  2. Selective photoionization of gadolinium isotopes with a polarized laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guyadec, E.

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study is the use of gadolinium 157 as burnable poison in nuclear reactors. Spectroscopic isotopic displacements between Gd 156 and Gd 157 are low and the separation method studied is based on differentiated behavior, concerning polarized light, of even and odd gadolinium isotopes coming from their difference of nuclear spin. On this principle is based the simplest photoionization scheme. Selective ionization of odd isotopes is realized from the fundamental state with three resonating photons colinearly polarized. The experimental study confirms the possibility of efficient photoionization. The measured selectivity between Gd 157 and even isotope is over 48 in defined conditions because it can be destroyed by a magnetic field or if photons are not well polarized. Calculations and observations are in good agreement. Odd gadolinium isotope separation is feasible and effects preventing separation are evidenced [fr

  3. Endoscopy versus radiology in post-procedural monitoring after peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Jan Friso; Berliner, Christoph; Rösch, Thomas; von Renteln, Daniel; Noder, Tania; Schachschal, Guido; Groth, Stefan; Ittrich, Harald; Kersten, Jan F; Adam, Gerhard; Werner, Yuki B

    2018-03-15

    The newly developed technique of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been shown to be effective in several short- and mid-term studies. Limited information is available about the adequacy of immediate post-POEM monitoring tests. POEM was performed under general anesthesia in 228 patients (59.6% male, mean age 45.6 ± 15.5 years). Post-procedural checks comprised clinical and laboratory examination, and, during post-procedure days 1-5, endoscopy and-in the first 114 cases-radiologic examination using water-soluble contrast (1st group); the remaining patients underwent post-procedure controls without radiology (2nd group). Main outcome was value of endoscopic compared to radiologic control for recognition of early adverse events. In the first group, routine fluoroscopic contrast swallow suggested minor leakages at the mucosal entry site in two cases which was confirmed endoscopically in only one. Endoscopy revealed two minor entry site leakages and, in six additional cases, dislocated clips without leakage (overall 5.3%). All eight patients underwent reclipping and healed without clinical sequelae. In the 2nd group, endoscopy showed 5 clip dislocations (all reclipped) and one ischemic cardiac perforation in a patient with clinical deterioration on post-POEM day 1 who had to undergo surgery after confirmation of leakage by CT. Radiologic monitoring (contrast swallow) after POEM is not useful and can be omitted. Even routine endoscopic monitoring for detection and closure of minor defects of the mucosal entry site yields limited information with regards to final outcome; major complications are very rare and probably associated with clinical deterioration. Clinical Trials Gov Registration number of the main study: NCT01405417.

  4. Contrast effects of a gadolinium filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Several authors have suggested using heavy metal filters with K edges in the diagnostic energy range to reduce the width of the x-ray spectrum and hence reduce patient radiation exposure. This spectral narrowing also increases subject contrast and permits an increase in tube potential. Results of contrast measurements are presented for a 250 mu gadolinium filter. It was found that aluminum filter contrast could be matched by using 8 to 10 kVp higher potential with the gadolinium filter. Similar results were found for calcium tungstate and rare-earth screens. Measurements were also done to determine skin exposure and mAs ratios for both constant contrast and constant kVp technique conversion methods. A simple theory with one adjustable parameter gives a reasonable fit to the experimental results

  5. Advantages of gadolinium based ultrasmall nanoparticles vs molecular gadolinium chelates for radiotherapy guided by MRI for glioma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Le Duc, G.; Roux, S.; Paruta-Tuarez, A.; Dufort, S.; Bräuer, E.; Marais, A.; Truillet, C.; Sancey, L.; Perriat, P.; Lux, F.; Tillement, O.

    2014-01-01

    AGuIX nanoparticles are formed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates. They present several characteristics. They are easy to produce, they present very small hydrodynamic diameters (

  6. LEFT ATRIAL FIBROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION ACCORDING TO MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING WITH LATE GADOLINIUM ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Stukalova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common type of arrhythmia. Left atrial abnormalities in AF require further investigation.Aim: To evaluate characteristics of myocardial structure of the left atrium by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with delayed contrast enhancement in patients with AF associated with essential hypertension (EH, in those without any cardiovascular disorders, and in patients with AF after cryoablation of the pulmonary artery orifice.Materials and methods: The study enrolled 53 patients with AF (mean age 56 years. Twenty eight of them had AF without any associated cardiovascular disorders (lone AF, or LAF group, 25 patients had AF related to EH (AF + EH group. Three patients had undergone anti-arrhythmic intervention. Cardiac MRI was performed in all patients with high resolution late gadolinium enhancement (LGE at 15–20 min after i.v. gadoversetamide (0.15 mmol/kg. For LGE MRI, we used a novel high resolution inversion recovery (inversion times 290–340 ms magnetic resonance pulse sequence with isotropic voxel (size 1.25 . 1.25 .2.5 mm and fat saturation. Left atrium walls were segmented semi-automatically on the LGE images. Left atrium fibrosis quantification was performed with the original software LGE Heart Analyzer, developed in Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex (Moscow.Results: Left atrium fibrosis (mean, 9 [1.7; 18] % was found both in patients with AF + EH and with lone AF. There was a trend towards more significant left atrial fibrosis in the group of AF + EH, compared to that in the lone AF group (10.972 [6.98; 19.366] % vs 4.37 [0.893; 18.575] %, respectively, p = 0.1. The extent of left atrium fibrosis correlated with left atrium dilatation (r = 0.37, p < 0.001 and with the decreased ejection fraction (r = -0.4, р < 0.001. The patients who had undergone an antiarrhythmic intervention, demonstrated formation of intensive LGE zones in the ablation areas.Conclusion: Quantification of

  7. Late gadolinium uptake demonstrated with magnetic resonance in patients where automated PERFIT analysis of myocardial SPECT suggests irreversible perfusion defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, Lene; Blomstrand, Peter; Ohlsson, Jan L; Björklund, Per-Gunnar; Ahlander, Britt-Marie; Starck, Sven-Åke; Engvall, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) is frequently used as the reference method for the determination of myocardial infarct size. PERFIT ® is a software utilizing a three-dimensional gender specific, averaged heart model for the automatic evaluation of myocardial perfusion. The purpose of this study was to compare the perfusion defect size on MPS, assessed with PERFIT, with the hyperenhanced volume assessed by late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE) and to relate their effect on the wall motion score index (WMSI) assessed with cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) and echocardiography (echo). LGE was performed in 40 patients where clinical MPS showed an irreversible uptake reduction suggesting a myocardial scar. Infarct volume, extent and major coronary supply were compared between MPS and LGE as well as the relationship between infarct size from both methods and WMSI. MPS showed a slightly larger infarct volume than LGE (MPS 29.6 ± 23.2 ml, LGE 22.1 ± 16.9 ml, p = 0.01), while no significant difference was found in infarct extent (MPS 11.7 ± 9.4%, LGE 13.0 ± 9.6%). The correlation coefficients between methods in respect to infarct size and infarct extent were 0.71 and 0.63 respectively. WMSI determined with cine-MRI correlated moderately with infarct volume and infarct extent (cine-MRI vs MPS volume r = 0.71, extent r = 0.71, cine-MRI vs LGE volume r = 0.62, extent r = 0.60). Similar results were achieved when wall motion was determined with echo. Both MPS and LGE showed the same major coronary supply to the infarct area in a majority of patients, Kappa = 0.84. MPS and LGE agree moderately in the determination of infarct size in both absolute and relative terms, although infarct volume is slightly larger with MPS. The correlation between WMSI and infarct size is moderate

  8. Investigation of suspected Guillain-Barre syndrome in childhood: what is the role for gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Pereira, John; Grattan-Smith, Padraic

    2014-10-01

    To review the role of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in the diagnosis of paediatric Guillain-Barre syndrome and compare it with nerve conduction studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. A retrospective review of investigations undertaken in children admitted to our institution with acute Guillain-Barre syndrome over a 10-year period was performed. Seven of eight children (88%) displayed post-gadolinium nerve root enhancement consistent with Guillain-Barre syndrome. This compared with supportive nerve conduction studies in 21/24 children (88%) and cerebrospinal fluid protein analysis consistent with the diagnosis in 16/20 children (80%). Nerve conduction studies are the recognised 'gold standard' technique for confirming a clinical diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. In this study, a high positive rate was demonstrated. While more experience is necessary, this study and the literature support gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine as a valuable, although not necessarily superior, investigation in the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. It may be of particular benefit when specialist neurophysiology expertise is unavailable. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. A model to calculate the burn of gadolinium in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannazzaro, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    A cell model to calculate the burnup of a PWR fuel element with gadolinium as a poison, projected by KWU, is presented. With the model proposed, the burn of the gadolinium isotopes is analyzed, as well as the effect of these isotopes in the fuel element behaviour. The results obtained with this cell model are compared with those obtained by a conventional cell model. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Demonstration of pulmonary embolism with gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coche, E.E.; Hammer, F.D.; Goffette, P.P. [Dept. of Radiology, St. Luc University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    The authors report a case of successful detection of pulmonary embolism using gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT (Gadodiamide, 0.4 mmol/kg, 2 ml/s, delay 18 s) in a 77-year-old woman, with previous allergy to iodinated contrast medium, and renal failure, who presented with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs was first performed and revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the right lower limb. To establish if venous thrombosis was the cause of pulmonary hypertension and to confirm that pulmonary endarterectomy was not indicated in this situation, several imaging modalities were performed. Lung scintigraphy and MRI were non-diagnostic. Gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT demonstrated a large thrombus located proximally and in a segmental artery of the right lower lobe. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of gadolinium as alternative contrast agent with spiral CT to diagnose pulmonary embolism and elucidate the cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a patient with some contraindications for iodinated contrast medium injection. (orig.)

  11. Demonstration of pulmonary embolism with gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coche, E.E.; Hammer, F.D.; Goffette, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of successful detection of pulmonary embolism using gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT (Gadodiamide, 0.4 mmol/kg, 2 ml/s, delay 18 s) in a 77-year-old woman, with previous allergy to iodinated contrast medium, and renal failure, who presented with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs was first performed and revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the right lower limb. To establish if venous thrombosis was the cause of pulmonary hypertension and to confirm that pulmonary endarterectomy was not indicated in this situation, several imaging modalities were performed. Lung scintigraphy and MRI were non-diagnostic. Gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT demonstrated a large thrombus located proximally and in a segmental artery of the right lower lobe. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of gadolinium as alternative contrast agent with spiral CT to diagnose pulmonary embolism and elucidate the cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a patient with some contraindications for iodinated contrast medium injection. (orig.)

  12. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Maier, Diana; Buechner, Bernd; Hampel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  13. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok

    2013-08-15

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  14. Gadolinium enhances the sensitivity of SW-1573 cells for thermal neutron irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A. P.; Bergs, J. W. J.; Kok, T. T.; Kuperus, R. R. N.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Haveman, J.; van Bree, C.; Stalpers, L. J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is an experimental cancer treatment based on the physical principal that neutron capture by gadolinium-157 ensures the release of focal high-dose radiation, such as gamma-rays and electrons. Survival and induction of chromosomal aberrations of human

  15. Glioblastoma, gadolinium (III) and NCT. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercanti, D.; Casalbore, P.; Sanita, F.; Rosi, F.; Festinesi, A.; Pallini, R.; Gilbert, B.; Stasio, G. de

    2000-01-01

    We treated cultured human glioblastoma cells with gadolinium (III) [gadopentetic acid] and we found that: a) cells do internalise this element; b) gadolinium can be localised in the cells nuclei; c) exposure of the cultures to a neutron beam produced a significant and immediate cell death. Although cell survival was also influenced in the irradiated controls it was further reduced (about 50%) in cells pre-exposed to 10 mg/ml gadopentetic acid. We also found that Gd uptake, as measured by ICP-AES, was concentration dependent. (author)

  16. Feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for quantification of gadolinium: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Willemink, Martin J; de Jong, Pim A; Milles, Julien; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Schilham, Arnold M R; Leiner, Tim

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) for the quantification of clinically encountered gadolinium concentrations. The cardiac chamber of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with 14 tubular inserts containing different gadolinium concentrations, ranging from 0 to 26.3 mg/mL (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.1, 10.6, 15.7, 20.7 and 26.3 mg/mL). Images were acquired using a novel 64-detector row SDCT system at 120 and 140 kVp. Acquisitions were repeated five times to assess reproducibility. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on three slices per insert. A spectral plot was extracted for every ROI and mean attenuation profiles were fitted to known attenuation profiles of water and pure gadolinium using in-house-developed software to calculate gadolinium concentrations. At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations between scan repetitions and true and measured gadolinium concentrations were found (R > 0.99, P  0.99, CI 0.99-1.00). Relative mean measurement errors stayed below 10% down to 2.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 120 kVp and below 5% down to 1.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 140 kVp. SDCT allows for accurate quantification of gadolinium at both 120 and 140 kVp. Lowest measurement errors were found for 140 kVp acquisitions. • Gadolinium quantification may be useful in patients with contraindication to iodine. • Dual-layer spectral detector CT allows for overall accurate quantification of gadolinium. • Interscan variability of gadolinium quantification using SDCT material decomposition is excellent.

  17. Microwave and optical diagnostics in a gadolinium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousse, B.

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of the separation process of the gadolinium isotopes by Ion Cyclotron Resonance requires a precise knowledge of the physical characteristics of the plasma. Thus, two kinds of diagnostics have been developed: the first one to estimate the microwave power inside the source and the second one to measure the density of atomic and ionic of the gadolinium inside the plasma source and in front of the collector. Microwave diagnostic: A microstrip antenna has been designed and developed in order to characterize the microwave at 36 GHz frequency in the plasma source. The experimental results for different plasma regimes are presented. The measurements inside the plasma source show a maximum of microwave absorption for an argon pressure of 10 -4 mb (93% of absorption of the incident wave in the conditions of isotope separation). Laser absorption diagnostic: The theory of laser absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and the first results are presented. In the spectral range between 560 and 620 nm, corresponding to high energy levels of gadolinium, no signal is obtained so that the density is below the detection limit 10 10 cm -3 . In the spectral range between 380 and 400 nm, two lines are observed, issue from the fundamental and metastable (633 cm -1 ) levels. The density of metastable level of gadolinium ions is about 10 10 cm -3 with a relative precision of 15 % and its variation is studied as a function of argon pressure, at different sections of the plasma column (source, collector). The achieved set of measurements has been performed in order to check the theoretical models. (author)

  18. Isotope shift studies in gadolinium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Saksena, G.D.; Venugopalan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope shift studies have been carried out in the gadolinium spectrum using a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Isotope shifts Δsigma(156-160) have been recorded in 134 lines in the region 3930-4140 A. Some of these lines involve the recently identified even configuration 4f 8 5d6s of Gd I and the newly classified transition 4f 8 6s-4f 8 6p of Gd II. From the isotope shift measurements of lines involving the 4f 8 6s-4f 8 6p transition in Gd II, the isotope shift, ΔT(156-160)=87 mK, has been obtained for the 4f 8 6s configuration. Electronic configurations have been suggested for a number of energy levels and configuration mixing has been pointed out in certain cases. (Auth.)

  19. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2009-01-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  20. Influence of the addition of gadolinium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ji-Ho; Jung, Hyun-Do; Im, Jae-Han; Jung, Ki Ho; Moon, Byung-Moon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of gadolinium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel (DSS) fabricated using a normal casting method. The oxygen content in the cast DSS alloy with gadolinium decreased because of the high reactivity of gadolinium with oxygen. The area fraction and size of non-intermetallic inclusions in the alloy decreased from 0.80±0.12% to 0.58±0.04% and from 6.9±0.7 to 5.8±0.4 μm upon gadolinium addition, respectively. Notably, the ultimate tensile strength and strain at break of the cast alloy significantly increased with the addition of gadolinium from 919±25 to 969±8 MPa and from 24.8±1.9% to 28.4±1.1%, respectively. The hardness of the cast alloy with gadolinium increased from 23.6±1.3 to 25.0±1.2 HRC. A significant increase in the impact energy of the cast alloy was observed and the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature slightly decreased by approximately 10 °C with the addition of gadolinium.

  1. Physical and chemical properties of calcium doped gadolinium cobaltite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, P.P.; Kharton, V.V.; Tonoyan, A.A.; Naumovich, E.N.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of calcium doping additions on electrical and tharmal properties of gadolinium cobaltite was investigated. It was established that solid solutions of Gd 1-x Ca x CoO 3 (x=0-0.5) composition had cubic perovskite structure with orthorhombic distortion. Calcium doping of gadolinium cobaltite increases its conductivity by two orders. Parameter of resistance of electronic layer of ρ/d for a sample of Gd 0.9 Ca 0.1 CoO 3 composition at d≥40mg/sm 2 was by an order higher than in compact samples

  2. Reaction of ammonium triphosphate with gadolinium nitrate in aqueous solution at 273K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodicheva, G.V.; Tananaev, I.V.; Romanova, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility in the system (NW 4 ) 5 P 3 O 10 -Gd(NO 3 ) 3 - H 2 O (273 K) is studied. Depending on the reagent ratio formation of the compounds Gd 5 (P 3 O 10 ) 3 x22H 2 O, NH 4 Gd 3 (P 3 O 10 ) 2 x12H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 3 Gd 4 (P 3 O 10 ) 3 x14H 2 O is established. Gadolinium triphosphates, separated from solution, are studied using the methods of paper chromatography, X-ray diffractometry, thermography. Simultaneously with thermal dehydration of gadolinium triphosphates the processes of triphosphate decomposition and phosphate anion condensation take place. A mixture of crystalline ortho-phosphate and long- chain polyphosphate of gadolinium is the final product of thermal decomposition (1063 K) of normal and doubl e ammonium- containing gadolinium triphosphates [ru

  3. Prediction of post-operative pain after a laparoscopic tubal ligation procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, A.; Wolner-Hanssen, P.; Hellbom, M.

    2008-01-01

    ligation procedure. METHODS: Assessments of anxiety, mood, psychological vulnerability and pre-operative pain were made before surgery using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), a psychological vulnerability test and the Short-Form McGill Pain......BACKGROUND: Pre-operative identification of reliable predictors of post-operative pain may lead to improved pain management strategies. We investigated the correlation between pre-operative pain, psychometric variables, response to heat stimuli and post-operative pain following a laparoscopic tubal...... Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), respectively. Pre-operative assessments of thermal thresholds and pain response to randomized series of heat stimuli (1 s, 44-48 degrees C) were made with quantitative sensory testing technique. Post-operative pain intensity was evaluated daily by a visual analogue scale during rest...

  4. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (Gd-MRA) of thoracic vasculature in an animal model using double-dose gadolinium and quiet breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Strouse, P.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor (United States); Londy, F.J. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wakefield, T.W. [Dept. of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Objective. To evaluate a gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (Gd-MRA) imaging protocol for the assessment of thoracic vessels using double-dose gadolinium and quiet breathing. An animal model was used to simulate imaging in infants and young children. Material and methods. Six baboons (Papio anubis), mean weight 5.7 kg, were sedated and intubated. After the injection of double-dose Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) through a peripheral vein, a coronal spoiled 3D gradient-echo volume acquisition was obtained during quiet breathing. Two radiologists reviewed the images for visualization of aortic arch, brachiocephalic vessel origins, pulmonary arteries (central, upper lobe and descending branches), and pulmonary veins (upper and lower). Results. Visualization was excellent for the aortic arch, brachiocephalic vessel origins, and pulmonary arteries, including the hilar branches. Visualization was excellent for the lower and right upper pulmonary veins and fair for the left upper pulmonary vein. There was excellent agreement between radiologists. Conclusion. Imaging of thoracic vessels with Gd-MRA using double gadolinium during quiet breathing was effective in our animal model. The advantages of this technique include a short imaging time and depiction of vascular segments - branches of pulmonary arteries and intraparenchymal segments of pulmonary veins - not optimally visualized with other non-invasive imaging techniques. (orig.)

  5. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (Gd-MRA) of thoracic vasculature in an animal model using double-dose gadolinium and quiet breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Strouse, P.J.; Londy, F.J.; Wakefield, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate a gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (Gd-MRA) imaging protocol for the assessment of thoracic vessels using double-dose gadolinium and quiet breathing. An animal model was used to simulate imaging in infants and young children. Material and methods. Six baboons (Papio anubis), mean weight 5.7 kg, were sedated and intubated. After the injection of double-dose Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) through a peripheral vein, a coronal spoiled 3D gradient-echo volume acquisition was obtained during quiet breathing. Two radiologists reviewed the images for visualization of aortic arch, brachiocephalic vessel origins, pulmonary arteries (central, upper lobe and descending branches), and pulmonary veins (upper and lower). Results. Visualization was excellent for the aortic arch, brachiocephalic vessel origins, and pulmonary arteries, including the hilar branches. Visualization was excellent for the lower and right upper pulmonary veins and fair for the left upper pulmonary vein. There was excellent agreement between radiologists. Conclusion. Imaging of thoracic vessels with Gd-MRA using double gadolinium during quiet breathing was effective in our animal model. The advantages of this technique include a short imaging time and depiction of vascular segments - branches of pulmonary arteries and intraparenchymal segments of pulmonary veins - not optimally visualized with other non-invasive imaging techniques. (orig.)

  6. Growth, characterization and dielectric studies of gadolinium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solution of higher pH. After complete gelation, an .... between the gadolinium and fumarate ions because at higher ..... Department of Higher Education, Government of Jammu and. Kashmir, for providing and facilitating the teacher fellowship.

  7. Modeling gadolinium-bearing fuel in Ringhals PWRs using CASMO/SIMULATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurcyusz, E.

    1993-01-01

    Ringhals units 2, 3, and 4 are Westinghouse three-loop, 157-assembly pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operated by Vattenfall. Originally, all three reactors were loaded in an out-in scheme using reload fuel without burnable poisons. In recent cycles, gadolinium-bearing fuel was introduced to enable a low-leakage loading pattern and minimize fuel cycle costs. This paper focuses on the Fragema 17 x 17 AFA design with peripheral gadolinium rods loaded in units 3 and 4. The Ringhals units are modeled using the Studsvik core management system, consisting of the CASMO-3 transport theory lattice physics code,and the SIMULATE-3 advanced nodal reactor analysis code. The results of the studies verifying the accuracy of CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 on the assemblies with peripheral gadolinium rods are presented in this paper. The verification was carried out against CASMO-3 color-set calculations and measured reactor data

  8. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity

  9. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V. [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-11-15

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity.

  10. [Implementation of a post-discharge surgical site infection system in herniorrhaphy and mastectomy procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan Sanz, Isabel; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, Cristina; Robustillo-Rodela, Ana; Pita López, María José; Oliva Iñiguez, Lourdes; Monge-Jodrá, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring surgical site infection (SSI) performed during hospitalization can underestimate its rates due to the shortening in hospital stay. The aim of this study was to determine the actual rates of SSI using a post-discharge monitoring system. All patients who underwent herniorraphy or mastectomy in the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2011 were included. SSI data were collected prospectively according to the continuous quality improvement indicators (Indicadores Clinicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad [INCLIMECC]) monitoring system. Post-discharge follow-up was conducted by telephone survey. A total of 409patients were included in the study, of whom 299 underwent a herniorraphy procedure, and 110 underwent a mastectomy procedure. For herniorrhaphy, the SSI rate increased from 6.02% to 7.6% (the post-discharge survey detected 21.7% of SSI). For mastectomy, the SSI rate increased from 1.8% to 3.6% (the post-discharge survey detected 50% of SSI). Post-discharge monitoring showed an increased detection of SSI incidence. Post-discharge monitoring is useful to analyze the real trend of SSI, and evaluate improvement actions. Post-discharge follow-up methods need to standardised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. The value of paramagnetic contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA in the diagnosis of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Schoerner, W.; Bittner, R.C.; Felix, R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of MR imaging and the paramagnetic contrast agent Gadolinium-DYPA(Gd-DTPA) in the diagnosis of pituitary macroadenomas. 44 macroadenomas were examined with MRI before and after intravenous application of Gd-DTPA. Gd-DTPA produced excellent enhancement of solid adenoma. The best contrast between adenoma and surrounding structures could be gained on post-Gd T1-weighted images. Post-Gd images were equivalent to pre-Gd images in the evaluation of supra- and infrasellar extensions of macroadenomas. Post-Gd images had advantages in the evaluation of cavernous sinus invasion by adenoma. The difference in degree of contrast enhancement between adenoma and cavernous sinus facilitated the exact evaluation of lateral extension by adenoma in 18 cases. Almost equal degree of enhancement of both structures impaired tumor-sinus contrast in 2 cases. In the other 24 cases the tumor filled the cavernous sinus completely. It is our opinion that Gd-DTPA can be used on a widerspread basis because of its excellent capability to highlight and delineate pituitary adenomas. (orig.)

  12. Predictors of Post-Operative Pain Relief in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis Undergoing the Frey or Whipple Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Patel, Yuval A; Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen; Zaheer, Atif; Afghani, Elham; Yadav, Dhiraj; Makary, Martin A; Hirose, Kenzo; Andersen, Dana K; Singh, Vikesh K

    2016-04-01

    Post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP) is variable. Our objective was to determine clinical imaging or histopathologic predictor(s) of post-operative pain relief in CP patients undergoing the Whipple or Frey procedure. All patients who underwent a Whipple (n = 30) or Frey procedure (n = 30) for painful CP between January 2003 and September 2013 were evaluated. A toxic etiology was defined as a history of alcohol use and/or smoking. The pre-operative abdominal CT was evaluated for calcification(s) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilation (≥5 mm). The post-operative histopathology was evaluated for severe fibrosis. Clinical imaging and histopathologic features were evaluated as predictors of post-operative pain relief using univariable and multivariable regression analysis. A total of 60 patients (age 51.6 years, 53% males) were included in our study, of whom 42 (70%) reported post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1.1 years. There were 37 (62%) patients with toxic etiology, 36 (60%) each with calcification(s) and MPD dilation. A toxic etiology, calcifications, and severe fibrosis were associated with post-operative pain relief on univariable analysis (all p Whipple or Frey procedure.

  13. Solitary hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortele, Koenraad J.; Vanzieleghem, Bart; Mortele, Bart; Benoit, Yves; Ros, Pablo R.

    2002-01-01

    We report the MRI findings of a solitary hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE) diagnosed in a 14-day-old girl. To the best of our knowledge, only one report has illustrated the dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging features of IHE previously. Compounding the rarity of presentation as a solitary mass, the gadolinium-enhanced MRI appearance in our case is unique, because the IHE showed an early rim-like pseudocapsular enhancement followed by progressive fill-in of the lesion on delayed imaging. (orig.)

  14. Gadolinium-based contrast agents in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, Eric M.; Caravan, Peter [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, The Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Boston, MA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); McDonald, Robert J. [College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Winfeld, Matthew [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gee, Michael S. [MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents can increase the accuracy and expediency of an MRI examination. However the benefits of a contrast-enhanced scan must be carefully weighed against the well-documented risks associated with administration of exogenous contrast media. The purpose of this review is to discuss commercially available gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in the context of pediatric radiology. We discuss the chemistry, regulatory status, safety and clinical applications, with particular emphasis on imaging of the blood vessels, heart, hepatobiliary tree and central nervous system. We also discuss non-GBCA MRI contrast agents that are less frequently used or not commercially available. (orig.)

  15. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infectious processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, K.L.; Li, K.C.P.; Bergman, G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides diagnostic information beyond that given by nonenhanced imaging in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infectious processes and whether it can be used for differentiating infectious from noninfectious inflammatory lesions. Magnetic resonance images performed with and without intravenous gadolinium-DTPA in 34 cases in which musculoskeletal infection had been clinically suspected were reviewed. Infectious lesions-including osteomyelitis, pyarthrosis, abscess, and cellulitis-were confirmed in a total of 22 cases: in 15 by biopsy or drainage and in 7 by clinical course. Our results show that gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI is a highly sensitive technique in diagnosing musculoskeletal infectious lesions. It is especially useful in distinguishing abscesses from surrounding cellulitis/myositis. Lack of contrast enhancement rules out infection with a high degree of certainty. However, contrast enhancement cannot be used to reliably distinguish infectious from noninfectious inflammatory conditions. (orig.)

  16. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infectious processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, K.L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States); Li, K.C.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States); Bergman, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides diagnostic information beyond that given by nonenhanced imaging in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infectious processes and whether it can be used for differentiating infectious from noninfectious inflammatory lesions. Magnetic resonance images performed with and without intravenous gadolinium-DTPA in 34 cases in which musculoskeletal infection had been clinically suspected were reviewed. Infectious lesions-including osteomyelitis, pyarthrosis, abscess, and cellulitis-were confirmed in a total of 22 cases: in 15 by biopsy or drainage and in 7 by clinical course. Our results show that gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI is a highly sensitive technique in diagnosing musculoskeletal infectious lesions. It is especially useful in distinguishing abscesses from surrounding cellulitis/myositis. Lack of contrast enhancement rules out infection with a high degree of certainty. However, contrast enhancement cannot be used to reliably distinguish infectious from noninfectious inflammatory conditions. (orig.)

  17. Hybrid repair of a very late, post-aortic coarctation surgery thoracic aneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilea Ioan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Local aneurysms after surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta occur mainly in patients surgically treated by Dacron patch plasty during adulthood. The management of these patients is always problematic, with frequent complications and increased mortality rates. Percutaneous stent-graft implantation avoids the need for surgical reintervention. Case presentation We report a case involving the hybrid treatment by stent-graft implantation and transposition of the left subclavian artery to the left common carotid artery of an aneurysmal dilatation of the thoracic aorta that occurred in a 64-year-old Caucasian man, operated on almost 40 years earlier with a Dacron patch plasty for aortic coarctation. Our patient presented to our facility for evaluation with back pain and shortness of breath after minimal physical effort. A physical examination revealed stony dullness to percussion of the left posterior thorax, with no other abnormalities. The results of chest radiography, followed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and aortography, led to a diagnosis of giant aortic thoracic aneurysm. Successful treatment of the aneurysm was achieved by percutaneous stent-graft implantation combined with transposition of the left subclavian artery to the left common carotid artery. His post-procedural recovery was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, computed tomography showed complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm, without any clinical signs of left lower limb ischemia or new onset neurological abnormalities. Conclusions Our patient’s case illustrates the clinical outcomes of surgical interventions for aortic coarctation. However, the very late appearance of a local aneurysm is rather unusual. Management of such cases is always difficult. The decision-making should be multidisciplinary. A hybrid approach was considered the best solution for our patient.

  18. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Judith A.W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Northern General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents. (orig.)

  19. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Judith A.W.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2005-01-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents. (orig.)

  20. ICP-oa TOFMS utilisation to determine the Gd isotopic abundance in gadolinium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir, M.; Ohai, D.; Dumitrescu, I.; Furtuna, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is describes the development of a method that should permit the determination of isotope abundance of gadolinium in gadolinium nitrate, used as burnable poison at Cernavoda NPP. To determine the isotopic abundance of gadolinium the inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-oa TOFMS) was used. The ICP-oa TOFMS allows the elimination of noise associated with instrumental drift and instability (flicker noise). The absence of flicker noise in the ICP-oa TOFMS means that the isotope ratios can be measured up to the statistical limit of ion counting. With TOFMS, each spectrum acquired represents signals from ions extracted from the plasma during the same time interval, formed from identical plasma and sample introduction events. Therefore, the ICP-oa TOFMS, Optimass 8000, has been successfully used for isotope ratio measurements of Gd in gadolinium nitrate [Gd (NO 3 ) 3 x 6H 2 O] sample solutions. (authors)

  1. MR arthrography gadolinium versus standard MR imaging in rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, J.; Brahme, S.K.; Karzel, R.; Cervilla, V.; Snyder, S.; Schweitzer, M.; Flannigan, B.; Resnick, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the accuracy of MR imaging with and without intraarticular gadolinium in the diagnosis of rotator cuff pathology, using arthroscopy as the gold standard. The authors examined 36 patients, first with T2-weighted sequences and then with T1-weighted sequences after the injection of 15-20 mL of diluted gadolinium. The images were read blindly by three radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal MR imaging. The results were compared with those of arthroscopy. In 16 of 19 arthroscopically intact rotator cuffs, both sequences demonstrated no evidence of rotator cuff tear. The remaining three cases were interpreted as partial or full-thickness tears. Of 12 partial tears, T1-weighted images with intraarticular gadolinium demonstrated a partial tear in five, degeneration in four, a full thickness tear in two, and a normal rotator cuff in one

  2. Experimental determination of electron shock excitation cross sections for a singly charged gadolinium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    The trends observed in the processes of excitation with simultaneous ionization have received little study. This is particularly so for rare-earth elements having electron shells of complex structure and optical spectra very rich in lines. Among the basic factors responsible for such a situation, we should mention two: the difficulty presented by theoretical analysis of the processes discussed and the absence of factual information about the excitation cross sections with simultaneous ionization for the majority of rare-earth elements. The aim of the present work is to investigate the excitation of a singly charged gadolinium ion in the collisions of monokinetic electrons with gadolinium atoms. Up to the present time, only the excitation cross sections of a gadolinium atom have been measured, where investigation of the electron shock excitation of gadolinium atoms in their free state is associated with overcoming large experimental difficulties. About 160 crosss sections for the excitation of a singly charged gadolinium ion were measured and for a third of the cross sections; the energy dependences were recorded for the change in energy of the elecrons from the excitation threshold up to 200 eV. Included are tables of the wavelength, transistion, internal quantum number, the energy of the lowere and upper levels, and the values of cross sections for the charged gadolinium ion. Diagrams of the transistion energy states of Gd (II) and spectroscopy are presented and explained

  3. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic phase transitions and magnetization in gadolinium monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, S.A.; Bezdushnyj, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetization in gadolinium monocrystal (Δσ-effect) was investigated. Dependences of spesific magnetization, Δσ-effect and bulk magnetostriction of gadolinium monocrystal on temperatures were studied. Results of conducted investigation have shown that in gadolinium the change of specific magnetization under the hydrostatic pressure effect is caused in general case by three effects: a)change of spontaneous magnetization under the effect of hydrostatic pressure; b)change of magnetization within technical magnetization range due to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic anisotropy constants; c)change of magnetization due to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on temperature of spin-reoriented transition

  4. Combined use of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium for imaging and intervention. A hitherto widely ignored topic in radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, W.

    2012-01-01

    The synchronous use of chemically different contrast media in the same body compartment is a challenge for the radiologist, whether it is scheduled or unexpected. However, to inject contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium at the same time can be a prerequisite for the examination of several organs or organ systems. Unlike other topics of contrast-enhanced imaging procedures, the difficulties encountered with double contrast injections have been widely ignored in the literature. In the absence of reliable data from experimental and clinical studies the radiologist is dependent on case reports, information provided by the contrast media manufacturers, personal communications, mostly scanty personal experiences and a skilful time management, in order to overcome the situation. Only the combination of X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance arthrography can be performed without another thought. However, the more or less synchronous vascular application of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium requires vigilance. The more seriously ill the patient is, the more caution is advised even if the decision on the combined administration has to be reached urgently. The following overview gives a description of the properties of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium as far as interactions following simultaneous administration are concerned. Subsequently, the clinically relevant situations and constellations are outlined and analyzed. (orig.) [de

  5. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-04-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  6. The effect of demagnetization on the magnetocaloric properties of gadolinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2009-01-01

    of gadolinium. The adiabatic temperature change DeltaTad of gadolinium sheets upon application of a magnetic field has been measured at a range of applied magnetic fields and sample orientations. A significant dependence of DeltaTad on the sample orientation is observed. This can be accounted...... for by the demagnetization factor. Also, the temperature dependence of DeltaTad has been measured experimentally and modeled by mean field theory. Corrections to mean field theory modeling due to the demagnetization field are proposed and discussed. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  7. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Wolosker, Nelson; Galvao Filho, Mario; Kalil, Jorge A.; Wolosker, Angela; Borri, Maria Lucia

    1998-01-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (GEMRA) of the thoracoabdominal aorta is a noninvasive technique that can rapidly delineate the branch vessels diseases, without flow or respiration artifacts, obtained with non contrast MRA. The objective of this paper is to show the main clinical applications of GEMRA, compared to non contrast sequences. We have evaluated 30 patients with thorocoabdominal aorta diseases. These patients have been examined with GEMRA (3D, FFE sequences) obtained after 30 mlIV contrast injection and non contrast MRA (2D-TOF sequences). In our experience, gadolinium-enhanced MRA is a high resolution and speedy technique with advantages over non contrast MRA. (author)

  8. First experiences with the application of oral gadolinium-DTPA in MR of the minor pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzinger, H.; Salbeck, R.; Toedt, C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an oral contrast medium has so far not become a matter of routine in MR of the abdomen. In the present study the use of orally applied gadolinium-DTPA was examined in respect of tumorous diseases in the minor pelvis. 18 patients with tumours in the minor pelvis were examined before and after oral administration of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). 10 ml/kg body weight of a gadolinium DTPA solution were applied in a concentration of 1.0 mmol/l. T 1 -weighted and T 2 -weighted sequences were carried out before application and T 1 -weighted sequences after application. Oral application of gadolinium-DTPA resulted in enhancing the signals of the filled intestinal portions. In 54% of the cases the sequences showed a sharper delineation between tumour and intestine. In 19% the delineation between pathological tissue and intestine on contrast examination was a well defined as in T 2 -weighted contrast images; in 27% of the cases oral administration of gadolinium-DTPA did not yield any additional information. No significant side effects were seen. (orig.) [de

  9. Porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guo-Ping; Li, Zhen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Lian; Zhang, Qiao; Li, Liang; Liu, Fan; Han, Lin; Ge, Yuan-Xing; Guo, Jun-Fang

    2011-04-04

    Porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide ligands (APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA) were synthesized by the incorporation of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 5-(4'-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4'-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin, trisodium salt (APTSPP) into poly-α,β-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l-aspartamide] (PHEA). These ligands were further reacted with gadolinium chloride to produce macromolecule-gadolinium complexes (APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd). Experimental data of (1)H NMR, IR, UV and elemental analysis evidenced the formation of the polyaspartamide ligands and gadolinium complexes. In vitro and in vivo property tests indicated that APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd possessed noticeably higher relaxation effectiveness, less toxicity to HeLa cells, and significantly higher enhanced signal intensities (SI) of the VX2 carcinoma in rabbits with lower injection dose requirement than that of Gd-DTPA. Moreover, APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd was found to greatly enhance the contrast of MR images of the VX2 carcinoma, providing prolonged intravascular duration, and distinguished the VX2 carcinoma and normal tissues in rabbits according to MR image signal enhancements. These porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes can be used as the candidates of contrast agents for targeted MRI to tumors. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sirun; Shen, Si; Zhu, Tianyuan; Liang, Wenbin; Huang, Li; Chen, Hanfang; Wu, Hejia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for monitoring cartilage degeneration. This is a proof-of-concept study in an animal model. Adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly stratified into five groups. Papain was injected intra-articularly in the right knee in four groups to establish the stages of cartilage degeneration. The left knee and group 5 served as controls. Bilateral MRI was performed 24 h after the initial injection of papain, and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months following three papain injections. Injection of the contrast agent was followed by bilateral MRI examination immediately upon injection, and at 2 and 4 h post-injection. Signal intensities of articular cartilage and peripheral soft tissues were obtained before animals were sacrificed. Post-mortem bilateral cartilage specimens were studied histologically. Histopathology results verified the staged degeneration of papain-treated articular cartilage. Differences in cartilage signal intensity were significant for the staged model using a special three-dimensional MRI method (P 0.05). Contrast-enhanced MRI examination may be a viable tool for early diagnosis of osteoarticular disease. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the potential for clinical application. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of composite metal-ceramic of nickel-oxide cerium doped gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.L.A. da; Varela, M.C.R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Composite nickel doped cerium oxide are used in SOFC anode materials. In this study we evaluated the effect of the presence of gadolinium on the properties of composite nickel and ceria and. The supports were synthesized by sol-gel method. The impregnation with nickel nitrate was taken sequentially, followed by calcination. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, measurement of specific surface area, temperature programmed reduction, Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gadolinium retained the fluorite structure of ceria by forming a solid solution, also not influencing significantly on the specific surface area of the support. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the area catalysts, which can be attributed to sintering of nickel. Furthermore, addition of gadolinium favored the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic vacancies in cerium oxide, which leads to an increase in the ionic conductivity of the solid, desirable property for an SOFC anode catalyst. (author)

  12. Feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for quantification of gadolinium: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Willemink, Martin J.; Jong, Pim A. de; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Milles, Julien [CT Clinical Science, Philips HealthCare, Best (Netherlands); Vlassenbroek, Alain [CT Clinical Science, Philips HealthCare, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) for the quantification of clinically encountered gadolinium concentrations. The cardiac chamber of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with 14 tubular inserts containing different gadolinium concentrations, ranging from 0 to 26.3 mg/mL (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.1, 10.6, 15.7, 20.7 and 26.3 mg/mL). Images were acquired using a novel 64-detector row SDCT system at 120 and 140 kVp. Acquisitions were repeated five times to assess reproducibility. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on three slices per insert. A spectral plot was extracted for every ROI and mean attenuation profiles were fitted to known attenuation profiles of water and pure gadolinium using in-house-developed software to calculate gadolinium concentrations. At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations between scan repetitions and true and measured gadolinium concentrations were found (R > 0.99, P < 0.001; ICCs > 0.99, CI 0.99-1.00). Relative mean measurement errors stayed below 10% down to 2.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 120 kVp and below 5% down to 1.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 140 kVp. SDCT allows for accurate quantification of gadolinium at both 120 and 140 kVp. Lowest measurement errors were found for 140 kVp acquisitions. (orig.)

  13. Post-surgical infections and perioperative antibiotics usage in pediatric genitourinary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Justin; Prasad, Michaella M; Purves, J Todd; Stec, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Post-surgical infections (PSIs) are a source of preventable perioperative morbidity. No guidelines exist for the use of perioperative antibiotics in pediatric urologic procedures. This study reports the rate of PSIs in non-endoscopic pediatric genitourinary procedures at our institution. Secondary aims evaluate the association of PSI with other perioperative variables, including wound class (WC) and perioperative antibiotic administration. Data from consecutive non-endoscopic pediatric urologic procedures performed between August 2011 and April 2014 were examined retrospectively. The primary outcome was the rate of PSIs. PSIs were classified as superficial skin (SS) and deep/organ site (D/OS) according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, and urinary tract infection (UTI). PSIs were further stratified by WC1 and WC2 and perioperative antibiotic usage. A relative risk and chi-square analysis compared PSI rates between WC1 and WC2 procedures. A total of 1185 unique patients with 1384 surgical sites were reviewed; 1192 surgical sites had follow-up for inclusion into the study. Ten total PSIs were identified, for an overall infection rate of 0.83%. Of these, six were SS, one was D/OS, and three were UTIs. The PSI rate for WC1 (885 sites) and WC2 (307 sites) procedures was 0.34% and 2.28%, respectively, p antibiotics (0.35% vs. 0.33%). All WC2 procedures received antibiotics. Post-surgical infections are associated with significant perioperative morbidity. In some studies, PSI can double hospital costs, and contribute to hospital length of stay, admission to intensive care units, and impact patient mortality. Our study demonstrates that the rate of PSI in WC1 operations is low, irrespective of whether the patient received perioperative antibiotics (0.35%) or no antibiotics (0.33%). WC2 operations were the larger source of morbidity with an infection rate of 2.28% and a 6.7 fold higher increase in relative risk. WC1 procedures have a rate of

  14. The Role of Inflammation in Late-Life Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth; Driscoll, David; Smith, Lynette M; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence that immune system dysregulation and inflammation may play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) in individuals with PTSD. However, it is unclear whether exacerbation of PTSD symptoms late in life is also associated with elevated inflammation. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the relationship between inflammation and late-life PTSD. We recruited veterans either diagnosed with PTSD after the age of 55 or with no diagnosis of PTSD. Six veterans did not meet all eligibility criteria, including five who did not meet criteria for PTSD and one with celiac disease. The final sample included a total of 32 male veterans (16 veterans diagnosed with PTSD after 55 and 16 veterans without PTSD). The groups were matched as closely as possible on age, body mass index, and combat exposure. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Inflammation was measured using serum CRP level. The two groups did not differ on sample characteristics including age, body mass index, tobacco use, medication use, and military history. CRP level was found to be significantly higher in the PTSD group than in the comparison group (Z = -3.047, p = 0.002), which was also observed after adjusting for depression scores (F(1, 27) = 8.30, p = 0.0077). The results from this pilot study suggest that late-life PTSD may be associated with increased inflammation. Further research in larger samples is needed to corroborate these findings and to clarify the relationship between inflammation and PTSD, which may lead to improved methods of diagnosis and treatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.; Murphy, E.S.; Clayton, E.D.; Keay, R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO 2 rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % 235 U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 rods containing 4.31 wt % 235 U and 2 wt % PuO 2 in natural UO 2 respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in 235 U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel

  16. Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MRA : clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kang, Ji Hee; Kim, Won Hong; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kook; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MR angiography (MRA) with digital subtraction angiography. Ten patients underwent angiography and breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MRA; the latter performed at 1.5T with 3D FSPGR after a bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.4m mol/kg). Seven of ten pathologic conditions (70%) evaluated by both techniques had a similar appearance. The conditions examined were as follows: the artery feeding renal cell carcinoma(n=2); renal artery stenosis (n=2); pulmonary AVM(n=2); abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=1); atheromatous plaque in the lower abdominal aorta (n=1); an enlarged bronchial artery (n=1); and an aberrant renal artery (n=1). For evaluating an anatomic relationship, a reconstructed 3D image obtained by MRA is more advantageous. Breath hold contrast enhanced MRA is a potentially useful noninvasive screening method for detecting vascular abnormality of the aorta and its branches. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MRA : clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kang, Ji Hee; Kim, Won Hong; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kook; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae [Inha University Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MR angiography (MRA) with digital subtraction angiography. Ten patients underwent angiography and breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MRA; the latter performed at 1.5T with 3D FSPGR after a bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.4m mol/kg). Seven of ten pathologic conditions (70%) evaluated by both techniques had a similar appearance. The conditions examined were as follows: the artery feeding renal cell carcinoma(n=2); renal artery stenosis (n=2); pulmonary AVM(n=2); abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=1); atheromatous plaque in the lower abdominal aorta (n=1); an enlarged bronchial artery (n=1); and an aberrant renal artery (n=1). For evaluating an anatomic relationship, a reconstructed 3D image obtained by MRA is more advantageous. Breath hold contrast enhanced MRA is a potentially useful noninvasive screening method for detecting vascular abnormality of the aorta and its branches. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in neonates and infants suspected of caval or aortic thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, S. Bruce; Bhutta, Sadaf T.; Buchmann, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)is a well-established technique in older children and adults. No studies have focused on its use in neonates and small infants. Our objective was to study the use of gadolinium-enhanced MRA in neonates and infants suspected of caval or aortic thrombosis. Materials and Methods:Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography was performed on seven neonates and small infants for the evaluation of caval or aortic thrombosis. Gadolinium-DTPA at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (minimum dose 1 ml) was injected using a power injector (0.2 ml/s). Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed using a 3-D, fast, radiofrequency spoiled gradient-echo sequence (TR/TE: 4.8/1.1, flip angle 45 , matrix 256 x 128, slice thickness 2.6 mm interpolated to 1.3 mm, FOV variable, NEX=1.0). Diagnostic-quality angiograms were obtained in all seven neonates. Superior vena cava thrombosis was identified in two neonates, and abdominal aortic thrombosis was present in one neonate. It is practical to perform gadolinium-enhanced MRA in neonates weighing as little as 600 g for the detection of caval or aortic thrombosis. (orig.)

  19. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in neonates and infants suspected of caval or aortic thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, S. Bruce; Bhutta, Sadaf T.; Buchmann, Robert F. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)is a well-established technique in older children and adults. No studies have focused on its use in neonates and small infants. Our objective was to study the use of gadolinium-enhanced MRA in neonates and infants suspected of caval or aortic thrombosis. Materials and Methods:Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography was performed on seven neonates and small infants for the evaluation of caval or aortic thrombosis. Gadolinium-DTPA at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (minimum dose 1 ml) was injected using a power injector (0.2 ml/s). Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed using a 3-D, fast, radiofrequency spoiled gradient-echo sequence (TR/TE: 4.8/1.1, flip angle 45 , matrix 256 x 128, slice thickness 2.6 mm interpolated to 1.3 mm, FOV variable, NEX=1.0). Diagnostic-quality angiograms were obtained in all seven neonates. Superior vena cava thrombosis was identified in two neonates, and abdominal aortic thrombosis was present in one neonate. It is practical to perform gadolinium-enhanced MRA in neonates weighing as little as 600 g for the detection of caval or aortic thrombosis. (orig.)

  20. Early versus late traumatic cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, S A; Rajabi, M B; Tabatabaei, S M; Soleimani, M; Rahimi, F; Yaseri, M

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine the proper time for traumatic cataract surgery after open globe injuries.SettingFarabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.DesignRandomized clinical trial.Patients and methodsIn a randomized clinical trial, 30 eyes with traumatic cataract after open globe injury with IOL implantation underwent early (in the first week after the trauma) and 30 eyes underwent late cataract surgery (from the first to second month after the trauma). We excluded patients who were under 12-year-old. All patients were visited at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after surgery. In each visit, patients were examined regarding visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber inflammation, IOL position, and posterior synechiae. In addition, posterior segment evaluation and fundoscopy were performed. Intraoperative complication including posterior capsular rupture, anterior vitrectomy, and zonulysis as well as the site of IOL implantation were documented and post-operative complications including raised IOP, anterior chamber inflammation, visual axis opacity, posterior synechiae, subluxation of IOL, and IOL pigment deposition were listed.ResultsBest-corrected visual acuity 6 months after surgery was not different between the two groups. Also in early cataract surgery group, the rate of posterior capsular rupture was not significantly higher than the late surgery group (P=0.069). On the other hand, zonulysis was significantly higher in the late procedure group (P=0.039). Other complications including anterior vitrectomy, raised IOP, anterior chamber inflammation, visual axis opacity, posterior synechiae, subluxation of IOL, and IOL pigment deposition were not different in the two groups.ConclusionsEarly and late traumatic cataract surgery and IOL implantation after open globe injuries, have no significant difference regarding the post-surgical BCVA and prominent intraoperative and post-operative complications.

  1. Quantitative comparison of 2D and 3D late gadolinium enhancement MR imaging in patients with Fabry disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsbach, F; Gordic, S; Gruner, C; Niemann, M; Goetti, R; Gotschy, A; Kozerke, S; Alkadhi, H; Manka, R

    2016-08-15

    This study aims to determine whether the quantification of myocardial fibrosis in patients with Fabry disease (FD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) singlebreath-hold three-dimensional (3D) inversion recovery magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence is comparable with a clinically established two-dimensional (2D) multi-breath-hold sequence. In this retrospective, IRB-approved study, 40 consecutive patients (18 male; mean age 50±17years) with Fabry disease (n=18) and HCM (n=22) underwent MR imaging at 1.5T. Spatial resolution was the same for 3D and 2D images (field-of-view, 350×350mm(2); in-plane-resolution, 1.2×1.2mm(2); section-thickness, 8mm). Datasets were analyzed for subjective image quality; myocardial and fibrotic mass, and total fibrotic tissue percentage were quantified. There was no significant difference in subjective image quality between 3D and 2D acquisitions (P=0.1 and P=0.3) for either disease. In patients with Fabry disease there were no significant differences between 3D and 2D acquisitions for myocardial mass (P=0.55), fibrous tissue mass (P=0.89), and total fibrous percentage (P=0.67), with good agreement between acquisitions according to Bland-Altman analyses. In patients with HCM there were also no significant differences between acquisitions for myocardial mass (P=0.48), fibrous tissue mass (P=0.56), and total fibrous percentage (P=0.67), with good agreement according to Bland-Altman analyses. Acquisition time was significantly shorter for 3D (25±5s) as compared to the 2D sequence (349±62s, P<0.001). In patients with Fabry disease and HCM, 3D LGE imaging provides equivalent diagnostic information in regard to quantification of myocardial fibrosis as compared with a standard 2D sequence, but at superior acquisition speed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of the Glymphatic System on the Kinetic and Distribution of Gadodiamide in the Rat Brain: Observations by Dynamic MRI and Effect of Circadian Rhythm on Tissue Gadolinium Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Naganawa, Shinji; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2018-04-12

    The glymphatic system is a recently hypothesized waste clearance system of the brain in which perivascular space constitutes a pathway similar to the lymphatic system in other body regions. Sleep and anesthesia are reported to influence the activity of the glymphatic system. Because rats are nocturnal animals, the glymphatic system is expected to be more active during the day. We attempted to elucidate the influence of the glymphatic system for intravenously injected gadodiamide in the rat brain by 2 experiments. One was a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiment to evaluate the short-term dynamics of signal intensity changes after gadodiamide administration. The other was a quantification experiment to evaluate the concentration of retained gadolinium within the rat brain after repeated intravenous administration of gadodiamide at different times of day and levels of anesthesia. The imaging experiment was performed on 6 rats that received an intravenous injection of gadodiamide (1 mmol/kg) and dynamic MRI for 3 hours at 2.4-minute intervals. The time course of the signal intensity changes was evaluated for different brain structures. The tissue quantification experiment was performed on 24 rats divided into 4 groups by injection time (morning, late afternoon) and anesthesia (none, short, long) during administration. All animals received gadodiamide (1.8 mmol/kg, 8 times over 2 weeks). Gadolinium concentration of dissected brain tissues was quantified 5 weeks after the last administration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In the imaging experiment, muscle and the fourth ventricle showed an instantaneous signal intensity increase immediately after gadodiamide injection. The signal curve of the cerebral cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei reached the peak signal intensity later than the fourth ventricle but earlier than that of the prepontine cistern. In the gadolinium quantification experiment, the concentration in the group with the morning

  3. Pulsed Dose Radiofrequency Before Ablation of Medial Branch of the Lumbar Dorsal Ramus for Zygapophyseal Joint Pain Reduces Post-procedural Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanious, David; Gage, Emmanuel; Koning, Jonathon; Sarhan, Mazin; Chaiban, Gassan; Almualim, Mohammed; Atallah, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the potential side effects with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) includes painful cutaneous dysesthesias and increased pain due to neuritis or neurogenic inflammation. This pain may require the prescription of opioids or non-opioid analgesics to control post-procedural pain and discomfort. The goal of this study is to compare post-procedural pain scores and post-procedural oral analgesic use in patients receiving continuous thermal radiofrequency ablation versus patients receiving pulsed dose radiofrequency immediately followed by continuous thermal radiofrequency ablation for zygopophaseal joint disease. This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Patients who met all the inclusion criteria and were not subject to any of the exclusion criteria were required to have two positive diagnostic medial branch blocks prior to undergoing randomization, intervention, and analysis. University hospital. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive thermal radiofrequency ablation alone (standard group) or pulsed dose radiofrequency (PDRF) immediately followed by thermal radiofrequency ablation (investigational group), all of which were performed by a single Board Certified Pain Medicine physician. Post-procedural pain levels between the two groups were assessed using the numerical pain Scale (NPS), and patients were contacted by phone on post-procedural days 1 and 2 in the morning and afternoon regarding the amount of oral analgesic medications used in the first 48 hours following the procedure. Patients who received pulsed dose radiofrequency followed by continuous radiofrequency neurotomy reported statistically significantly lower post-procedural pain scores in the first 24 hours compared to patients who received thermal radiofrequency neurotomy alone. These patients also used less oral analgesic medication in the post-procedural period. These interventions were carried out by one board accredited pain physician at one

  4. Feasibility of using gadolinium as a burnable poison in PWR cores. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothleder, B.M.

    1981-02-01

    As an alternative to the use of lumped burnable absorbers in PWR cores, distributed burnable absorbers are being considered for generic application. These burnable absorbers take the form of Gd 2 O 3 mixed with UO 2 in selected fuel rods (as is currently done in BWR cores). The work discussed herein concerns a three-dimensional feasibility study of the use of such distributed burnable absorbers in PWR cores. This study of distributed burnable absorbers was performed for the first cycle of a typical current design PWR using the following steps: analysis of a generic reference core design; determination of gadolinium assembly designs; determination of a generic gadolinium core design; evaluation of feasibility by examining selected parameters; and redesign of the generic gadolinium core, using axial zoning

  5. Correlation between gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid contrast enhancement and thallium-201 chloride uptake in pediatric brainstem glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, B L; Drane, W B; Quisling, R J; Hoang, K B

    1997-09-01

    We previously showed that thallium-201 (201Tl) chloride is accumulated in over 75% of brain tumors, including brainstem gliomas. The imaging of 201Tl with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may require an abnormal increase in permeability of tumor vessels to allow penetration of the blood-brain barrier. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the correlation between gadolinium enhancement and the degree of 201Tl uptake on SPECT and the contributions of either gadolinium enhancement or 201Tl uptake to the prognosis in children with brainstem gliomas. Forty-two sets of paired SPECT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained longitudinally in 13 cases. Altogether, 31 of 42 pairs (74%) of scans showed concordance between the presence of gadolinium enhancement and 201Tl uptake. There were no cases that demonstrated 201Tl uptake but lacked gadolinium enhancement. The results indicate that 201Tl SPECT is of value primarily when brainstem tumors have vessels that are demonstrably permeable to gadolinium, prior to or as a result of radiotherapy.

  6. Nickel-based gadolinium alloy for neutron adsorption application in ram packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robino, C.; McConnell, P.; Mizia, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will outline the results of a metallurgical development program that is investigating the alloying of gadolinium into a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy matrix. Gadolinium has been chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element due to its high thermal neutron absorption cross section and low solubility in the expected U.S. repository environment. The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy family was chosen for its known corrosion performance, mechanical properties, and weldability. The workflow of this program includes chemical composition definition, primary and secondary melting studies, ingot conversion processes, properties testing, and national consensus codes and standards work. The microstructural investigation of these alloys shows that the gadolinium addition is not soluble in the primary austenite metallurgical phase and is present in the alloy as gadolinium-rich second phase. This is similar to what is observed in a stainless steel alloyed with boron. The mechanical strength values are similar to those expected for commercial Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. The alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated Yucca Mountain aqueous chemistries with acceptable results. The initial results of weldability tests have also been acceptable. Neutronic testing in a moderated critical array has generated favorable results. An American Society for Testing and Materials material specification has been issued for the alloy and a Code Case has been submitted to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for code qualification. The ultimate goal is acceptance of the alloy for use at the Yucca Mountain repository

  7. Gadolinium Deposition in Human Brain Tissues after Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Adult Patients without Intracranial Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; McDonald, Jennifer S; Kallmes, David F; Jentoft, Mark E; Paolini, Michael A; Murray, David L; Williamson, Eric E; Eckel, Laurence J

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To determine whether gadolinium deposits in neural tissues of patients with intracranial abnormalities following intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure might be related to blood-brain barrier integrity by studying adult patients with normal brain pathologic characteristics. Materials and Methods After obtaining antemortem consent and institutional review board approval, the authors compared postmortem neuronal tissue samples from five patients who had undergone four to 18 gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations between 2005 and 2014 (contrast group) with samples from 10 gadolinium-naive patients who had undergone at least one MR examination during their lifetime (control group). All patients in the contrast group had received gadodiamide. Neuronal tissues from the dentate nuclei, pons, globus pallidus, and thalamus were harvested and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and light microscopy to quantify, localize, and assess the effects of gadolinium deposition. Results Tissues from the four neuroanatomic regions of gadodiamide-exposed patients contained 0.1-19.4 μg of gadolinium per gram of tissue in a statistically significant dose-dependent relationship (globus pallidus: ρ = 0.90, P = .04). In contradistinction, patients in the control group had undetectable levels of gadolinium with ICP-MS. All patients had normal brain pathologic characteristics at autopsy. Three patients in the contrast group had borderline renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate the contrast group was localized to the capillary endothelium and neuronal interstitium and, in two cases, within the nucleus of the cell. Conclusion Gadolinium deposition in neural tissues after GBCA administration occurs in the absence of intracranial abnormalities that might affect the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These findings

  8. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in central nervous system Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Carlier, R. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Idir, A.B.C. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Masnou, P.O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Moulonguet, A. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Adams, D. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Doyon, D. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France))

    1993-02-01

    Two cases of central nervous system Behcet's disease, studied by gadolinium-enhanced MRI, are presented. In one patient, whose clinical picture was dominated by a brain stem syndrome, the gadolinium enhancement resolved with clinical improvement, although the hyperintense areas in the mesencephalon on T2-weighted images persisted. In the second, who had a pseudobulbar palsy and a mild right hemiparesis, there were many abnormal areas, but an enhancing focus in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was probably the lesion responsible for the hemiparesis. (orig.)

  9. Efficacy of gadolinium enhanced MR imaging for the diagnosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Ji Hye

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gadolinium enhanced MR imaging for making the diagnosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease. We studied the gadolinium enhanced MR images of 14 hips in 12 children who had the diagnosis of LCP disease. We retrospectively analyzed the extent of necrosis, the epiphyseal revascularization pathways and the metaphyseal changes. The absence of enhancement on gadolinium enhanced MRI was noted in all cases of LCP disease. Diffuse absence of enhancement was observed in 9 femoral epiphyses. Two of them showed normal bone marrow signal intensity on the T1 and T1-weighted images. Focal absence of enhancement was observed in 5 femoral epiphyses. Enhanced MRI showed better epiphyseal revascularization in the lateral column (five cases), in the lateral and medial columns (four cases) and in the transphyseal pathway (three cases). Metaphyseal change was observed in two cases. Gadolinium enhanced MRI allows detection of LCP disease and an accurate analysis of the different revascularization patterns, and this helpful for predicting the prognosis

  10. Biodistribution of ultra small gadolinium-based nanoparticles as theranostic agent: application to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imen; Duc, Géraldine Le; Kryza, David; Berniard, Aurélie; Mowat, Pierre; Roux, Stéphane; Taleb, Jacqueline; Bonazza, Pauline; Perriat, Pascal; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles are novel objects with interesting physical properties, allowing their use for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were imaged following intravenous injection in healthy rats and rats grafted with 9L gliosarcoma tumors using magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphic imaging. Quantitative biodistribution using gamma-counting of each sampled organ confirmed that these nanoparticles were rapidly cleared essentially by renal excretion. Accumulation of these nanoparticles in 9L gliosarcoma tumors implanted in the rat brain was quantitated. This passive and long-duration accumulation of gadolinium-based nanoparticles in tumor, which is related to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, is in good agreement with the use of these nanoparticles as radiosensitizers for brain tumors.

  11. Pediatric Patients Demonstrate Progressive T1-Weighted Hyperintensity in the Dentate Nucleus following Multiple Doses of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D R; Chatterjee, A R; Yazdani, M; Marebwa, B; Brown, T; Collins, H; Bolles, G; Jenrette, J M; Nietert, P J; Zhu, X

    2016-12-01

    While there have been recent reports of brain retention of gadolinium following gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in adults, a retrospective series of pediatric patients has not previously been reported, to our knowledge. We investigated the relationship between the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses and increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. We hypothesized that despite differences in pediatric physiology and the smaller gadolinium-based contrast agent doses that pediatric patients are typically administered based on weighted-adjusted dosing, the pediatric brain would also demonstrate dose-dependent increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus. We included children with multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations at our institution. A blinded reader placed ROIs within the dentate nucleus and adjacent cerebellar white matter. To eliminate reader bias, we also performed automated ROI delineation of the dentate nucleus, cerebellar white matter, and pons. Dentate-to-cerebellar white matter and dentate-to pons ratios were compared with the number of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations. During 20 years at our institution, 280 patients received at least 5 gadolinium-based contrast agent doses, with 1 patient receiving 38 doses. Sixteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for ROI analysis. Blinded reader dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios were significantly associated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (r s = 0.77, P = .001). The dentate-to-pons ratio and dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios based on automated ROI placement were also significantly correlated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (t = 4.98, P contrast agent doses is significantly correlated with progressive T1-weighted dentate hyperintensity. Definitive confirmation of gadolinium deposition requires tissue analysis. Any potential clinical sequelae of gadolinium retention in

  12. Late Recurrent Post-Transplant Primary Biliary Cirrhosis in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Late recurrent primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC following orthotopic liver transplant remains a controversial topic. The first documented case of recurrence occurring in 16 patients transplanted for PBC and followed at the authors' institution for longer than one year is presented. A 54-year-old man transplanted for PBC developed a cholestatic pattern of enzyme elevation on post-transplant day (PTD 1305. Repeat antimitochondrial antibody was strongly positive (1:300 to 1:400. A liver biopsy revealed severe bile duct damage, lymphocytic cholangitis, focal periductal noncaseating granuloma and minimal endotheliitis. Recurrent PBC was diagnosed. At the time of orthotopic liver transplant this patient received induction immunosuppression with OKT3 crossed over to cyclosporine (CsA, azathioprine (AZA and prednisone. AZA was discontinued early and maintenance CsA tapered to a target trough level of 150 to 200 ng/mL by PTD 365. Prednisone was withdrawn by PTD 664. CsA levels during PTDs 1225 to 1305 (before elevation of hepatobiliary enzymes were below target at 114 to 166 ng/mL. Of the 16 patients, all but three were maintained on CsA, AZA and prednisone. One was on CsA (trough levels on target and AZA; the other two, including the patient with recurrent PBC, were on CsA only. The trough CsA level of the patient without recurrent PBC has been within the target range. The authors speculate that the underlying defect in immunoregulation in PBC persists post-transplant and that in the patient without recurrent PBC this defect was unmasked by lowered maintenance immunosuppression - allowing recurrence of PBC in a previously stable liver allograft.

  13. In vitro radiosensitizing effects of ultrasmall gadolinium based particles on tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, P; Mignot, A; Rima, W; Lux, F; Tillement, O; Roulin, C; Dutreix, M; Bechet, D; Huger, S; Humbert, L; Barberi-Heyob, M; Aloy, M T; Armandy, E; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C; Le Duc, G; Roux, S; Perriat, P

    2011-09-01

    Since radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment, it is essential to develop strategies which lower the irradiation burden while increasing efficacy and become efficient even in radio resistant tumors. Our new strategy is relying on the development of solid hybrid nanoparticles based on rare-earth such as gadolinium. In this paper, we then evidenced that gadolinium-based particles can be designed to enter efficiently into the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in quantities that can be tuned by modifying the incubation conditions. These sub-5 nm particles consist in a core of gadolinium oxide, a shell of polysiloxane and are functionalized by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Although photoelectric effect is maximal in the [10-100 keV] range, such particles were found to possess efficient in-vitro radiosensitizing properties at an energy of 660 keV by using the "single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay," an assay that measures the number of DNA damage that occurs during irradiation. Even more interesting, the particles have been evidenced by MTT assays to be also efficient radiosensitizers at an energy of 6 MeV for doses comprised between 2 and 8 Gy. The properties of the gadolinium-based particles give promising opening to a particle-assisted radio-therapy by using irradiation systems already installed in the majority of hospitals.

  14. Fumonisin B1 hepatotoxicity in mice is attenuated by depletion of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Quanren; Kim, Jiyoung; Sharma, Raghubir P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides found on corn worldwide. The biological effects of FB 1 are attributed to sphingolipid metabolism disruption as a result of ceramide synthase inhibition. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an important modulator of FB 1 hepatotoxicity. Kupffer cells are major source of cytokine production in liver. In the present study we investigated the effects of Kupffer cell depletion by gadolinium on FB 1 hepatotoxicity in female BALB/c mice. Mice were given saline or 50 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride once via the tail vein; 16 h later they were treated with subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 2.25 mg/kg/day FB 1 in saline for three successive days. Gadolinium significantly attenuated FB 1 -induced increases in the activities of circulating alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and reduced the FB 1 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis and free sphinganine accumulation in liver. Both gadolinium and FB 1 treatments individually increased the expression of selected cell signal factors; e.g., TNFα, TNF receptor 1, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, lymphotoxin β, interferon γ, and transforming growth factor β1; gadolinium chloride did not alter FB 1 -induced expression of the above genes. Results indicated that Kupffer cells play a role in FB 1 hepatotoxicity. Decreased FB 1 -induced sphinganine accumulation and increased protective TNFα signaling by gadolinium chloride may in part account for its ameliorating effect on FB 1 liver damage

  15. Fat-suppressed MRI of musculoskeletal infection: fast T2-weighted techniques versus gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.T.; Randolph, D.A. Jr.; Staron, R.B.; Feldman, F.; Cushin, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate gadolinium's role in imaging musculoskeletal infection by comparing the conspicuity and extent of inflammatory changes demonstrated on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images versus fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted sequences. Design. Eighteen patients with infection were imaged in a 1.5-T unit, using frequency-selective and/or inversion recovery fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted images (T2WI) and gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (T1WI). Thirty-four imaging planes with both a fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence and a fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence were obtained. Comparison of the extent and conspicuity of signal intensity changes was made for both bone and soft tissue in each plane. Results. In bone, inflammatory change was equal in extent and conspicuity on fat-suppressed T2WI and fat-suppressed T1WI with gadolinium in 19 planes, more extensive or conspicuous on T2WI in three planes, and less so on T2WI in two planes. Marrow was normal on all three sequences in 10 cases. In soft tissue, inflammatory change was seen equally well in 20 instances, more extensively or conspicuously on the T2WI in 11 instances, and less so on T2WI in 2 instances. One case had no soft tissue involvement on any of the sequences. Five abscesses and three joint effusions were present, all more conspicuously delineated from surrounding inflammatory change on the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium. The average imaging time for the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium was 6.75 min, while that of the T2-weighted sequences was 5.75 min. Conclusion. Routine use of gadolinium is not warranted. Instead, gadolinium should be reserved for clinically suspected infection in or around a joint, and in cases refractory to medical or surgical treatment due to possible abscess formation. (orig.)

  16. Growth, characterization and dielectric studies of gadolinium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nitrogen atmosphere leads to the formation of gadolinium oxide as the final product. ... from Chengdu Haoxuan Technology Co. Ltd, China ..... by metal cations. A band centered at 1534.78 cm. −1 is due to asymmetric stretching of coordinated carboxylate group vas(COO. −. ). Another absorption band at 1398.38 cm. −1 is.

  17. Gadolinium-DTPA and gadodiamide as an alternative contrast medium for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Koch, J.A.; Rassek, M.; Moedder, U.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravenously applied gadolinium-based contrast medium in computed tomographic (CT) studies. Serial dilutions of iohexol 300, Gd-DTPA and gadodiamide were scanned with CT in a phantom study using water filled tubes. For quantification of X-ray attenuation, the mean Hounsfield units (HU) were calculated from the CT scans. Five patients with contraindications against iodine contrast agents were examined with abdominal or thoracic CT before and after application of 0.2 mmol/kg body weight of a gadolinium-based contrast agent. In these patients attenuation values were obtained in ROI from unenhanced and enhanced CT scans. The phantom study revealed a 38,4% enhancement for Gd-DTPA and a 35.7% enhancement for gadodiamide scaled on the reference measurements with iohexol 300. Thus, 130.2 ml Gd-DTPA or 140.1 ml gadodiamide are needed to achieve the same attenuation as an i.v. injection of 50 ml iohexol 300. Consequently the corresponding dose of 1 mmol/kg body weight would exceed the manufacturer's recommended dose. In four patients with complete thoracic or abdominal CT, i.v. applied gadolinium-based contrast medium (0.2 mmol/kg) yielded no visible advantage. In these patients parenchymal enhancement did not exceed 25%. Dynamic CT of a patient with focal liver lesion revealed an arterial enhancement peak of 75%. Sufficient parenchymal enhancement in CT studies cannot be achieved with the available gadolinium-based contrast mediums. They might be helpful if only short time vascular enhancement is required. (orig.) [de

  18. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  19. Differentiating intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payabvash, Seyedmehdi [Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Khan, Shayaan M.; Khan, Mahnoor; Majidi, Shahram; Pawar, Swaroop; Qureshi, Adnan I. [Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to identify the imaging characteristics that can help differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from benign contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. We reviewed the clinical and imaging records of all acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent endovascular treatment in two hospitals over a 3.5-year period. The immediate post-procedural CT scan was evaluated for the presence of hyperdense lesion(s). The average attenuation of the lesion(s) was measured. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was defined as a persistent hyperdensity visualized on follow-up CT scan, 24 h or greater after the procedure. Of the 135 patients studied, 74 (55 %) patients had hyperdense lesion(s) on immediate post-procedural CT scan. Follow-up scans confirmed the diagnosis of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 20 of these 74 patients. A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the average attenuation of the most hyperdense lesion can differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation with an area under the curve of 0.78 (p = 0.001). An average attenuation of <50 Hounsfield units (HU) in the most visually hyperattenuating hyperdense lesion had 100 % specificity and 56 % sensitivity for identification of contrast extravasations. Petechial hyperdensity was seen in 46/54 (85 %) patients with contrast extravasation versus 9/20 (45 %) patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhage on the immediate post-procedural CT scan (p < 0.001). An average attenuation <50 HU of the most hyperattenuating hyperdense parenchymal lesion on immediate post-procedural CT scan was very specific for differentiating contrast extravasation from intraparenchymal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. (orig.)

  20. Differentiating intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Khan, Shayaan M.; Khan, Mahnoor; Majidi, Shahram; Pawar, Swaroop; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the imaging characteristics that can help differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from benign contrast extravasation on post-procedural noncontrast CT scan in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. We reviewed the clinical and imaging records of all acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent endovascular treatment in two hospitals over a 3.5-year period. The immediate post-procedural CT scan was evaluated for the presence of hyperdense lesion(s). The average attenuation of the lesion(s) was measured. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was defined as a persistent hyperdensity visualized on follow-up CT scan, 24 h or greater after the procedure. Of the 135 patients studied, 74 (55 %) patients had hyperdense lesion(s) on immediate post-procedural CT scan. Follow-up scans confirmed the diagnosis of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 20 of these 74 patients. A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the average attenuation of the most hyperdense lesion can differentiate intraparenchymal hemorrhage from contrast extravasation with an area under the curve of 0.78 (p = 0.001). An average attenuation of <50 Hounsfield units (HU) in the most visually hyperattenuating hyperdense lesion had 100 % specificity and 56 % sensitivity for identification of contrast extravasations. Petechial hyperdensity was seen in 46/54 (85 %) patients with contrast extravasation versus 9/20 (45 %) patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhage on the immediate post-procedural CT scan (p < 0.001). An average attenuation <50 HU of the most hyperattenuating hyperdense parenchymal lesion on immediate post-procedural CT scan was very specific for differentiating contrast extravasation from intraparenchymal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients after endovascular treatment. (orig.)

  1. Laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Yamanaka, C.; Nomaru, K.; Kou, K.; Niki, H.; Izawa, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1994-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a process which uses intense pulsed lasers to selectively photoionize one isotopic species of a chemical element, after which these ions are extracted electromagnetically. The AVLIS has several advantages over the traditional methods based on the mass difference, such as high selectivity, low energy consumption, short starting time and versatility to any atoms. The efforts for atomic vapor laser isotope separation at ILT and ILE, Osaka University have been concentrated into the following items: 1) studies on laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium, 2) studies on interaction processes including coherent dynamics, propagation effects and atom-ion collision in AVLIS system, 3) development of laser systems for AVLIS. In this paper, we present experimental results on the laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium.

  2. MRI with gadolinium DTPA in the diagnosis of spinal intradural masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, T.; Fuerst, G.; Moedder, U.; Roosen, N.; Lins, E.; Bock, W.J.; Lenard, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of contrast enhanced MRI in 36 patients with suspected spinal intradural tumours are described. All intramedullary tumours showed distinctive enhancement and solid tumors could be delineated clearly, even if they were not clearly visible on unenhanced scans. The differentiation between neoplasm and non-neoplastic syrinx was markedly improved. The sensitivity of MRI for demonstrating intradural extramedullary tumours was greatly improved by gadolinium DTPA and even small lesions or flat meningeal infiltrates could be visualised. In addition, gadolinium DTPA improved the delineation and localisation of larger lesions, even if they had already been seen on unenhanced images. (orig.) [de

  3. Comparison of digital subtraction angiography with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.; O'Callaghan, J.; Varghese, J.C.; Lee, M.J.; Walshe, J.; O'Brien, E.

    1999-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a treatable cause of hypertension and renal failure for which no ideal screening technique is currently available. We evaluated the use of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis of RAS. Sixty-two patients with secondary hypertension were enrolled in the study. All patients had conventional renal angiography and gadolinium enhanced MRA. The sequence used was a 3D FMP SPGR sequence with the following parameters (TR: 26 ms, TE: 6.9 ms, flip angle 40 , field of view 36 x 36 cm, matrix 246 x 256, 1 excitation). Gadolinium 0.3 mmol/kg was administered and 60 1.5-mm-thick partitions were obtained over a duration of 3.5 min. The MRA images were then compared with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images. Conventional DSA demonstrated 138 renal arteries, whereas gadolinium-enhanced MRA demonstrated 129 (93 %). Twenty-one renal artery stenoses and four occluded arteries were seen at conventional DSA. Gadolinium-enhanced MRA had a sensitivity of 88 %, specificity of 98 %, accuracy of 96 %, positive predictive value of 92 % and negative predictive value of 97 % when compared with conventional DSA. Gadolinium-enhanced MRA is an accurate technique for identifying patients with RAS. It is less sensitive in picking up accessory renal arteries. (orig.)

  4. Gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI sequence does not have an incremental value in the assessment of sacroiliitis in patients with early inflammatory back pain by using MRI in combination with pelvic radiographs: a 2-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, M.; van Tubergen, A.; van der Heijde, D.; Jurik, A. G.; Landewé, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential incremental value in detecting sacroiliitis of the T1 post-gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) MRI sequence of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) compared with the combination of short tau inversion recovery (STIR) MRI sequence and pelvic radiographs in

  5. Complications from the use of intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias Junior, Jorge; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica]. E-mail: jejunior@fmrp.usp.br

    2008-07-15

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are much safer than the iodinated ones; however complications may occur and should be recognized for appropriate orientation and management. The total incidence of adverse reactions to contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging ranges between 2% and 4%. Cases of severe acute reactions to gadolinium, such as laryngospasm and anaphylactic shock, are rare. Chronic complications secondary to the use of gadolinium also can occur and, recently an association between its use and a rare dermatologic disease occurring in patients with renal failure has been reported. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was the subject of an official health notification issued by the American Food and Drug Administration. This progressive disease is characterized by hardened skin with fibrotic nodules and plaques which may involve other parts of the body. Patients who have been affected by this disorder presented chronic renal failure, with metabolic acidosis and had been submitted to magnetic resonance angiography, probably involving exposure to large amounts of intravenous paramagnetic contrast. This review is aimed at presenting a succinct description of the gadolinium-based contrast agent types, possible secondary complications, their preventive measures and management. (author)

  6. Can unenhanced multiparametric MRI substitute gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the characterization of vertebral marrow infiltrative lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Zidan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unenhanced-multiparametric MRI is compatible with gadolinium-enhanced MRI in reliable characterization of marrow infiltrative lesions. The routine MRI protocol of cancer patients should be altered to accommodate the evolving MRI technology and cost effectively substitute the need for a gadolinium enhanced scan.

  7. The critical thermal expansion of gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Lanchester, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the critical thermal expansion of single crystals of gadolinium, prepared by solid state electrotransport processing. Although the expansion data can be fitted to a simple power law with exponents lambda + =-0.25, lambda - =-0.33, these values are not predicted by theory and a discontinuity remains at Tsub(c)=293.620 K. It is suggested that the results relate to a region of crossover to uniaxial dipolar behaviour. (Auth.)

  8. A polymeric fastener can easily functionalize liposome surfaces with gadolinium for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cartney E; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G; Yang, Binxia; Glockner, James F; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-11-26

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization and, therefore, has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication.

  9. The Ross Procedure in Patients among the Pediatric Population, Post Ten Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Ivanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the results of the surgical treatment in pediatric patients who had undergone the Ross procedure.Material and Methods: The study involved 114 patients between 12 days to 18 years in age. The early and late (up to 5 years results of the treatment were studied. The examination included echocardiography, catheterization of the cardiac chambers and angiocardiography. The case distribution of patients based on diagnosis was as follows: isolated aortic valve stenosis (IAVS in 38 (33.3% patients, aortic valve insufficiency (AVI in 33 (28.9%, and combined heart defects in 56 patients (49.1%.Results: The death rate was 6.14% during the early postoperative period and 1.14% in the late postoperative period; the actuarial survival in the long-term was 98.86%. The complication rate was 51.5%. The most frequent complication was pericarditis (25.6%, whereas cardiac and respiratory failure occurred in 7.6% of the cases and cardiac arrhythmias in 6.1% of the cases. The average time spent in the intensive care unit was 3.48 ± 2.90 days; the hospitalization period on average was 24.70±10.87 days. After surgery, there was a tendency of the echocardiographic parameters to move toward normalization. The frequency of reoperation in the late period was 23.7%, the main reason for which being the conduit dysfunction in the position of the pulmonary artery (PA.Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of the Ross procedure in the treatment of aortic valve malformations in the pediatric group was confirmed. However, in some cases, the need to perform repeated operations due to the increase in the ring size and an increase in the neo-aortic insufficiency during the somatic growth process.

  10. Nuclear orientation experiments on the magnetic moments of europium and gadolinium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F.G. van den.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, experimental results on the ground state nuclear magnetic moments of europium and gadolinium isotopes are presented. The nuclear orientation experiments were performed on europium and gadolinium nuclei embedded in several host lattices. Attention is paid to the hyperfine interactions of the ions. Nuclear moments are discussed in the context of nuclear shell model. The theoretical framework is described for nuclear structure and low temperature nuclear orientation. Furthermore, the experimental techniques, the technical arrangement of the orientation apparatus, the methods for radiative detection and the use of nuclear orientation thermometry are described. (Auth.)

  11. Gadolinium retention after administration of contrast agents based on linear chelators and the recommendations of the European Medicines Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekkers, Ilona A.; Roos, Rick; Molen, Aart J. van der

    2018-01-01

    The Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) earlier this year recommended to suspend some marketing authorisations for Gadolinium Containing Contrast Agents (GCCAs) based on linear chelators due to the potential risk of gadolinium retention in the human body. These recommendations have recently been re-evaluated by EMA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), and confirmed the final opinion of the European Medicines Agency. This editorial provides an overview of the available GCCAs and summarises the recent evidence of gadolinium retention. Moreover, a critical appraisal of the strengths and limitations of the scientific evidence currently available on gadolinium retention is given. (orig.)

  12. Basic study of gadolinium neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshifumi; Takagaki, Masao; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko

    1994-01-01

    We measured the time-course of gadolinium take up in 91 brain tumor tissues obtained during surgical operations, and compared those results against measurements of gadolinium concentration changes in serum in 31 cases of both malignant and benign brain tumors. The contents of gadolinium in tissues were measured using the ICP spectroscopic method. The results shown wide variations in each class. In malignant gliomas, the maximum Tumor/Blood (T/B) ratio is around 10-30%, reached in 30-40 minutes after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA, but it is rapidly excreted from the tissue and decreased to lower than 10% at 60 minutes after the injection. There is no measurable correlation between the tissue concentration of gadolinium and the histological grading of astrocytomas. In the case of meningiomas, T/B ratio is 20-30%, and has a tendency to increase gradually even 60 minutes after administration. In one case of rapid recurrent meningioma, the T/B ratio beyond 100% and became 640% at 85 minutes after the injection. In this case, Gd-NC therapy will promise the best result. The main clinical effect of Gd-NCT is due to the 6.30MeV γ-rays, which have a long pathway, and 1.53MeV high-RBE Auger electron. Intraparenchynal capillaries in the brain usually have a thickness of 3.5μm of endothelial cells. The capillaries occupate about 4% of the area of any cross-sectional plane of the brain. Under these conditions, Gd has full therapeutic effect without damaging either normal brain tissues or vascular components, provided the T/B ratio is kept higher than 10%. The further problem of the Gd-NCT is that (1) Gd is situated exclusively in the extracellular spaces as opposed to intracellular-or intranuclearspaces. The development of Gd compounds which will be incorporated into the nucleus is required. (2) It is necessary to keep a high gadolinium T/B ratio during the whole irradiation period, which is 1-2 hours in a 5MW reactor such as the one being used at Kyoto University. (J.P.N.)

  13. [Exploration of how to formulate guidelines on post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yu, Wen-Ya

    2013-09-01

    Combining the world health organization's (WHO), the United States and the European union's relevant laws and guidelines on post-marketing drug surveillance to judge the status of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in China. We found that due to the late start of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine, the appropriate guidelines are yet to be developed. Hence, hospitals, enterprises and research institutions do not have a shared foundation from which to compare their research results. Therefore there is an urgent need to formulate such post-marketing surveillance guidelines. This paper has used as guidance various technical documents such as, "procedures to formulate national standards" and "testing methods of management in formulating traditional Chinese medicine standards" and has combined these to produce a version of post-marketing surveillance particular to Chinese medicine in China. How to formulate these guidelines is discussed and procedures and methods to formulate technical specifications are introduced. These provide a reference for future technical specifications and will assist in the development of TCM.

  14. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and gadolinium-based contrast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), unknown before March 1997 and first described in 2000, is a systemic disorder characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis. The first known case occurred in 1997, after the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) at high doses in patients with renal failure had become routine.

  15. Kinetics of zigzag domain boundaries in gadolinium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.N.; Proklov, A.L.; Tikhomirova, N.A.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1987-01-01

    Kinetics of zigzag domain boundaries (3DB) in ferroelectric gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystal was investigated at different amplitude, duration and growth rate of external electric field. The results verify the difference between shifting rates of two 3DB constituents of wedge-shaped systems, growing with field change rate increase

  16. Role of MRI T2-DRIVE in the assessment of pituitary stalk abnormalities without gadolinium in pituitary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godano, Elisabetta; Morana, Giovanni; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Gastaldi, Roberto; Calcagno, Annalisa; Patti, Giuseppa; Gallizia, Annalisa; Notarnicola, Sara; Giaccardi, Marta; Noli, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the role of T2-DRIVE MRI sequence in the accurate measurement of pituitary stalk (PS) size and the identification of PS abnormalities in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders without the use of gadolinium. This was a retrospective study conducted on 242 patients who underwent MRI due to pituitary dysfunction between 2006 and 2015. Among 135 eligible patients, 102 showed eutopic posterior pituitary (PP) gland and 33 showed 'ectopic' PP (EPP). Two readers independently measured the size of PS in patients with eutopic PP at the proximal, midpoint and distal levels on pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted as well as T2-DRIVE images; PS visibility was assessed on pre-contrast T1 and T2-DRIVE sequences in those with EPP. The length, height, width and volume of the anterior pituitary (AP), PP height and length and PP area were analyzed. Significant agreement between the two readers was obtained for T2-DRIVE PS measurements in patients with 'eutopic' PP; a significant difference was demonstrated between the intraclass correlation coefficient calculated on the T2-DRIVE and the T1-pre- and post-contrast sequences. The percentage of PS identified by T2-DRIVE in EPP patients was 72.7% compared to 30.3% of T1 pre-contrast sequences. A significant association was found between the visibility of PS on T2-DRIVE and the height of AP. T2-DRIVE sequence is extremely precise and reliable for the evaluation of PS size and the recognition of PS abnormalities; the use of gadolinium-based contrast media does not add significant information and may thus be avoided. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis after application of gadolinium-based contrast agents - a status paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, M.; Uder, M.

    2007-01-01

    Recently the association of a rare disease named ''nephrogenic systemic fibrosis'' (NSF) with the administration of gadolinium-containing contrast media, especially gadodiamide (Omniscan, GE-Healthcare), was described. NSF is a scleroderma-like disease characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis. Until now, NSF cases were observed only in patients with kidney disease. Almost all patients were suffering from chronic renal insufficiency, 90 % of them required renal replacement therapy. The true incidence of the disease is unknown. First retrospective analyses of selected collectives of patients with end-stage renal disease showed 2 - 5 % cases of NSF after administration of Gadolinium-containing contrast agents with an odds ratio of 20 - 50 in comparison to non-exposed controls. NSF is a serious adverse reaction, which may result in severe disabilities and even death. Therefore all radiologists applying gadolinium-based contrast agents should be informed about this disease and the recent recommendations for its prevention. On the basis of the published data, Omniscan should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR 2 ) and those who have had or are undergoing liver transplantation. In neonates and infants up to 1 year of age, Omniscan should only be used after careful consideration. Also the other gadolinium-based contrast agents should be used in high-risk patients only after careful consideration using the lowest dose possible

  18. Gadolinium-based Contrast Media, Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Glymphatic System: Possible Mechanisms for the Deposition of Gadolinium in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2018-04-10

    After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system. According to this hypothesis, the perivascular space functions as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow into the brain parenchyma. The perivascular space around the arteries allows cerebrospinal fluid to enter the interstitial space of the brain tissue through water channels controlled by aquaporin 4. The cerebrospinal fluid entering the interstitial space clears waste proteins from the tissue. It then flows into the perivascular space around the vein and is discharged outside the brain. In addition to the hypothesis regarding the glymphatic system, some reports have described that after GBCM administration, some of the GBCM distributes through systemic blood circulation and remains in other compartments including the cerebrospinal fluid. It is thought that the GBCM distributed into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity via the glymphatic system may remain in brain tissue for a longer duration compared to the GBCM in systemic circulation. Glymphatic system may of course act as a clearance system for GBCM from brain tissue. Based on these findings, the mechanism for Gd deposition in the brain will be discussed in this review. The authors speculate that the glymphatic system may be the major contributory factor to the deposition and clearance of gadolinium in brain tissue.

  19. Myocardial infarct sizing by late gadolinium-enhanced MRI: Comparison of manual, full-width at half-maximum, and n-standard deviation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Huttin, Olivier; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Felblinger, Jacques; Beaumont, Marine; Chillou, Christian DE; Girerd, Nicolas; Mandry, Damien

    2016-11-01

    To compare three widely used methods for myocardial infarct (MI) sizing on late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) magnetic resonance (MR) images: manual delineation and two semiautomated techniques (full-width at half-maximum [FWHM] and n-standard deviation [SD]). 3T phase-sensitive inversion-recovery (PSIR) LGE images of 114 patients after an acute MI (2-4 days and 6 months) were analyzed by two independent observers to determine both total and core infarct sizes (TIS/CIS). Manual delineation served as the reference for determination of optimal thresholds for semiautomated methods after thresholding at multiple values. Reproducibility and accuracy were expressed as overall bias ± 95% limits of agreement. Mean infarct sizes by manual methods were 39.0%/24.4% for the acute MI group (TIS/CIS) and 29.7%/17.3% for the chronic MI group. The optimal thresholds (ie, providing the closest mean value to the manual method) were FWHM30% and 3SD for the TIS measurement and FWHM45% and 6SD for the CIS measurement (paired t-test; all P > 0.05). The best reproducibility was obtained using FWHM. For TIS measurement in the acute MI group, intra-/interobserver agreements, from Bland-Altman analysis, with FWHM30%, 3SD, and manual were -0.02 ± 7.74%/-0.74 ± 5.52%, 0.31 ± 9.78%/2.96 ± 16.62% and -2.12 ± 8.86%/0.18 ± 16.12, respectively; in the chronic MI group, the corresponding values were 0.23 ± 3.5%/-2.28 ± 15.06, -0.29 ± 10.46%/3.12 ± 13.06% and 1.68 ± 6.52%/-2.88 ± 9.62%, respectively. A similar trend for reproducibility was obtained for CIS measurement. However, semiautomated methods produced inconsistent results (variabilities of 24-46%) compared to manual delineation. The FWHM technique was the most reproducible method for infarct sizing both in acute and chronic MI. However, both FWHM and n-SD methods showed limited accuracy compared to manual delineation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1206-1217. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  1. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Late Post-Treatment Pain in Women Treated for Primary Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Maja; O Connor, Maja; OToole, Mia Skytte

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. METHODS: A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3...... pain rehabilitation strategy for women treated for breast cancer. In addition, the effect on neuropathic pain, a pain type reported by women treated for breast cancer, further suggests the potential of MBCT but should be considered preliminary....

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance diagnosis of cerebral tumours with the use of the contrast medium gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Felix, R.; Claussen, C.; Fiegler, W.; Kazner, E.; Speck, U.; Niendorf, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the NMR contrast medium gadolinium-DTPA on image contrast in cerebral tumours. Sixteen patients with space-occupying cerebral lesions were examined on a 0.35 Tesla superconducting scanner, using a T1-weighted spinecho sequence prior to and after the intravenous application of gadolinium-DTPA. In 8 patients T2-weighted spinecho-sequences were obtained before the administration of contrast. The tomograms were evaluated visually and according to quantitative criteria. The use of gadolinium-DTPA helps to evaluate the blood-brain barrier and improves diagnosis by differentiating tumour tissue from edema and from normal brain tissue. (orig.) [de

  3. Theoretical study of hyperfine fields due to S-P and transition impurities in gadolinium matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Leal, C.E. dos.

    1985-01-01

    This work presents a systematic theoretical study for the hyperfine field due to diluted s-p-and transition impurities in metallic gadolinium matrices. The peculiarities de a gadolinium matrix are shown, they are characterized by a semi-completed 4f-shell, which is far from (below) the energetic levels such as the type s-p and d-conduction bands. (author)

  4. Accumulation of MRI contrast agents in malignant fibrous histiocytoma for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Ichikawa, H.; Akisue, T.; Fujita, I.; Kishimoto, K.; Hara, H.; Imabori, M.; Kawamitsu, H.; Sharma, P.; Brown, S.C.; Moudgil, B.M.; Fujii, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kurosaka, M.; Fukumori, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron-capture therapy with gadolinium (Gd-NCT) has therapeutic potential, especially that gadolinium is generally used as a contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accumulation of gadolinium in a human sarcoma cell line, malignant fibrosis histiocytoma (MFH) Nara-H, was visualized by the MRI system. The commercially available MRI contrast medium Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution) and the biodegradable and highly gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) were prepared as MRI contrast agents. The MFH cells were cultured and collected into three falcon tubes that were set into the 3-tesra MRI system to acquire signal intensities from each pellet by the spin echo method, and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was calculated. The amount of Gd in the sample was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography (ICP-AES). The accumulation of gadolinium in cells treated with Gd-nanoCPs was larger than that in cells treated with Gd-DTPA. In contrast, and compared with the control, Gd-DTPA was more effective than Gd-nanoCPs in reducing T1, suggesting that the larger accumulation exerted the adverse effect of lowering the enhancement of MRI. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into the therapeutic potential of Gd-NCT.

  5. Role of MRI and added value of diffusion-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of local recurrence from rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Valeria; Angeretti, Maria Gloria; Duka, Ejona; Tarallo, Nicola; Bracchi, Elena; Novario, Raffaele; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2018-03-14

    To evaluate whether the addition of gadolinium-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) improves T2 sequence performance for the diagnosis of local recurrence (LR) from rectal cancer and to assess which approach is better at formulating this diagnosis among readers with different experience. Forty-three patients with suspected LR underwent pelvic MRI with T2 weighted (T2) sequences, gadolinium fat-suppressed T1 weighted sequences (post-contrast T1), and DWI sequences. Three readers (expert: G, intermediate: E, resident: V) scored the likelihood of LR on T2, T2 + post-contrast T1, T2 + DWI, and T2 + post-contrast T1 + DWI. In total, 18/43 patients had LR; on T2 images, the expert reader achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.916, sensitivity of 88.9%, and specificity of 76%; the intermediate reader achieved values of 0.890, 88.9%, and 48%, respectively, and the resident achieved values of 0.852, 88.9%, and 48%, respectively. DWI significantly improved the AUC value for the expert radiologist by up to 0.999 (p = 0.04), while post-contrast T1 significantly improved the AUC for the resident by up to 0.950 (p = 0.04). For the intermediate reader, both the T2 + DWI AUC and T2 + post-contrast T1 AUC were better than the T2 AUC (0.976 and 0.980, respectively), but with no statistically significant difference. No statistically significant difference was achieved by any of the three readers by comparing either the T2 + DWI AUCs to the T2 + post-contrast T1 AUCs or the AUCs of the two pairs of sequences to those of the combined three sequences. Furthermore, using the T2 sequences alone, all of the readers achieved a fair number of "equivocal" cases: they decreased with the addition of either DWI or post-contrast T1 sequences and, for the two less experienced readers, they decreased even more with the three combined sequences. Both DWI and T1 post-contrast MRI increased diagnostic performance for LR diagnosis compared to T2; however, no

  6. Fumonisin B{sub 1} hepatotoxicity in mice is attenuated by depletion of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Quanren [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7389 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7389 (United States); Sharma, Raghubir P [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7389 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides found on corn worldwide. The biological effects of FB{sub 1} are attributed to sphingolipid metabolism disruption as a result of ceramide synthase inhibition. Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) is an important modulator of FB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity. Kupffer cells are major source of cytokine production in liver. In the present study we investigated the effects of Kupffer cell depletion by gadolinium on FB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity in female BALB/c mice. Mice were given saline or 50 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride once via the tail vein; 16 h later they were treated with subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 2.25 mg/kg/day FB{sub 1} in saline for three successive days. Gadolinium significantly attenuated FB{sub 1}-induced increases in the activities of circulating alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and reduced the FB{sub 1}-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and free sphinganine accumulation in liver. Both gadolinium and FB{sub 1} treatments individually increased the expression of selected cell signal factors; e.g., TNF{alpha}, TNF receptor 1, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, lymphotoxin {beta}, interferon {gamma}, and transforming growth factor {beta}1; gadolinium chloride did not alter FB{sub 1}-induced expression of the above genes. Results indicated that Kupffer cells play a role in FB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity. Decreased FB{sub 1}-induced sphinganine accumulation and increased protective TNF{alpha} signaling by gadolinium chloride may in part account for its ameliorating effect on FB{sub 1} liver damage.

  7. Visualization of isolated trigeminal nerve invasion by lymphoma using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manon-Espaillat, R.; Lanska, D.J.; Ruff, R.L.; Cleveland Veteran's Administration Medical Center, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH; Masaryk, T.; University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH

    1990-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with active histiocytic lymphoma for 12 years developed an isolated right trigeminal neuropathy. Initial evaluation with head computed tomography, X-rays of the skull base, bone scan, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis including cytology were normal. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the proximal third of the right trigeminal nerve. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI can be useful for the early demonstration of cranial nerve invasion by lymphoma. (orig.)

  8. The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Separation of Free Gadolinium(III) From Gd-DTPA Complex by Nanofiltration-Complexation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Iman; Anggraeni, Anni; Ukun, MSS; Bahti, Husein H.

    2017-05-01

    Nowdays, the utilization of rare earth elements has been carried out widely in industry and medicine, one of them is gadolinium in Gd-DTPA complex is used as a contrast agent in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic to increase the visual contrast between normal tissue and diseased. Although the stability of a given complex may be high enough, the complexation step couldnot have been completed, so there is possible to gadolinium(III) in the complex compound. Therefore, the function of that compounds should be dangerous because of the toxicity of gadolinium(III) in human body. So, it is necessarry to separate free gadolinium(III) from Gd-DTPA complex by nanofiltration-complexation. The method of this study is complexing of Gd2O3 with DTPA ligand by reflux and separation of Gd-DTPA complex from gadolinium(III) with a nanofiltration membrane on the variation of pressures(2, 3, 4, 5, 6 bars) and temperature (25, 30, 35, 40 °C) and determined the flux and rejection. The results of this study are the higher of pressures and temperatures, permeation flux are increasing and ion rejections are decreasing and gave the free gadolinium(III) rejection until 86.26%.

  9. High coronary calcium score and post-procedural CK-MB are noninvasive predictors of coronary stent restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JB

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jae-Beom Lee,1 Yun-Seok Choi,2 Woo-Baek Chung,2 Ami Kwon,2 Chul-Soo Park,2 Man-Young Lee2 1Anyang Sam Hospital, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Youido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Purpose: High coronary calcium score (CCS and post-procedural cardiac enzyme may be related with poor outcomes in patients with coronary stent implantation. Methods: A total of 1,072 patients (63.2% male, mean age: 61.7±10.3 years who underwent coronary multi-detect computed tomography at index procedure and follow-up coronary angiography (CAG after drug-eluting stent (DES were divided into two groups: those with and without target lesion revascularization (TLR; >50% reduction in luminal stent diameter or angina symptoms on follow-up CAG. The CCSs for predicting stent revascularization were elucidated. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to risk factors. The initial CCS was significantly higher in the TLR group (1,102.4±743.7 vs 345.8±51.05, P=0.04. After adjustment of significant factors for TLR, only CCS and post-procedural creatine kinase MB form (CK-MB elevation were significant predictors of coronary artery TLR. Receiver operation curve revealed that >800 in CCS had 69% in sensitivity and 88% in specificity about predicting the TLR. Conclusion: High CCS with post-procedural CK-MB might be the useful predictors for TLR after DES implantation. Keywords: coronary restenosis, drug-eluting stents, calcium, creatine kinase

  10. Deep learning enables reduced gadolinium dose for contrast-enhanced brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Enhao; Pauly, John M; Wintermark, Max; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2018-02-13

    There are concerns over gadolinium deposition from gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) administration. To reduce gadolinium dose in contrast-enhanced brain MRI using a deep learning method. Retrospective, crossover. Sixty patients receiving clinically indicated contrast-enhanced brain MRI. 3D T 1 -weighted inversion-recovery prepped fast-spoiled-gradient-echo (IR-FSPGR) imaging was acquired at both 1.5T and 3T. In 60 brain MRI exams, the IR-FSPGR sequence was obtained under three conditions: precontrast, postcontrast images with 10% low-dose (0.01mmol/kg) and 100% full-dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of gadobenate dimeglumine. We trained a deep learning model using the first 10 cases (with mixed indications) to approximate full-dose images from the precontrast and low-dose images. Synthesized full-dose images were created using the trained model in two test sets: 20 patients with mixed indications and 30 patients with glioma. For both test sets, low-dose, true full-dose, and the synthesized full-dose postcontrast image sets were compared quantitatively using peak-signal-to-noise-ratios (PSNR) and structural-similarity-index (SSIM). For the test set comprised of 20 patients with mixed indications, two neuroradiologists scored blindly and independently for the three postcontrast image sets, evaluating image quality, motion-artifact suppression, and contrast enhancement compared with precontrast images. Results were assessed using paired t-tests and noninferiority tests. The proposed deep learning method yielded significant (n = 50, P 5 dB PSNR gains and >11.0% SSIM). Ratings on image quality (n = 20, P = 0.003) and contrast enhancement (n = 20, P deep learning method, gadolinium dose can be reduced 10-fold while preserving contrast information and avoiding significant image quality degradation. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Heat pretreatment-induced activation of gadolinium surfaces towards the initial precipitation of hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, G.; Schweke, D.; Shamir, N.; Zalkind, S.; Livneh, T.; Danon, A.; Kimmel, G.; Mintz, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    A vacuum heat pretreatment is applied, in order to enhance the reactivity of hydride-forming metals towards hydrogen reaction. For gadolinium, as for other rare-earth metals and some actinides, pretreatment temperatures of about 470 K are sufficient to induce such activation. The different factors that may be involved in that activation mechanism are identified and analyzed for gadolinium and their role is evaluated. It is concluded that the most prominent effect is desorption of surface hydroxyl groups, which impede the dissociative chemisorptions of hydrogen.

  12. Comparison of RSYST and WIMSD-4 performance for gadolinium poisoned lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikowska, T; Szczesna, B; Sadowska, B

    1992-06-01

    The participation in the Co-ordinated Research Programme on `Safe Core Management with Burnable Absorbers in VVERs` has created a possibility of validation of our basic calculational tools for advanced lattice calculations. A systematic analysis of the performance of WIMSD-4 and the recently adapted RSYST modular systems has been carried out on the basis of two benchmarks with gadolinium bearing pins. The report consists of a detailed comparison of methods and models available in RSYST and WIMSD-4 followed by calculational results and their discussion. Finally, the conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the two codes for clean fuel and gadolinium poisoned reactor lattices. (author). 26 refs, 19 figs, 19 tabs.

  13. Phantom experiment of depth-dose distributions for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Kato, K.; Sakuma, Y.; Tsuruno, A.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Depth-dose distributions in a tumor simulated phantom were measured for thermal neutron flux, capture gamma-ray and internal conversion electron dose rates for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The results show that (i) a significant dose enhancement can be achieved in the tumor by capture gamma-rays and internal conversion electrons but the dose is mainly due to capture gamma-rays from the Gd(n, γ) reactions, therefore, is not selective at the cellular level, (ii) the dose distribution was a function of strongly interrelated parameters such as gadolinium concentrations, tumor site and neutron beam size (collimator aperture size), and (iii) the Gd-NCT by thermal neutrons appears to be a potential for treatment of superficial tumor. (author)

  14. Clinical application of gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional pulmonary MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Katsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with suspected pulmonary lesions, and three normal volunteers, underwent gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) pulmonary MR angiography (MRA). The MRA were obtained during intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast material, in a single breath-hold. Conspicuity of the normal pulmonary segmental arteries was estimated on the MRA. Abnormal findings such as ''vascular involvement'', ''abnormal connection'', stenosis'', or ''dilatation'' on the MRA were compared with those on conventional angiography or CT. Normal pulmonary segmental arteries, except for A 4,5,6,8and9 of the left pulmonary artery, could be clearly visualized. Blind reading of four different findings lead to characteristic findings for each pulmonary disease that can be aid in their differential diagnoses. This technique shows promise as a noninvasive diagnosis of lung diseases. (author)

  15. Study of points defects produced by irradiation of monocrystalline nickel and polycrystalline gadolinium; Etude des defauts ponctuels crees par irradiation dans: - le nickel monocristallin - le gadolinium polycristallin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The work described in this thesis falls into two parts: the first comprises a study of magnetocrystalline nickel by resistivity measurements; the second is a description of resistivity and magnetic after effect measurements on an h.c.p. ferromagnetic crystal other than cobalt, namely gadolinium. For the first part we have demonstrated the existence of a small but definite orientation dependence in the creation of point defects by electron irradiation (20 deg. K) of a nickel single crystal. In particular, the effect is manifested in the form of the stage I{sub C}, II and III in the resistivity recovery. In the second part an important result has emerged: namely that there is no magnetic after effect phenomenon in a neutron irradiated (27 deg. K) ferromagnetic metal. Several considerations are discussed by way of a preliminary interpretation of this important difference between gadolinium and cobalt. (author) [French] Le travail qui a fait l'objet de ce memoire comporte deux parties distinctes: une premiere constituee de l'etude du nickel sous la forme de monocristaux, a l'aide de mesures de resistivite; la seconde partie est composee d'experiences de resistivite et de trainage magnetique sur un cristal h.c.p. ferromagnetique autre que le cobalt, le gadolinium. Dans la premiere partie, nous avons mis en evidence un effet sensible de la direction de l'irradiation electronique (a 20 deg. K) sur la creation des defauts ponctuels dans le nickel monocristallin, en particulier au niveau des stades I{sub C}, II et III des courbes de revenu de la resistivite. Dans la deuxieme partie, un point particulier a ete mis en evidence: l'absence de phenomene de trainage magnetique dans un metal ferromagnetique irradie par des neutrons (a 27 deg. K). Quelques points d'interpretations preliminaires sont avances pour expliquer la difference notable entre le gadolinium et le cobalt. (auteur)

  16. Prediction of the estimated 5-year risk of sudden cardiac death and syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using late gadolinium enhancement and extracellular volume CMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim; Weinrich, Julius; Well, Lennart; Tahir, Enver; Adam, Gerhard; Lund, Gunnar [University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Muench, Julia; Patten, Monica [University Heart Center Hamburg, Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Luebeck, Hamburg (Germany); Saering, Dennis [University of Applied Sciences, Information Technology and Image Processing, Wedel (Germany); Stehning, Christian [Philips Research, Hamburg (Germany); Bohnen, Sebastian; Radunski, Ulf K.; Muellerleile, Kai [University Heart Center Hamburg, Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the ability of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including native T1 and global extracellular volume (ECV) to identify hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and to predict syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). A 1.5-T CMR was performed in 73 HCM patients and 16 controls. LGE size was quantified using the 3SD, 5SD and full width at half maximum (FWHM) method. T1 and ECV maps were generated by a 3(3)5 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence. Receiver-operating curve analysis evaluated the best parameter to identify patients with increased SCD risk ≥4% and patients with syncope or non-sustained VT. Global ECV was the best predictor of SCD risk with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83. LGE size was significantly inferior to global ECV with an AUC of 0.68, 0.70 and 0.70 (all P < 0.05) for 3SD-, 5SD- and FWHM-LGE, respectively. Combined use of the SCD risk score and global ECV significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy to identify HCM patients with syncope or non-sustained VT. Combined use of the SCD risk score and global ECV has the potential to improve HCM patient selection, benefiting most implantable cardioverter defibrillators. (orig.)

  17. Prediction of the estimated 5-year risk of sudden cardiac death and syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using late gadolinium enhancement and extracellular volume CMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avanesov, Maxim; Weinrich, Julius; Well, Lennart; Tahir, Enver; Adam, Gerhard; Lund, Gunnar; Muench, Julia; Patten, Monica; Saering, Dennis; Stehning, Christian; Bohnen, Sebastian; Radunski, Ulf K.; Muellerleile, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including native T1 and global extracellular volume (ECV) to identify hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and to predict syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). A 1.5-T CMR was performed in 73 HCM patients and 16 controls. LGE size was quantified using the 3SD, 5SD and full width at half maximum (FWHM) method. T1 and ECV maps were generated by a 3(3)5 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence. Receiver-operating curve analysis evaluated the best parameter to identify patients with increased SCD risk ≥4% and patients with syncope or non-sustained VT. Global ECV was the best predictor of SCD risk with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83. LGE size was significantly inferior to global ECV with an AUC of 0.68, 0.70 and 0.70 (all P < 0.05) for 3SD-, 5SD- and FWHM-LGE, respectively. Combined use of the SCD risk score and global ECV significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy to identify HCM patients with syncope or non-sustained VT. Combined use of the SCD risk score and global ECV has the potential to improve HCM patient selection, benefiting most implantable cardioverter defibrillators. (orig.)

  18. Determination of integrated neutron flux by the measurement of the isotopic ratios of cadmium and gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyoshi, Irene Akemy

    1982-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of the indirect determination of the integrated neutron flux, through the change of isotopic ratios of cadmium and gadolinium was investigated. The samples of cadmium we/e gadolinium were irradiated in the IEA-Rl reactor. These elements were chosen because they have high thermal neutron absorption cross section which permit the change in the isotopic composition during a short irradiation time to be measured accurately. The isotopic ratios were measured with a thermionic mass spectrometer the silica-gel technique and arrangement with single filament were used for the cadmium analysis, where as the oxi - reduction technique and arrangement with double filaments were used for gadolinium analysis. The mass fractionation effects for cadmium and gadolinium were corrected respectively by the exponential and potential expansion of the isotopic fractionation factor per atomic mass unit. The flux values supplied by the Centro de Operacao e Utilizacao do Reator de Pesquisas do IPEN were extrapolated. These values and the integrated flux values obtained experimentally were compared. (author)

  19. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements; Etude du couplage hyperfin dans les alliages gadolinium-praseodyme par mesures de chaleur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le couplage hyperfin d'alliages de gadolinium-praseodyme par des mesures de chaleur specifique jusqu'a 0.3 K. Dans la premiere partie de cette etude nous decrivons le dispositif experimental. La deuxieme partie est consacree a des considerations theoriques. Nous avons etudie en detail le cas du praseodyme qui est une exception dans la serie des terres rares. La troisieme partie est consacree aux resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  20. A discussion on the tectonic implications of Ediacaran late- to post-orogenic A-type granite in the northeastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F. A.; Bonin, B.; Pease, V.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The transition from late-orogenic to post-orogenic magmatism following major orogenic episodes such as the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO) is an important, yet not well-understood geological event marking the cessation of subduction-controlled magmatism between buoyant lithospheric fragments. Forming the northern part of the EAO in the Arabian-Nubian Shield are three granitic suites that successively intruded the same northeastern area and post-date the 640 Ma major orogenic episode: (1) 620-600 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite with alkaline/ferroan/A-type geochemistry, (2) 599 Ma granite cumulates (some garnet-bearing) with calc-alkaline/magnesian affinities, and (3) 584-566 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite (aegirine-bearing) with a distinctive peralkaline/ferroan/A-type signature. Combining whole-rock geochemistry from the southern and northern Arabian Shield, suites 1 and 2 are suggested to be products of late-orogenic slab tear/rollback inducing asthenospheric mantle injection and lower crustal melting/fractionation toward A-type/ferroan geochemistry. Suite 3, however, is suggested to be produced by post-orogenic lithospheric delamination, which replaced the older mantle with new asthenospheric (rare earth element-enriched) mantle that ultimately becomes the thermal boundary layer of the new lithosphere. Major shear zones, such as the 620-540 Ma Najd Fault System (NFS), are some of the last tectonic events recorded across the Arabian Shield. Data presented here suggest that the NFS is directly related to the late-orogenic (620-600 Ma) slab tear/rollback in the northeastern Shield as it met with opposing subduction polarity in the southern Shield. Furthermore, this study infers that east and west Gondwana amalgamation interacted with opposing convergence reflected by the NFS.

  1. 29 CFR 37.64 - What procedures must the Director follow when CRC has completed a post-approval compliance review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What procedures must the Director follow when CRC has completed a post-approval compliance review? 37.64 Section 37.64 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor... (WIA) Compliance Procedures § 37.64 What procedures must the Director follow when CRC has completed a...

  2. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.

    2009-11-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of innovative concepts for fuel cladding in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This concept implies the insertion of rare earth (erbium and gadolinium) in the zirconium fuel cladding. The determination of phase equilibria in the systems is essential prior to the implementation of such a promising solution. This study consisted in an experimental determination of the erbium-zirconium phase diagram. For this, we used many different techniques in order to obtain diagram data such as solubility limits, solidus, liquidus or invariant temperatures. These data allowed us to present a new diagram, very different from the previous one available in the literature. We also assessed the diagram using the CALPHAD approach. In the gadolinium-zirconium system, we determined experimentally the solubility limits. Those limits had never been determined before, and the values we obtained showed a very good agreement with the experimental and assessed versions of the diagram. Because these alloys are subjected to oxygen diffusion throughout their life, we focused our attention on the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems. The first system has been investigated experimentally. The alloys fabrication has been performed using powder metallurgy. In order to obtain pure raw materials, we fabricated powder from erbium and zirconium bulk metals using hydrogen absorption/desorption. The characterisation of the ternary pellets allowed the determination of two ternary isothermal sections at 800 and 1100 C. For the gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium system, we calculated the phase equilibria at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 C, using a homemade database compiled from literature assessments of the oxygen-zirconium, gadolinium-zirconium and gadolinia-zirconia systems. Finally, we determined the mechanical properties, in connexion with the microstructure, of industrial quality alloys in order to identify the influence of

  3. Early versus late tracheostomy in cardiovascular intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Wilfredo; Jerath, Angela; Djaiani, George; Cabrerizo Sanchez, Rosa; Wąsowicz, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of tracheostomy have been well established. Most of the literature, refers these benefits to general intensive care population, excluding cardiac surgery or including only small number of these patients. On the other hand, there is no clear definition describing the proper time to perform the procedure and defining what are potential benefits of early compared to late tracheostomy. This retrospective cohort aims to assess the potential benefits of early tracheostomy on post-operative outcomes, length of stay and post-tracheostomy complications within cardiac surgical population. After obtaining REB approval, we conducted a retrospective chart review in a single, tertiary care institution, identifying patients who underwent tracheostomy after cardiac surgery from 1999 to 2006. Time-to-tracheostomy was defined as "early" if tracheostomy. 32 (22%) patients underwent early tracheostomy and 115 (78%) late tracheostomy. Incidence of atrial fibrillation (31.2% vs 61.7%; P = 0.003), kidney dysfunction (6.3% vs 27.2%; P=0.015) and kidney failure 18.8% vs 43.5%; P = 0.013) were lower in the early tracheostomy group. There were no differences on post tracheostomy infection or presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Both the ICU and hospital length of stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy group, 21.5 (ET) vs 36.9 (LT) days and 37.5 (ET) vs 57.6 (LT) days respectively. There were no differences in mortality between groups. There are significant benefits in reduction of postoperative morbidities with overall shorter ICU and hospital stay. These benefits may promote faster patient rehabilitation with reduced healthcare costs.

  4. The T2-Shortening Effect of Gadolinium and the Optimal Conditions for Maximizing the CNR for Evaluating the Biliary System: a Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoon, Choon Sik; Song, Si Young; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Woo Sun

    2011-01-01

    Clear depiction of the common bile duct is important when evaluating neonatal cholestasis in order to differentiate biliary atresia from other diseases. During MR cholangiopancreatography, the T2-shortening effect of gadolinium can increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bile duct and enhance its depiction. The purpose of this study was to confirm, by performing a phantom study, the T2-shortening effect of gadolinium, to evaluate the effect of different gadolinium chelates with different gadolinium concentrations and different magnetic field strengths for investigating the optimal combination of these conditions, and for identifying the maximum CNR for the evaluation of the biliary system. MR imaging using a T2-weighted single-shot fast spin echo sequence and T2 relaxometry was performed with a sponge phantom in a syringe tube. Two kinds of contrast agents (Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA) with different gadolinium concentrations were evaluated with 1.5T and 3T scanners. The signal intensities, the CNRs and the T2 relaxation time were analyzed. The signal intensities significantly decreased as the gadolinium concentrations increased (p < 0.001) with both contrast agents. These signal intensities were higher on a 3T (p < 0.001) scanner. The CNRs were higher on a 1.5T (p < 0.001) scanner and they showed no significant change with different gadolinium concentrations. The T2 relaxation time also showed a negative correlation with the gadolinium concentrations (p < 0.001) and the CNRs showed decrease more with Gd-EOB-DTPA (versus Gd-DTPA; p < 0.001) on a 3T scanner (versus 1.5T; p < 0.001). A T2-shortening effect of gadolinium exhibits a negative correlation with the gadolinium concentration for both the signal intensities and the T2 relaxation time. A higher CNR can be obtained with Gd-DTPA on a 1.5T MRI scanner.

  5. Influence of delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol on T2-mapping: is it possible to comprehensively assess knee cartilage composition in one post-contrast MR examination at 3 Tesla?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, J; van Tiel, J; Reijman, M; Bron, E E; Klein, S; Verhaar, J A N; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Krestin, G P; Wielopolski, P A; Oei, E H G

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the possibility of assessing knee cartilage with T2-mapping and delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in one post-contrast MR examination at 3 Tesla (T). T2 mapping was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at baseline; directly after baseline; after 10 min of cycling; and after 90 min delay, and in 16 osteoarthritis patients before and after intravenous administration of a double dose gadolinium dimeglumine contrast agent, reflecting key dGEMRIC protocol elements. Differences in T2 relaxation times between each timepoint and baseline were calculated for 6 cartilage regions using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and the smallest detectable change (SDC). After cycling, a significant change in T2 relaxation times was found in the lateral weight-bearing tibial plateau (+1.0 ms, P = 0.04). After 90 min delay, significant changes were found in the lateral weight-bearing femoral condyle (+1.2 ms, P = 0.03) and the lateral weight-bearing tibial plateau (+1.3 ms, P = 0.01). In these regions of interests (ROIs), absolute differences were small and lower than the corresponding SDCs. T2-mapping after contrast administration only showed statistically significantly lower T2 relaxation times in the medial posterior femoral condyle (-2.4 ms, P T2 relaxation times that were not consistent and lower than the SDC in the majority of regions, our results suggest that T2-mapping and dGEMRIC can be performed reliably in a single imaging session to assess cartilage biochemical composition in knee osteoarthritis (OA) at 3 T. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bydder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Early in the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) it was apparent that a high level of soft tissue contrast was available de novo and it was thought that the need for externally administered contrast agents might be small. This observation was tempered by the fact that separation of tumor from edema was frequently better with contrast-enhanced X-ray computed tomography (CT) than with unenhanced MRI. It was therefore felt that a contrast agent might be needed for MRI. At the end of 1983 the first parenteral agent, gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was used in volunteers, and clinical studies began in 1984. This paper discusses how, at present, Gd-DTPA, oral, and intravenous iron compounds are in clinical use

  7. The feasibility study of using deuterated gadolinium nitrate for moderator-poisoned shutdown and excess reactivity control in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Everatt, A.

    2006-01-01

    Gadolinium nitrate is used in CANDU stations as moderator poison for reactor shutdowns and excess reactivity control. The use of the light-water hydrate introduces significant quantities of light water into the moderator system, which must be removed from the moderator by periodically upgrading the moderator (isotopic maintenance). The benefit of using a deuterated gadolinium nitrate would be a higher moderator isotopic and/or a lesser isotopic maintenance requirement. This study evaluated the economics of using deuterated gadolinium nitrate, as opposed to the light-water hydrate, for moderator-poisoned shutdowns and excess reactivity control in CANDU-6 reactors. Normal gadolinium nitrate (i.e., the light-water hydrate) is available from suppliers at ∼125 $/kg. Supplier quotes for deuterated gadolinium nitrate ranged from 1900 to 4000 $/kg. To examine the possibility of producing deuterated gadolinium nitrate in-house at a lower cost than commercially available, a three-stage dissolution/evaporation manufacturing process was conceived and costed. Depending on the assumed demand for the product (i.e., the number of reactors adopting the use of the product) and the capital recovery period, the estimated unit cost for the dissolution/evaporation process ranged from 730 to 2500 $/kg. The determination of economic benefit from using deuterated gadolinium nitrate in existing CANDU stations was based on the cost savings resulting from a higher fuel burn-up (i.e., the higher moderator isotopic would give a higher fuel burn-up). The net benefit of using deuterated gadolinium nitrate for most CANDU stations was determined to be marginal (i.e., <20 k$/a). Only for those CANDU stations where the moderator isotopic was relatively low (e.g., 99.85 wt%) was there a potential significant benefit (20-100 k$/a). However, if the reason for the low moderator isotopic is a relatively high moderator light-water ingress rate from sources other than the use of the light-water hydrate

  8. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis using Frey's procedure: a Brazilian 16-year single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestic, Martinho Antonio; Callejas-Neto, Francisco; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Utrini, Murillo Pimentel; Cazzo, Everton; Pareja, Jose Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis is indicated for intractable pain. Frey's procedure is an accepted treatment for this disease. The aim of the present study was to describe a single-centre experience in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis using Frey's procedure. A retrospective analysis of 73 patients who underwent a Frey's procedure between 1991 to 2007 and had at least 1 year of follow-up. Demographics, indication for surgery, peri-operative complications and late outcomes were analysed. The median age was 39.9 years. Seventy out of the 73 (95.8%) patients were male. The median pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 19.1 kg/m(2). All patients had abdominal pain, 34 (46.6%) of them daily and 13 (17.8%) weekly, with moderate or severe intensity in 98.6% (n= 72). The aetiology was secondary to alcohol in 70 patients (95.9%), with a median consumption of 278 g per day. The surgical morbidity rate was 28.7%; there were no deaths. Median post-operative follow-up was 77.0 months; 64 patients (91.4%) had complete pain relief and post-operative BMI was 22.4 kg/m(2) (P<0.001). All patients with pre-operative endocrine and exocrine insufficiencies showed no reversal of the situation. New onset insufficiencies appeared late. Frey's procedure was a safe and effective therapeutic option for the surgical treatment of patients with intractable pain caused by chronic pancreatitis. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  9. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K. E.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.; Thomsen, C.; Oestergaard, M.; Bliddal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. Material and Methods: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58 years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol/l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. Results: Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images ( P <0.002). I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA ( P <0.01). Furthermore, a better delineation of the cartilage in the synovial/cartilage zone and of the chondral/subchondral border was observed. Conclusion: The dGEMRIC MRI method markedly improved delineation of hip joint cartilage compared to non-enhanced MRI. The i.a. Gd-DTPA provided the best cartilage delineation. dGEMRIC is a clinically applicable MRI method that may improve identification of early subtle cartilage damage and the accuracy of volume measurements of hip joint cartilage

  10. The experimental and theoretical investigations on the structure of the gadolinium-lead-tellurate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rada, S., E-mail: Simona.Rada@phys.utcluj.ro [Physics Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Culea, E.; Rada, M. [Physics Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Pronounced affinities of the lead and gadolinium ions towards [TeO{sub 3}] structural units. {yields} The reorganization of the tellurate structural units and the formation of new [Te{sub 3}O{sub 8}]{sup -4} and [Te{sub 6}O{sub 15}]{sup -6} structural units. {yields} Pb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 6}O{sub 15} crystalline phases. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to approach the structure of gadolinium-lead-tellurate glasses with compositions xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (100 - x)[7TeO{sub 2}.3PbO], x = 0-90 mol% using the X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, FTIR, EPR and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Our results show that the doping with gadolinium ions will deform the Te-O-Te linkages, will affect the length of Te=O bonds and the accommodation of the network with excess of oxygen will be realized by the reorganization of the tellurate structural units. These affinities pronounced of the lead and gadolinium cations towards tellurium atoms yield the formation of the Pb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 6}O{sub 15} crystalline phases because tellurate structural units can adopt a variety of structures due to the presence of the lone-pair electrons.

  11. Deposit of isotopically modified gadolinium suitable to detect solar neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribier, M

    1999-04-01

    Consideration on the possibility to find gadolinium with a modified isotopic composition are envisaged, in particular with respect to the important use of this element by the nuclear energy. These possibility could exist in the far future. (author)

  12. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyo Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biocompatible poly-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16 conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd via ethylenediamine (ED was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd.

  13. First measurements with new high-resolution gadolinium-GEM neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Etxegarai, Maddi; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Robinson, Linda; Ropelewski, Leszek; Schmidt, Susann; Streli, Christina; Thuiner, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer, NMX, require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The {\\mu}TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of $^{10}$B converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with an estimated efficiency of 10% at a wavelength of 2 {\\AA} and a position resolution better than 350 {\\mu}m.

  14. Specific features of the WWER Uranium-Gadolinium fuel behavior at BOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcheglov, A.; Proselkov, V.; Volkov, B.

    2013-01-01

    The calculated-experimental analysis of the WWER fuel behavior with 5%wt of gadolinium oxide at the beginning of life (BOL) is presented. The results are based on the data on fuel centerline temperature measurements, gas media pressure inside the cladding and fuel elongation obtained during irradiation of the test fuel rods in HBWR (Halden). Computer analysis of experimental data is performed with TOPRA-2, version 2 code. It is shown that specific features of the uranium-gadolinium fuel behavior at the early of life is due to presence of burnable absorber influencing the average linear heat rating, radial power distribution and lower thermal conductivity. In particular, the analysis of “late” relocation effect on the maximum Gd fuel temperature is presented. (authors)

  15. MRT of experimental liver abscesses - comparison of a new blood pool contrast agent with gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, A.; Adam, G.; Spuentrup, E.; Prescher, A.; Muehler, A.; Guenther, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In an experimental pyogenic liver abscess model, the signal intensities were compared intraindividually and interindividually after the application of a new blood pool contrast agent, 24-gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) cascade polymer, and after the application of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Methods: In 20 rabbits with experimentally induced liver abscesses, the relative signal intensities of the liver, abscess centre, abscess wall and portal vein were assessed before and between 30 seconds and 60 minutes after injection of a 25 μmol/kg dose of gadolinium polymer and of 100 μmol/kg of gadolinium-DTPA, respectively. Measurements were performed at 1.5 Tesla, using a head coil and a Flash-2-D sequence. Results: The interindividual comparison (unpaired T-test, p [de

  16. The diagnostic value of endoscopy and Helicobacter pylori tests for peptic ulcer patients in late post-treatment setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kull Ingrid

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for management of peptic ulcer patients after the treatment are largely directed to detection of H. pylori infection using only non-invasive tests. We compared the diagnostic value of non-invasive and endoscopy based H. pylori tests in a late post-treatment setting. Methods Altogether 34 patients with dyspeptic complaints were referred for gastroscopy 5 years after the treatment of peptic ulcer using a one-week triple therapy scheme. The endoscopic and histologic findings were evaluated according to the Sydney classification. Bacteriological, PCR and cytological investigations and 13C-UBT tests were performed. Results Seventeen patients were defined H. pylori positive by 13C-UBT test, PCR and histological examination. On endoscopy, peptic ulcer persisted in 4 H. pylori positive cases. Among the 6 cases with erosions of the gastric mucosa, only two patients were H. pylori positive. Mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were revealed both in the H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative cases. Bacteriological examination revealed three clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains. Cytology failed to prove validity for diagnosing H. pylori in a post-treatment setting. Conclusions In a late post-treatment setting, patients with dyspepsia should not be monitored only by non-invasive investigation methods; it is also justified to use the classical histological evaluation of H. pylori colonisation, PCR and bacteriology as they have shown good concordance with 13C-UBT. Moreover, endoscopy and histological investigation of a gastric biopsy have proved to be the methods with an additional diagnostic value, providing the physician with information about inflammatory, atrophic and metaplastic lesions of the stomach in dyspeptic H. pylori positive and negative patients. Bacteriological methods are suggested for detecting the putative antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori, aimed at successful eradication of infection in

  17. Solid solutions of gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods by combined microwave-ultrasonic irradiation assisted crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran; Obeydavi, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Nanocrystalline solid solutions consisting of un-doped and gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods were fabricated by a modified sol-gel process utilizing combined ultrasonic-microwave irradiations. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, diethylene glycol, and triethylenetetramine respectively as capping, structure directing, and complexing agents were used under ultrasound dynamic aging and microwave heating to obtain crystalline nanorods. Crystalline phase monitoring, lattice parameters and variation, morphology and shape, elemental analysis, functional groups, reducibility, and the oxidation state of emerged species were examined by PXRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, micro Raman, H2-TPR, and EPR techniques. Results have verified that irradiation mechanism of gelation and crystallization reduces the reaction time, augments the crystal quality, and formation of hexagonal close pack structure of Wurtzite morphology. Besides, dissolution of gadolinium within host lattice involves lattice deformation, unit cell distortion, and angular position variation. Structure related shape and growth along with compositional purity were observed through microscopic and spectroscopic surveys. Furthermore, TPR and EPR studies elucidated more detailed behavior upon exposure to the exerted irradiations and subsequent air-annealing including the formed oxidation states and electron trapping centers, presence of gadolinium, zinc, and oxygen disarrays and defects, as well as alteration in the host unit cell via gadolinium addition.

  18. Early versus Late Decompression for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yousefifard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the vast number of surveys, no consensus has been reached on the optimum timing of spinal decompression surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of early and late spinal decompression surgery on neurologic improvement and post-surgical complications in patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries.Methods: Two independent reviewers carried out an extended search in electronic databases. Data of neurological outcome and post-surgery complication were extracted. Finally, pooled relative risk (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI was reported for comparing of efficacy of early and late surgical decompression.Results: Eventually 22 studies were included. The pooled RR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68-0.89 for at least one grade neurological improvement, and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92 for at least two grade improvement. Pooled RR for surgical decompression performed within 12 hours after the injury was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.13-0.52; p<0.001, while it was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.90; p=0.002 when the procedure was performed within 24 hours, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.76-1.14; p=0.48 when it was carried out in the first 72 hours after the injury. Surgical decompression performed within 24 hours after injury was found to be associated with significantly lower rates of post-surgical complications (RR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.86; p<0.001.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that early spinal decompression surgery can improve neurologic recovery and is associated with less post-surgical complications. The optimum efficacy is observed when the procedure is performed within 12 hours of the injury.

  19. Influence of gadolinium concentration on the EMR spectrum of Gd{sup 3+} in zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectra of gadolinium-doped zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) powders have been studied at room temperature for gadolinium concentrations between 0.20 and 1.0 mol%. The results suggest that Gd{sup 3+} ions occupy substitutional sites in the zircon lattice, that the electron magnetic resonance linewidth increases with increasing gadolinium concentration and that the range of the exchange interaction between Gd{sup 3+} ions is about 1.17 nm, larger than that of the same ion in other host lattices, such as ceria (CeO{sub 2}), strontium oxide (SrO) and calcium oxide (CaO). The fact that the electron magnetic resonance linewidth of the Gd{sup 3+} ion in polycrystalline zircon increases, regularly and predictably, with Gd concentration, shows that the Gd{sup 3+} ion can be used as a probe to study, rapidly and non-destructively, the crystallinity and degradation of ZrSiO{sub 4}.

  20. Clinical experience of gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Inoue, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Hiromi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) in 9 patients with intracranial tumors (8) and a spinal tumor (1). In this study IR (2100/600) and short SE (600/40) were used. After administration of Gd-DTPA, signal intensity of tumors increased in all cases. Contrast enhanced MRI with Gd-DTPA was useful in metastatic brain tumor, cerebeller astrocytoma and glioblastoma to differentiate the tumor from edema. Since meningiomas were clearly demonstrated and differentiated from edema. Gd-DTPA seems to be not required for the diagnosis of meningiomas. No severe side effect were encountered after injection of Gd-DTPA. (author)

  1. Sensitive and transportable gadolinium-core plastic scintillator sphere for neutron detection and counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Carrel, Frédérick; Corre, Gwenolé; Normand, Stéphane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Méchin, Laurence [CNRS, UCBN, Groupe de Recherche en Informatique, Image, Automatique et Instrumentation de Caen, 14050 Caen (France); Hamel, Matthieu [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-08-21

    Neutron detection forms a critical branch of nuclear-related issues, currently driven by the search for competitive alternative technologies to neutron counters based on the helium-3 isotope. The deployment of plastic scintillators shows a high potential for efficient detectors, safer and more reliable than liquids, more easily scalable and cost-effective than inorganic. In the meantime, natural gadolinium, through its 155 and mostly 157 isotopes, presents an exceptionally high interaction probability with thermal neutrons. This paper introduces a dual system including a metal gadolinium core inserted at the center of a high-scale plastic scintillator sphere. Incident fast neutrons are thermalized by the scintillator shell and then may be captured with a significant probability by gadolinium 155 and 157 nuclei in the core. The deposition of a sufficient fraction of the capture high-energy prompt gamma signature inside the scintillator shell will then allow discrimination from background radiations by energy threshold, and therefore neutron detection. The scaling of the system with the Monte Carlo MCNPX2.7 code was carried out according to a tradeoff between the moderation of incident fast neutrons and the probability of slow neutron capture by a moderate-cost metal gadolinium core. Based on the parameters extracted from simulation, a first laboratory prototype for the assessment of the detection method principle has been synthetized. The robustness and sensitivity of the neutron detection principle are then assessed by counting measurement experiments. Experimental results confirm the potential for a stable, highly sensitive, transportable and cost-efficient neutron detector and orientate future investigation toward promising axes.

  2. Sensitive and transportable gadolinium-core plastic scintillator sphere for neutron detection and counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Carrel, Frédérick; Corre, Gwenolé; Normand, Stéphane; Méchin, Laurence; Hamel, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Neutron detection forms a critical branch of nuclear-related issues, currently driven by the search for competitive alternative technologies to neutron counters based on the helium-3 isotope. The deployment of plastic scintillators shows a high potential for efficient detectors, safer and more reliable than liquids, more easily scalable and cost-effective than inorganic. In the meantime, natural gadolinium, through its 155 and mostly 157 isotopes, presents an exceptionally high interaction probability with thermal neutrons. This paper introduces a dual system including a metal gadolinium core inserted at the center of a high-scale plastic scintillator sphere. Incident fast neutrons are thermalized by the scintillator shell and then may be captured with a significant probability by gadolinium 155 and 157 nuclei in the core. The deposition of a sufficient fraction of the capture high-energy prompt gamma signature inside the scintillator shell will then allow discrimination from background radiations by energy threshold, and therefore neutron detection. The scaling of the system with the Monte Carlo MCNPX2.7 code was carried out according to a tradeoff between the moderation of incident fast neutrons and the probability of slow neutron capture by a moderate-cost metal gadolinium core. Based on the parameters extracted from simulation, a first laboratory prototype for the assessment of the detection method principle has been synthetized. The robustness and sensitivity of the neutron detection principle are then assessed by counting measurement experiments. Experimental results confirm the potential for a stable, highly sensitive, transportable and cost-efficient neutron detector and orientate future investigation toward promising axes.

  3. Bioethics and power: Informed consent procedures in post-socialist Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putniņa, Aivita

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores two lines of development in the donor consent procedures in post-Soviet Latvia. The paper is based on secondary analysis of interview, focus group discussion data, and media and legal text material collected throughout three previously conducted research projects on organ transplantation, population genome project and xenotransplantation focusing on the historical development of the issues of donor consent across these three fields of medical technologies. The paper argues that the quality of consent depends not as much on political and legal change per se as on the strengthening of the position of both medical specialists and donors, facilitating bonds between the two. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Luminescence study on Eu or Tb doped lanthanum-gadolinium pyrosilicate crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurosawa, S.; Shishido, T.; Sugawara, T.; Nomura, A.; Yubuta, K.; Pejchal, Jan; Murakami, R.; Yokota, Y.; Shoji, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, Mar (2015), s. 80-83 ISSN 0925-3467 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * gadolinium pyrosilicate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  5. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of gadolinium cationic lipids as tools for biodistribution studies of gene delivery complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Francoise; Cohen-Ohana, Mirit; Mignet, Nathalie; Sbarbati, Andrea; Herscovici, Jean; Scherman, Daniel; Byk, Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    Gadolinium-chelating cationic lipids have been synthesized to obtain lipoplexes with MRI contrast properties. These compounds were designed to follow the biodistribution of synthetic DNA for gene delivery by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The lipid MCO-I-68 was synthesized, and chelate complexes with gadolinium were formed and characterized in terms of physicochemical and DNA binding properties. The transfection activity of MCO-I-68-Gd/DNA complexes was assayed in vitro on NIH 3T3. Different formulations of the product were tested. When up to 5% of the gadolinium lipid complexes were co-formulated with the cationic lipid RPR120535 used as a reference, the transfection levels were maintained as compared to RPR120535 alone. To date, only a liposomal formulation of a gadolinium-cationic lipid chelate without DNA had been observed using magnetic resonance imaging. In vivo intratumoral administration of MCO-I-68-Gd/DNA lipoplexes to tumor model led to an important increase of the NMR signal. It was demonstrated that the new complexes also acted as transfection carriers when they were formulated from liposomes.

  6. Magnetic resonance tomography for focal lesions in the liver using the para-magnetic contrast medium gadolinium DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Roemer, T.; Felix, R.; Wolf, K.J.; Klinikum Charlottenburg, Berlin

    1986-01-01

    The use of the para-magnetic contrast medium gadolinium DTPA for magnetic resonance tomography of focal lesions in the liver was investigated in 31 patients. Two dosage schedules of the contrast medium (0.1 and 0.2 mmol/kg body weight) were used with field strengths of 0.35 and 0.5 Tesla. Using T 1 sequences, gadolinium DTPA showed increased signal intensity in the liver and in tumours, but this was significantly more marked in the tumour. On T 1 spin-echo sequences, previously iso-intense lesions became visible after administration of contrast. On the other hand, contrast-enhanced lesions were less well seen on inversion recovery sequences because of a reduction in the contrast between tumour and liver tissue. The contrast between tumour and liver tissue was not improved by gadolinium DTPA in comparison with precontrast inversion recovery sequences and T 2 spin-echo sequences. The perfusion of intra-hepatic tumours could be elucidated by magnetic resonance tomography after the administration of gadolinium DTPA. (orig.) [de

  7. Factors associated with contraceptive use in late- and post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah

    2004-06-01

    In 1994, South Africa underwent a transition from the institutionalized racism of an apartheid state to a nonracial democracy. This study uses data from two surveys conducted in the style of the Demographic and Health Surveys to compare patterns and predictors of racial differences in modern contraceptive use in the late- and post-apartheid periods. Age-group-specific logistic regression models show that despite strong state family planning programs targeting black women, these women were less likely than nonblacks to practice modern contraception both before and after the political transition, even after controlling for large racial-group differences in sociodemographic characteristics and the distribution of socioeconomic resources. Black, colored, Indian, and white women show different patterns of contraceptive use across their reproductive careers; in particular, young, unmarried black and colored women show high levels of use. Use of injectable contraceptives is also high among black and colored women, whereas injectables are not the primary method used by Indian or white women. These findings are discussed in light of their research and policy implications.

  8. Impact of procedure on the post-operative infection risk of patients after elective colon surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzer, David N; Davis, John M; Ahmed, Nasim; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Kuo, Yen-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Post-operative infection impacts the quality of patient care, prolongs the length of hospital stay, and utilizes more health care resources. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of surgical site infection among three major surgical procedures for treating patients with colon pathology. The location of colon resection impacts the post-operative infection rate. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using the 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adult patients (age ≥18 yr) with colon diseases are the population of interest. The disease status and procedures were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Patients with a primary diagnosis of diverticulosis of the colon without hemorrhage (ICD-9-CM codes: 562.11 and 562.12) or malignant neoplasm of the colon (ICD-9-CM codes: 153.x, where x represents the possible digits within this ICD-9-CM code category), with procedures of open and other right hemicolectomy (ORH; ICD-9-CM code: 45.73) or open and other left hemicolectomy (OLH; ICD-9-CM code: 45.75), or open and other sigmoidectomy (OS; ICD-9-CM code: 45.76) were included for this study. The primary measured outcome for the study was surgical site infection. There were an estimated 26,381 ORH procedures, 9,558 OLH procedures, and 31,656 OS procedures performed in 2006. There was a significant difference among procedures with respect to their age distributions (mean [standard error]: ORH vs. OLH vs. OS=70.5 [0.2] vs. 63.8 [0.3] vs. 59.5 [0.2] yr, pinfection rates: ORH vs. OLH vs. OS=2.9% vs. 5.6% vs. 4.9%, pinfection for OLH (AOR [95% CI]: 1.31 [1.04-1.64], p=0.02) compared with OS. Different sites of colon operations were associated with different risks of surgical site infections. Accordingly, appropriate pre-operative measures should address these differences.

  9. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle α i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the α i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction. (author)

  10. Heterobimetallic gadolinium(III)-iron(III) complex of DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N.; Kimpe, Kristof; Binnemans, Koen

    2004-01-01

    A derivative of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), carrying two catechol functional groups has been synthesised by the reaction between DTPA-bis(anhydride) and 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine). The ligand DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide), [DTPA(HTA) 2 ], is able to form stable heterobimetallic complexes with gadolinium(III) and iron(III) ions. The gadolinium(III) occupies the internal coordination cage of DTPA formed by three nitrogens, two carboxylate and two amide oxygens, while the [Fe(NTA)(H 2 O) 2 ] (nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA) binds to catechol units by the substitution of two water ligands. The formation of polymeric species was avoided by using the tripodal NTA ligand. The heterobimetallic complex was characterised by means of visible absorption spectroscopy, electron spray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

  11. A case report on a severe anaphylaxis reaction to Gadolinium-based MR contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Juil; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Lee, Whal; Kang, Hye Ryun; Choi, Young Hun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Acute hypersensitivity reactions to gadolinium-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media have been shown to have a much lower incidence and they are generally milder in terms of severity than acute adverse reactions associated with the use of iodinated contrast media for computed tomography scans. However, even though it is rare, a severe hypersensitivity reaction to MR contrast media can occur. Here we present the case of a 66-year-old woman who experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction after administration of gadolinium-based contrast media without a previous history of allergies.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Breast at 3T: Pre- and Post-Contrast Evaluation for Breast Lesion Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kousi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T can provide accurate breast lesion characterization, and to determine the effect of gadolinium on the resonance of tCho. Methods. Twenty-four positive-mammogram patients were examined on a 3T MR scanner. 1H-MRS was performed before and after gadolinium administration. tCho peak was qualitatively evaluated before and after contrast injection. Results. Fourteen out of 27 lesions proved to be malignant after histopathological diagnosis. Using 1H-MRS, before contrast injection, 6/14 confirmed malignancies and 11/13 benign lesions were correctly classified; while, after contrast injection, 11/14 confirmed malignancies and 12/13 benign processes were correctly classified. Post gadolinium 1H-MRS proved useful in picking up tCho signal, improving the overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity by 35%, 83%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusion. 1H-MRS overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in detecting breast lesion’s malignancy were increased after gadolinium administration. It is prudent to perform 1H-MRS before contrast injection in large breast lesions to avoid choline underestimation. In cases of small or non-mass lesions, it is recommended to perform 1H-MRS after contrast injection for better voxel prescription to enable a reliable preoperative diagnosis.

  13. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PHI Annual Reports Contact Us Copyright EDUCATION Post-Polio Health newsletter Health Care Considerations Handbook on the Late Effects ... Late Effects of Polio Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) About Acute Polio Major ...

  14. Colloidal stabilization of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) suspensions via rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Bentzen, Janet Jonna

    2015-01-01

    colloidally stable state. The method was applied to explore the ability of four commercial dispersants (acidic affine, neutral, basic affine, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) to disperse cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) in ethanol. Only the acidic affine and the PVP dispersants were found to efficiently disperse...

  15. Simple method for quantification of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Keizo; Kinoshita, Shota; Okazaki, Shoko

    2012-01-01

    To develop an estimation method of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, the effect of concentration of Gd compounds on the ESR spectrum of nitroxyl radical was examined. A solution of either 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPONE) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) was mixed with a solution of Gd compound and the ESR spectrum was recorded. Increased concentration of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid chelate (Gd-DTPA), an MRI contrast agent, increased the peak-to-peak line widths of ESR spectra of the nitroxyl radicals, in accordance with a decrease of their signal heights. A linear relationship was observed between concentration of Gd-DTPA and line width of ESR signal, up to approximately 50 mmol/L Gd-DTPA, with a high correlation coefficient. Response of TEMPONE was 1.4-times higher than that of TEMPOL as evaluated from the slopes of the lines. The response was slightly different among Gd compounds; the slopes of calibration curves for acua[N,N-bis[2-[(carboxymethyl)[(methylcarbamoyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]glycinato(3-)]gadolinium hydrate (Gd-DTPA-BMA) (6.22 μT·L/mmol) and gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid chelate (Gd-DOTA) (6.62 μT·L/mmol) were steeper than the slope for Gd-DTPA (5.45 μT·L/mmol), whereas the slope for gadolinium chloride (4.94 μT·L/mmol) was less steep than that for Gd-DTPA. This method is simple to apply. The results indicate that this method is useful for rough estimation of the concentration of Gd contrast agents if calibration is carried out with each standard compound. It was also found that the plot of the reciprocal square root of signal height against concentrations of contrast agents could be useful for the estimation if a constant volume of sample solution is taken and measured at the same position in the ESR cavity every time.

  16. Late effects of post-high-dose-rate brachytherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma: are they severer than post-low-dose-rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, T.; Koizumi, M.; Nishiyama, K.; Peiffert, D.; Lapeyre, M.; Hoffstetter, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: late effects by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy have been believed severer than low-dose-rate (LDR) provided tumor control was constant. Local control of oropharyngeal carcinoma with HDR at Osaka Medical Center was comparable to LDR series from Centre Alexis Vautrin (82%, 79.5%, respectively). To assess the feasibility of HDR brachytherapy, the late effects were compared. Patients and methods: the data of 29 HDR and 24 LDR patients (median follow-up of 27 and 29.5 months, respectively; p = 0.89) were collected. The HDR schedule was 21 Gy/3.5 fractions/2 days following 46 Gy/23 fractions external beam, while 25 Gy/3 days following 50 Gy/25 fractions external beam was for LDR. Late changes were evaluated using RTOG/EORTC late morbidity scoring scheme. For subclinical late changes, mucosa chapter of Dische score was modified for brachytherapy. Scores were discussed through photos and were agreed on by authors. Late sequelae were estimated, by reviewing charts, concerning frequency, severity, and duration of mucosal damages (erosion and ulcer). Results: Late changes were of no difference (p = 0.12 for EORTC/RTOG, and p = 0.45, 0.47, 1.00, 0.12, 0.16, 0.95, 0.27, 0.21 for erythema, ulceration, edema, thinning, pallor, telangiectasia, mobility impairment of tongue/faucial pillars, respectively, of the modified Dische score). Late sequelae showed no differences (p = 0.90, 0.12, 0.40 for frequency, severity, duration, respectively, of mucosal damages). Conclusion: the late effects by HDR were not severer than by LDR. HDR oropharyngeal brachytherapy is as safe as LDR. (orig.)

  17. Depletion of gadolinium burnable poison in a PWR assembly with high burnup fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refeat, Riham Mahmoud [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Safety Engineering Dept.

    2015-12-15

    A tendency to increase the discharge burnup of nuclear fuel for Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has been a characteristic of its operation for many years. It will be able to burn at very high burnup of about 70 GWd/t with UO{sub 2} fuels. The U-235 enrichment must be higher than 5 %, which leads to the necessity of using an extremely efficient burnable poison like Gadolinium oxide. Using gadolinium isotope is significant due to its particular depletion behavior (''Onion-Skin'' effect). In this paper, the MCNPX2.7 code is used to calculate the important neutronic parameters of the next generation fuels of PWR. K-infinity, local peaking factor and fission rate distributions are calculated for a PWR assembly which burn at very high burnup reaching 70 GWd/t. The calculations are performed using the recently released evaluated Gadolinium cross section data. The results obtained are close to those of a LWR next generation fuel benchmark problem. This demonstrates that the calculation scheme used is able to accurately model a PWR assembly that operates at high burnup values.

  18. Added diagnostic value of T2-weighted MR imaging to gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging for the detection of small hepatocellular carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Chong Soo; Han, Young Min

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the added value of T2-weighted MRI to gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI for detection of HCCs. Materials and methods: Two readers retrospectively analyzed MRIs of 115 patients with 131 HCCs (size; 0.6-2.0 cm) that had been diagnosed by histology (n = 41) or imaging findings (n = 90). Two separate blind image analyses of the gadolinium set and the combined T2-weighted imaging and gadolinium sets were performed. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic method with four-point scale. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were also calculated. Results: For both observers, the Az values and sensitivities with the combined T2-weighed imaging and gadolinium set (mean Az 0.806, sensitivity 84.7) were significantly higher than those with the gadolinium set (mean Az 0.660, sensitivity 59.9) (p < 0.05). The addition of T2-weighted imaging led to a change in diagnosis for 27 lesions by both observers, which at gadolinium set were assigned a confidence level of 1 or 2 but at additional reading of T2-weighted imaging were assigned a confidence level of 3 or 4. For the positive predictive values, each image set showed a similar value for each observer. Conclusion: The addition of T2-weighted imaging to gadolinium-enhanced 3D dynamic imaging could be helpful in the detection of HCC by increasing reader confidence for HCCs with equivocal findings on gadolinium-enhanced MRIs

  19. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  20. POST-MISSION QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE FOR SURVEY-GRADE MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kerstinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners and a Position and Orientation System (POS, designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as “mapping-grade” or “survey-grade” depending on the system’s attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s to the IMU body frame as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges. As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  1. Study on the thermodynamics of the gadolinium-hydrogen binary system (H/Gd = 0.0–2.0) and implications to metallic gadolinium purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Kai; Li, Guoling [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, NO. 30, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jigang [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Yang [Department of Food Science, College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union University, Beijing, 100101 (China); Tian, Wenhuai, E-mail: wenhuaitian@ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, NO. 30, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, Jie [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Xingguo, E-mail: xgli@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The thermodynamics of the gadolinium-hydrogen (Gd–H) binary system (H/Gd = 0.0–2.0) between 650 and 900 °C is studied by pressure composition isotherm measurement. Significant H dissolution in Gd is observed, up to H/Gd = 0.34 at 650 °C and 0.55 at 900 °C. The metal-rich phase boundary of nonstoichiometric gadolinium dihydride was found to occur with nominal composition of GdH{sub 1.80} at 650 °C and GdH{sub 1.53} at 900 °C. The results are in fairly good agreement with previous experimental work but with improved accuracy. The binary phase diagram is obtained using the CALPHAD method. The thermodynamic study here assists the understanding on the efficient deoxygenation effect by the H in Gd for Gd purification. - Highlights: • PCI measurements with high accuracy has been carried out. • A first assessment of Gd–H system has been carried out by the CALPHAD method. • A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters was derived for this system.

  2. 75 FR 78804 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2003-45 and Revenue Procedure 2004-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently... Corporations, and Revenue Procedure 2004-48, Deemed Corporate Election for Late Electing S Corporations. DATES...-45, Late Election Relief for S Corporations, and Revenue Procedure 2004-48, Deemed Corporate Election...

  3. Coordination chemistry of gadolinium complexes having pyridine carboxylate units in relation with the medical imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gateau, C.; Chatterton, N.; Nonat, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Pecaut, J.; Borel, A.; Merbach, A.; Heim, L.

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the influence of the coordination sphere on the properties which govern the relaxivity, ligands containing pyridine carboxylates units have been particularly studied. It has been shown that the tripodal ligand tpaa forms with gadolinium (III) a neutral complex having a relaxivity (r1p=13.3 mM -1 at 298 K and 60 MHz) which is three times superior to the contrast agents currently used in NMR Imaging. To explain this remarkably relaxivity, two new ligands analogous to the tpaa: the tpatcn and the bpeda containing pyridine carboxylate units bound to one or several aliphatic nitrogen have been studied in modulating the number of coordination sites and the symmetry degree. The study of the relaxivity of the corresponding gadolinium (III) complexes gives precious data on the understanding of the results in the case of the complex [Gd(tpaa)]. The synthesis and the properties of these gadolinium (III) complexes will be presented during this conference. (O.M.)

  4. Importance of the use of gadolinium in neurocysticercosis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado Junior, M.A.; Costa, G.; Barbosa, V.A.; Rubin, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) features of neurocysticercosis are variable and depend fundamentally on the stage in evolution of the infection, location, number and size of the cysts. The authors retrospectively evaluated MRI obtained on O.5 Tesla superconducting unit in four neurocysticercosis patients and observed new MRI features only after Gadolinium enhancement. (author)

  5. Gadolinium-DTPA: value in MR imaging of extraspinal musculoskeletal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, M.C.; Sharif, H.S.; Aabed, M.Y.; Al Shahed, M.S.; Sammak, B.M.; Clark, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    To determine if paramagnetic contrast agents can improve the detection, delineation, and characterization of extraspinal musculoskeletal infections (MSI) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, 42 patients with clinical suspicion of MSI underwent MR imaging before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. The lesions consisted of 27 proven infections and 15 noninfective conditions. Specificity and accuracy in identifying infective lesions averaged 80% and 84%, respectively, on precontrast studies and 80% and 89% on the enhanced examinations, with no statistically significant difference. Rim enhancement around abscess loculi was the only pathognomonic sign of infection seen in ten patients with chronic osteomyelitis and pyogenic or tuberculous infections. In 17 patients with acute osteomyelitis, brucellosis, or mycetoma, detection and delineation of the lesions were best on precontrast studies, while postcontrast examinations resulted in underestimation of the extent of abnormalities in all cases. We conclude that intravenous gadolinium-DTPA has limited usefulness in the MR evaluation of extraspinal MSI. (orig.)

  6. Gadolinium-DTPA: value in MR imaging of extraspinal musculoskeletal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, M.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sharif, H.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Aabed, M.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al Shahed, M.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sammak, B.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Clark, D.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1993-12-01

    To determine if paramagnetic contrast agents can improve the detection, delineation, and characterization of extraspinal musculoskeletal infections (MSI) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, 42 patients with clinical suspicion of MSI underwent MR imaging before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. The lesions consisted of 27 proven infections and 15 noninfective conditions. Specificity and accuracy in identifying infective lesions averaged 80% and 84%, respectively, on precontrast studies and 80% and 89% on the enhanced examinations, with no statistically significant difference. Rim enhancement around abscess loculi was the only pathognomonic sign of infection seen in ten patients with chronic osteomyelitis and pyogenic or tuberculous infections. In 17 patients with acute osteomyelitis, brucellosis, or mycetoma, detection and delineation of the lesions were best on precontrast studies, while postcontrast examinations resulted in underestimation of the extent of abnormalities in all cases. We conclude that intravenous gadolinium-DTPA has limited usefulness in the MR evaluation of extraspinal MSI. (orig.)

  7. High Signal Intensity in the Dentate Nucleus and Globus Pallidus on Unenhanced T1-Weighted MR Images: Comparison between Gadobutrol and Linear Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, F G; Watterson, C T; Weiss, S; Austin, M; Mirocha, J; Prasad, R; Wang, J

    2018-02-01

    In view of the recent observations that gadolinium deposits in brain tissue after intravenous injection, our aim of this study was to compare signal changes in the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in patients receiving serial doses of gadobutrol, a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent, with those seen in patients receiving linear gadolinium-based contrast agents. This was a retrospective analysis of on-site patients with brain tumors. Fifty-nine patients received only gadobutrol, and 60 patients received only linear gadolinium-based contrast agents. Linear gadolinium-based contrast agents included gadoversetamide, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide. T1 signal intensity in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, and pons was measured on the precontrast portions of patients' first and seventh brain MRIs. Ratios of signal intensity comparing the globus pallidus with the pons (globus pallidus/pons) and dentate nucleus with the pons (dentate nucleus/pons) were calculated. Changes in the above signal intensity ratios were compared within the gadobutrol and linear agent groups, as well as between groups. The dentate nucleus/pons signal ratio increased in the linear gadolinium-based contrast agent group ( t = 4.215, P linear gadolinium-based contrast agent group ( t = 2.931, P linear gadolinium-based contrast agents. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Present status of PIK gadolinium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.; Garusov, E.A.; Shustov, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid control element (LCE) containing a water solution of gadolinium nitrate Gd(NO 3 ) 3 was originally planned for use at the PIK reactor for partial compensation of poisoning and fuel burnup [1-3]. However, a further analysis has shown that quick forcing-out, boiling up or flowing-out of the absorbing solution (though of low probability) can lead to the dangerous prompt overcriticality of the reactor. The results of the analysis are presented as well as the upper limit of the reactivity, quick insertion of which still is safe for the reactor (J.P.N.)

  9. The accuracy of MRI-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in arthritis. A comparison of pre- and post-aspiration volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Henriksen, O

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 knees of patients with arthritis was performed before and immediately after arthrocentesis. Pre- and post-aspiration volumes were calculated by adding the outlined areas of synovium/effusion from a continuous series of gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced 5 mm transversal...

  10. Late Gadolinium Enhancement Amount as an Independent Risk Factor for the Incidence of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Stage C or D Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Myocardial fibrosis (MF is a risk factor for poor prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE of the myocardium on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR represents MF. We examined whether the LGE amount increases the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with stage C or D heart failure (HF. Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients with stage C or D HF, either ischemic or non-ischemic, were enrolled. Comprehensive clinical and CMR evaluations were performed. All patients were followed up for a composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, heart transplantation, and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D.Results LGE was present in 79.7% of the end-stage HF patients. LGE distribution patterns were mid-wall, epi-myocardial, endo-myocardial, and the morphological patterns were patchy, transmural, and diffuse. During the average follow-up of 544 days, 13 (15.5% patients had endpoint events: 7 patients cardiac death, 2 patients heart transplantation, and 4 patients underwent CRT-D implantation. On univariate analysis, LGE quantification on cardiac magnetic resonance, blood urine nitrogen, QRS duration on electrocardiogram, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV on CMR had the strongest associations with the composite endpoint events. However, on multivariate analysis for both Model I (after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index and Model II (after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, renal function, QRS duration and atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram, the etiology of HF, LVEF, CMR-LVEDD and CMR-LVEDV, LGE amount was a significant risk factor for composite endpoint events (Model I 6SD HR 1.037, 95%CI 1.005-1.071, p=0.022; Model II 6SD HR 1.045, 95%CI 1.001-1.084, p=0.022. Conclusion LGE amount from high-scale threshold on CMR increased the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events for patients in either stage C or D HF.

  11. 75 FR 78988 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Allocation Procedures and Call for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is publishing this... customers and for other appropriate purposes as determined by Western. These allocation procedures and call for applications, in conjunction with the Loveland Area Projects (LAP) Final Post-1989 Marketing Plan...

  12. Prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways in patients with portal hypertension: demonstration by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Bezerra, Alexandre Araujo Sergio; Cecin, Alexnadre Oliveira; Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Goldman, Susan Menasce; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. We reviewed the images from 40 patients with portal hypertension studied with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and selected illustrative cases of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. The scans were performed using high field equipment (1.5 Tesla) and a 3 D volume technique. Image were obtained after intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast media using a power injector. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated with precision the porto-systemic collateral pathways, particularly when investigating extensive territories or large vessels. The cases presented show the potential of this method in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is a useful method for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension and prominent collateral pathways. (author)

  13. Treated and Untreated Remission from Problem Drinking in Late Life: Post-Remission Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the post-remission status of older remitted problem drinkers who achieved stable remission without treatment. Method The post-remission drinking behavior, health-related functioning, life context, coping, and help-seeking of older, untreated (n = 330) and treated (n = 120) former problem drinkers who had been remitted for a minimum of six years were compared twice over the course of six-years to each other and to lifetime nonproblem drinkers (n = 232). Analyses considered the impact of severity of drinking problem history. Results Untreated remitters were more likely than treated remitters to continue to drink, exhibited fewer chronic health problems and less depressive symptomatology, and were less likely to smoke. Untreated remitters’ life contexts were somewhat more benign than those of treated ones, and they were less likely to describe a coping motive for drinking and engage in post-remission help-seeking. Although untreated remitters more closely resembled lifetime nonproblem drinkers than did treated remitters, both untreated and treated remitter groups exhibited worse health-related functioning, more financial and interpersonal stressors, and more post-remission help-seeking than did lifetime nonproblem drinkers. Conclusions Regardless of whether late-life remission was gained without or with treatment, prior drinking problems conveyed a legacy of health-related and life context deficits. PMID:18829184

  14. Gadolinium prevents high airway pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L; Tucker, J A

    1998-04-01

    To determine the initial signaling event in the vascular permeability increase after high airway pressure injury, we compared groups of lungs ventilated at different peak inflation pressures (PIPs) with (gadolinium group) and without (control group) infusion of 20 microM gadolinium chloride, an inhibitor of endothelial stretch-activated cation channels. Microvascular permeability was assessed by using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), a measure of capillary hydraulic conductivity. Kfc was measured after ventilation for 30-min periods with 7, 20, and 30 cmH2O PIP with 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure and with 35 cmH2O PIP with 8 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure. In control lungs, Kfc increased significantly to 1.8 and 3.7 times baseline after 30 and 35 cmH2O PIP, respectively. In the gadolinium group, Kfc was unchanged from baseline (0.060 +/- 0.010 ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g-1) after any PIP ventilation period. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased significantly from baseline in both groups before the last Kfc measurement but was not different between groups. These results suggest that microvascular permeability is actively modulated by a cellular response to mechanical injury and that stretch-activated cation channels may initiate this response through increases in intracellular calcium concentration.

  15. Gadolinium neutron capture brachytherapy (GdNCB), a new treatment method for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, Shirin A.; Rezaei, Arash; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Restenosis is a major problem after balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. The aim of this study is to introduce gadolinium neutron capture brachytherapy (GdNCB) as a suitable modality for treatment of stenosis. The utility of GdNCB in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) of stent stenosis is investigated by using the GEANT4 and MCNP4B Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. To study capture rate, Kerma, absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate around a Gd-containing stent activated with neutrons, a 30 mm long, 5 mm diameter gadolinium foil is chosen. The input data is a neutron spectrum used for clinical neutron capture therapy in Studsvik, Sweden. Thermal neutron capture in gadolinium yields a spectrum of high-energy gamma photons, which due to the build-up effect gives an almost flat dose delivery pattern to the first 4 mm around the stent. The absorbed dose rate is 1.33 Gy/min, 0.25 mm from the stent surface while the dose to normal tissue is in order of 0.22 Gy/min, i.e., a factor of 6 lower. To spare normal tissue further fractionation of the dose is also possible. The capture rate is relatively high at both ends of the foil. The dose distribution from gamma and charge particle radiation at the edges and inside the stent contributes to a nonuniform dose distribution. This will lead to higher doses to the surrounding tissue and may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. The position of the stent can be verified and corrected by the treatment plan prior to activation. Activation of the stent by an external neutron field can be performed days after catherization when the target cells start to proliferate and can be expected to be more radiation sensitive. Another advantage of the nonradioactive gadolinium stent is the possibility to avoid radiation hazard to personnel

  16. Isotope shifts in odd and even energy levels of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope shift studies in the gadolinium spectra have been extended in the region 4140 to 4535 A. Isotope shift Δσ(156 to 160) have been measured in 315 lines of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom using a recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Some of the Gd I lines studied involve transitions from newly identified high odd levels of 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 5d 3 configurations to low even levels of 4f 8 6s 2 and 4f 7 6s 2 6p configurations. Electronic configurations of the energy levels have been discussed on the basis of observed isotope shifts. In some cases assigned configurations have been revised and probable configurations have been suggested. (author)

  17. Laser ablation of Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Hayashida, K.; Kawano, K.; Higuchi, K.; Ohkoshi, M.; Tsushima, K.

    1995-01-01

    Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films were deposited by laser ablation. The composition, the structure and the magnetic properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent both on the compositions of the targets and on the pressure of oxygen. The highest values of Bi-substitution up to x=1.44 with uniform composition were obtained, after annealing in air. ((orig.))

  18. Pineapple juice labeled with gadolinium: a convenient oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Emmanuel; Metens, Thierry; Winant, Catherine; Matos, Celso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare in vitro a pineapple juice (PJ) solution labeled with a minimal gadolinium concentration working as a negative contrast agent in heavily T2-weighted imaging and to assess that solution in vivo as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three PJs were compared in vitro according to their T2. Increasing concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DOTA in PJ were assessed in vitro for T2 reduction. Single-shot turbo spin echo T2-weighted MR cholangiopancreatograms were obtained for 35 patients with suspected biliopancreatic duct disease, before and after ingestion of the PJ/Gd-DOTA solution. Signal intensity (SI) measurements of gastroduodenal lumens, pancreatobiliary ducts, and image quality scores were obtained systematically before and after contrast ingestion. The in vitro selected Gd-DOTA concentration in the PJ was 2.76 mmol/l. Ingestion of 180 ml of PJ labeled with 1 ml of Gd-DOTA eliminated efficiently the gastroduodenal SI in MRCP, improving significantly the rates of complete visualization of the pancreatobiliary ducts (P<0.01) and the MRCP image quality scores (P<0.05). All patients easily ingested the contrast solution and found the solution palatable. PJ labeled with gadolinium constituted an efficient and convenient negative oral contrast agent for MRCP. (orig.)

  19. Pineapple juice labeled with gadolinium: a convenient oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, Emmanuel; Metens, Thierry; Winant, Catherine; Matos, Celso [Hopital Erasme, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Division of Magnetic Resonance, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare in vitro a pineapple juice (PJ) solution labeled with a minimal gadolinium concentration working as a negative contrast agent in heavily T2-weighted imaging and to assess that solution in vivo as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three PJs were compared in vitro according to their T2. Increasing concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DOTA in PJ were assessed in vitro for T2 reduction. Single-shot turbo spin echo T2-weighted MR cholangiopancreatograms were obtained for 35 patients with suspected biliopancreatic duct disease, before and after ingestion of the PJ/Gd-DOTA solution. Signal intensity (SI) measurements of gastroduodenal lumens, pancreatobiliary ducts, and image quality scores were obtained systematically before and after contrast ingestion. The in vitro selected Gd-DOTA concentration in the PJ was 2.76 mmol/l. Ingestion of 180 ml of PJ labeled with 1 ml of Gd-DOTA eliminated efficiently the gastroduodenal SI in MRCP, improving significantly the rates of complete visualization of the pancreatobiliary ducts (P<0.01) and the MRCP image quality scores (P<0.05). All patients easily ingested the contrast solution and found the solution palatable. PJ labeled with gadolinium constituted an efficient and convenient negative oral contrast agent for MRCP. (orig.)

  20. First-pass myocardial perfusion MR imaging with gadolinium-enhanced turbo FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresi, L.M.; Smith, C.; Messenger, J.; Watanabe, A.; Herbst, M.; O'Sullivan, R.M.; Lee, R.; Remer, J.; Rappaport, A.; Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the efficacy of MR first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging using gadolinium-enhanced Turbo--fast low-angle shot (FLASH) ultrafast imaging combined with MR systolic wall thickening data for the determination of myocardial viability. Five normal volunteers and five patients with remote myocardial infarction were studied on a 1.5-T imaging system (Siemans, Ehrlangen, NJ). Turbo-FLASH imaging utilized a 180 degrees inversion pulse followed by a rapid gradient-echo sequence (TI 400 msec, TE2 msec, TR 4.9 msec, FA 8 degrees) with a complete 64 x 64 matrix image (300 mm FOV) being acquired in 300 msec. First-pass myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in the short-axis and long-axis oblique projections with a concantenated series of Turbo-FLASH images triggered to end-systole acquired immediately before and during a rapid bolus injection of 5cc gadolinium-DTPA

  1. Multifunctional gadolinium-based dendritic macromolecules as liver targeting imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kui; Liu, Gang; He, Bin; Wu, Yao; Gong, Qingyong; Song, Bin; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-04-01

    The quest for highly efficient and safe contrast agents has become the key factor for successful application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The gadolinium (Gd) based dendritic macromolecules, with precise and tunable nanoscopic sizes, are excellent candidates as multivalent MRI probes. In this paper, a novel series of Gd-based multifunctional peptide dendritic probes (generation 2, 3, and 4) possessing highly controlled structures and single molecular weight were designed and prepared as liver MRI probes. These macromolecular Gd-ligand agents exhibited up to 3-fold increase in T(1) relaxivity comparing to Gd-DTPA complexes. No obvious in vitro cytotoxicity was observed from the measured concentrations. These dendritic probes were further functionalized with multiple galactosyl moieties and led to much higher cell uptake in vitro as demonstrated in T(1)-weighted scans. During in vivo animal studies, the probes provided better signal intensity (SI) enhancement in mouse liver, especially at 60 min post-injection, with the most efficient enhancement from the galactosyl moiety decorated third generation dendrimer. The imaging results were verified with analysis of Gd content in liver tissues. The design strategy of multifunctional Gd-ligand peptide dendritic macromolecules in this study may be used for developing other sensitive MRI probes with targeting capability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dielectric and electrical properties of gadolinium-modified lead-zirconate-titanate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, S.C.; Das, Piyush R.; Parida, B.N.; Padhee, R.; Choudhary, R.N.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gadolinium modified PZT have very good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. • The impedance analysis of shows grain and grain boundary phenomena. • Electrical properties of the compounds show very good transport properties. • Piezoelectric coefficient of the samples have higher values. - Abstract: The gadolinium (Gd) modified lead zirconate titanate (PbZr,TiO 3 ) ceramics with Zr/Ti = 48/52 (i.e., near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB)) in a general chemical formula Pb 1−x Gd x (Zr 0.48 Ti 0.52 ) 1−x/4 O 3 (PGZT; x = 0, 0.07, 0.10 and 0.12) have been synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. Preliminary structural analysis using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) shows the formation of a single-phase tetragonal structure of the compounds. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters of PGZT exhibit the diffuse phase transition but non-relaxor characteristics in the material for the higher concentration of gadolinium. The ac conductivity spectra of PGZT are found to obey Jonscher’s universal power law. The electrical impedance parameters of PGZT (near MPB) were obtained in a wide range of temperature (25–500 °C) and frequency (1–1000 kHz) using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. Detailed analysis of these parameters shows that bulk (grain) and grain boundary resistance have significant effect on the total impedance of the materials. Temperature dependence of hysteresis characteristics of PGZT confirms that the phase transition parameter of the material is strongly affected by the substitution of Gd at the Pb-sites

  3. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior

  4. The prognostic value of T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Li, Xiao; Feng, Jun; Shen, Kai-Ni; Tian, Zhuang; Sun, Jian; Mao, Yue-Ying; Cao, Jian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Li, Jian; Selvanayagam, Joseph B; Wang, Yi-Ning

    2018-01-03

    Cardiac impairment is associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) type amyloidosis, for which early identification and risk stratification is vital. For myocardial tissue characterization, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a classic and most commonly performed cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) parameter. T1 mapping with native T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) are recently developed quantitative parameters. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of native T1, ECV and LGE in patients with AL amyloidosis. Eighty-two patients (55.5 ± 8.5 years; 52 M) and 20 healthy subjects (53.2 ± 11.7 years; 10 M) were prospectively recruited. All subjects underwent CMR with LGE imaging and T1 mapping using a Modified Look-Locker Inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence on a 3 T scanner. Native T1 and ECV were measured semi-automatically using a dedicated CMR software. The left ventricular (LV) LGE pattern was classified as none, patchy, and global groups. Global LGE was considered when there was diffuse, transmural LGE in more than half of the short axis images. Follow-up was performed for all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The patients demonstrated an increase in native T1 (1438 ± 120 ms vs. 1283 ± 46 ms, P = 0.001) and ECV (43.9 ± 10.9% vs. 27.0 ± 1.7%, P = 0.001) compared to healthy controls. Native T1, ECV and LGE showed significant correlation with Mayo Stage, and ECV and LGE showed significant correlation with echocardiographic E/E' and LV ejection fraction. During the follow-up for a median time of 8 months, 21 deaths occurred. ECV ≥ 44.0% (hazard ratio [HR] 7.249, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.751-13.179, P = 0.002) and global LGE (HR 4.804, 95% CI 1.971-12.926, P = 0.001) were independently prognostic for mortality over other clinical and imaging parameters. In subgroups with the same LGE pattern

  5. Heme products post-radiofrequency ablation obscure tumor recurrence on MR but not on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Syed Ramisa; Gooden, Casey E.; Schuster, David M. [Emory Univ. Hospital, Atlanta (United States)

    2012-06-15

    A 76-year-old male with non-small-cell lung cancer, post lobectomy, presented with hepatic metastatic disease and underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a minimally invasive and safe approach for treatment of liver tumors. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the patient performed at our institution 5 months post-RFA leads to palliation, increased T1 signal at the RFA site believed to be post-RFA blood products. RFA leads to palliation, increased survival, and is better tolerated than other ablative techniques. It has also been associated with a low rate of local recurrence. Post-RFA, the target, lesion typically has hyperintense signal with T1-weighting, low signal on T2-weighting, and is non-enhancing following post-gadolinium administration. Recurrent disease typically demonstrates new enhancement, increased size, and development of T1-weighted hypointense and T2-weighted hyperintense regions. Subsequent positron emission tomography (PET/CT) of the patient demonstrated focal FDG uptake on the corresponding sagittal image, at the border of the prior RFA ablation zone, with maximal SUV of 6.9, Characteristic for recurrent hepatic metastasis. The photopenic area was at the epicenter of the RFA site. PET/CT imaging is also used to monitor residual tumor or recurrence after RFA. Lesions that show increased 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on PET become photopenic immediately after RFA, suggestive of complete ablation. Focal areas of increased FDG uptake within the ablated zone are suspicious for residual or recurrent disease. Reactive tissue is typically present in the periphery of the ablated lesion and has uniform low-grade FDG uptake, unlike the focal nodular intense uptake observed with active tumor.

  6. High-dose gadolinium-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of meningeal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallmes, D.F.; Gray, L.; Glass, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    We compared high-dose (0.3 mmol/kg) and standard-dose (0.1 mmol/kg) gadolinium-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of meningeal metastases in 12 patients with suspected meningeal metastases. They were imaged with both standard-dose and high-dose gadolinium. All patients with abnormal meningeal enhancement underwent at least one lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology, while patients with normal meningeal enhancement were followed clinically. All patients with negative CSF cytology also were followed clinically. A single observer reviewed all the images, with specific attention to the enhancement pattern of the meninges. Abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement was present in three cases, and abnormal pachymeningeal enhancement in three other patients. All of these patients had abnormal CSF analyses. In two of the three cases of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement the disease was more evident on high-dose than on standard-dose imaging; in one case the abnormal enhancement was visible only on high-dose imaging. In one of the three cases with abnormal pachymeningeal enhancement, the disease was evident prospectively only with high-dose imaging. (orig.)

  7. Synergistic enhancement of iron oxide nanoparticle and gadolinium for dual-contrast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Huang, Xinglu; Qian, Chunqi; Zhu, Lei; Hida, Naoki; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MR contrast agents exert influence on T 1 or T 2 relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. ► Combined use of iron oxide and Gd-DTPA can improve the sensitivity/specificity of lesion detection. ► Dual contrast MRI enhances the delineation of tumor borders and small lesions. ► The effect of DC-MRI can come from the high paramagnetic susceptibility of Gd 3+ . ► The effect of DC-MRI can also come from the distinct pharmacokinetic distribution of SPIO and Gd-DTPA. -- Abstract: Purpose: The use of MR contrast agents allows accurate diagnosis by exerting an influence on the longitudinal (T 1 ) or transverse (T 2 ) relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. In this study, we combined the use of iron oxide (IO) particles and nonspecific extracellular gadolinium chelate (Gd) in order to further improve the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. Procedures: With a 7-Tesla scanner, pre-contrasted, IO-enhanced and dual contrast agent enhanced MRIs were performed in phantom, normal animals, and animal models of lymph node tumor metastases and orthotopic brain tumor. For the dual-contrast (DC) MRI, we focused on the evaluation of T 2 weighted DC MRI with IO administered first, then followed by the injection of a bolus of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Results: Based on the C/N ratios and MRI relaxometry, the synergistic effect of coordinated administration of Gd-DTPA and IO was observed and confirmed in phantom, normal liver and tumor models. At 30 min after administration of Feridex, Gd-DTPA further decreased T 2 relaxation in liver immediately after the injection. Additional administration of Gd-DTPA also immediately increased the signal contrast between tumor and brain parenchyma and maximized the C/N ratio to −4.12 ± 0.71. Dual contrast MRI also enhanced the delineation of tumor borders and small lesions. Conclusions: DC-MRI will be helpful to improve diagnostic accuracy and decrease the threshold size for

  8. Development of ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods for determination of gadolinium in samples related to hospital waste water treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendakovská, L.; Krejčovská, A.; Černohorský, T.; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 9 (2016), s. 1155-1165 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : gadolinium * rare-earth elements * bioaccumulation * gadolinium anomaly * inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) * inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  9. Magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis using selected thermodynamic property characterizations for gadolinium gallium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Magneto-thermodynamic property characterizations were selected, adapted, and compared to material property data for gadolinium gallium garnet in the temperature range 4--40 K and magnetic field range 0--6 T. The most appropriate formulations were incorporated into a model in which methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges were used to make limitation and relative performance assessments of Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. Analysis showed that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as those for materials previously examined, substantial improvements in cooling capacity/temperature lift combinations can be achieved using regenerative cycles within specified fields limits if significant loss mechanisms are mitigated

  10. Comparison of predicted with observed biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.; Shutt, A.L.; Etherington, G.; Hodgson, S.A.; Rance, E.; Stradling, G.N.; Youngman, M.J.; Ziesenis, A.; Kreyling, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The absorption kinetics to blood of plutonium and gadolinium after inhalation as nitrate and oxide in humans and animals has been studied. For each material, values describing the time dependence of absorption were derived from the studies in animals and used with the ICRP human respiratory tract model to predict lung retention and cumulative amounts to blood for the volunteers inhaling the same materials. Comparison with the observed behaviour in the volunteers suggests that absorption of plutonium and gadolinium is reasonably species independent, and that data obtained from animal studies can be used to assess their biokinetic behaviour in humans. (author)

  11. Imaging evaluation of post pancreatic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scialpi, Michele; Scaglione, Mariano; Volterrani, Luca; Lupattelli, Luciano; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Romano, Stefania; Rotondo, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The role of several imaging techniques in patients submitted to pancreatic surgery with special emphasis to single-slice helical computed tomography (CT) and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) was reviewed. Several surgical options may be performed such as Whipple procedure, distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, and total pancreatectomy. Ultrasound examination may be used to detect peritoneal fluid in the early post-operative period as well as lesion recurrence in long-term follow-up. Radiological gastrointestinal studies has a major role in evaluation of intestinal functionality. In spite of the advent of other imaging modalities, CT is the most effective after pancreatic surgery. On post-operative CT, the most common findings were small fluid peritoneal or pancreatic collections, stranding of the mesenteric fat with perivascular cuffing, reactive adenopathy and pneumobilia. In addition, CT may demonstrate early (leakage of anastomosis, pancreatico-jejunal fistula, haemorrage, acute pancreatitis of the remnant pancreas, peritonitis), and late (chronic fistula, abscess, aneurysms, anastomotic bilio-digestive stenosis, perianastomotic ulcers, biloma, and intra-abdominal bleeding) surgical complications. In the follow-up evaluation, CT may show tumor recurrence, liver and lymph nodes metastasis. Magnetic resonance may be used as alternative imaging modality to CT, when renal insufficiency or contrast sensitivity prevents the use of iodinated i.v. contrast material or when the biliary tree study is primarily requested. The knowledge of the type of surgical procedures, the proper identification of the anastomoses as well as the normal post-operative imaging appearances are essential for an accurate detection of the complications and recurrent disease

  12. Imaging evaluation of post pancreatic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialpi, Michele [Department of Radiology, ' Santissima Annunziata' Hospital, Via Bruno 1, I-74100 Taranto (Italy)]. E-mail: michelescialpi@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Volterrani, Luca [Institute of Radiology, University of Siena, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Lupattelli, Luciano [Institute of Radiology, University of Perugia, I-06122 Perugia (Italy); Ragozzino, Alfonso [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Stefania [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rotondo, Antonio [Section of Radiology, Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Second University, I-80138 Naples (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    The role of several imaging techniques in patients submitted to pancreatic surgery with special emphasis to single-slice helical computed tomography (CT) and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) was reviewed. Several surgical options may be performed such as Whipple procedure, distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, and total pancreatectomy. Ultrasound examination may be used to detect peritoneal fluid in the early post-operative period as well as lesion recurrence in long-term follow-up. Radiological gastrointestinal studies has a major role in evaluation of intestinal functionality. In spite of the advent of other imaging modalities, CT is the most effective after pancreatic surgery. On post-operative CT, the most common findings were small fluid peritoneal or pancreatic collections, stranding of the mesenteric fat with perivascular cuffing, reactive adenopathy and pneumobilia. In addition, CT may demonstrate early (leakage of anastomosis, pancreatico-jejunal fistula, haemorrage, acute pancreatitis of the remnant pancreas, peritonitis), and late (chronic fistula, abscess, aneurysms, anastomotic bilio-digestive stenosis, perianastomotic ulcers, biloma, and intra-abdominal bleeding) surgical complications. In the follow-up evaluation, CT may show tumor recurrence, liver and lymph nodes metastasis. Magnetic resonance may be used as alternative imaging modality to CT, when renal insufficiency or contrast sensitivity prevents the use of iodinated i.v. contrast material or when the biliary tree study is primarily requested. The knowledge of the type of surgical procedures, the proper identification of the anastomoses as well as the normal post-operative imaging appearances are essential for an accurate detection of the complications and recurrent disease.

  13. Substitution of the soluble boron reactivity control system of a pressurized water reactor by gadolinium burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Segev, M.; Radkowsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results are presented of a research project that is aimed at designing a gadolinium burnable poison (BP) system for complete reactivity control of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core during the ''equilibrium'' cycle, resulting in the elimination of the soluble boron system, which represents a considerable saving in both capital and operating costs. A flat and strong negative moderator temperature coefficient is assured for a poison-free moderator. The design analysis of a core, heavily loaded with gadolinium BP rods, was based on a BGUCORE neutronic package and cluster model of a fuel assembly. The project objective was achieved by a novel lumped BP rod, designed as an annulus of gadolinium, clad by zirconium, and inserted into vacant guide thimbles of fresh-fuel assemblies. Specific combinations were found for the inner/outer radii of the poison ring, gadolinium densities, and number of rods per assembly, resulting in an almost flat criticality curve during the cycle. A reactivity swing of ≅1% ΔK can be easily controlled by an existing system of control rods. Comparison of the fuel cycle length of a gadolinium-controlled core with that of the reference, soluble, boron-controlled core indicated that there is no penalty due to residual poison at end of life. Unique guidelines for the fuel loading strategy were applied to find a practical fuel-shuffling scheme by which the design and operational constraints of a typical PWR core of current design were satisfied. Several problems should be solved for a practical implementation of the presented design relative to operational and safety requirements of the existing control rod system. Adequate movement of the regulating rods should be determined and shutdown margins of the safety rods should be ascertained. Final judgment of the feasibility of the concept may be made following the solution of these and other regulatory-related issues

  14. Induction of skeletal abnormalities and autophagy in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos exposed to gadolinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Chiara; Chiarelli, Roberto; Bosco, Liana; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2017-09-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) concentration is constantly increasing in the aquatic environment, becoming an emergent environmental pollutant. We investigated the effects of Gd on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, focusing on skeletogenesis and autophagy. We observed a delay of biomineral deposition at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), and a strong impairment of skeleton growth at 48 hpf, frequently displayed by an asymmetrical pattern. Skeleton growth was found partially resumed in recovery experiments. The mesodermal cells designated to biomineralization were found correctly migrated at 24 hpf, but not at 48 hpf. Western blot analysis showed an increase of the LC3-II autophagic marker at 24 and 48 hpf. Confocal microscopy studies confirmed the increased number of autophagolysosomes and autophagosomes. Results show the hazard of Gd in the marine environment, indicating that Gd is able to affect different aspects of sea urchin development: morphogenesis, biomineralization, and stress response through autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation and purification of gadolinium and others rare earths, and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, M.A.; Filgueiras, S.A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental works in laboratories for developing a solvent extraction process with the purpose of gadolinium separation and purification, and secondarily samarium, europium, lanthanum and yttrium are described. Using as solvent di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) a preliminary flow chart for separation for these elements are developed. (author)

  16. Investigation of gadolinium (3)-, calcium (2)- and copper (2) complexes with riboflavin in acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugina, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Electron and IR spectra of gadolinium-(3), calcium (2), and copper (2) complexes with riboflavin (RF) in acetopitrile against the background of LiClO 4 x3H 2 O are studied. The way of RF coordination by the atom of metal is shown to depend on the nature of metal. Gadolinium (3) coordinates RF through N and O atoms; copper - through O metal, calcium - through O atom and, evidently, through hydroxyl groups of ribitol. Directions of RF line shifts of π-π * electron transitions at RF complexing with metals are compared with the calculated results and directions of RF line shifts during the formation of hydrogen bonds with different donor atoms of the isoalloxazine ring

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of polycrystalline gadolinium aluminum perovskite (GdAlO3, GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Girish H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gadolinium aluminum perovskite (GdAlO3, GAP is a promising high temperature ceramic material, known for its wide applications in phosphors. Polycrystalline gadolinium aluminum perovskites were synthesized using a precursor of co-precipitate gel of GdAlO3 by employing hydrothermal supercritical fluid technique under pressure and temperature ranging from 150 to 200 MPa and 600 to 700 °C, respectively. The resulted products of GAP were studied using the characterization techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX. The X-ray diffraction pattern matched well with the reported orthorhombic GAP pattern (JCPDS-46-0395.

  18. Detection of brain metastasis. Comparison of Turbo-FLAIR imaging, T2-weighted imaging and double-dose gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Naoto; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Aoki, Shigeki; Wada, Akihiko

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Turbo-FLAIR imaging, T 2 -weighted imaging, and double-dose gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in the detection of brain metastasis. Using the three sequences, 20 consecutive patients with brain metastases were prospectively studied with a 1.5-Tesla system. Three independent, blinded readers assessed the images for the presence, size, number, and location of metastatic lesions. In the detection of large lesions (>0.5 cm), Turbo-FLAIR imaging (38/48, 79%) was not significantly different from gadolinium-enhanced imaging (42/48, 88%) (p=0.273). T 2 -weighted imaging (31/48, 65%), however, was inferior to gadolinium-enhanced imaging (p<0.05). There was no difference between Turbo-FLAIR imaging and gadolinium-enhanced imaging in the accuracy of detecting solitary brain metastasis (4/4, 100%). In conclusion, Turbo-FLAIR imaging is a useful, noninvasive screening modality for brain metastasis. Its use may lead to cost savings in the diagnosis of brain metastases and may impact positively the cost-effectiveness of treatment. (author)

  19. Role of an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate in extraction studies of gadolinium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Kamalika [Calcutta Univ., Kolkata (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. Delft (NL). Section RIH (Radiation and Isotopes in Health)

    2012-07-01

    The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate was studied for its extraction behavior for {sup 159}Gd in an environmentally benign liquid-liquid extraction system. The gadolinium oxide when dissolved in nitric acid and extracted in an RTIL/dextran biphasic system, was found to get completely extracted in the IL phase. The otherwise difficult to dissolve gadolinium oxide was found to have some solubility in the IL studied. Biphasic systems consisting of IL/dextran and certain IL/salt were studied for the extraction behavior of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolved in the above RTIL. A similar experiment was also done with acid-dissolved gadolinium oxide for comparison. (orig.)

  20. Impact of Impaired Renal Function on Gadolinium Retention After Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartamihardja, A Adhipatria P; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of impaired renal function on gadolinium (Gd) retention in various organs after Gd-based contrast agent injection. After local animal care and review committee approval, 23 normal mice and 26 with renal failure were divided into 4 treatment groups (Gd-DTPA-BMA, 5 mmol/kg; Gd-DOTA, 5 mmol/kg; GdCl3, 0.02 mmol/kg; and saline, 250 μL). Each agent was intravenously administered on weekdays for 4 weeks. Samples were collected on days 3 (short-term) and 45 (long-term) after the last injection. Gadolinium concentrations were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Three mice with renal failure and 2 normal mice in the GdCl3 group and 1 mouse with renal failure in the Gd-DTPA-BMA group died. In the Gd-DTPA-BMA group, impaired renal function increased short-term Gd retention in the liver, bone, spleen, skin, and kidney (P DTPA-BMA showed higher Gd retention than Gd-DOTA. Although Gd retention in the Gd-DOTA group was generally low, impaired renal function increased only long-term hepatic Gd retention. Hepatic and splenic Gd retentions were significantly higher than other organs' Gd retention in the GdCl3 group (P DTPA-BMA administration, long-term Gd retention for Gd-based contrast agents was almost unaffected by renal function, suggesting that the chemical structures of retained Gd may not be consistent and some Gd is slowly eliminated after initially being retained.

  1. International comparison calculations for a BWR lattice with adjacent gadolinium pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, C.; Wydler, P.

    1984-09-01

    The results of burnup calculations for a simplified BWR fuel element with two adjacent gadolinium rods are presented and discussed. Ten complete solutions were contributed by Denmark, France, Italy (3), Japan (3), Switzerland and the UK. Partial results obtained from Poland and the USA are included in an Appendix. (Auth.)

  2. Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmińska, Dorota; Wawer, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sequence of volumes and compressibilities of Ln 3+ ions in DMSO is: La 3+ > Gd 3+ 3+ . ► Sequence of the partial molar volumes do not change with temperature. ► These results are the consequence of nature of the ion–solvent bonding. - Abstract: Temperature dependencies of the densities of dimethylsulfoxide solutions of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates have been determined over a wide range of concentrations. The apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes of the salts at infinite dilution, as well as the expansibilities of the salts, have been calculated from density data. Additionally, the apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates have been calculated from sound velocity data at 298.15 K. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of ion−solvent interactions.

  3. The late Cainozoic East Antarctic ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    A review, mainly of East Antarctic late Cainozoic (post 40 Ma) geological and geomorphological evidence, supports the hypothesis of the continuous presence of an ice sheet, of about the present size, since the late Miocene. Evidence is presented and the view advanced that, during the late Wisconsin maximum of isotope stage 2, ice was not nearly as thick or extensive over the continental shelf as required by the model of 'maximum' Antarctic glaciation. Some of the factors influencing the contribution of Antarctica to post-glacial sea-level rise are discussed. It is considered that Antarctica's contribution was probably considerably less than previously estimated. The dating of marine and freshwater sequences in the Vestfold and Bunger Hills is consistent with deglaciation around the Pleistocene Holocene boundary, after the Late Wisconsin maximum. A date of ∼25 ka BP from permafrost in the Larsemann Hills means that either the Larsemann Hills were not glaciated during the Late Wisconsin or the ice failed to erode much of the permafrost surface. The degree of weathering of rock and glacial drifts in the Vestfold, Larsemann and Bunger Hills suggests a long time for formation, perhaps considerably longer than indicated by the dated marine and freshwater sediment sequences. Cosmogenic isotope dating in the Vestfold Hills has provided equivocal ages for deglaciation. While the results could indicate deglaciation before 80 ka BP, they do not confirm such early deglaciation. If the ice cover was thin and failed to remove the previous rock exposure profile, then the assays could predate the last ice advance. Weathered iron crust fragments in the till suggest little erosion. The raised beaches of the oases are Holocene. Assuming they have been produced by post Late Wisconsin isostatic uplift and by the Holocene transgression, calculations show that the Antarctic continental ice sheet could not have been more than ∼500 m thicker in the inner shelf-coastal zone. The

  4. Gastro-pancreaticojejunostomy for treatment of pancreatic ductal obstruction in a post-Whipple procedure patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Pinto, Eduardo; Grimm, Ian S; Baron, Todd H

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a woman with a medical history of classic Whipple surgery who underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided pancreatic drainage due to smouldering acute pancreatitis secondary to an obstructing pancreatic ductal stone. A gastro-pancreaticojejunostomy anastomosis was created anterogradely, with dilation of both the anastomoses in the same procedure, with subsequent decompression of the pancreatic duct. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) is often impossible to perform in patients with post-Whipple procedure anatomy due to inaccessibility to the pancreaticojejunostomy anastomosis. EUS-guided pancreatic drainage may be offered in these patients in whom the pancreatic duct cannot be accessed at ERP. It has been used as a platform for access to and drainage of the pancreatic duct either by rendezvous or transmural drainage. However, only one of four patients achieve successful completion of the rendezvous procedure. There are limited data regarding safety and long-term outcome of this procedure, as well as scant guidelines on the optimal time for leaving stents in place. We believe definitive endoscopic therapy should be attempted, whenever possible, after relief of obstruction. In our case, we expect that stent occlusion is inevitable and that long-term drainage is possible due to drainage occurring between the stent and the stone.

  5. Increased Prognostic Value of Query Amyloid Late Enhancement Score in Light-Chain Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ke; Sun, Jiayu; Han, Yuchi; Liu, Hong; Yang, Dan; Li, Weihao; Wang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Zeng, Zhi; Chen, Yucheng

    2018-02-23

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) pattern is a powerful imaging biomarker for prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis. It is unknown if the query amyloid late enhancement (QALE) score in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis could provide increased prognostic value compared with LGE pattern.Methods and Results:Seventy-eight consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis underwent contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with cardiac involvement were grouped by LGE pattern and analyzed using QALE score. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify the optimal cut-off for QALE score in predicting all-cause mortality. Survival of these patients was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 34 months, 53 of 78 patients died. The optimal cut-off for QALE score to predict mortality at 12-month follow-up was 9.0. On multivariate Cox analysis, QALE score ≥9 (HR, 5.997; 95% CI: 2.665-13.497; Pvalue in AL cardiac amyloidosis. QALE score ≥9 has added value to differentiate prognosis in AL amyloidosis patients with a subendocardial LGE pattern.

  6. Applying Amide Proton Transfer MR Imaging to Hybrid Brain PET/MR: Concordance with Gadolinium Enhancement and Added Value to [18F]FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongzan; Xin, Jun; Zhou, Jinyuan; Lu, Zaiming; Guo, Qiyong

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic concordance and metric correlations of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F-]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), using hybrid brain PET/MRI. Twenty-one subjects underwent brain gadolinium-enhanced [ 18 F]FDG PET/MRI prospectively. Imaging accuracy was compared between unenhanced MRI, MRI with enhancement, APT-weighted (APTW) images, and PET based on six diagnostic criteria. Among tumors, the McNemar test was further used for concordance assessment between gadolinium-enhanced imaging, APT imaging, and [ 18 F]FDG PET. As well, the relation of metrics between APT imaging and PET was analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. APT imaging and gadolinium-enhanced MRI showed superior and similar diagnostic accuracy. APTW signal intensity and gadolinium enhancement were concordant in 19 tumors (100 %), while high [ 18 F]FDG avidity was shown in only 12 (63.2 %). For the metrics from APT imaging and PET, there was significant correlation for 13 hypermetabolic tumors (P PET in the evaluation of tumor metabolic activity during brain PET/MR studies.

  7. Post Implementation Review Framework and Procedures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This template outlines the Social Security Administration's (SSA) approach to initiating, conducting, and completing Post Implementation Reviews (PIRs). The template...

  8. Comparative clinical study of the effect of LLLT in the immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia due to surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Castanho Garrini, Ana E.; Bologna, Elisangela D.; Takamoto, Marcia; Siqueira, Jose T.; Dias, Pedro; Campos, Roberto A. d. C.

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of LLLT in 68 patients who presented hypoesthesia due to odontological surgery procedures: dental implant surgeries (N=51); extraction of impacted lower third molars (N=10); endodontics in lower first molars (N=7). Lesions treated within 30 days after the nerve injury had occurred were part of the immediate group, and lesions with more than 30 days from the occurrence of the injury were part of the late group. Treatments were carried out with an infrared diode laser of 40 mW-830nm, continuous wave emission, spot size 3 mm2, and a total dosage of 18 joules per session in a contact mode of application, 20 sessions altogether. The efficacy of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration is also related to the degree of the peripheral nerve lesion, and not only to the lesion duration. LLLT resulted in neurosensory functional improvement in both immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia.

  9. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  10. Risk analysis procedure for post-wildfire natural hazards in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Following a severe wildfire season in 2003, and several subsequent damaging debris flow and flood events, the British Columbia Forest Service developed a procedure for analysing risks to public safety and infrastructure from such events. At the same time, the Forest Service undertook a research program to determine the extent of post-wildfire hazards, and examine the hydrologic and geomorphic processes contributing to the hazards. The risk analysis procedure follows the Canadian Standards Association decision-making framework for risk management (which in turn is based on international standards). This has several steps: identification of risk, risk analysis and estimation, evaluation of risk tolerability, developing control or mitigation strategies, and acting on these strategies. The Forest Service procedure deals only with the first two steps. The results are passed on to authorities such as the Provincial Emergency Program and local government, who are responsible for evaluating risks, warning residents, and applying mitigation strategies if appropriate. The objective of the procedure is to identify and analyse risks to public safety and infrastructure. The procedure is loosely based on the BAER (burned area emergency response) program in the USA, with some important differences. Our procedure focuses on identifying risks and warning affected parties, not on mitigation activities such as broadcast erosion control measures. Partly this is due to limited staff and financial resources. Also, our procedure is not multi-agency, but is limited to wildfires on provincial forest land; in British Columbia about 95% of forest land is in the publicly-owned provincial forest. Each fire season, wildfires are screened by size and proximity to values at risk such as populated areas. For selected fires, when the fire is largely contained, the procedure begins with an aerial reconnaissance of the fire, and photography with a hand-held camera, which can be used to make a

  11. Sequential gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI studies in neuro-Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazui, S.; Naritomi, H.; Ogawa, M.; Sawada, T.; Imakita, S.; Yamada, N.

    1991-01-01

    Sequential gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced MR images were obtained before and after steroid therapy in a case of neuro-Behcet's disease. Multiple scattered lesions, which could not be detected on pre- and post-contrast CT, were demonstrated mainly in the white matter of the pons and/or the cerebrum with both T1- and T2-weighted images. Some of these lesions, however, were not enhanced at all by infusion of Gd-DTPA. The Gd-DTPA infusion study demonstrated marked enhancement in the white matter of the pons and cerebrum. Some lesions not seen with T2-weighted images were also strongly enhanced by Gd-DTPA infusion at the acute stage. After steroid therapy, the symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings were resolved. The pontine and cerebral lesions on plain MR images remained unchanged even after resolution of the symptoms, suggesting that they were inactive old foci. On the other hand, the lesions detected in the enhancement study before steroid therapy disappeared with the repeat Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images which were performed after resolution of the symptoms. Some active inflammatory lesions in neuro-Behcet's disease may be demonstrated only on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging appears to be potentially useful for detecting active inflammatory lesions in neuro-Behcet's disease and for evaluating the efficacy of treatment. (orig.)

  12. Impact of newly-measured gadolinium cross sections on BWR fuel rod reaction rate distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Recent measurements of capture and total cross sections performed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the USA confirmed many of the gadolinium thermal and resonant neutron cross section parameters within uncertainties, but they also showed up important discrepancies well out of uncertainties, such as an approx11% overestimation of the {sup 157}Gd thermal capture cross section in ENDF/B-VI and -VII with respect to the newly measured data. In this work, the impact of the newly measured gadolinium cross sections on BWR reactor physics parameters has been preliminarily evaluated. The comparisons of rod-by-rod fission rate and modified conversion ratio predictions with selected cold critical experiments at the PROTEUS reactor in Switzerland show the potential to resolve long-term unexplained discrepancies. (authors)

  13. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Brenneis

    Full Text Available Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i immunolabeling, (ii histology and (iii scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida, the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two

  14. Silica nanoparticles containing 159-Gadolinium as potential system for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andre Felipe de; Ferreira, Tiago Hilario; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Ordered silica nanoparticles are compounds highly organized which have very interesting textural characteristics, such as high thermal stability, well defined pore size, narrow size distribution and high area surface. Among the various types of nano materials ordered, the SBA-16 have a meso structure that can be considered very interesting due to the fact of the arrangement of mesoporous (tri dimensional as a cage) and spherical morphology, which make it in a promising material for a range of bioapplications such as incorporation of drugs and radioisotopes. In this study Gadodiamide® (Omniscan-General Electric Healthcare Company), a frequently non-ionic gadolinium complex contrasting used in MRI's was incorporated in the silica matrix SBA-16 as a carrier. From this gadolinium it is possible to obtain the isotope 159 Gd by neutron irradiation, wherein the isotope 158 Gd captures a neutron and becomes 159 Gd [ 15 '8Gd(n,c) 1 '5 9 Gd]. The 159 Gd is a beta (endpoint energy of 970.6 keV) and gamma (main energy: 363.54 keV) emitter with a half-life of 18.59 hours. These characteristics are similar to that of other isotopes already used in nuclear medicine such as 90 Y. In this work, the 158 Gd incorporated in the Gd-silica was activated by the neutron flux generated by the cyclotron located in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) during the production of the 18 FDG. Atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to confirm the presence of the gadolinium complex in the silica matrix. The antitumor activity of the complex after the irradiation was evaluated through cytotoxicity assay with T98 cell lines derived from a human glioblastoma multiform tumor. (author)

  15. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-10-06

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.

  16. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma

  17. Vessel diameter measurements in gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRA of peripheral arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, J.J.M.; Geest, van der R.J.; Wasser, M.N.J.M.; Linden, van der E.L.; Walsum, van T.; Assen, van H.C.; Roos, de A.; Vanderschoot, J.; Reiber, J.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the possibilities for quantification of vessel diameters of peripheral arteries in gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd CE MRA) were evaluated. Absolute vessel diameter measurements were assessed objectively and semi-automatically in maximum intensity

  18. Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents: Differences in stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents (Gd-CA) are either linear or macrocyclic chelates available as ionic or non-ionic preparations. The molecular structure whether cyclic or linear and ionicity determines the stability of Gd-CA. Linear chelates are flexible open chains which do not offer a strong binding to Gd 3+ . In contrast, the macrocyclic chelates offer a strong binding to Gd 3+ by the virtue of being preorganized rigid rings of almost optimal size to cage the gadolinium atom. Non-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones as the binding between Gd 3+ with the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger in comparison to that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CM is the ionic-macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. In vivo data confirmed the low stability of non-ionic linear chelates but no significant difference was observed amongst the macrocyclic agents whether ionic (Gd-DOTA) or non-ionic such as Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-BT-DO3A. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the serious complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that deposit in tissue and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. No cases of NSF have been observed so far after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA

  19. Gadolinium burnable absorber optimization by the method of conjugate gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, C.R.; Lee, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal axial distribution of gadolinium burnable poison in a pressurized water reactor is determined to yield an improved power distribution. The optimization scheme is based on Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the objective function accounting for a target power distribution. The conjugate gradients optimization method is used to solve the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations iteratively, efficiently handling the high degree of nonlinearity of the problem

  20. Targeted gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific magnetic resonance contrast enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Swanson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott D Swanson1, Jolanta F Kukowska-Latallo2, Anil K Patri5, Chunyan Chen6, Song Ge4, Zhengyi Cao3, Alina Kotlyar3, Andrea T East7, James R Baker31Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Michigan Medical School, 3Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 4Applied Physics, The University of Michigan, MD, USA; 5Present address: National Cancer Institute at Frederick (Contractor, MD, USA; 6Present address: Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ, USA; 7Present address: Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago, ILL, USAAbstract: A target-specific MRI contrast agent for tumor cells expressing high affinity folate receptor was synthesized using generation five (G5 of polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer. Surface modified dendrimer was functionalized for targeting with folic acid (FA and the remaining terminal primary amines of the dendrimer were conjugated with the bifunctional NCS-DOTA chelator that forms stable complexes with gadolinium (Gd III. Dendrimer-DOTA conjugates were then complexed with GdCl3, followed by ICP-OES as well as MRI measurement of their longitudinal relaxivity (T1 s−1 mM−1 of water. In xenograft tumors established in immunodeficient (SCID mice with KB human epithelial cancer cells expressing folate receptor (FAR, the 3D MRI results showed specific and statistically significant signal enhancement in tumors generated with targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5-FA compared with signal generated by non-targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5 contrast nanoparticle. The targeted dendrimer contrast nanoparticles infiltrated tumor and were retained in tumor cells up to 48 hours post-injection of targeted contrast nanoparticle. The presence of folic acid on the dendrimer resulted in specific delivery of the nanoparticle to tissues and xenograft tumor cells expressing folate receptor in vivo. We present the specificity of the dendrimer

  1. Post-Traumatic Late Onset Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artery-to-artery emboli or occlusion of craniocervical arteries mostly due to dissection are the most common causes of ischemia after trauma. A 29 year-old male had been admitted to another hospital with loss of consciousness lasting for about 45 minutes after a hard parachute landing without head trauma three days ago. As his neurological examination and brain CT were normal, he had been discharged after 24 hours of observation. Two days after his discharge, he was admitted to our department with epileptic seizure. His neurological examination revealed left hemianopia. After observing occipital subacute ischemia at right side in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we performed cerebral angiography and no dissection was observed. Excluding the rheumatologic, cardiologic and vascular events, our final diagnosis was late onset cerebral ischemia. Anti-edema and antiepileptic treatment was initiated. He was discharged with left hemianopia and mild cognitive deficit. We suggest that it will be wise to hospitalize patients for at least 72 hours who has a history of unconsciousness following trauma.

  2. Effect of Cu2+ substitution on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of gadolinium orthoferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Vandana, C.; Hemalatha Rudramadevi, B.

    2018-04-01

    The pure and copper (Cu) substituted Gadolinium orthoferrites, GdFeO3, GdCu0.1Fe0.9O3, GdCu0.2Fe0.8O3 and GdCu0.3Fe0.7O3 were synthesized by conventional solid state method. The structural, morphological, dielectric, magnetic and impedance properties of Cu substituted Gadolinium orthoferrites have been investigated. The crystallographic phase as well as the substitution of Cu2+ ions in the lattice of GdFeO3 is confirmed from the x-ray diffraction patterns. The Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibit two prominent fundamental absorption peaks at ∼417 cm‑1 and 545 cm‑1. These bands are related to inherent stretching vibrations of metals at octahedral and tetrahedral sites respectively. The coercivity (Hc) and saturation magnetization (Ms) of the synthesized samples at different temperatures were determined from the hysteresis plots. Higher coercive values, 598 Oe and 600 Oe were achieved in GdCu0.1Fe0.9O3 ferrites compared to 527 Oe and 360 Oe in pure GdFeO3 at room temperature (300 K) and low temperature (20 k) respectively. Dielectric dispersion has been observed for gadolinium ferrite samples with Maxwell–Wagner type interfacial polarization. The decrease of dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent with an increase in frequency was observed. The conduction due to charge hopping between localized states was confirmed from AC conductivity measurements. The composition dependent cationic distributions estimated from XRD, magnetic and electrical studies are in good agreement with each other. The achieved results indicate that the substitution of Cu in gadolinium orthoferrite strongly influences the crystal structure, magnetic and electrical properties thereby making them suitable as multiple state memory devices, transducers, electronic field controlled ferromagnetic resonance devices and spintronic devices.

  3. Patterns of CMR measured longitudinal strain and its association with late gadolinium enhancement in patients with cardiac amyloidosis and its mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynne K; Forero, Julian F; Popovic, Zoran B; Phelan, Dermot; Delgado, Diego; Rakowski, Harry; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-08-07

    Regional variability of longitudinal strain (LS) has been previously described with echocardiography in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA), however, the reason for this variability is not completely evident. We sought to describe regional patterns in LS using feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine images in patients with CA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and Anderson-Fabry's disease (AFD) and to relate these patterns to the distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Patients with CA (n = 45) were compared to LV mass indexed matched patients with HCM (n = 19) and AFD (n = 19). Peak systolic LS measurements were obtained using Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI) software on CMR cine images. A relative regional LS ratio (RRSR) was calculated as the ratio of the average of the apical segmental LS divided by the sum of the average basal and mid-ventricular segmental LS. LGE was quantified for the basal, mid, and apical segments using a threshold of 5SD above remote myocardium. A regional LGE ratio was calculated similar to RRSR. Patients with CA had significantly had worse global LS (-15.7 ± 4.6%) than those with HCM (-18.0 ± 4.6%, p = 0.046) and AFD (-21.9 ± 5.1%, p < 0.001). The RRSR was higher in patients with CA (1.00 ± 0.31) than in AFD (0.79 ± 0.24; p = 0.018) but not HCM (0.84 ± 0.32; p = 0.114). In CA, a regional difference in LGE burden was noted, with lower LGE in the apex (31.5 ± 19.1%) compared to the mid (38.2 ± 19.0%) and basal (53.7 ± 22.7%; p < 0.001 for both) segments. The regional LGE ratio was not significantly different between patients with CA (0.33 ± 0.15) and AFD (0.47 ± 0.58; p = 0.14) but lower compared to those with HCM (0.72 ± 0.43; p < 0.0001). LGE percentage showed a significant impact on LS (p < 0.0001), with a 0.9% decrease in absolute LS for every 10% increase in LGE percentage. The presence of marked "relative apical sparing

  4. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Van Der Molen, Aart J.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use is made of extracellular MRI contrast agents that alter the image contrast following intravenous administration; they predominantly shorten the T1 relaxation time of tissues. The degree and location of these changes provide substantial diagnostic information. However gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CA) are not inert drugs. They may cause acute non-renal adverse reactions (e.g. anaphylactoid reactions), acute renal adverse reactions (e.g. contrast induced nephropathy), delayed adverse reactions (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) and problems at the site of injection (e.g. local necrosis). This review describes the current status of Gd-CA, their mechanism of action, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, dosage, elimination, nephrotoxicity and adverse events

  5. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, Marie-France [University Paris-Sud 11, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, 12, Avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94804 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: marie-france.bellin@pbr.aphp.fr; Van Der Molen, Aart J. [University Paris-Sud 11, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, 12, Avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94804 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2008-05-15

    Increasing use is made of extracellular MRI contrast agents that alter the image contrast following intravenous administration; they predominantly shorten the T1 relaxation time of tissues. The degree and location of these changes provide substantial diagnostic information. However gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CA) are not inert drugs. They may cause acute non-renal adverse reactions (e.g. anaphylactoid reactions), acute renal adverse reactions (e.g. contrast induced nephropathy), delayed adverse reactions (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) and problems at the site of injection (e.g. local necrosis). This review describes the current status of Gd-CA, their mechanism of action, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, dosage, elimination, nephrotoxicity and adverse events.

  6. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosten, N.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    The text reviews MRI findings in a variety of cerebral diseases. Advantages of Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced MRI over plain MRI and enhanced CT are discussed. Enhanced MRI is far superior to enhanced CT in the detection of meningeal tumor spread, meningeal inflammation, inflammatory lesions of the optic nerve, brain lesions in multiple sclerosis and infarction. Enhanced MRI is today the most sensitive diagnostic tool in hypophaseal adenomas. Also enhancement of gliomas is detected by MRI with higher sensitivity than by CT. Use Gd-DTPA allow to separate of vital tumor tissue from necrosis and edema, improve delineation of tumor extension and improve detection of lesions localized in gray matter

  7. The fertility myth: Israeli students' knowledge regarding age-related fertility decline and late pregnancies in an era of assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael; Kaplan, Amit; Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri

    2011-11-01

    As in many advanced societies, the age at first birth and the rate of post-menopausal pregnancies in Israel are constantly increasing. Since Israeli university students are the most likely population to postpone parenthood, this study aims at evaluating their awareness of: (i) women's age-related fertility decline; (ii) age-dependent success rates of IVF technology and (iii) medical procedures allowing late and post-menopausal pregnancies. Israeli undergraduate students (n= 410), attending four academic institutions and studying in different fields, completed a structured questionnaire in the 2009/2010 academic year. Students overestimated women's chances of spontaneous pregnancy in all age groups, whereas women's chances of achieving a live birth following IVF treatment were overestimated only for ages 40 years and above. Regarding both spontaneous and IVF pregnancies, success rates of very late pregnancies (beyond 45 years and after menopause) were greatly overestimated. Only 11% of the students knew that genetic motherhood is unlikely to be achieved from the mid-40s onward, unless using oocytes frozen in advance. The findings demonstrate entrenched fertility myths among Israeli students, particularly the false belief in the possibility of late (beyond 35 years) and very late genetic motherhood. This can be explained by technological 'hype' and favorable media coverage of very late pregnancies. Since this may culminate in involuntary childlessness, it is highly important to increase the awareness of the Israeli public on the subject of fertility. However, as our sample is not representative of the Israeli student population, our findings should be tested in future studies.

  8. Homogeneous dispersion of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into a non-aqueous-based polymer by two surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Jorice, E-mail: jorice.samuel@gmail.com [AREVA T and D UK Ltd, AREVA T and D Research and Technology Centre (United Kingdom); Raccurt, Olivier [NanoChemistry and Nanosafety Laboratory (DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN), CEA Grenoble, Department of NanoMaterials (France); Mancini, Cedric; Dujardin, Christophe; Amans, David; Ledoux, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physico Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML) (France); Poncelet, Olivier [NanoChemistry and Nanosafety Laboratory (DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN), CEA Grenoble, Department of NanoMaterials (France); Tillement, Olivier [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physico Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML) (France)

    2011-06-15

    Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are more and more used. They can notably provide interesting fluorescence properties. Herein they are incorporated into a non-aqueous-based polymer, the poly(methyl methacrylate). Their dispersion within the polymer matrix is the key to improve the composite properties. As-received gadolinium oxide nanopowders cannot be homogeneously dispersed in such a polymer matrix. Two surface treatments are, therefore, detailed and compared to achieve a good stability of the nanoparticles in a non-aqueous solvent such as the 2-butanone. Then, once the liquid suspensions have been stabilized, they are used to prepare nanocomposites with homogeneous particles dispersion. The two approaches proposed are an hybrid approach based on the growth of a silica shell around the gadolinium oxide nanoparticles, and followed by a suitable silane functionalization; and a non-hybrid approach based on the use of surfactants. The surface treatments and formulations involved in both methods are detailed, adjusted and compared. Thanks to optical methods and in particular to the use of a 'home made' confocal microscope, the dispersion homogeneity within the polymer can be assessed. Both methods provide promising and conclusive results.

  9. Gadolinium-Hematoporphyrin: new potential MRI contrast agent for detection of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shahbazi Gahrouei

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gadolinium-porphyrins have been synthesized and are currently being investigated as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. This study aimed to synthesize Gd-hematoporphyrin and applicate it for in vitro detection of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7. Methods: The naturally occurring porphyrin (hematoporphyrin was inserted with gadolinium (III nitrate hexahydrate to yield Gd-H. T1 relaxation times and signal enhancement of the contrast agents were presented, and the results were compared. UV spectrophotometer measured the attachment of Gd to the cell membrane of MCF-7. Results: Most of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3 was found in the washing solution, indicate that it didn`t fixed to the breast cell membranes during incubation. Gd-DTPA showed some uptake into the MCF-7 cell membranes with incubation, however, its uptake was significantly lower than Gd-H. Conclusion: Good cell memberan uptake of Gd-porphyrin is comparable to controls, indicating selective delivery it to the breast cell line and considerable potency in diagnostic MR imaging for detection of breast cancer. Key Words: Porphyrin, Contrast agent, MRI, Hematoporphyrin, Breast cancer cell (MCF-7

  10. Complications associated with transobturator sling procedures: analysis of 233 consecutive cases with a 27 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubuisson Jean-Bernard

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The transobturator tape procedure (TOT is an effective surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. However data concerning safety are rare, follow-up is often less than two years, and complications are probably underreported. The aim of this study was to describe early and late complications associated with TOT procedures and identify risk factors for erosions. Methods It was a 27 months follow-up of a cohort of 233 women who underwent TOT with three different types of slings (Aris®, Obtape®, TVT-O®. Follow-up information was available for 225 (96.6% women. Results There were few per operative complications. Forty-eight women (21.3% reported late complications including de novo or worsening of preexisting urgencies (10.2%, perineal pain (2.2%, de novo dyspareunia (9%, and vaginal erosion (7.6%. The risk of erosion significantly differed between the three types of slings and was 4%, 17% and 0% for Aris®, Obtape® and TVT-O® respectively (P = 0.001. The overall proportion of women satisfied by the procedure was 72.1%. The percentage of women satisfied was significantly lower in women who experienced erosion (29.4% compared to women who did not (78.4% (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.38, P Conclusion Late post operative complications are relatively frequent after TOT and can impair patient's satisfaction. Women should be informed of these potential complications preoperatively and require careful follow-up after the procedure. Choice of the safest sling material is crucial as it is a risk factor for erosion.

  11. About thermo-electric properties of bismuth telluride doped by gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperov, M.M.; Ismailov, Sh.S.; Shukyurova, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of study of the Gd impurities effect on the bismuth telluride thermo-electric properties are presented. The experiment was carried out within the temperature range T=300-700 K. It is determined, that at temperature increase the energy level is appreciably closing up to bismuth telluride forbidden zone which makes up 0.16-0.24 eV. Such anomalous energy properties of gadolinium in telluride affect on material thermoelectric properties

  12. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.

    1969-01-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [fr

  13. Enhancement of the normal pancreas: comparison of manganese-DPDP and gadolinium chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettritz, U.; Warshauer, D.M.; Brown, E.D.; Schlund, J.F.; Eisenberg, L.B.; Semelka, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare manganese-DPDP (Mn-DPDP) and gadolinium chelate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agents for enhancement of the normal pancreas. A total of 14 patients with focal liver disease underwent Mn-DPDP-and Gd-DTPA-enhanced 1.5 T MR examinations using spoiled gradient-echo (FLASH) technique at two separate times. Contrast agents were injected according to the currently recommended practices; Gd-DTPA was injected as a rapid bolus injection in a dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg, and Mn-DPDP was injected as a slow IV injection in a dosage of 5 μmol/kg. Quantitative region of interest measurements were made in 11 patients, and percent contrast enhancement of the pancreas and pancreas-fat signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were determined for each agent. Images were also evaluated qualitativley by consensus reading of two investigators and overall scan quality was rated on a scale from 1 (poor) to 4 (very good). Enhancement of the pancreas immediately post Gd-DTPA was significantly higher than 15 min post Mn-DPDP (73.3 vs 36.3%; p=0.003). On postcontrast images the pancreas-fat SNR measruements were 7.7 (i.e., pancreas higher in signal than fat) and -6.1 for Gd-DTPA and Mn-DPDP, respectively, which was significantly different (p<0.001). Image quality was rated as 3.1 and 2.5 for Gd-DTPA- and Mn-DPDP-enhanced images, respectively. The normal pan creas enhances significantly more with Gd-DTPA than with Mn-DPDP administered under the conditions of this study. Overall image quality is also greater on the Gd-DTPA-enhanced images. (orig.)

  14. Study of points defects produced by irradiation of monocrystalline nickel and polycrystalline gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.

    1969-07-01

    The work described in this thesis falls into two parts: the first comprises a study of magnetocrystalline nickel by resistivity measurements; the second is a description of resistivity and magnetic after effect measurements on an h.c.p. ferromagnetic crystal other than cobalt, namely gadolinium. For the first part we have demonstrated the existence of a small but definite orientation dependence in the creation of point defects by electron irradiation (20 deg. K) of a nickel single crystal. In particular, the effect is manifested in the form of the stage I C , II and III in the resistivity recovery. In the second part an important result has emerged: namely that there is no magnetic after effect phenomenon in a neutron irradiated (27 deg. K) ferromagnetic metal. Several considerations are discussed by way of a preliminary interpretation of this important difference between gadolinium and cobalt. (author) [fr

  15. Imaging of cauda equina edema in lumbar canal stenosis by using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging: experimental constriction injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uchida, K; Takeno, K; Baba, H; Suzuki, Y; Hayakawa, K; Yoshizawa, H

    2006-02-01

    It has been reported that disturbance of blood flow arising from circumferential compression of the cauda equina by surrounding tissue plays a major role in the appearance of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) associated with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). We created a model of LSCS to clarify the mechanism of enhancement within the cauda equina on gadolinium-enhanced MR images from patients with LSCS. In 20 dogs, a lumbar laminectomy was performed by applying circumferential constriction to the cauda equina by using a silicon tube, to produce 30% stenosis of the circumferential diameter of the dural tube. After 1 and 3 weeks, gadolinium and Evans blue albumin were injected intravenously at the same time. The sections were used to investigate the status of the blood-nerve barrier function under a fluorescence microscope and we compared gadolinium-enhanced MR images with Evans blue albumin distribution in the nerve. The other sections were used for light and transmission electron microscopic study. In this model, histologic examination showed congestion and dilation in many of the intraradicular veins, as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. The intraradicular edema caused by venous congestion and Wallerian degeneration can also occur at sites that are not subject to mechanical compression. Enhanced MR imaging showed enhancement of the cauda equina at the stenosed region, demonstrating the presence of edema. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of microcirculatory disorders of the cauda equina associated with LSCS.

  16. Effect of intravenous gadolinium-DTPA on diffusion tensor MR imaging for the evaluation of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Min Sun; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether indices of diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) are altered after contrast medium injection in patients with brain tumors. DT-MRIs at a 3-T unit before and 6 min after gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid injection were obtained in nine patients (five women, four men) with histologically confirmed brain tumors (four metastases, one glioblastoma multiforme, three meningiomas, and one lymphoma). Fractional anisotropy (FA), trace and mean raw DT-MRI data without (DT b 0, b value = 0 s/mm 2 ) and with (DT b 800, b value = 800 s/mm 2 ) diffusion-encoded gradients were calculated. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in the tumor, peritumoral edema, and normal-appearing symmetric contralateral brain tissue for each patient. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used to determine the effects of contrast medium and ROI for all of the maps, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for either paired t test between pre- and post-contrast values of DTI indices for the ROIs or the post hoc test. Statistically significant differences between pre-contrast and post-contrast DT-MRI are shown in the trace value of the peritumoral edema area (p = 0.0195) and the FA value of the tumor area (p = 0.0273). Trace and FA values of the other areas show no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-contrast (p > 0.05). In addition, we find a significant ROI effect for both FA (χ 2 = 26.514, df = 2, p = 0.0001) and trace (χ 2 = 21.218, df = 2, p = 0.0001). DT-MRI obtained after contrast medium injection of 6 min results in significant changes in diffusion isotropic and anisotropic values. Therefore, clinical applications of DT-MRI after administrating a contrast medium require caution in interpretation. (orig.)

  17. Gadolinium enhancement of cerebrospinal fluid in a patient with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbay, S.H.; Bhadelia, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gadolinium based MRI contrast agents are considered very safe due to their well known pharmacologic properties and elimination mechanisms. In this paper, we present a unique case in whom transient enhancement of CSF with contrast is seen. Severe renal failure is demonstrated to be responsible for this finding. The diagnostic criteria for everyday clinical setting and possible clinical implications are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Highly-crystalline ultrathin gadolinium doped and carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. B.; Yang, L. W.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, J. W.; Zhong, J. X.; Chu, P. K.

    2015-11-01

    Highly-crystalline gadolinium doped and carbon-coated ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets (denoted as LTO-Gd-C) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on large scale by controlling the amount of carbon precursor in the topotactic transformation of layered ultrathin Li1.81H0.19Ti2O5·xH2O (H-LTO) nanosheets at 700 °C. The characterizations of structure and morphology reveal that the gadolinium doped and carbon-coated ultrathin LTO nanosheets have high crystallinity with a thickness of about 10 nm. Gadolinium doping allows the spinel LTO products to be stabilized, thereby preserving the precursor's sheet morphology and single crystal structure. Carbon encapsulation serves dual functions by restraining crystal growth of the LTO primary nanoparticles in the LTO-Gd-C nanosheets and decreasing the external electron transport resistance. Owing to the synergistic effects rendered by ultrathin nanosheets with high crystallinity, gadolinium doping and carbon coating, the developed ultrathin LTO nanosheets possess excellent specific capacity, cycling performance, and rate capability compared with reference materials, when evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The simple and effective strategy encompassing nanoscale morphological engineering, surface modification, and doping improves the performance of LTO-based anode materials for high energy density and high power LIBs applied in large scale energy storage.

  19. The trial of obtaining a high-grade gadolinium concentrate using the fractional precipitation together with the ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozga, W.; Soltysiak, I.

    1980-01-01

    The modified fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromate was used for preliminary separation of gadolinium concentrate containing 60% Gd 2 O 3 , 33,3% Sm 2 O 3 . The 1-st fraction enriched with samarium (60% Sm 2 O 3 ) and 2-nd fraction enriched with gadolinium (80% Gd 2 O 3 with efficiency of 82% recounting on Gd 2 O 3 ) were obtained. Both fractions were separated by the elution with EDTA solution buffered with ammonium acetate. The good results were obtained by ion exchange separation only of the 1-st fraction. (author)

  20. Magnetocaloric properties of distilled gadolinium: effects of structural inhomogeneity and hydrogen impurity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burkhanov, G.S.; Kolchugina, N.B.; Tereshina, Evgeniya; Tereshina, I. S.; Politova, G.A.; Chzhan, V.B.; Badurski, D.; Chistyakov, O.D.; Paukov, M.; Drulis, H.; Havela, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 24 (2014), "242402-1"-"242402-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-purity rare- earth metals * gadolinium * magnetocaloric effect * hydrogenation * structural studies Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  1. Production and characterization of quality gadolinium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, Samiran; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth system Gadolinium (Gd), in either pure form or oxide form, is highly stable against environmental attack. It has immense potential as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices. Being mechanically and thermally stable it is always difficult to obtain Gd 2 O 3 nanopowders directly from its bulk counterpart using conventional top-down approach. Recently, we have reported production of Gd 2 O 3 nanopowders by first converting bulk Gd 2 O 3 into a nitrate compound and subsequently reduced into a hydroxide product and finally to the oxide product (nanopowder form)

  2. The ‘Ventral Organs’ of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) Are Neurogenic Niches of Late Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Nervous System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions – traditionally designated as ‘ventral organs’ – detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons – as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient

  3. Analysis of acute and late toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy in women with cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenczak-Florczak, Z.; Roszak, A.; Wlodarczyk, H.; Wojciechowska-Lacka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In case of pure prognostic factors women with cervical and endometrial cancer after surgical operation need to be treated with radiotherapy . Every radiation treatment may be involved with toxicity, acute and late. Material and methods: Performed was detailed analysis of 173 patients with cervical (38) and endometrial (135) cancer. We evaluated early and late post radiation reactions in all patients. Results: Acute reactions were found in 48.5% and late toxicity was found in 9.8% of patients. Women with endometrial cancer were significantly older then patients with cervical cancer (p < 0.002). Higher percentage of acute and late toxicity was observed from the bowel tah urinary tract (26% and 22.5% - acute; 8.1% and 1.73% - late). Higher percentage of acute side effects was observed in patients with cervical than with endometrial cancer (60.5% and 33.7%). Late post radiation reaction predominate also in patient with cervical cancer (13.2% and 8.9%). The adverse effects were associated with prolonged time of treatment due to breaks in radiotherapy. Higher percentage of breaks was found in older patients, more frequent in patient with endometrial than in cervical cancer group (7.4% and 2.6%).To conclude early postradiation reaction appeared more frequently, than late post radiation reactions. It was stated that early and late post radiation reaction appear more frequently in women with cervical than in endometrial cancer. Interruption in radiation delivery was longer than seven days in group with endometrial cancer that leads to extension of complete radiation treatment. (authors)

  4. Late onset corneal ectasia after LASIK surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ashraf; Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2011-07-01

    To report late onset corneal ectasia following myopic LASIK. A retrospective cohort case series. Nineteen patients with late onset corneal ectasia following LASIK procedure were examined at The Eye Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients underwent LASIK for myopia with spherical equivalent ranging from -1.4 to -13.75 diopters. Age and gender, history of systemic or local diseases, and time of onset of corneal ectasia were recorded. Eye examination and corneal topographical analyses were done before and after LASIK surgery. Nineteen patients (29 eyes) with late onset corneal ectasia were identified from 1998 to 2008 in 13 male and six female patients. The mean follow-up period was 108 ± 23 months (range 72-144 months). No patient had pre-operative identifiable risk factors for corneal ectasia and the mean time of onset was 57 ± 24 months (range 24-120 months after LASIK). The pre-operative values included mean central pachymetry 553 ± 25 μm, mean keratometry reading of 42.9 ± 1.5 diopters, average oblique cylinder of 1.4 ± 1.2 diopters, posterior surface elevation of 26 ± 2.1 diopters, corneal flap thickness of 160 μm, mean spherical equivalent of -5.6 ± 3.6 diopters, and calculated residual corneal stromal bed thickness was 288 ± 35 μm. Three (5 eyes) patients developed ectasia after pregnancy. Three (4 eyes) patients developed corneal ectasia following severe adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis and had positive PCR for adenovirus type 8. Corneal ectasia may develop many years after LASIK surgery and symptoms could go undetected for some time. Pregnancy and adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis occurred post-operatively in six patients.

  5. Gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI of painful osseous crises in children with sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerot, V.; Sebag, G.; Montalembert, M. de; Wioland, M.; Glorion, C.; Girot, R.; Lallemand, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI in the management of painful osseous crises in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), nine children with SCA underwent MRI, bone scans and ultrasonographic studies during 11 osseous crises. Imaging findings were compared with the final diagnosis: three acute osteomyelitis (AO) and 16 acute infarcts (AI). MRI could not differentiate AO from AI. The appearance of severe AI was very misleading and was similar to the usual appearance of AO, including soft tissue changes, periosteal reaction and patterns of enhancement. Gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI was useful for determining the anatomic site and extent of AO or AI and for distinguishing between necrotic material, fluid collection and vascularized inflammatory tissue. It can also help to guide the aspiration of intraosseous, subperiosteal and soft tissue fluid collections. (orig.)

  6. Possible involvement of gadolinium chelates in the pathophysiology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idee, Jean-Marc; Port, Marc; Medina, Christelle; Lancelot, Eric; Fayoux, Emmanuelle; Ballet, Sebastien; Corot, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a recently described, highly debilitating scleroderma-like disease occurring in patients with severe or end-stage renal failure. NSF is characterized by cutaneous papules and coalescing plaques ('peau d'orange' appearance) and a wooden consistency. It may ultimately cause disabling contractures of several joints, thus making many patients wheelchair-dependent. NSF has been associated to prior administration of gadolinium chelates (GC) used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The best available treatment option at the present time is renal transplantation. The mechanism of NSF has not been fully elucidated. Several hypotheses have been proposed so far and are critically discussed in the present review article. Gadolinium has been found in skin biopsy samples of patients. The most widely accepted hypothesis is related to dechelation of less stable GC, progressively releasing free Gd 3+ which may subsequently lead to the attraction of CD34+, CD45+, pro-collagen+ circulating fibrocytes via the release of chemokines, thereby inducing systemic fibrosing disorders. Pre-existing renal failure may facilitate the process by delaying the excretion of GC. A complex interplay between gadolinium and co-factors (pro-inflammatory status, vascular injury, high dose of erythropoietin, high levels of calcium, phosphorus, etc.) may occur in patients with impaired renal function. This and other hypotheses remain to be investigated, as well as the role and independence of co-factors

  7. Optical properties of pure and Ce3+ doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystals and epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvorotka, I.I.; Sugak, D.; Wierzbicka, A.; Wittlin, A.; Przybylińska, H.; Barzowska, J.; Barcz, A.; Berkowski, M.; Domagała, J.; Mahlik, S.; Grinberg, M.; Ma, Chong-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Results of X-ray diffraction and low temperature optical absorption measurements of cerium doped gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals and epitaxial layers are reported. In the region of intra-configurational 4f–4f transitions the spectra of the bulk crystals exhibit the signatures of several different Ce 3+ related centers. Apart from the dominant center, associated with Ce substituting gadolinium, at least three other centers are found, some of them attributed to the so-called antisite locations of rare-earth ions in the garnet host, i.e., in the Ga positions. X-ray diffraction data prove lattice expansion of bulk GGG crystals due to the presence of rare-earth antisites. The concentration of the additional Ce-related centers in epitaxial layers is much lower than in the bulk crystals. However, the Ce-doped layers incorporate a large amount of Pb from flux, which is the most probable source of nonradiative quenching of Ce luminescence, not observed in crystals grown by the Czochralski method. - Highlights: • Ce 3+ multicenters found in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet crystals and epitaxial layers. • High quality epitaxial layers of pure and Ce-doped GGG were grown. • Luminescence quenching of Ce 3+ by Pb ions from flux detected in GGG epitaxial layers. • X-ray diffraction allows measuring the amount of the rare-earth antisites in GGG

  8. Preparation of new composite ceramics based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingying; Schelter, Matthias; Zosel, Jens; Oelssner, Wolfram [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e.V. Meinsberg, Waldheim (Germany); Mertig, Michael [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e.V. Meinsberg, Waldheim (Germany); Physikalische Chemie, Mess- und Sensortechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To achieve solid electrolyte materials for electrochemical energy storage devices with very high oxygen ion conductivity, composites of gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) and magnesia (MgO) are developed in this study. Three different preparation methods are used to prepare nanoparticles from these two components. According to the characterization results, the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is best suited for the preparation of both nanometer-sized GDC powder as solid electrolyte and MgO powder as insulator. The structures of the prepared nanometer-sized powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. They show narrow size distributions in the lower nanometer range. Then, dense composite ceramics are prepared from a MgO-GDC mixture by sintering. The size of the crystallite domains in the sintered ceramic is in the upper nanometer range. TEM and TEM-EDX images of a new composite ceramic based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Preparation of new composite ceramics based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jingying; Schelter, Matthias; Zosel, Jens; Oelssner, Wolfram; Mertig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To achieve solid electrolyte materials for electrochemical energy storage devices with very high oxygen ion conductivity, composites of gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) and magnesia (MgO) are developed in this study. Three different preparation methods are used to prepare nanoparticles from these two components. According to the characterization results, the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is best suited for the preparation of both nanometer-sized GDC powder as solid electrolyte and MgO powder as insulator. The structures of the prepared nanometer-sized powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. They show narrow size distributions in the lower nanometer range. Then, dense composite ceramics are prepared from a MgO-GDC mixture by sintering. The size of the crystallite domains in the sintered ceramic is in the upper nanometer range. TEM and TEM-EDX images of a new composite ceramic based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Petrogenesis of shoshonitic granitoids, eastern India: Implications for the late Grenvillian post-collisional magmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Goswami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elongated, lenticular plutons of porphyritic granitoids are distributed mainly near the southern and northern margin of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC which belongs to the EW to ENE–WSW tending 1500 km long Proterozoic orogenic belt amalgamating the North and South Indian cratonic blocks. The late Grenvillian (1071 ± 64 Ma Raghunathpur porphyritic granitoid gneiss (PGG batholith comprising alkali feldspar granite, granite, granodiorite, tonalite, quartz syenite and quartz monzonite intruded into the granitoid gneisses of southeastern part of CGC in the Purulia district, West Bengal and is aligned with ENE–WSW trending North Purulia shear zone. Mineral chemistry, geochemistry, physical condition of crystallization and petrogenetic model of Raghunathpur PGG have been discussed for the first time. The petrographic and geochemical features (including major and trace-elements, mineral chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr ratio suggest these granitoids to be classified as the shoshonitic type. Raghunathpur batholith was emplaced at around 800 °C and at 6 kbar pressure tectonic discrimination diagrams reveal a post-collision tectonic setting while structural studies reveal its emplacement in the extensional fissure of North Purulia shear zone. The Raghunathpur granitoid is compared with some similar granitoids of Europe and China to draw its petrogenetic model. Hybridization of mantle-generated enriched mafic magma and crustal magma at lower crust and later fractional crystallization is proposed for the petrogenesis of this PGG. Mafic magma generated in a post-collisional extension possibly because of delamination of subducting slab. Raghunathpur batholith had emplaced in the CGC during the final amalgamation (∼1.0 Ga of the North and South Indian cratonic blocks. Granitoid magma, after its generation at depth, was transported to its present level along megadyke channel, ways within shear zones.

  11. Effects of motexafin gadolinium on DNA damage and X-ray-induced DNA damage repair, as assessed by the Comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Erling T.; Liu Yanfeng; Paul, Tracy K.; Rockwell, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and DNA damage in EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. The ability of MGd to alter radiosensitivity and to inhibit DNA damage repair after X-ray irradiation was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: Reactive oxygen species and GSH levels were assessed by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence flow cytometry and the Tietze method, respectively. Cellular radiosensitivity was assessed by clonogenic assays. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage and DNA damage repair were assessed in plateau-phase EMT6 cells by the Comet assay and clonogenic assays. Results: Cells treated with 100 μmol/L MGd plus equimolar ascorbic acid (AA) had significantly increased levels of ROS and a 58.9% ± 3.4% decrease in GSH levels, relative to controls. Motexafin gadolinium plus AA treatment increased the hypoxic, but not the aerobic, radiosensitivity of EMT6 cells. There were increased levels of single-strand breaks in cells treated with 100 μmol/L MGd plus equimolar AA, as evidenced by changes in the alkaline tail moment (MGd + AA, 6 h: 14.7 ± 1.8; control: 2.8 ± 0.9). The level of single-strand breaks was dependent on the length of treatment. Motexafin gadolinium plus AA did not increase double-strand breaks. The repair of single-strand breaks at 2 h, but not at 4 h and 6 h, after irradiation was altered significantly in cells treated with MGd plus AA (MGd + AA, 2 h: 15.8 ± 3.4; control: 5.8 ± 0.6). Motexafin gadolinium did not alter the repair of double-strand breaks at any time after irradiation with 10 Gy. Conclusions: Motexafin gadolinium plus AA generated ROS, which in turn altered GSH homeostasis and induced DNA strand breaks. The MGd plus AA-mediated alteration of GSH levels increased the hypoxic, but not aerobic, radiosensitivity of EMT6 cells. Motexafin gadolinium altered the kinetics of single-strand break repair soon after irradiation but did not

  12. PAMAM Dendrimers as Potential Carriers of Gadolinium Complexes of Iminodiacetic Acid Derivatives for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study describing the utilization of PAMAM dendrimers as delivery vehicles of novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The purpose of this paper was to establish the potential of G4 PAMAM dendrimers as carriers of gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives and determine imaging properties of synthesized compounds in in vivo studies. Furthermore, we examined the influence of four synthesized complexes on the process of clot formation, stabilization, and lysis and on amidolytic activity of thrombin. Biodistribution studies have shown that the compounds composed of PAMAM G4 dendrimers and gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives increase signal intensity preferably in liver in range of 59–116% in MRI studies which corresponds with the greatest accumulation of gadolinium after administration of the compounds. Synthesized compounds affect kinetic parameters of the proces of clot formation, its stabilization, and lysis. However, only one synthesized compound at concentration 10-fold higher than potential plasma concentrations contributed to the increase of general parameters such as the overall potential of clot formation and lysis (↑CLAUC and total time of the process (↑T. Results of described studies provide additional insight into delivery properties of PAMAM dendrimers but simultaneously underscore the necessity for further research.

  13. Gadolinium-based Contrast Agent Accumulates in the Brain Even in Subjects without Severe Renal Dysfunction: Evaluation of Autopsy Brain Specimens with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Fukusato, Toshio; Matsuda, Megumi; Toyoda, Keiko; Oba, Hiroshi; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Furui, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    To use inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to evaluate gadolinium accumulation in brain tissues, including the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP), in subjects who received a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Written informed consent for postmortem investigation was obtained either from the subject prior to his or her death or afterward from the subject's relatives. Brain tissues obtained at autopsy in five subjects who received a linear GBCA (GBCA group) and five subjects with no history of GBCA administration (non-GBCA group) were examined with ICP-MS. Formalin-fixed DN tissue, the inner segment of the GP, cerebellar white matter, the frontal lobe cortex, and frontal lobe white matter were obtained, and their gadolinium concentrations were measured. None of the subjects had received a diagnosis of severely compromised renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate brain regions. Gadolinium was detected in all specimens in the GBCA agent group (mean, 0.25 µg per gram of brain tissue ± 0.44 [standard deviation]), with significantly higher concentrations in each region (P = .004 vs the non-GBCA group for all regions). In the GBCA group, the DN and GP showed significantly higher gadolinium concentrations (mean, 0.44 µg/g ± 0.63) than other regions (0.12 µg/g ± 0.16) (P = .029). Even in subjects without severe renal dysfunction, GBCA administration causes gadolinium accumulation in the brain, especially in the DN and GP.

  14. Power release estimation inside of fuel pins neighbouring fuel pin with gadolinium in a WWER-1000 type core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work consists in investigation of the gadolinium fuel pin (fps) influence on space power distribution, especially from viewpoint of the values and gradient occurrence inside of neighbouring FPs that could result in static loads with some consequences, e.g., FP bowing. Since detailed power distributions cannot be obtained in the NPPs, needed information is provided by means of experiments on research reactors. As for the power release measurement inside of FPs, some special (e.g. track) detectors placed between fuel pellets are usually used. Since such works are relatively complicated and time consuming, an evaluation method based on mathematical modelling and numerical approximation was proposed by means of that, and using measured (integral) power release in selected FPs, relevant information about power release inside of needed (investigated) FP, can be obtained. For this purpose, an experiment on light water, zero-power research reactor LR-0 was realized in a WWER-1000 type core with 7 fuel assemblies at zero boron concentration and containing gadolinium FPs. Application of the above evaluation method is demonstrated on investigated FP neighbouring a FP with gadolinium by means of the 1) Azimuthal power distribution inside of investigated FP on their fuel pellet surface in horizontal plane and 2) Gradient of the power distribution inside of investigated FP in two opposite positions on pellets surface that are situated to- and outwards a FP with gadolinium. Similar information can be relevant from the viewpoint of the FP failures occurrence investigation (Authors)

  15. Riociguat reduces infarct size and post-infarct heart failure in mouse hearts: insights from MRI/PET imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Methner

    Full Text Available Stimulation of the nitric oxide (NO--soluble guanylate (sGC--protein kinase G (PKG pathway confers protection against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury, but more chronic effects in reducing post-myocardial infarction (MI heart failure are less defined. The aim of this study was to not only determine whether the sGC stimulator riociguat reduces infarct size but also whether it protects against the development of post-MI heart failure.Mice were subjected to 30 min ischaemia via ligation of the left main coronary artery to induce MI and either placebo or riociguat (1.2 µmol/l were given as a bolus 5 min before and 5 min after onset of reperfusion. After 24 hours, both, late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI and (18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET were performed to determine infarct size. In the riociguat-treated mice, the resulting infarct size was smaller (8.5 ± 2.5% of total LV mass vs. 21.8% ± 1.7%. in controls, p = 0.005 and LV systolic function analysed by MRI was better preserved (60.1% ± 3.4% of preischaemic vs. 44.2% ± 3.1% in controls, p = 0.005. After 28 days, LV systolic function by echocardiography treated group was still better preserved (63.5% ± 3.2% vs. 48.2% ± 2.2% in control, p = 0.004.Taken together, mice treated acutely at the onset of reperfusion with the sGC stimulator riociguat have smaller infarct size and better long-term preservation of LV systolic function. These findings suggest that sGC stimulation during reperfusion therapy may be a powerful therapeutic treatment strategy for preventing post-MI heart failure.

  16. Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

    2004-01-01

    Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows f or surface

  17. Renal function, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and other adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canga, Ana; Kislikova, Maria; Martínez-Gálvez, María; Arias, Mercedes; Fraga-Rivas, Patricia; Poyatos, Cecilio; de Francisco, Angel L M

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder that affects patients with impaired renal function and is associated with the administration of gadolinium-based contrast media used in MRI. Despite being in a group of drugs that were considered safe, report about this potentially serious adverse reaction was a turning point in the administration guidelines of these contrast media. There has been an attempt to establish safety parameters to identify patients with risk factors of renal failure. The close pharmacovigilance and strict observation of current regulations, with special attention being paid to the value of glomerular filtration, have reduced the published cases involving the use of gadolinium-based contrast media. In a meeting between radiologists and nephrologists we reviewed the most relevant aspects currently and recommendations for its prevention.

  18. Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikossova, Natalia; Skoglund, Caroline; Ahrén, Maria; Uvdal, Kajsa; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes. (paper)

  19. Procedure for the record, calculation and analysis of costs at the Post Company of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Lara Zayas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Company is immersed in important changes, which lead to a new economic model that requires to increase the productivity of work and to enlarge the economic efficiency by means of rational use of material resources, financial and humans. In the present work it is proposed a procedure based on the application of cost techniques, for the record, calculation and costs analysis of activities in the Post Company of Cuba in Sancti Spiritus with the objective to obtain a major efficiency from the rational use of resources.

  20. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  1. Studies of MRI relaxivities of gadolinium-labeled dendrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongmu; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2011-05-01

    In cancer detection, imaging techniques have a great importance in early diagnosis. The more sensitive the imaging technique and the earlier the tumor can be detected. Contrast agents have the capability to increase the sensitivity in imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Until now, gadolinium-based contrast agents are mainly used for MRI, and show good enhancement. But improvement is needed for detection of smaller tumors at the earliest stage possible. The dendrons complexed with Gd(DOTA) were synthesized and evaluated as a new MRI contrast agent. The longitudinal and transverse relaxation effects were tested and compared with commercial drug Magnevist, Gd(DTPA).

  2. Early and late effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in a rat model of post-myocardial infarction heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Progressive remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Recently, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 was shown to have cardioprotective effects, but treatment with GLP-1 is limited by its short half-life. It is rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme which inhibits GLP-1 activity. We hypothesized that the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin will increase levels of GLP-1 and may exert protective effects on cardiac function after MI. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were either subjected to coronary ligation to induce MI and left ventricular (LV) remodeling, or sham operation. Parts of the rats with an MI were pre-treated for 2 days with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (MI-Vildagliptin immediate, MI-VI, 15 mg/kg/day). The remainder of the rats was, three weeks after coronary artery ligation, subjected to treatment with DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (MI-Vildagliptin Late, MI-VL) or control (MI). At 12 weeks, echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics were measured and molecular analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed. Results Vildagliptin inhibited the DPP-4 enzymatic activity by almost 70% and increased active GLP-1 levels by about 3-fold in plasma in both treated groups (p vildagliptin, either early or late, did not reverse cardiac remodeling. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) and BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) mRNA levels were significantly increased in all 3 MI groups, but no significant reductions were observed in both vildagliptin groups. Vildagliptin also did not change cardiomyocyte size or capillary density after MI. No effects were detected on glucose level and body weight in the post-MI remodeling model. Conclusion Vildagliptin increases the active GLP-1 level via inhibition of DPP-4, but it has no substantial protective effects on cardiac function in this well established long-term post-MI cardiac remodeling model. PMID:21955567

  3. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MR imaging - a simple technique for the early diagnosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.; Ducou Le Pointe, H.; Klein, I.; Maiza, D.; Mazda, K.; Bensahel, H.; Hassan, M.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the simple technique of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MR imaging, which is available on standard MR units, can detect ischemia of the femoral head in children with early Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCP). Bone perfusion of eight hips in four patients (mean age 7.5 years) was studied using dynamic gadolinium-enhanced substraction MR imaging at the onset of proven LCP (with initial negative plain films). Enhancement of subtracted images was compared with that on standard MR images and with bone scintigraphy findings. Subtraction MR imaging depicted ischemia as a widespread absence of enhancement and was in good agreement with bone scintigraphy. The subtraction technique improved the sensitivity and the specificity of MR imaging in two children. Furthermore, subtraction MR imaging allowed recognition of the pattern of early reperfusion. Our preliminary results indicate that dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MRI is a simple and promising means of early recognition of ischemia in LCP. (orig.)

  4. Effect of gadolinium injection on diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) imaging of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) provides both qualitative and quantitative imaging of breast lesions and are usually performed before contrast material injection (CMI). This study aims to assess whether the administration of gadolinium significantly affects DWIBS imaging. 200 patients were prospectively evaluated by MRI with STIR, TSE-T2, pre-CMI DWIBS, contrast enhanced THRIVE-T1 and post-CMI DWIBS sequences. Pre and post-CMI DWIBS were analyzed searching for the presence of breast lesions and calculating the ADC value. ADC values of ≤1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s were considered suspicious for malignancy. This analysis was then compared with the histological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) were calculated for both sequences and represented by ROC analysis. Pre and post-CMI ADC values were compared by using the paired t test. In 150/200 (59%) patients, pre and post-CMI DWIBS indicated the presence of breast lesions, 53 (35%) with ADC values of >1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s and 97 (65%) with ADC≤1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s. Pre-CMI and post-DWIBS sequences obtained the same sensitivity, specificity, DA, PPV and NPV values of 97%, 83%, 89%, 79% and 98%. The mean ADC value of benign lesions was 1.831±0.18×10(-3) mm(2)/s before and 1.828±0.18×10(-3) mm(2)/s after CMI. The mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was 1.146±0.16×10(-3) mm(2)/s before and 1.144±0.16×10(-3) mm(2)/s after CMI. No significant difference was found between pre and post CMI ADC values (p>0.05). DWIBS imaging is not influenced by CMI. Breast MR protocol could be modified by placing DWIBS after dynamic contrast enhanced sequences in order to maximize patient cooperation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of arterial occlusive disease in lower extremity : comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang June; Koh, Young Hwan; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hyu Beom; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography with that of conventional digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases. In 26 patients with symptomatic lower extremity arterial occlusive disease, both conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) were performed during the same week. MR angiography was performed using three-dimensional gradient-echo acquisition before, and two sequential acquisitions after, the administration of gadolinium (0.2 mmol/kg). In 23 patients, two separate, contiguous areas were scanned using additional doses. In three patients, only one field with a suspicious lesion was scanned. Three radiologists independently analyzed the CE-MRA and DSA findings of each vascular segment (20 segments per arterial tree) for the presence of obstructive lesions; the grade assigned was either mild or none (less than 50%), stenotic (50%-99%), or occlusion (100%). From among a total of 462 segments, DSA detected 99 which were significantly narrowed (stenosis, 33; occlusion, 66). Using MR angiography, 102 segments (stenosis 39; occlusion, 63) were identified, and 94 lesions (stenosis, 32; occlusion, 62) were graded correctly. Seven lesions were overestimated and four were underestimated. For the detection of hemodynamically significant stenosis or occlusions using MR angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 95%, 98%, and 98% (G=3D0.995, P less than 0.001), respectively. To prove the absence of lesions, we repeated DSA in two patients with arterial spasm due to puncture. Three occluded segments seen on DSA, which revealed intact segments on MR angiography, suggested slow distal flow after reconstitution. For the evaluation of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease, the diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography is comparable with that of digital subtraction angiography. The advantages of the

  6. Montecarlo calculation for a benchmark on interactive effects of Gadolinium poisoned pins in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, M.G.; Casali, F.; Cepraga, D.

    1985-01-01

    K infinite and burn-up calculations have been done in the frame of a benchmark organized by Physic Reactor Committee of NEA. The calculations, performed by the Montecarlo code KIM, concerned BWR lattices having UO*L2 fuel rodlets with and without gadolinium oxide

  7. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubler, F. M.; Algra, P. R.; Maas, M.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Falke, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological

  8. Selective Filtration of Gadolinium Trichloride for Use in Neutron Detection in Large Water Cherenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Super-??Kamiokande Water Cherenkov detectors have been used for many years as inexpensive, effective detectors for neutrino interactions and nucleon decay searches. While many important measurements have been made with these detectors a major drawback has been their inability to detect the absorption of thermal neutrons. We believe an inexpensive, effective technique could be developed to overcome this situation via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters which would make neutrons detectable. Gadolinium seems an excellent candidate especially since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride, GdCl 3 . This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields a gamma cascade which would be easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. We have been investigating the use of GdCl 3 as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector with a view toward improving its performance as a detector for atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, wrong-sign solar neutrinos, reactor neutrinos, proton decay, and also as a target for the coming T2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. This focused study of selective water filtration and GdCl 3 extraction techniques, conducted at UC Irvine, followed up on highly promising benchtop-scale and kiloton-scale work previously carried out with the assistance of 2003 and 2005 Advanced Detector Research Program grants

  9. Implementation of a Gadolinium Burnable Absorber in the Carbide LEU-NTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneria, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    Among the most crucial are the rapid reactivity depletion during full-power operation and the positive reactivity insertion during the full-submersion criticality accident. In previous work, it has been suggested that both challenges can be mitigated through the successful implementation of a burnable absorber in the active core. Of the poisons previously surveyed, one of the most promising is Gadolinium in the form of Gadolina (Gd2O4). This paper explores the possibility of different methods by which the Gadolinia can be implemented in the core and makes a preliminary study of its effect on the full submersion criticality accident and the reactivity depletion during operation. The application of a Gadolinium neutron absorber in the active core region of the LEU-NTR has been shown to be neutronically feasible. It can be introduced into the core in various locations without resulting in core performance loss. The utility of the poison in terms of mitigating the full-submersion reactivity accident and the rapid change in reactivity during full-power operation have been preliminarily shown and the first steps towards eventual implementation made. Future work will consist of determining the maximum poison content in the core and tailoring the self-shielding effect in order to determine a specific Gd depletion rate

  10. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment.

  11. Are gadolinium contrast agents suitable for gadolinium neutron capture therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Rajesh, Deepika; Casalbore, Patrizia; Daniels, Matthew J; Erhardt, Robert J; Frazer, Bradley H; Wiese, Lisa M; Richter, Katherine L; Sonderegger, Brandon R; Gilbert, Benjamin; Schaub, Sebastien; Cannara, Rachel J; Crawford, John F; Gilles, Mary K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Fowler, John F; Larocca, Luigi M; Howard, Steven P; Mercanti, Delio; Mehta, Minesh P; Pallini, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is a potential treatment for malignant tumors based on two steps: (1) injection of a tumor-specific (157)Gd compound; (2) tumor irradiation with thermal neutrons. The GdNC reaction can induce cell death provided that Gd is proximate to DNA. Here, we studied the nuclear uptake of Gd by glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells after treatment with two Gd compounds commonly used for magnetic resonance imaging, to evaluate their potential as GdNCT agents. Using synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy, we analyzed the Gd distribution at the subcellular level in: (1) human cultured GBM cells exposed to Gd-DTPA or Gd-DOTA for 0-72 hours; (2) intracerebrally implanted C6 glioma tumors in rats injected with one or two doses of Gd-DOTA, and (3) tumor samples from GBM patients injected with Gd-DTPA. In cell cultures, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA were found in 84% and 56% of the cell nuclei, respectively. In rat tumors, Gd penetrated the nuclei of 47% and 85% of the tumor cells, after single and double injection of Gd-DOTA, respectively. In contrast, in human GBM tumors 6.1% of the cell nuclei contained Gd-DTPA. Efficacy of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA as GdNCT agents is predicted to be low, due to the insufficient number of tumor cell nuclei incorporating Gd. Although multiple administration schedules in vivo might induce Gd penetration into more tumor cell nuclei, a search for new Gd compounds with higher nuclear affinity is warranted before planning GdNCT in animal models or clinical trials.

  12. Preparation, characterization and optical properties of Gadolinium doped ceria thin films by pulsed laser deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, P.; Vijaya Kumar, Y.; Vishnuvardhan Reddy, C.; Ramana Reddy, M.V.; Phase, D.M; Raghavendra Reddy, V.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Gadolinium doped ceria thin films with controlled surface structure for device quality applications presents a significant problem for experimental investigation. In the present study gadolinium doped cerium oxide thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and were studied for their surface structure evaluation in relation to the optimized operating conditions during the stage of film preparation. The deposition was made with gadolinium concentration of 10 mole% to ceria pellets. The films were deposited on quartz substrate in the presence of oxygen partial pressure of 1.5 x 10 -3 torr using KrF Excimer laser with laser energy 220 mJ at a substrate temperature 700℃. The effect of annealing temperature on 10 mole% GDC thin film was investigated. The film thickness was measured by using AMBIOS make XP-l stylus profiler. As prepared and annealed thin films were characterized for crystallinity, particle size and orientation by using G.I.XRD. The films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results gave a consistent picture of the evolution of GDC film surface morphologies and microstructures in terms of surface roughness, grain distribution and mean grain size. The optical transmittance spectra was used to determine the optical constants such as optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient of as prepared and annealed thin films. (author)

  13. Gadolinium based contrast agents in current practice: Risks of accumulation and toxicity in patients with normal renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Ranga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being decked as the most prized compounds in the nugget box of contrast agents for clinical radiologists, and carrying an indisputable tag of safety of the US Food and Drug Administration for close to three decades, all may not be seemingly well with the family of gadolinium compounds. If the first signs of violations of primum non nocere in relation to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs appeared in the millennium year with the first published report of skin fibrosis in patients with compromised renal function, the causal relationship between the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF and GBCAs, first proposed by two European groups in 2006, further precluded their use in renocompromised patients. The toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of GBCAs, however, has come under hawk-eyed scrutiny with recent reports that gadolinium tends to deposit cumulatively in the brain of patients with normal hepatobiliary function and intact blood–brain barrier. While the jury on the long-term hazard significance of this critical scientific finding is still out, the use of GBCAs must be guided by due clinical diligence, avoidance of repeated doses, and preferring GBCAs with the best safety profiles.

  14. Late iodine enhancement computed tomography with image subtraction for assessment of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Yuki; Kido, Teruhito; Kurata, Akira; Kouchi, Takanori; Fukuyama, Naoki; Yokoi, Takahiro; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon City, Ehime (Japan); Uetani, Teruyoshi [Department of Cardiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon City, Ehime (Japan); Yamashita, Natsumi [National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Department of Clinical Biostatistics, Section of Cancer Prevention and Epidemiology, Clinical Research Center, Matsuyama City, Ehime (Japan)

    2018-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of image subtraction in late iodine enhancement CT (LIE-CT) for assessment of myocardial infarction (MI). A comprehensive cardiac CT protocol and late gadolinium enhancement MRI (LGE-MRI) was used to assess coronary artery disease in 27 patients. LIE-CT was performed after stress CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography. Subtraction LIE-CT was created by subtracting the mask volume of the left ventricle (LV) cavity from the original LIE-CT using CTP dataset. The %MI volume was quantified as the ratio of LIE to entire LV volume, and transmural extent (TME) of LIE was classified as 0%, 1-24%, 25-49%, 50-74% or 75-100%. These results were compared with LGE-MRI using the Spearman rank test, Bland-Altman method and chi-square test. One hundred twenty-five (29%) of 432 segments were positive on LGE-MRI. Correlation coefficients for original and subtraction LIE-CT to LGE-MRI were 0.79 and 0.85 for %MI volume. Concordances of the 5-point grading scale between original and subtraction LIE-CT with LGE-MRI were 75% and 84% for TME; concordance was significantly improved using the subtraction technique (p <0.05). Subtraction LIE-CT allowed more accurate assessment of MI extent than the original LIE-CT. (orig.)

  15. Reaction of gadolinium chelates with ozone and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyris, Maike; Knolle, Wolfgang; Richard, Jessica; Dopp, Elke; von Sonntag, Clemens; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-09-03

    Gadolinium chelates are used in increasing amounts as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and their fate in wastewater treatment has recently become the focus of research. Oxidative processes, in particular the application of ozone, are currently discussed or even implemented for advanced wastewater treatment. However, reactions of the gadolinium chelates with ozone are not yet characterized. In this study, therefore, rate constants with ozone were determined for the three commonly used chelates Gd-DTPA, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-BT-DO3A, which were found to be 4.8 ± 0.88, 46 ± 2.5, and 24 ± 1.5 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. These low rate constants indicate that a direct reaction with ozone in wastewater is negligible. However, application of ozone in wastewater leads to substantial yields of (•)OH. Different methods have been applied and compared for determination of k((•)OH+Gd chelate). From rate constants determined by pulse radiolysis experiments (k((•)OH+Gd-DTPA) = 2.6 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k((•)OH+Gd-DTPA-BMA) = 1.9 ± 0.7 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k((•)OH+Gd-BT-DO3A) = 4.3 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), it is concluded that a reaction in wastewater via (•)OH radicals is feasible. Toxicity has been tested for educt and product mixtures of both reactions. Cytotoxicity (MTT test) and genotoxicity (micronuclei assay) were not detectable.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of gadolinium: a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Puja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of gadolinium, a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was given to induce cerebral injury in male Swiss mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was assessed using Morris water maze test and motor incoordination was evaluated using rota-rod, lateral push, and inclined beam walking tests. In addition, total calcium, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also estimated in brain tissue. I/R injury produced a significant increase in cerebral infarct size. A significant loss of memory along with impairment of motor performance was also noted. Furthermore, I/R injury also produced a significant increase in levels of TBARS, total calcium, AChE activity, and a decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment of gadolinium significantly attenuated I/R-induced infarct size, behavioral and biochemical changes. On the basis of the present findings, we can suggest that opening of stretch-activated calcium channel may play a critical role in ischemic reperfusion-induced brain injury and that gadolinium has neuroprotective potential in I/R-induced injury.

  17. Corrosion of gadolinium aluminate-aluminium oxide samples in fully desalinated water at 575 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenbach, K.; Zimmermann, H.U.

    1978-07-01

    Corrosion tests have been carried out for 1 1/2 years on gadolinium aluminate/aluminium oxide samples (burnable poison for ship propulsion reactors) with and without cans at 575 K in fully desalinated water. It was found that this substance is highly corrosion-resistant. (orig./HP) [de

  18. 47 CFR 1.1604 - Post-selection hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-selection hearings. 1.1604 Section 1.1604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1604 Post-selection hearings. (a) Following the random...

  19. Post procedure headache in patients treated for neurovascular arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms using endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hauerberg, John; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Petersen, Julie Falkenberg; Fakhril-Din, Zainab; Gaist, David; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-12-01

    Though endovascular therapy (EVT) is increasingly applied in the treatment of intracranial vascular lesions, little is known about the effect of EVT on post-procedure headache. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of headache in patients who have undergone EVT for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and aneurysms. A total of 324 patients underwent EVT treatment for aneurysms and AVMs at the Danish National Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We applied strict exclusion criteria in order to minimize the effect of other factors on headache occurrence, e.g., craniotomy. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire. Headaches were classified according to ICHD-III beta criteria. The 59 patients underwent treatment of aneurysms (n = 43), cranial dural fistulas (n = 11), and AVMs (n = 5). There was a significant increase in overall headache (p = 0.017) and tension-type headache (TTH) (p = 0.012) within the first 3 months after EVT compared to 1 month before EVT. However, at interview time (median 2.5 years post-EVT), the increase in overall headache, migraine, and tension-type headache was not statistically significant. A minority of patients experienced headaches for the first time within 3 months of their EVT (migraine 4, TTH 10). At interview time, 50 % of these new headaches still persisted. Our results suggest a temporary increase in headache in the first 3 months after EVT, which normalizes over time. Clinicians may use this knowledge to better inform their patients of functional outcomes after their EVT procedure.

  20. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingott, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd 3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  1. Prospective analysis of delayed colorectal post-polypectomy bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Min-Gu; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Kim, Hungdai; Kim, Hyung Ook; Jung, Kyung Uk; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2018-01-17

    Although post-polypectomy bleeding is the most frequent complication after colonoscopic polypectomy, only few studies have investigated the incidence of bleeding prospectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding and its associated risk factors prospectively. Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were prospectively enrolled in this study. Trained nurses contacted patients via telephone 7 and 30 days after polypectomy and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding the development of bleeding. Delayed post-polypectomy bleeding was categorized as minor or major and early or late bleeding. Major delayed bleeding was defined as a > 2-g/dL drop in the hemoglobin level, requiring hospitalization for control of bleeding or blood transfusion; late delayed bleeding was defined as bleeding occurring later than 24 h after polypectomy. A total of 8175 colonoscopic polypectomies were performed in 3887 patients. Overall, 133 (3.4%) patients developed delayed post-polypectomy bleeding. Among them, 90 (2.3%) and 43 (1.1%) patients developed minor and major delayed bleeding, respectively, and 39 (1.0%) patients developed late delayed bleeding. In the polyp-based multivariate analysis, young age ( 10 mm (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.38-4.36) were significant risk factors for major delayed bleeding, while young age (< 50 years; OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.35-5.12) and immediate bleeding (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.49-7.30) were significant risk factors for late delayed bleeding. Young age, aspirin use, polyp size, and immediate bleeding were found to be independent risk factors for delayed post-polypectomy bleeding.

  2. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in evaluation of Bell palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.M.; Wesolowski, D.P.; Bojrab, D.I.; Ernstoff, R.M.; Farah, J.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with Bell palsy were evaluated with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist)-enhanced MR imaging in a 1.0-T Siemen's Magnetom unit. Axial pre-and postcontrast and coronal postcontrast T1-weighted MR images of facial nerves were studied. Significant unilateral enhancement of the facial nerve within the internal auditory canal, with or without involvement of the geniculate ganglia, was found in six patients. Three of these patients without satisfactory response to medical treatment underwent surgical decompression, with excellent recovery of facial nerve function. The authors believe that gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is valuable in the evaluation and management of Bell palsy

  3. Post-Polio Syndrome and the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis: Part 1. Pathogenesis, Biomechanical Considerations, Diagnosis, and Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Julian K; Robinson, Lawrence R

    2018-05-12

    Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years following the initial poliomyelitis illness. There are many theories that exist on the pathogenesis of PPS, which remains incompletely understood. In contrast, the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis are often a consequence of biomechanical alterations that occur as a result of polio-related surgeries, musculoskeletal deformities or weakness. Osteoporosis and fractures of the polio-involved limbs are common. A comprehensive clinical evaluation with appropriate investigations is essential to fulfilling the established PPS diagnostic criteria. PPS is a diagnosis of exclusion, in which a key clinical feature required for the diagnosis is new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that is persistent for at least one year. Electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings including evidence of ongoing denervation cannot reliably distinguish between patients with or without PPS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Late-onset hepatic veno-occlusive disease post autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation successfully treated with oral defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mithun S; Jeevangi, Nandish Kumar S; Joshi, Amit; Khattry, Navin

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) remains one of the commonest and most serious complications after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinical diagnosis of hepatic VOD is based on the finding of the triad of painful hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, and unexplained fluid retention occurring within 21 days of the transplant. However, the uncommon clinical entity of late-onset VOD can occur even beyond 20 days and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any liver disease of more than 3 weeks' duration. While mild cases usually resolve spontaneously, severe VOD is associated with a grim prognosis. Defibrotide, a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotide with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects on microvascular endothelium, has emerged as an effective and safe therapy for patients with severe VOD. We describe a patient who presented 55 days post transplant with clinical features suggestive of VOD. Upon treatment with oral defibrotide, he showed complete resolution of the VOD.

  5. Late-onset hepatic veno-occlusive disease post autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation successfully treated with oral defibrotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mithun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD remains one of the commonest and most serious complications after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Clinical diagnosis of hepatic VOD is based on the finding of the triad of painful hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, and unexplained fluid retention occurring within 21 days of the transplant. However, the uncommon clinical entity of late-onset VOD can occur even beyond 20 days and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any liver disease of more than 3 weeks′ duration. While mild cases usually resolve spontaneously, severe VOD is associated with a grim prognosis. Defibrotide, a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotide with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects on microvascular endothelium, has emerged as an effective and safe therapy for patients with severe VOD. We describe a patient who presented 55 days post transplant with clinical features suggestive of VOD. Upon treatment with oral defibrotide, he showed complete resolution of the VOD.

  6. Peculiarities of gadolinium molybdate change-over using alternating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.N.; Zlokazov, M.V.; Prokolov, A.L.; Tikhomirova, N.A.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigation into processes of total repolarization of a gadolinium molybdate monocrystal Gd(MoO 4 ) 3 -GMO following alternating electric effects is conduced. The process of total change-over of the GMO monocrystal with a capillar layer of weak-conductive liquid deposited on its polar surfaces at application of alternating stationary electric field is shown to proceed through sidewise traverse of the single plane domain boundary of one and the same crystallographical orientation (110) in the coordinate system of monodomain state being changed-over

  7. Peculiarities of gadolinium molybdate change-over using alternating electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A N; Zlokazov, M V; Prokolov, A L; Tikhomirova, N A; Shuvalov, L A [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR); AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-06-01

    Experimental investigation into processes of total repolarization of a gadolinium molybdate monocrystal Gd(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-GMO following alternating electric effects is conduced. The process of total change-over of the GMO monocrystal with a capillar layer of weak-conductive liquid deposited on its polar surfaces at application of alternating stationary electric field is shown to proceed through sidewise traverse of the single plane domain boundary of one and the same crystallographical orientation (110) in the coordinate system of monodomain state being changed-over.

  8. Proton NMR relaxivity of blood samples in the presence of some gadolinium and dysprosium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroiu, I.; Darabont, Al.; Bogdan, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of some new compounds in MRI tissue and blood characterisation based on nuclear spin relaxation time measurements cannot be sustained until the molecular sources of these variations are understood. Tissues and blood are complex molecular systems with complex NMR properties. A better comprehension of the molecular basis of relaxation offers the possibility to predict the changes expected for a given pathology. The purpose of this contribution is to evidence the different relaxation characteristics of some gadolinium and dysprosium compounds in the presence and absence of the blood and to give a possible explanation about the molecular processes that cause occurrence of changes. Some gadolinium and dysprosium compounds such as: Gd-CIT (gadolinium citrate), Dy-DTPA (DTPA-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid), iron oxide - gadolinium oxide (or dysprosium oxide)- dextran complexes were prepared. The longitudinal T 1 -1 and transverse T 2 -1 'relaxation rates' measurements have been carried out as a function of molar concentrations. All measurements have been made at room temperature (about 25 deg.C) and the proton Larmor frequency ν o = 90 MHz. The pulsed NMR spectrometer utilised was a commercial Bruker SXP4/100 spectrometer. Transverse relaxation rate measurements have been made using the Carr-Purcell method, while longitudinal relaxation rate measurements using the inversion recovery pulse sequence, 180 angle-τ-90 angle. The accuracy was about 2-3% for the longitudinal relaxation rates and about 5-7% for the transverse relaxation rates. R 1 and R 2 relaxivities, in mM -1 s -1 were determined from the least square determination of the slopes of plots 1/T 1,2 versus compound molar concentration, using at least five independent measurements at several concentrations between 0 and 2 mM. Increased R 2 relaxivity observed for dysprosium compounds in the blood presence can be explained by PRE effect. The largest gain in R 2 relaxivity seems to imply a noncovalent

  9. Post ablation recanalization of varicose veins of the limbs: Comparison ablation method of mechanochemical and laser procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, R.; Irfan, W.; Wangge, G.; Moenadjat, Y.; Destanto, W. I.

    2017-08-01

    Endovenous ablation has been performed for varicose veins of the limbs in Indonesia since 2010. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) therapy has been performed in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM) in Jakarta, and mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) has been conducted in Fatmawati Hospital. This was a descriptive analytical study, with a cross-sectional design to analyze post-ablation recanalization after MOCA and EVLA procedures. Patients who had undergone MOCA or EVLA treatment were interviewed 3-18 months after the procedures. All the patients underwent vascular ultrasonography (USG) of the operated limb to assess recanalization. Secondary presurgery data were obtained from the patients’ from patients’ medical records. The clinical characteristics of the subjects were recorded to compare the potential correlation between these characteristics and recanalization post-MOCA and EVLA procedures. All the data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 20.0. The study consisted of 43 limbs: 24 treated by MOCA and 19 treated by EVLA. Most subjects in the MOCA group were 7 mm in 13/19 extremities. In the MOCA group, total recanalization occurred in 2/24 extremities, and partial recanalization occurred in 8/24 extremities. In the EVLA group, total recanalization occurred in 1/19 extremities, and partial recanalization occurred in 3/19 extremities. The association between the clinical characteristics of the patients and recanalization was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The recanalization tendency was higher in the MOCA group than in the EVLA group. Although there was no statistically significant association between the clinical characteristics of the patients and recanalization, the largest diameter of the VSM presurgery (>7 mm) was higher in 3/4 extremities in the MOCA group, as compared to 3/13 extremities in the EVLA group.

  10. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction mapping at 3 tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare 11 heartbeat (HB and 17 HB modified lock locker inversion recovery (MOLLI pulse sequence at 3T and to establish preliminary reference values for myocardial T1 and the extracellular volume fraction (ECV. Methods Both phantoms and normal volunteers were scanned at 3T using 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI sequence with the following parameters: spatial resolution = 1.75 × 1.75 × 10 mm on a 256 × 180 matrix, TI initial = 110 ms, TI increment = 80 ms, flip angle = 35°, TR/TE = 1.9/1.0 ms. All volunteers were administered Gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist, 0.15 mmol/kg, and multiple post-contrast MOLLI scans were performed at the same pre-contrast position from 3.5-23.5 minutes after a bolus contrast injection. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE images were also acquired 12-30 minutes after the gadolinium bolus. Results T1 values of 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI displayed good agreement in both phantom and volunteers. The average pre-contrast myocardial and blood T1 was 1315 ± 39 ms and 2020 ± 129 ms, respectively. ECV was stable between 8.5 to 23.5 minutes post contrast with an average of 26.7 ± 1.0%. Conclusion The 11 HB MOLLI is a faster method for high-resolution myocardial T1 mapping at 3T. ECV fractions are stable over a wide time range after contrast administration.

  11. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the fibrocartilage disc of the temporomandibular joint--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittschieler, Elisabeth; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Schmid-Schwap, Martina; Weber, Michael; Egerbacher, Monika; Traxler, Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2014-12-01

    To 1) test the feasibility of delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) at 3 T in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and 2) to determine the optimal delay for measurements of the TMJ disc after i.v. contrast agent (CA) administration. MRI of the right and left TMJ of six asymptomatic volunteers was performed at 3 T using a dedicated coil. 2D inversion recovery (2D-IR) sequences were performed at 4 time points covering 120 minutes and 3D gradient-echo (3D GRE) dual flip-angle sequences were performed at 14 time points covering 130 minutes after the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ion (Gd-DTPA)(2-), i.e., 0.4 mL of Magnevist™ per kg body weight. Pair-wise tests were used to assess differences between pre-and post-contrast T1 values. 2D-IR sequences showed a statistically significant drop (pfibrocartilage disc of the TMJ. The recommended measurement time for dGEMRIC in the TMJ after i.v. CA administration is from 60 to 120 minutes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro study of novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer for promising tumor targeting and tumor diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Jie Gu,1,* Kun-Feng Li,1,* Lan-Xin Zhang,1 Huan Wang,1 Li-Si Liu,2 Zhuo-Zhao Zheng,2 Nan-Yin Han,1 Zhen-Jun Yang,1 Tian-Yuan Fan1 1State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 2Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer were developed and evaluated in vitro to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI diagnosis of tumor. Nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes were achieved by incorporating amphipathic material, Gd (III [N,N-bis-stearylamidomethyl-N'-amidomethyl] diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid, into the liposome membrane using lipid film hydration method. GBI-10, as the targeting ligand, was then conjugated onto the liposome surface to get GBI-10-targeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes (GTLs. Both nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes and GTLs displayed good dispersion stability, optimal size, and zeta potential for tumor targeting, as well as favorable imaging properties with enhanced relaxivity compared with a commercial MRI contrast agent (CA, gadopentetate dimeglumine. The use of GBI-10 aptamer in this liposomal system was intended to result in increased accumulation of gadolinium at the periphery of C6 glioma cells, where the targeting extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C is overexpressed. Increased cellular binding of GTLs to C6 cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and MRI, demonstrating the promise of this novel delivery system as a carrier of MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of tumor. These studies provide a new strategy furthering the development of nanomedicine for both diagnosis and therapy of tumor. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium, liposomes, tenascin-C, GBI-10 aptamer, tumor targeting

  13. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography phantom study: intravenous iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents may cause false-negative results in assessment of vesicoureteral reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Simon; Sauer, Alexander; Gassenmaier, Tobias; Petritsch, Bernhard; Herz, Stefan; Blanke, Philipp; Bley, Thorsten A.; Wirth, Clemens; Derlin, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ce-VUS) is commonly requested simultaneously to other diagnostic imaging necessitating intravenous contrast agents. To date there is limited knowldedge about intravesical interactions between different types of contrast agents. To assess the effect of excreted intravenous iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents on the intravesical distribution of ultrasound contrast within contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. Iodinated (iomeprol, iopamidol) and gadolinium-based (gadoterate meglumine) contrast agents were diluted to bladder concentration and injected into balloons filled with saline solution. CT scans were performed to assess the contrast distribution in these phantoms. Regions of interest were placed at the top and bottom side of each balloon and Hounsfield units (HU) were measured. Three other balloons were filled with saline solution and contrast media likewise. The ultrasound contrast agent sulphur hexafluoride was added and its distribution was assessed using sonography. MDCT scans showed a separation of two liquid layers in all bladder phantoms with the contrast layers located at the bottom and the saline solution at the top. Significant differences of the HU measurements at the top and bottom side were observed (P < 0.001-0.007). Following injection of ultrasound contrast agent, US showed its distribution exclusively among the saline solution. False-negative results of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography may occur if it is performed shortly after imaging procedures requiring intravenous contrast. (orig.)

  14. Percutaneous Management of Ureteral Injuries that are Diagnosed Late After Cesarean Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustunsoz, Bahri; Ugurel, Sahin; Duru, Namik Kemal; Ozgok, Yasar; Ustunsoz, Ayfer [GATA Medical Faculty, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2008-08-15

    We wanted to present the results of percutaneous management of ureteral injuries that were diagnosed late after cesarean sections (CS). Twenty-two cases with 24 ureteral injuries that were diagnosed late after CS underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PN), antegrade double J (DJ) catheter placement and balloon dilatation or a combination of these. The time for making the diagnosis was 21 +- 50.1 days. The injury site was the distal ureter in all cases (the left ureter: 13, the right ureter: 7 and bilateral: 2). Fifteen complete ureteral obstructions were detected in 13 cases. Ureteral leakage due to partial (n = 4) or complete (n = 3) rupture was noted in seven cases. Two cases had ureterovaginal fistula. All the cases were initially confirmed with antegrade pyelography and afterwards they underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. Balloon dilatation was needed in three cases. Antegrade DJ stents were placed in 10 cases, including the three cases with balloon dilatation. Repetititon of percutaneous nephrostomy with balloon dilatation and DJ stent placement was needed in one case with complete obstruction. All the cases were followed-up with US in their first week and then monthly thereafter for up to two years. Eighteen ureters (75%) were managed by percutaneous procedures alone. A total of six ureter injuries had to undergo surgery (25%). Percutaneous management is a good alternative for the treatment of post-CS ureteral injuries that are diagnosed late after CS. Percutaneous management is at least preparatory for a quarter of the cases where surgery is unavoidable

  15. Safety related to the implantation of jugular catheters for haemodialysis and usefulness of PA chest X rays post procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Cesar A; Chacon, Jose Arnob; Mauricio Villota, Duvan

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to determine how safe the implantation of transient double lumen jugular catheters is for hemodialysis in patients with renal disease, and who require dialysis therapy and Posterior Anterior (PA) chest X-Ray post procedure. Design: observational descriptive study. Site: renal units at RTS Ltda. Sucursal Caldas (Hospital Santa Sofia y Hospital Infantil Rafael Henao Toro de la Cruz Roja). Patients: all patients with renal disease in whom it was necessary to do hemodyalitic therapy with implantation of a jugular catheter, with medical records of the events and complications that occurred during the procedure, with subsequent control AP chest X Ray and that showed reports made by the radiologist or physician who carried out the procedure, about the findings in the chest X Ray. Patients with renal disease, in whom jugular catheters had been inserted: Methods: variables such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI) etiology of the renal failure,time of evolution of the disease, indications for insertion, priority of catheter insertion, type of catheter inserted, amount of punctures, physician who carried out the procedure and patient's co-morbidities were analyzed. The events considered as complicated were analyzed as well as if there was any relationship with co-morbidities and the analyzed variables. Findings in the PA chest X-Ray were recorded and their relationship with the difficulties encountered during the procedure. A bi-variance analysis was done. The dependent and independent variables were classified in the nominal measurement scale. Results: 774 clinical histories were reviewed. 562 were excluded due to lack of variables and impossibility to read the notes. Men older than de 55 (45,7%). 212 (97.1%) patients with diagnosis of chronic renal disease (CRD) and in whom 238 procedures were carried out. seven patients (2,85%) had acute renal failure (ARF). The fi rst indication for central catheter insertion was in patients with chronic uremia

  16. Effects of release procedures on the primary stress response and post-release survival and growth of hatchery-reared spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, T W; Rakocinski, C F; Evans, A N; Blaylock, R B

    2017-03-01

    To help explain the apparent poor post-release success of hatchery-reared (HR) spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, this study examined the effects of handling, transport and release procedures on the stress response of two age classes [48 and 80 day post-hatch (dph)] of HR C. nebulosus, as measured by cortisol concentrations and the post-release survival and growth of 48 and 80 dph HR C. nebulosus. As a proxy for stress, tissue cortisol was measured at various times during the handling, tagging (80 dph), transport, acclimation and release process. To consider the implications of the pre-release stressors, growth and survival were monitored in separate field experiments for each age class of acclimated post-transport C. nebulosus using control C. nebulosus that only experienced anaesthesia, transport, acclimation and a net release v. experimental C. nebulosus that underwent the entire routine procedure, including anaesthesia, tagging, transport, acclimation and gravity release through a pipe. For 48 dph C. nebulosus, mean cortisol varied significantly throughout handling and transport, increasing more than six-fold from controls before decreasing in mean concentration just prior to release. For 80 dph C. nebulosus, cortisol varied throughout handling, tagging and transport, first increasing more than three-fold compared with control C. nebulosus, before decreasing and rising slightly just prior to release. For 48 dph C. nebulosus within field enclosures, survival was high and similar for control and experimental groups; experimental C. nebulosus, however, were shorter, lighter and lower in condition than control C. nebulosus. For 80 dph C. nebulosus within field enclosures, fewer experimental C. nebulosus survived and those that did survive were of lower condition than C. nebulosus from the control group. Small untagged C. nebulosus may survive the release procedure better than larger C. nebulosus carrying a coded-wire tag. These findings document

  17. Rendezvous cannulation technique reduces post-ERCP pancreatitis: a prospective nationwide study of 12,718 ERCP procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Fredrik; Nilsson, Magnus; Arnelo, Urban; Löhr, Matthias; Persson, Gunnar; Enochsson, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if intraoperative rendezvous cannulation reduces the risk of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) because there is no universal consensus on the optimal treatment of common bile duct stones. We performed a nationwide case-control study, nested within the cohort of ERCP procedures reported to the Swedish Registry for Gallstone Surgery and ERCP (GallRiks), between 2007 and 2009. Data were collected prospectively from a web-based registry of ERCP procedures that includes variables such as patient characteristics, indication, cannulation technique, diagnostic findings, therapeutic measures, and complications. The primary outcome was PEP. The registry included 12,718 ERCP procedures performed on patients without a history of previous ERCP. The risk of PEP when using the rendezvous technique compared with those who were cannulated by conventional means was reduced from 3.6 to 2.2% (odds ratio (OR) 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9, P=0.02). Although a significant reduction there are overall relatively few cases with PEP and the calculated numbers needed to treat to avoid one case of PEP is as high as 71. Other factors associated with increased risk of PEP were young age, prolonged procedure time, and elective ERCP. Rendezvous bile duct cannulation during ERCP reduces the risk of PEP from 3.6 to 2.2% compared with conventional biliary cannulation.

  18. Dual-contrast agent photon-counting computed tomography of the heart: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Rolf; Cork, Tyler E; Lakshmanan, Manu N; Evers, Robert; Davies-Venn, Cynthia; Rice, Kelly A; Thomas, Marvin L; Liu, Chia-Ying; Kappler, Steffen; Ulzheimer, Stefan; Sandfort, Veit; Bluemke, David A; Pourmorteza, Amir

    2017-08-01

    To determine the feasibility of dual-contrast agent imaging of the heart using photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) to simultaneously assess both first-pass and late enhancement of the myocardium. An occlusion-reperfusion canine model of myocardial infarction was used. Gadolinium-based contrast was injected 10 min prior to PCD CT. Iodinated contrast was infused immediately prior to PCD CT, thus capturing late gadolinium enhancement as well as first-pass iodine enhancement. Gadolinium and iodine maps were calculated using a linear material decomposition technique and compared to single-energy (conventional) images. PCD images were compared to in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. For infarct versus remote myocardium, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was maximal on late enhancement gadolinium maps (CNR 9.0 ± 0.8, 6.6 ± 0.7, and 0.4 ± 0.4, p contrast agent cardiac imaging is feasible with photon-counting detector CT. These initial proof-of-concept results may provide incentives to develop new k-edge contrast agents, to investigate possible interactions between multiple simultaneously administered contrast agents, and to ultimately bring them to clinical practice.

  19. Evaluation of the in vitro stability of gadolinium (III) polyoxometalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, William J.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Rogers, Buck E.; Welch, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The gadolinium chelates of lacunary polyoxometalates were evaluated for in vitro stability against rat serum, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), endogenous metal cations, and DTPA-doped rat serum. The chelates dissociated rapidly in rat serum. Challenges by DTPA gave relatively slower dissociation rates, whereas challenges by endogenous metal cations (Fe(III), Zn(II), and Cu(II)) occurred at a rate comparable to the serum challenge, suggesting the instability in serum is due to a transmetalation mechanism. Challenges by DTPA-doped serum gave slower rates of dissociation than in native serum, verifying the transmetalation mechanism

  20. Gadolinium-DTPA in MR imaging of intracranial and spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Harada, Kuniko; Mori, Yukiko; Kihara, Yasushi; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging was performed on 23 patients with intracranial and spinal tumors, before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Contrast enhancement was observed in 20 of the 23 tumors. Glioblastomas, intracranial metastases, meningiomas and hemangioblastomas were markedly enhanced by Gd-DTPA. In precontrast scan, tumor delineation was best shown by T 2 weighted images. But T 1 weighted images showed better tumor delineation than T 2 weighted images after administration of Gd-DTPA. No side effects were encountered following administration of Gd-DTPA. (author)

  1. 3D gadolinium-enhanced MRI venography: Evaluation of central chest veins and impact on patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxtoby, J.W.; Widjaja, E.; Gibson, K.M.; Uzoka, K.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To assess the value of a simplified 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) venography for central chest veins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study of 24 patients, the MRI findings and medical records were reviewed to determine whether MRI results correlated with subsequent findings, and to determine the effect on clinical management. 3D steady state gradient-echo sequence, fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP), was used. We employed a simplified protocol not requiring bolus timing or subtraction to achieve rapid data acquisition and hence good compliance in this group of frail patients. Following intravenous administration of a bolus of gadolinium, two acquisitions were obtained in order to ensure adequate opacification of all veins. Individual partitions and maximum intensity projections were then analysed to determine whether the veins were patent, stenosed or occluded. RESULTS: The indications for MRI were to assess the patency of central veins for the purpose of cannulation or arteriovenous fistula formation in 17 patients. Out of the 12 patients who proceeded to an intervention, MRI venography successfully predicted an appropriate site in 10 patients. In the remaining seven patients, MRI venography was valuable in confirming or excluding the clinical suspicion of central venous thrombosis and directly influenced the management in five patients. CONCLUSION: 3D gadolinium-enhanced MRI venography is a valuable means of providing a global representation of the central venous system and guiding subsequent central venous cannulation. Oxtoby, J.W. et al. (2001)

  2. Demonstration of multiple neurofibromas in gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, S.; Schulz, B.

    1988-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has a high sensitivity for cerebral and spinal tumors, demonstration of small lesions can be difficult. In a patient with multiple extra- and intraspinal tumors due to neurofibromatosis generalisata, the use of the MRI contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA resulted in a better differentiation especially of small lesions. High tumor contrast facilitated a safe localisation of the widespread disease using a fast imaging sequence (FLASH). (orig.) [de

  3. Real-time MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of low-flow head and neck lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population - a stepwise approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partovi, Sasan; Vidal, Lorenna; Lu, Ziang; Nakamoto, Dean A.; Buethe, Ji; Clampitt, Mark; Coffey, Michael; Patel, Indravadan J. [University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Real-time MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy is a novel and evolving treatment for congenital lymphatic malformations in the head and neck. We elaborate on the specific steps necessary to perform an MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformations including pre-procedure patient work-up and preparation, stepwise intraprocedural interventional techniques and post-procedure management. Based on our institutional experience, MRI-guided sclerotherapy with a doxycycline-gadolinium-based mixture as a sclerosant for lymphatic malformations of the head and neck region in children is well tolerated and effective. (orig.)

  4. Late Results of Cox Maze III Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gustavo Gir; Gali, Wagner Luis; Sarabanda, Alvaro Valentim Lima; Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro da; Kessler, Iruena Moraes; Atik, Fernando Antibas

    2017-07-01

    Cox-Maze III procedure is one of the surgical techniques used in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To determine late results of Cox-Maze III in terms of maintenance of sinus rhythm, and mortality and stroke rates. Between January 2006 and January 2013, 93 patients were submitted to the cut-and-sew Cox-Maze III procedure in combination with structural heart disease repair. Heart rhythm was determined by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Procedural success rates were determined by longitudinal methods and recurrence predictors by multivariate Cox regression models. Thirteen patients that obtained hospital discharge alive were excluded due to lost follow-up. The remaining 80 patients were aged 49.9 ± 12 years and 47 (58.7%) of them were female. Involvement of mitral valve and rheumatic heart disease were found in 67 (83.7%) and 63 (78.7%) patients, respectively. Seventy patients (87.5%) had persistent or long-standing persistent AF. Mean follow-up with Holter monitoring was 27.5 months. There were no hospital deaths. Sinus rhythm maintenance rates were 88%, 85.1% and 80.6% at 6 months, 24 months and 36 months, respectively. Predictors of late recurrence of AF were female gender (HR 3.52; 95% CI 1.21-10.25; p = 0.02), coronary artery disease (HR 4.73 95% CI 1.37-16.36; p = 0.01) and greater left atrium diameter (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.02). Actuarial survival was 98.5% at 12, 24 and 48 months and actuarial freedom from stroke was 100%, 100% and 97.5% in the same time frames. The Cox-Maze III procedure, in our experience, is efficacious for sinus rhythm maintenance, with very low late mortality and stroke rates. A operação de Cox-Maze III é uma das variantes técnicas no tratamento cirúrgico da fibrilação atrial (FA). Estudar os resultados tardios da operação de Cox-Maze III, quanto à eficácia na manutenção de ritmo sinusal e taxas de mortalidade e acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Entre janeiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2013, 93 pacientes

  5. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ doped gadolinium-calcium-silicaborate glass scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.M.; Ha, D.H.; Kaewjeang, S.; Maghanemi, U.; Kothan, S.; Kaewkhao, J.; Kim, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the Ce 3+ doped gadolinium-calcium-silicaborate glass scintillators of the composition ratio 25Gd 2 O 3 :10CaO:10SiO 2 :(55−x)B 2 O 3 :xCeF 3 , have been fabricated by using the melt-quenching technique. The doping concentration of the Ce 3+ was varied from 0.05 mol% to 2.5 mol%. The 4f-5d transition of the Ce 3+ allowed scintillation with a fast decay time. The absorption spectrum, X-ray induced emission spectrum, photo luminescence spectrum, laser luminescence spectrum and decay time of the scintillators were measured for studying the luminescence properties. From the X-ray induced emission spectrum result, we checked the trend between doping concentration and light yield. The laser induced luminescence spectrum was measured while changing the temperature from 300 K to 10 K. We also measured the decay time by using the laser excitation of the 0.15 mol% Ce 3+ doped glass scintillator. - Highlights: • Ce 3+ doped gadolinium-calcium-silicaborate glass scintillators were developed. • Glass is easily fabricated with large sizes and various doping materials. • The luminescence properties are studied by using various radiation sources. • The light yield and decay time were measured at low temperature. • One decay time component is found.

  6. Hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (HyFoSy): Tolerability, safety and the occurrence of pregnancy post-procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Chua, Jackie; Cincotta, Robert; Ballard, Emma L; Duncombe, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    Fallopian tube patency testing is an essential part of infertility evaluation. Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) has been described as reliable, well tolerated and safe compared to other modalities such as laparoscopy and a dye test or hysterosalpingography. Limited availability of the previously used contrast has led to the introduction of a foam contrast agent as an alternative. To assess the tolerability, safety and occurrence of pregnancy post-procedure of hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (HyFoSy). A retrospective cohort study of women who had a HyFoSy at Queensland Ultrasound for Women from March 2013 to February 2015. A questionnaire was sent to their referring doctor to identify any complications or subsequent pregnancies with or without artificial reproductive technology (ART) within six months of the HyFoSy. Of 200 women, four cases were abandoned due to difficulty introducing the intracervical catheter, severe discomfort or a vasovagal episode. Response from referring doctors for 155 women reported no post-procedural complication. One hundred and eleven women were followed up for at least six months. Twenty-four out of 59 women (40.7%) who had ART and 24 out of 52 women (46.2%) who did not have ART conceived. Fifty percent of women who were nulligravida at the time of investigation, found to have at least one patent fallopian tube, whose partner had a normal semen analysis, spontaneously conceived within the time of follow up. HyFoSy is well tolerated and safe. A preponderance of pregnancies in the first month after HyFoSy suggests that a therapeutic effect may exist. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Switching of the polarization of ferroelectric-ferroelastic gadolinium molybdate in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkin, E. D.

    2017-10-01

    A change in the character of the electric switching of polydomain ferroelectric-ferroelastic gadolinium molybdate in an external magnetic field has been detected. This change has been attributed to a magnetically stimulated increase in the pinning of domain walls. Under certain conditions, the loop of switchable polarization is degenerated into an ellipse characteristic of a linear insulator with leakage current.

  8. Study for the determination of samarium, europium,terbium, dysprosium and yttrium in gadolinium oxide matrix by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caires, A.C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A study for determination of samarium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium in a gadolinium oxide matrix by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace is presented. The best charrring and atomization conditions were estabilished for each element, the most convenient ressonance lines being selected as well. The study was carried out for the mentioned lanthanides both when pure and when in binary mixtures with gadolinium, besides those where all for them were together with gadolinium. The determination limits for pure lanthanides were found to be between 1.3 and 9.6 ng assuming a 20% relative standard deviation as acceptable. The detection limits were in the range 0.51 and 7.5 ng, assuming as positive any answer higher than twofold the standard deviation. (author) [pt

  9. Legg-Perthes-Calve disease: staging by MRI using gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducou le Pointe, H. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Haddad, S. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Silberman, B. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Filipe, G. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Monroc, M. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Montagne, J.P. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one patients (26 hips) with typical signs of Legg-Perthes-Calve (LPC) disease on plain radiographs were explored by MRI. Patients were imaged with a 0.5 T MR unit. Gadolinium-enhanced spinecho MR images were obtained after nonenhanced T1-weighted (spin-echo) and T2[sup *]-weighted (gradient-echo) images. Four different areas were identified in the femoral epiphysis (necrosis, regenerative, cartilaginous and normal fatty bone tissue). The histological evolution of LPC is well described by Catterall and others. Comparing their descriptions with out MR findings, we suggest classification ofLPC into five phases: necrosis: regeneration, reconstruction, reossification and sequelae. (orig.)

  10. Neurosarcoidosis--demonstration of meningeal disease by gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K T; Manji, H; Britton, J; Schon, F

    1991-01-01

    Arriving at a firm diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis continues to pose serious problems, particularly when evidence of granulomatous disease outside the nervous system is lacking. The commonest mode of presentation of neurosarcoidosis is with cranial nerve palsies. Two cases of presumed neurosarcoidosis with cranial nerve palsies showed clear evidence of focal meningeal disease on gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI brain scans. Although not specific for sarcoidosis, this technique may be very useful in aiding the diagnosis in suspected cases. Images PMID:1880510

  11. The Impact of Post-Procedural Asymmetry, Expansion, and Eccentricity of Bioresorbable Everolimus-Eluting Scaffold and Metallic Everolimus-Eluting Stent on Clinical Outcomes in the ABSORB II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannasom, Pannipa; Sotomi, Yohei; Ishibashi, Yuki; Cavalcante, Rafael; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Macaya, Carlos; Ormiston, John A; Hill, Jonathan; Lang, Irene M; Egred, Mohaned; Fajadet, Jean; Lesiak, Maciej; Tijssen, Jan G; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; de Winter, Robbert J; Chevalier, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2016-06-27

    The study sought to investigate the relationship between post-procedural asymmetry, expansion, and eccentricity indices of metallic everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) and their respective impact on clinical events at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical properties of a fully BVS are inherently different from those of permanent metallic stent. The ABSORB II (A bioresorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold versus a metallic everolimus-eluting stent for ischaemic heart disease caused by de-novo native coronary artery lesions) trial compared the BVS and metallic EES in the treatment of a de novo coronary artery stenosis. Protocol-mandated intravascular ultrasound imaging was performed pre- and post-procedure in 470 patients (162 metallic EES and 308 BVS). Asymmetry index (AI) was calculated per lesion as: (1 - minimum scaffold/stent diameter/maximum scaffold/stent diameter). Expansion index and optimal scaffold/stent expansion followed the definition of the MUSIC (Multicenter Ultrasound Stenting in Coronaries) study. Eccentricity index (EI) was calculated as the ratio of minimum and maximum scaffold/stent diameter per cross section. The incidence of device-oriented composite endpoint (DoCE) was collected. Post-procedure, the metallic EES group was more symmetric and concentric than the BVS group. Only 8.0% of the BVS arm and 20.0% of the metallic EES arm achieved optimal scaffold/stent expansion (p 0.30 is an independent predictor of DoCE (hazard ratio: 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 10.92; p = 0.037). BVS implantation is more frequently associated with post-procedural asymmetric and eccentric morphology compared to metallic EES. Post-procedural devices asymmetry were independently associated with DoCE following percutaneous coronary intervention. However, this approach should be viewed as hypothesis generating due to low event rates. (ABSORB II Randomized Controlled Trial [ABSORB II]; NCT01425281). Copyright © 2016 American

  12. Isotope shift studies in gadolinium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Saksena, G.D.; Venugopalan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Isotope shift studies have been carried out in the gadolinium spectrum using a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. The source used is a liquid-nitrogen-cooled hollow cathode with Ne as the carrier gas and operating at about 30 mA. Isotope shifts Δsigma (156-160) have been recorded in 350 transitions of Gd I and Gd II. In the case of the Gd I spectrum, the transitions studied presently involve almost all the reported configurations assigned to the energy levels of Gd I. The odd configurations are 4f 7 5d6s 2 , 4f 7 5d 2 6s, 4f 7 5d 3 , 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 6s 2 6p, and the even ones are 4f 8 6s 2 , 4f 7 5d6s6p, 4f 7 6s 2 6p, 4f 8 5d6s and 4f 7 5d 2 6p. In the case of the Gd II spectrum isotope shifts in the lines of the newly classified transition 4f 8 6s - 4f 8 6p have been studied and isotope shift ΔT (156-160) 87 mK has been obtained for the 4f 8 6s configuration. The other transitions of Gd II involve the odd configurations 4f 7 5d6s, 4f 7 6s 2 , 4f 7 5d 2 and 4f 8 6p and the even ones 4f 7 6s6p, 4f 8 5d, 4f 7 5d6p and 4f 8 6p. The ΔT (156-160) of a large number of odd and even levels of Gd I and Gd II have been evaluated. Electronic configurations have been suggested for a number of energy levels and configuration mixing has been pointed out in certain cases. A number of hitherto unreported transitions have been found and using a monoisotopic sample of Gd, that is 160 Gd, their separations from the closest listed transitions have been measured. (author)

  13. High Relaxivity Gadolinium Hydroxypyridonate-Viral Capsid Conjugates: Nano-sized MRI Contrast Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meux, Susan C.; Datta, Ankona; Hooker, Jacob M.; Botta, Mauro; Francis, Matthew B.; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-29

    High relaxivity macromolecu