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Sample records for post-mortem tissue donation

  1. Practical experience in post-mortem tissue donation in consideration of the European tissue law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2010-03-01

    In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to

  2. [Acceptance of post-mortem organ donation in Germany : Representative cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackmann, E; Dettmer, S

    2018-02-01

    The German post-mortem organ donation rate has dropped by one third since 2010. Furthermore, 958 patients died in 2015 in Germany while waiting for an organ. To decrease organ shortage, an amendment of the transplantation law was established in 2012. An information package including an organ donor card is sent to all German citizens via the postal service. A voluntary national transplantation register was introduced in 2016 to improve transparency in the organ donation process. The influence of several transplantation scandals starting in 2012 on organ donation rates is in question. Therefore, the objective of this article is to discuss approval and objections to post-mortem organ donation among the next of kin of potential donors and the general public in Germany. Binary logistic regression of data from the 2014 survey by the Federal Centre for Health Education on attitudes towards organ and tissue donation in Germany was conducted, aiming to identify influencing factors on the likelihood of organ donor card possession. Additionally, data of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation on post-mortem organ donations in Germany in 2014 were studied to highlight reasons for approval and objections by next of kin of potential and explanted post-mortem organ donors. Methods of documentation of the deceased's will according to data of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation were analyzed. Male gender and lack of knowledge about organ donation decrease the likelihood of having an organ donor card. Of the respondents in the survey of the Federal Centre for Health Education 71.0% would donate their own organs, whereas only one third possess an organ donor card. Health insurances and physicians are the most important providers of organ donor cards in Germany. An increase in the percentage of organ donor card possession following the amendment of the transplantation law could not be observed by 2016. Fear of organ trade and unjust organ allocation are the main reasons

  3. Consent systems for post mortem organ donation in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, S.; Janssen, A.; Friele, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, like in many other European countries, there is a considerable shortage of vital organs (hearts, kidneys etc.) for transplantation purposes. While living organ donation is of increasing importance as an alternative source for at least some organs (such as kidneys), the supply is

  4. Characterisation of the metabolome of ocular tissues and post-mortem changes in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi Z; Mullard, Graham; Hollywood, Katherine A; Dunn, Warwick B; Bishop, Paul N

    2016-08-01

    Time-dependent post-mortem biochemical changes have been demonstrated in donor cornea and vitreous, but there have been no published studies to date that objectively measure post-mortem changes in the retinal metabolome over time. The aim of the study was firstly, to investigate post-mortem, time-dependent changes in the rat retinal metabolome and secondly, to compare the metabolite composition of healthy rat ocular tissues. To study post-mortem changes in the rat retinal metabolome, globes were enucleated and stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-mortem. To study the metabolite composition of rat ocular tissues, eyes were dissected immediately after culling to isolate the cornea, lens, vitreous and retina, prior to storing at -80 °C. Tissue extracts were subjected to Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Generally, the metabolic composition of the retina was stable for 8 h post-mortem when eyes were stored at 4 °C, but showed increasing changes thereafter. However, some more rapid changes were observed such as increases in TCA cycle metabolites after 2 h post-mortem, whereas some metabolites such as fatty acids only showed decreases in concentration from 24 h. A total of 42 metabolites were identified across the ocular tissues by GC-MS (MSI level 1) and 2782 metabolites were annotated by UHPLC-MS (MSI level 2) according to MSI reporting standards. Many of the metabolites detected were common to all of the tissues but some metabolites showed partitioning between different ocular structures with 655, 297, 93 and 13 metabolites being uniquely detected in the retina, lens, cornea and vitreous respectively. Only a small percentage (1.6%) of metabolites found in the vitreous were only detected in the retina and not other tissues. In conclusion, mass spectrometry-based techniques have been used for the first time to compare the metabolic composition of

  5. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  6. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  7. Ethical considerations in forensic genetics research on tissue samples collected post-mortem in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathfield, Laura J; Maistry, Sairita; Martin, Lorna J; Ramesar, Raj; de Vries, Jantina

    2017-11-29

    The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects. Among these challenges was the adaptation of research workflows to fit in with an exceptionally busy service delivery that is operating with limited resources. Whilst seeking guidance from the literature regarding research on deceased populations, it was noted that next of kin of decedents are not formally recognised as a vulnerable group in the existing ethical and legal frameworks in South Africa. The authors recommend that research in the forensic mortuary setting is approached using guidance for vulnerable groups, and the benefit to risk standard needs to be strongly justified. Lastly, when planning forensic genetics research, consideration must be given to the potential of uncovering incidental findings, funding to validate these findings and the feedback of results to family members; the latter of which is recommended to occur through a genetic counsellor. It is hoped that these experiences will contribute towards a formal framework for conducting forensic genetic research in medico-legal mortuaries in South Africa.

  8. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: Confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lucas M; O'Malley, Jennifer T; Burgess, Barbara J; Jones, Dianne D; Oliveira, Carlos A C P; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N; Liberman, Leslie D; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-09-01

    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 h post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five "normal" ears, aged 54-89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening of post-mortem tissue donors for Coxiella burnetii infection after large outbreaks of Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Marja J.; Maas, D. Willemijn; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Hogema, Boris M.

    2014-01-01

    After the largest outbreaks of Q fever ever recorded in history occurred in the Netherlands, concern arose that Coxiella may be transmitted via donated tissues of latent or chronically infected donors. The Dutch Health Council recently advised to screen tissue donors, donating high risk tissues, for

  10. Tissues from equine cadaver ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem: a promising reservoir of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikh Alsook, Mohamad Khir; Gabriel, Annick; Piret, Joëlle; Waroux, Olivier; Tonus, Céline; Connan, Delphine; Baise, Etienne; Antoine, Nadine

    2015-12-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from cadaveric tissues represent a promising approach for regenerative medicine. To date, no study has investigated whether viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from tendon or ligament up to 72 hours of post-mortem. The purpose of the present work was to find out if viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from adult equine ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem, and to assess their ability (i) to remain in an undifferentiated state and (ii) to divide and proliferate in the absence of any specific stimulus. MSCs were isolated from equine cadaver (EC) suspensory ligaments within 48-72 hours of post-mortem. They were evaluated for viability, proliferation, capacity for tri-lineage differentiation, expression of cell surface markers (CD90, CD105, CD73, CD45), pluripotent transcription factor (OCT-4), stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (TUJ-1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). As well, they were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). EC-MSCs were successfully isolated and maintained for 20 passages with high cell viability and proliferation. Phase contrast microscopy revealed that cells with fibroblast-like appearance were predominant in the culture. Differentiation assays proved that EC-MSCs are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages (osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic). Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that EC-MSCs expressed CD90, CD105, and CD73, while being negative for the leukocyte common antigen CD45. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a high percentage of positive cells for OCT-4 and SSEA-1. Surprisingly, in absence of any stimuli, some adherent cells closely resembling neuronal and glial morphology were also observed. Interestingly, our results revealed that approximately 15 % of the cell populations were TUJ-1 positive, whereas GFAP expression was detected in only a few cells. Furthermore, TEM analysis

  11. Phosphatidylcholine 36:1 concentration decreases along with demyelination in the cuprizone animal model and post-mortem of multiple sclerosis brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hildebrand, Kayla D; Nyamoya, Stella D; Amor, Sandra; Bazinet, Richard P; Kipp, Markus

    2018-03-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease. Myelin is enriched in lipids, and more specifically, oleic acid. The goal of this study was to evaluate the concentration of oleic acid following demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model, test if these changes occurred in specific lipid species, and whether differences in the cuprizone model correlate with changes observed in post-mortem human brains. Eight-week-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet for 5 weeks and some animals allowed to recover for 11 days. Demyelination, inflammation, and lipid concentrations were measured in the corpus callosum. Standard fatty acid techniques and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry were performed to measure concentrations of fatty acids in total brain lipids and a panel of lipid species within the phosphatidylcholine (PC). Similar measurements were conducted in post-mortem brain tissues of MS patients and were compared to healthy controls. Five weeks of cuprizone administration resulted in demyelination followed by significant remyelination after 11 days of recovery. Compared to control, oleic acid was decreased after 5 weeks of cuprizone treatment and increased during the recovery phase. This decrease in oleic acid was associated with a specific decrease in the PC 36:1 pool. Similar results were observed in human post-mortem brains. Decreases in myelin content in the cuprizone model was accompanied with decreases in oleic acid concentration and is associated with PC 36:1 suggesting that specific lipids could be a potential biomarker for myelin degeneration. The biological relevance of oleic acid for disease progression remains to be verified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. The quantification of COMT mRNA in post mortem cerebellum tissue: diagnosis, genotype, methylation and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ian W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The COMT gene is located on chromosome 22q11, a region strongly implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Previous research has suggested that activity and expression of COMT is altered in schizophrenia, and is mediated by one or more polymorphisms within the gene, including the functional Val158Met polymorphism. Method In this study we examined the expression levels of COMT mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR in 60 post mortem cerebellum samples derived from individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and no history of psychopathology. Furthermore, we have examined the methylation status of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the gene. Results We found no evidence of altered COMT expression or methylation in any of the psychiatric diagnoses examined. We did, however, find evidence to suggest that genotype is related to COMT gene expression, replicating the findings of two previous studies. Specifically, val158met (rs165688; Val allele rs737865 (G allele and rs165599 (G allele all showed reduced expression (P COMT expression, with females exhibiting significantly greater levels of COMT mRNA. Conclusion The expression of COMT does not appear to be altered in the cerebellum of individuals suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, but does appear to be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene.

  13. HIF1α protein and mRNA expression as a new marker for post mortem interval estimation in human gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Mazzotti, Maria Carla; Teti, Gabriella; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Pelotti, Susi; Falconi, Mirella

    2018-06-01

    Estimating the post mortem interval (PMI) is still a crucial step in Forensic Pathology. Although several methods are available for assessing the PMI, a precise estimation is still quite unreliable and can be inaccurate. The present study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical distribution and mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) in post mortem gingival tissues to establish a correlation between the presence of HIF-1α and the time since death, with the final goal of achieving a more accurate PMI estimation. Samples of gingival tissues were obtained from 10 cadavers at different PMIs (1-3 days, 4-5 days and 8-9 days), and were processed for immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed a time-dependent correlation of HIF-1α protein and its mRNA with different times since death, which suggests that HIF-1α is a potential marker for PMI estimation. The results showed a high HIF-1α protein signal that was mainly localized in the stratum basale of the oral mucosa in samples collected at a short PMI (1-3 days). It gradually decreased in samples collected at a medium PMI (4-5 days), but it was not detected in samples collected at a long PMI (8-9 days). These results are in agreement with the mRNA data. These data indicate an interesting potential utility of Forensic Anatomy-based techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, as important complementary tools to be used in forensic investigations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  14. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolomics of Neurotransmitters and Related Metabolites in Post-Mortem Tissue from the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum of Alcoholic Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sultana, Nilufa; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Pickford, Russell; Rae, Caroline; Šerý, Omar; McGregor, Iain S; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-02-01

    We report on changes in neurotransmitter metabolome and protein expression in the striatum of humans exposed to heavy long-term consumption of alcohol. Extracts from post mortem striatal tissue (dorsal striatum; DS comprising caudate nucleus; CN and putamen; P and ventral striatum; VS constituted by nucleus accumbens; NAc) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics was studied in CN by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry. Proteomics identified 25 unique molecules expressed differently by the alcohol-affected tissue. Two were dopamine-related proteins and one a GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD65. Two proteins that are related to apoptosis and/or neuronal loss (BiD and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3) were increased. There were no differences in the levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), histamine, L-glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Tryp) between the DS (CN and P) and VS (NAc) in control brains. Choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) were higher and norepinephrine (NE) lower, in the VS. Alcoholic striata had lower levels of neurotransmitters except for Glu (30 % higher in the alcoholic ventral striatum). Ratios of DOPAC/DA and HIAA/5HT were higher in alcoholic striatum indicating an increase in the DA and 5HT turnover. Glutathione was significantly reduced in all three regions of alcohol-affected striatum. We conclude that neurotransmitter systems in both the DS (CN and P) and the VS (NAc) were significantly influenced by long-term heavy alcohol intake associated with alcoholism.

  16. Decreased hippocampal 5-HT2A receptors in post mortem tissue from schizophrenic but not bipolar subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.; Bradbury, R.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The hippocampus is important in cognition and sensory gating,both of which are thought to be impaired in schizophrenia. Since 5HT has also been implicated in cognition we investigated the hippocampal serotonergic system in subjects with either schizophrenia or bipolar mood disorder. Using autoradiography,we found significant (p 3 H] ketanserin binding in the CA3 (Mean ±SEM:29.6 ± 4.0 vs.46.6 ± 4.2 fmol/mgETE), the stratum radiatum (27.3 ± 2.7 vs.38.7 ± 3.9 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (35.6 ± 3.4 vs.51.4 ± 2.7 fmol/ mgETE) of CA1 as well as the outer (8.3 ± 1.5 vs.12.2 ± 1.4 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (16.4 ± 2.5 vs.32.1 ± 3.2 fmol/mgETE) of the subiculum in hippocampal tissue from schizophrenic subjects. No such differences were found in the dentate gyrus or CA2 region from schizophrenia subjects or in any hippocampal region from bipolar subjects. The lack of change in the bipolar cohort suggests that the decreased density of hippocampal 5-HT 2A receptors is disease specific and not a result of neuroleptic treatment, which both cohorts received. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  17. Development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Chalmers, Katy; Ince, Paul; Esiri, Margaret; Attems, Johannes; Jellinger, Kurt; Yamada, Masahito; McCarron, Mark; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona; Greenberg, Steven; Mann, David; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin

    2014-01-01

    In a collaboration involving 11 groups with research interests in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a two-stage process to develop and in turn validate a new consensus protocol and scoring scheme for the assessment of CAA and associated vasculopathic abnormalities in post-mortem brain tissue. Stage one used an iterative Delphi-style survey to develop the consensus protocol. The resultant scoring scheme was tested on a series of digital images and paraffin sections that were circulated blind to a number of scorers. The scoring scheme and choice of staining methods were refined by open-forum discussion. The agreed protocol scored parenchymal and meningeal CAA on a 0-3 scale, capillary CAA as present/absent and vasculopathy on 0-2 scale, in the 4 cortical lobes that were scored separately. A further assessment involving three centres was then undertaken. Neuropathologists in three centres (Bristol, Oxford and Sheffield) independently scored sections from 75 cases (25 from each centre) and high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated. Stage two used the results of the three-centre assessment to validate the protocol by investigating previously described associations between APOE genotype (previously determined), and both CAA and vasculopathy. Association of capillary CAA with or without arteriolar CAA with APOE ε4 was confirmed. However APOE ε2 was also found to be a strong risk factor for the development of CAA, not only in AD but also in elderly non-demented controls. Further validation of this protocol and scoring scheme is encouraged, to aid its wider adoption to facilitate collaborative and replication studies of CAA. PMID:24754000

  18. Erratum: Development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Chalmers, Katy; Ince, Paul; Esiri, Margaret; Attems, Johannes; Kalaria, Raj; Jellinger, Kurt; Yamada, Masahito; McCarron, Mark; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona; Greenberg, Steven; Mann, David; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin

    2015-01-01

    In a collaboration involving 11 groups with research interests in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a two-stage process to develop and in turn validate a new consensus protocol and scoring scheme for the assessment of CAA and associated vasculopathic abnormalities in post-mortem brain tissue. Stage one used an iterative Delphi-style survey to develop the consensus protocol. The resultant scoring scheme was tested on a series of digital images and paraffin sections that were circulated blind to a number of scorers. The scoring scheme and choice of staining methods were refined by open-forum discussion. The agreed protocol scored parenchymal and meningeal CAA on a 0-3 scale, capillary CAA as present/absent and vasculopathy on 0-2 scale, in the 4 cortical lobes that were scored separately. A further assessment involving three centres was then undertaken. Neuropathologists in three centres (Bristol, Oxford and Sheffield) independently scored sections from 75 cases (25 from each centre) and high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated. Stage two used the results of the three-centre assessment to validate the protocol by investigating previously described associations between APOE genotype (previously determined), and both CAA and vasculopathy. Association of capillary CAA with or without arteriolar CAA with APOE ε4 was confirmed. However APOE ε2 was also found to be a strong risk factor for the development of CAA, not only in AD but also in elderly non-demented controls. Further validation of this protocol and scoring scheme is encouraged, to aid its wider adoption to facilitate collaborative and replication studies of CAA.[This corrects the article on p. 19 in vol. 3, PMID: 24754000.].

  19. Post-mortem radiology-a new sub-speciality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, C.; Woodford, N.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of deceased individuals are increasingly being utilized in the field of forensic pathology. However, there are differences in the interpretation of post-mortem and clinical imaging. Radiologists with only occasional experience in post-mortem imaging are at risk of misinterpreting the findings if they rely solely on clinical experience. Radiological specialists working in a co-operative environment with pathologists are pivotal in the understanding of post-mortem CT and MRI, and its appropriate integration into the autopsy. This has spawned a novel subspecialty called post-mortem radiology or necro-radiology (radiology of the deceased). In the future it is likely that whole-body CT will be incorporated into the routine forensic autopsy due its ability to accurately detect and localise abnormalities commonly seen in forensic practice, such as haematoma, abnormal gas collections, fractures, and metallic foreign bodies. In the next 5-10 years most forensic institutes will seek regular access to such CT facilities or install machines into their own mortuaries. MRI is technically more problematic in the deceased but the improved tissue contrast over CT means that it is also very useful for investigation of pathology in the cranial, thoracic, and abdominal cavities, as well as the detection of haematoma in soft tissue. In order for radiologists to be an integral part of this important development in forensic investigation, radiological organizations must recognize the subspecialty of post-mortem radiology and provide a forum for radiologists to advance scientific knowledge in the field

  20. Clarke's Isolation and identification of drugs in pharmaceuticals, body fluids, and post-mortem material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, E. G. C; Moffat, A. C; Jackson, J. V

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists faced with the difficult problem of identifying an unknown drug in a pharmaceutical product, in a sample of tissue or body fluid from a living patient, or in post-mortem material...

  1. Post-mortem CT-coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhlsgaard, Camilla; Leth, Peter Mygind

    2007-01-01

    post-mortem coronary angiography and computerized tomography.  We describe how to prepare and inject the contrast medium, and how to establish a CT-protocol that optimizes spatial resolution, low contrast resolution and noise level. Testing of the method on 6 hearts, showed that the lumen...

  2. Post-mortem imaging compared with autopsy in trauma victims--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, Hamid; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; Berger, Ferco H; Fronczek, Judith; van de Goot, Frank R W; Reijnders, Udo J; Zuidema, Wietse P

    2015-12-01

    Post-mortem imaging or virtual autopsy is a rapidly advancing field of post-mortem investigations of trauma victims. In this review we evaluate the feasibility of complementation or replacement of conventional autopsy by post-mortem imaging in trauma victims. A systematic review was performed in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for studies published between January 2008 and January 2014, in which post-mortem imaging was compared to conventional autopsy in trauma victims. Studies were included when two or more trauma victims were investigated. Twenty-six studies were included, with a total number of 563 trauma victims. Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) was performed in 22 studies, post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) in five studies and conventional radiography in two studies. PMCT and PMMRI both demonstrate moderate to high-grade injuries and cause of death accurately. PMCT is more sensitive than conventional autopsy or PMMRI in detecting skeletal injuries. For detecting minor organ and soft tissue injuries, autopsy remains superior to imaging. Aortic injuries are missed frequently by PMCT and PMMRI and form their main limitation. PMCT should be considered as an essential supplement to conventional autopsy in trauma victims since it detects many additional injuries. Despite some major limitations, PMCT could be used as an alternative for conventional autopsy in situations where conventional autopsy is rejected or unavailable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reviviendo la consulta post-mortem.

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Cortés

    2009-01-01

    Por estos días se inaugura el “Centro de consulta post-mortem del Hospital Universitario del Valle”, una denominación más apropiada para la autopsia «ver por sí mismo» o cualquiera de sus sinónimos necropsia, examen post-mortem, necroscopia, o tanatopsia; todos ellos no aceptados y condicionados por factores culturales, sociales o religiosos. Estos términos han alcanzado una connotación claramente negativa en el ambiente médico y en el público general. Quizás, el mejor término sea «consulta p...

  4. Post-mortem testing; germline BRCA1/2 variant detection using archival FFPE non-tumor tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Jørgensen, Mads Malik Aagaard; Nielsen, Henriette Roed

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of cancer risk in HBOC families often requires BRCA1/2 testing, but this may be impossible in deceased family members. Previous, testing archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for germline BRCA1/2 variants was unsuccessful, except for the Jewish founder mutat...... samples from non-tumor tissue. Accurate genetic counseling is achievable in families where variant testing would otherwise be impossible.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 6 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.268....

  5. SU-C-12A-04: Diagnostic Imaging Research Using Decedents as a Proxy for the Living: Are Radiation Dosimetry and Tissue Property Measurements Affected by Post-Mortem Changes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, D; Heintz, P [Department of Radiology University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W; Melo, D [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Adolphi, N; Hatch, P [Radiology-Pathology Center for Forensic Imaging, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose (RD) from diagnostic imaging is a growing public health concern. Implanting dosimeters is a more accurate way to assess organ dose, relative to commonly used mathematical estimations. However, performing accurate dosimetry using live subjects is hindered by patient motion and safety considerations, which limit the RD and placement of implanted dosimeters. Performing multiple scans on the same subject would be the ideal way to assess the impact of dose reduction on image quality; however, performing multiple non-standard-of-care scans on live subjects for dosimetry and image quality measurements is generally prohibited by IRB committees. Our objective is to assess whether RD and tissue property (TP) measurements in post-mortem (PM) subjects are sufficiently similar to those in live subjects to justify the use of deceased subjects in future dosimetry and image quality studies. Methods: 4 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the RD at 4 levels (carina, lung, heart, and liver) during CT scanning. The CT protocol was performed ante-mortem (AM) and 2 and 3 hours PM. For TP analysis, additional scans were taken at 24 hours PM. To compare AM and PM TP, regions-of-interest were drawn on selected organs and the average CT density with standard deviation (in units of HU) were taken; additionally, visual comparisons of images were made at each PM interval. Results: No significant difference was observed in 8 of 9 measurements comparing AM and PM RD. Only one measurement (liver of the first subject) showed a significant difference (7% lower on PM measurement), possibly due to subject re-positioning. Initial TP visual and quantitative analyses show little to no change PM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that realistic radiation dosimetry and image quality measurements based on tissue properties can be performed reliably on recently deceased subjects.

  6. Isolation of primary microglia from the human post-mortem brain: effects of ante- and post-mortem variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizee, Mark R; Miedema, Suzanne S M; van der Poel, Marlijn; Adelia; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Strien, Miriam E; Melief, Jeroen; Smolders, Joost; Hendrickx, Debbie A; Heutinck, Kirstin M; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-02-17

    Microglia are key players in the central nervous system in health and disease. Much pioneering research on microglia function has been carried out in vivo with the use of genetic animal models. However, to fully understand the role of microglia in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is crucial to study primary human microglia from brain donors. We have developed a rapid procedure for the isolation of pure human microglia from autopsy tissue using density gradient centrifugation followed by CD11b-specific cell selection. The protocol can be completed in 4 h, with an average yield of 450,000 and 145,000 viable cells per gram of white and grey matter tissue respectively. This method allows for the immediate phenotyping of microglia in relation to brain donor clinical variables, and shows the microglia population to be distinguishable from autologous choroid plexus macrophages. This protocol has been applied to samples from over 100 brain donors from the Netherlands Brain Bank, providing a robust dataset to analyze the effects of age, post-mortem delay, brain acidity, and neurological diagnosis on microglia yield and phenotype. Our data show that cerebrospinal fluid pH is positively correlated to microglial cell yield, but donor age and post-mortem delay do not negatively affect viable microglia yield. Analysis of CD45 and CD11b expression showed that changes in microglia phenotype can be attributed to a neurological diagnosis, and are not influenced by variation in ante- and post-mortem parameters. Cryogenic storage of primary microglia was shown to be possible, albeit with variable levels of recovery and effects on phenotype and RNA quality. Microglial gene expression substantially changed due to culture, including the loss of the microglia-specific markers, showing the importance of immediate microglia phenotyping. We conclude that primary microglia can be isolated effectively and rapidly from human post-mortem brain tissue, allowing for the study of the

  7. Post mortem examination report concerning Nadim Nuwwara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2014-01-01

    Post mortem examination report concerning Nadim Nuwawara, 17-years old, who was killed may 15 2014 in Beitunia near Rahmallah, Palestine. The examination was performed by an international team consisting of dr. Saber Al-Aloul, director of the Medico Legal Institute at Quds University, dr. Marc A....... Krouse, Deputy Chief Medical Examiner, Office of Chief Medical Examiner, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, dr. Chen Kugel, Chief Forensic Pathologist, Abu Kabir Institute of Forensic Medicine, Tel Aviv, dr. Ricardo Pablo Nachman, forensic expert at Abu Kabir Institute of Forensic Medicine, Tel Aviv and dr. Peter...

  8. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J Ortiz

    Full Text Available A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS. Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g-1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.1 ng g-1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the "dung community". Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals - a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M; Riederer, P; Michel, T M

    2017-10-01

    The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that antidepressant treatment may improve or normalise cerebral concentrations of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, we examined the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) in different brain regions (cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant treatment and overall age 84.3±5 years versus 14 unaffected subjects at age 70.3±13.8. We detected significant elevation of BDNF (parietal cortex) and NT3 (parietal, temporal and occipital cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, putamen and nucleus caudatus regions) in MDD patients who received antidepressant medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample size in this proof of concept study corroborates data from previous studies, which show that treatment with antidepressants mediates alterations in neuroplasticity via the action of NTF. However, more research using post-mortem brain tissue with larger samples needs to be carried out as well as longitudinal studies to further verify these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in Asiatic cheetah using nuclei derived from post-mortem frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulavi, F; Hosseini, S M; Tanhaie-Vash, N; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S H; Hajinasrollah, M; Asghari, M H; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2017-03-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes. No cells growth was detected in primary culture of skin and tendon pieces or following culture of singled cells prepared by enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, no live cells were detected following differential viable staining and almost all cells had ruptured membrane. Therefore, direct injection of donor nuclei into enucleated cat oocytes matured in vitro was carried out for SCNT experiments. Early signs of nuclear remodeling were observed as early as 2 h post-iSCNT and significantly increased at 4 h post-iSCNT. The percentages of iSCNT reconstructs that cleaved and developed to 4-16 cell and morula stages were 32.3 ± 7.3, 18.2 ± 9.8 and 5.9 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, none of the iSCNT reconstructs developed to the blastocyst stage. When domestic cat somatic and oocytes were used for control SCNT and parthenogenetic activation, the respective percentages of oocytes that cleaved (51.3 ± 13.9 and 77.3 ± 4.0%) and further developed to the blastocyst stage (11.3 ± 3.3 and 16.8 ± 3.8%) were comparable. In summary, this study demonstrated that enucleated cat oocytes can partially remodel and reactivate non-viable nuclei of Asiatic cheetah and support its reprogramming back to the embryonic stage. To our knowledge, this is

  11. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    An adult giraffe was struck dead by lightning on a game farm outside. Phalaborwa, South Africa in March 2014. Interestingly, delayed post-mortem predation occurred on the carcass, which according to the farm owners was an atypical phenomenon for the region. Delayed post-mortem scavenging on lightning strike ...

  12. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  13. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, T D; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool with a wide scope in forensic radiology. In the past 20 years, PMMR has been used as both an adjunct and an alternative to autopsy. The role of PMMR in forensic death investigations largely depends on the rules and habits of local jurisdictions, availability of experts, financial resources, and individual case circumstances. PMMR images are affected by post-mortem changes, including position-dependent sedimentation, variable body temperature and decomposition. Investigators must be familiar with the appearance of normal findings on PMMR to distinguish them from disease or injury. Coronal whole-body images provide a comprehensive overview. Notably, short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) images enable investigators to screen for pathological fluid accumulation, to which we refer as “forensic sentinel sign”. If scan time is short, subsequent PMMR imaging may be focussed on regions with a positive forensic sentinel sign. PMMR offers excellent anatomical detail and is especially useful to visualize pathologies of the brain, heart, subcutaneous fat tissue and abdominal organs. PMMR may also be used to document skeletal injury. Cardiovascular imaging is a core area of PMMR imaging and growing evidence indicates that PMMR is able to detect ischaemic injury at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology. The aim of this review is to present an overview of normal findings on forensic PMMR, provide general advice on the application of PMMR and summarise the current literature on PMMR imaging of the head and neck, cardiovascular system, abdomen and musculoskeletal system. PMID:24191122

  14. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  15. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  16. [Legal aspects of post-mortem radiology in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venderink, W; Dute, J C J

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the application of post-mortem radiology (virtual autopsy) is on the rise. Contrary to conventional autopsy, with post-mortem radiology the body remains intact. There is uncertainty concerning the legal admissibility of post-mortem radiology, since the Dutch Corpse Disposal Act does not contain any specific regulations for this technique. Autopsy and post-mortem radiology differ significantly from a technical aspect, but these differences do not have far-reaching legal consequences from a legal perspective. Even though the body remains intact during post-mortem radiology, the bodily integrity of a deceased person is breached if it would be applied without previously obtained consent. This permission can only be obtained after the relatives are fully informed about the proposed activity. In this respect, it is not relevant which technique is used, be it post-mortem radiology or autopsy. Therefore, the other legal conditions for post-mortem radiology are essentially identical to those for autopsy.

  17. Bone Tissue Donation: Tendency and Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, S; Dos Santos, M J; de Moraes, E L; de Barros E Silva, L B

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of bone tissue donation in a brain death situation and the tendency of donation rate of this tissue in an organ procurement organization in the county of Sao Paulo from 2001 to 2016. It is a retrospective and quantitative study, based on the Organ and Tissue Donation Term of donors who died of brain death between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied, and the odds of donation were identified throughout the years, regarding the odds ratio different from zero. Finally, it was measured the accuracy of the odds ratio through the confidence interval. The analysis has shown a significant change on the trend of bone donation (P 1, indicating that the donation rate has increased. However, the percentage of growth is still considered low. The study evidences a growth trend regarding the donation of bone tissue, but the percentage is still too low to adequately meet the demand of patients who need this modality of therapeutic intervention. It is believed that educational campaigns of donation are not emphasizing the donation of tissues for transplantation, which may be directly impacting their consent rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics is affiliated with organ, eye and tissue procurement agencies throughout the U.S. They typically ... Visit DonateLife.net and learn how your gift of tissue can give bring new life to ...

  19. Post-mortem CT evaluation of atlanto-occipital dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Samaranayake, Ravindra Priyalal; O'Donnell, Chris; Cordner, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes. This study aims to compare post-mortem BDI and BAI measurements with ante-mortem values. Post-mortem CT scans of the cervical spines of 100 deceased adults were reviewed, and the BDI and BAI were measured. Different parameters were recorded in each case. The results from this study suggest that there are no effects of post-mortem changes on the measurement of BAI as relied upon clinically. There appear to be some effects of fully established rigor mortis on BDI measurement, shortening it. This may have consequences for the post mortem diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; Hart, Lucas; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii , were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus . Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  1. Forensic aspects of incised wounds and bruises in pigs established post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing post-mortem (PM) changes is of crucial importance in veterinary forensic pathology. In porcine wounds established PM contradicting observations regarding infiltration of leukocytes have been described. In the present study, skin, subcutis and muscle tissue sampled from experimental pigs...... of sampling. Moreover, it was found that AM bruises free of leukocyte infiltration cannot be distinguished from PM bruises, an observation which is of crucial importance when timing bruises in forensic cases....

  2. DNA methylation results depend on DNA integrity – role of post mortem interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eRhein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Major questions of neurological and psychiatric mechanisms involve the brain functions on a molecular level and cannot be easily addressed due to limitations in access to tissue samples. Post mortem studies are able to partly bridge the gap between brain tissue research retrieved from animal trials and the information derived from peripheral analysis (e.g. measurements in blood cells in patients. Here, we wanted to know how fast DNA degradation is progressing under controlled conditions in order to define thresholds for tissue quality to be used in respective trials. Our focus was on the applicability of partly degraded samples for bisulfite sequencing and the determination of simple means to define cut-off values.After opening the brain cavity, we kept two consecutive pig skulls at ambient temperature (19-21°C and removed cortex tissue up to a post mortem interval (PMI of 120h. We calculated the percentage of degradation on DNA gel electrophoresis of brain DNA to estimate quality and relate this estimation spectrum to the quality of human post-mortem control samples. Functional DNA quality was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of two functionally relevant genes for either the serotonin receptor 5 (SLC6A4 or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2.Testing our approach in a heterogeneous collective of human blood and brain samples, we demonstrate integrity of measurement quality below the threshold of 72h PMI.While sequencing technically worked for all timepoints irrespective of conceivable DNA degradation, there is a good correlation between variance of methylation to degradation levels documented in the gel (R2=0.4311, p=0.0392 for advancing post mortem intervals (PMI. This otherwise elusive phenomenon is an important prerequisite for the interpretation and evaluation of samples prior to in-depth processing via an affordable and easy assay to estimate identical sample quality and thereby comparable methylation measurements.

  3. Differences in sampling techniques on total post-mortem tryptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, R; Garland, J; Kesha, K; Elstub, H; Cala, A D; Ahn, Y; Stables, S; Palmiere, C

    2017-11-20

    The measurement of mast cell tryptase is commonly used to support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. In the post-mortem setting, the literature recommends sampling from peripheral blood sources (femoral blood) but does not specify the exact sampling technique. Sampling techniques vary between pathologists, and it is unclear whether different sampling techniques have any impact on post-mortem tryptase levels. The aim of this study is to compare the difference in femoral total post-mortem tryptase levels between two sampling techniques. A 6-month retrospective study comparing femoral total post-mortem tryptase levels between (1) aspirating femoral vessels with a needle and syringe prior to evisceration and (2) femoral vein cut down during evisceration. Twenty cases were identified, with three cases excluded from analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (paired t test, p sampling methods. The clinical significance of this finding and what factors may contribute to it are unclear. When requesting post-mortem tryptase, the pathologist should consider documenting the exact blood collection site and method used for collection. In addition, blood samples acquired by different techniques should not be mixed together and should be analyzed separately if possible.

  4. Quality of coroner's post-mortems in a UK hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahdy, Husayn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was, principally, to look at the coroner's post-mortem report quality regarding adult medical patients admitted to an English hospital; and to compare results with Royal College of Pathologists guidelines. Hospital clinical notes of adult medical patients dying in 2011 and who were referred to the coroner's office to determine the cause of death were scrutinised. Their clinical care was also reviewed. There needs to be a comprehensive approach to coroner's post-mortems such as routinely taking histological and microbiological specimens. Acute adult medical patient care needs to improve. Steps should be taken to ensure that comprehensive coroner's post-mortems are performed throughout the UK, including with routine histological and microbiological specimens examination. Additionally, closer collaboration between clinicians and pathologists needs to occur to improve emergency adult medical patient clinical care. The study highlights inadequacies in coroner's pathology services.

  5. Post-mortem cytogenomic investigations in patients with congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alexandre Torchio; Zanardo, Évelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Piazzon, Flavia Balbo; Novo-Filho, Gil Monteiro; Montenegro, Marilia Moreira; Nascimento, Amom Mendes; Rocha, Mariana; Madia, Fabricia Andreia Rosa; Costa, Thais Virgínia Moura Machado; Milani, Cintia; Schultz, Regina; Gonçalves, Fernanda Toledo; Fridman, Cintia; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici

    2016-08-01

    Congenital anomalies are the second highest cause of infant deaths, and, in most cases, diagnosis is a challenge. In this study, we characterize patterns of DNA copy number aberrations in different samples of post-mortem tissues from patients with congenital malformations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing autopsy were cytogenomically evaluated using several methods, specifically, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), microsatellite marker analysis with a MiniFiler kit, FISH, a cytogenomic array technique and bidirectional Sanger sequencing, which were performed on samples of different tissues (brain, heart, liver, skin and diaphragm) preserved in RNAlater, in formaldehyde or by paraffin-embedding. The results identified 13 patients with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Of these, eight presented aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y (two presented inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism). In addition, other abnormalities were found, including duplication of the TYMS gene (18p11.32); deletion of the CHL1 gene (3p26.3); deletion of the HIC1 gene (17p13.3); and deletion of the TOM1L2 gene (17p11.2). One patient had a pathogenic missense mutation of g.8535C>G (c.746C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene consistent with Thanatophoric Dysplasia type I. Cytogenomic techniques were reliable for the analysis of autopsy material and allowed the identification of inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  7. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de

    2015-01-01

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin

  8. Drowning - post-mortem imaging findings by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christe, Andreas; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J.; Vock, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the classic autopsy signs of drowning in post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Therefore, the post-mortem pre-autopsy MSCT- findings of ten drowning cases were correlated with autopsy and statistically compared with the post-mortem MSCT of 20 non-drowning cases. Fluid in the airways was present in all drowning cases. Central aspiration in either the trachea or the main bronchi was usually observed. Consecutive bronchospasm caused emphysema aquosum. Sixty percent of drowning cases showed a mosaic pattern of the lung parenchyma due to regions of hypo- and hyperperfused lung areas of aspiration. The resorption of fresh water in the lung resulted in hypodensity of the blood representing haemodilution and possible heart failure. Swallowed water distended the stomach and duodenum; and inflow of water filled the paranasal sinuses (100%). All the typical findings of drowning, except Paltau's spots, were detected using post-mortem MSCT, and a good correlation of MSCT and autopsy was found. The advantage of MSCT was the direct detection of bronchospasm, haemodilution and water in the paranasal sinus, which is rather complicated or impossible at the classical autopsy. (orig.)

  9. Post-mortem examination and sampling of African flamingos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent largely unexplained deaths in African flamingos have prompted the need for standard, reproducible methods for the post-mortem examination of these birds, for the taking of samples and for the recording of findings. Here we describe suitable techniques and present three distinct protocols for field-based ...

  10. Post-mortem changes in chicken muscle : some key biochemical processes involved in the conversion of muscle to meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, F.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact

  11. Formalities, good faith, and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminski, F

    1994-10-01

    After a patient died in a Veterans Administration hospital, a resident physician asked the next of kin to sign two identical autopsy forms, one of which was stamped "Eye Donor." The family signed, despite orally objecting to donation of tissue. Nevertheless, the patient's eyes were removed because other hospital staff were unaware of the objection. The family sued the hospital and eye bank. The Federal District Court in Minnesota dismissed the case before trial on the basis that both defendants were immune from liability because of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. Clear policies communicated to staff and separate autopsy and donation forms can help to avoid confusion and legal difficulties.

  12. Characteristics of human infant primary fibroblast cultures from Achilles tendons removed post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell cultures were investigated as a tool for molecular diagnostics in a forensic setting. Fibroblast cultures had been established from human Achilles tendon resected at autopsies, from cases of sudden infant death syndrome and control infants who died in traumatic events (n=41). After...... established from post-mortem tissue are renewable sources of biological material; they can be the foundation for genetic, metabolic and other functional studies and thus constitute a valuable tool for molecular and pathophysiological investigations in biomedical and forensic sciences....

  13. Profiling of RNA degradation for estimation of post mortem [corrected] interval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sampaio-Silva

    Full Text Available An estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI is frequently touted as the Holy Grail of forensic pathology. During the first hours after death, PMI estimation is dependent on the rate of physical observable modifications including algor, rigor and livor mortis. However, these assessment methods are still largely unreliable and inaccurate. Alternatively, RNA has been put forward as a valuable tool in forensic pathology, namely to identify body fluids, estimate the age of biological stains and to study the mechanism of death. Nevertheless, the attempts to find correlation between RNA degradation and PMI have been unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to characterize the RNA degradation in different post mortem tissues in order to develop a mathematical model that can be used as coadjuvant method for a more accurate PMI determination. For this purpose, we performed an eleven-hour kinetic analysis of total extracted RNA from murine's visceral and muscle tissues. The degradation profile of total RNA and the expression levels of several reference genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. A quantitative analysis of normalized transcript levels on the former tissues allowed the identification of four quadriceps muscle genes (Actb, Gapdh, Ppia and Srp72 that were found to significantly correlate with PMI. These results allowed us to develop a mathematical model with predictive value for estimation of the PMI (confidence interval of ±51 minutes at 95% that can become an important complementary tool for traditional methods.

  14. Preliminary study of post mortem identification using lip prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kanoh, Takashi; Tadokoro, Osamu; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2005-05-10

    Identification using lip prints was first performed in the 1950s and was the subject of much research in the 1960s and 70s, leading to the acceptance of this technique as evidence in the criminal justice system. Previous research has focused on identifying lip print types or on methods of obtaining hidden lip prints left at the crime scene. The present study aimed to clarify characteristics of lip prints from cadavers with various causes of death (including drowning and hanging) and to determine the effects of fixation on post mortem changes in lip impressions.

  15. Making post-mortem implantable cardioverter defibrillator explantation safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune B E W; Zeijlemaker, Volkert; Pehrson, Steen

    2009-01-01

    that the resting voltage over the operating person would not exceed 50 V. CONCLUSION: The use of intact medical gloves made of latex, neoprene, or plastic eliminates the potential electrical risk during explantation of an ICD. Two gloves on each hand offer sufficient protection. We will recommend the use......AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate whether protection with rubber or plastic gloves during post-mortem explantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) offers enough protection for the explanting operator during a worst-case scenario (i.e. ICD shock). METHODS AND RESULTS...

  16. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  17. Optimising imaging parameters for post mortem MR imaging of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blamire, A.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Styles, P. [MRC Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); McDonald, B. [MRC Schizophrenia Research Group, Dept. of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: MR imaging of post mortem brains has the potential to yield volumetric information and define the extent of structural changes prior to pathological examination. Although standard T2-weighted clinical imaging sequences have been used for the examination of formalin-fixed brains, these protocols may not yield optimum contrast. We examined the effect of varying durations of formalin fixation on the transverse relaxation time (T2) and the tissue spin density. Material and Methods: Three post mortem brains were examined weekly during formalin fixation from the unfixed state to 35 days fixation. Standard MR spin-echo imaging was used at 5 echo times (20-100 ms) to calculate transverse relaxation time (T2) and spin density. Results: T2 decreased significantly (ANOVA, p<0.001) in both grey and white matter by 7 days fixation and there was a further (but non-significant) trend towards lower values between7 and 35 days. Grey and white matter T2 times converged with fixation. Conversely, the grey to white matter spin density ratio increased from 1.19{+-}0.01 to 1.54{+-}0.06 over five weeks of fixation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that spin density-weighted imaging sequences would provide improved grey to white matter contrast over T2-weighted sequences. (orig.)

  18. Histological transformations of the dental pulp as possible indicator of post mortem interval: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricio A; Brizuela, Claudia I; Rodriguez, Ismael A; Muñoz, Samuel; Godoy, Marianela E; Inostroza, Carolina

    2017-10-01

    The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days. The tooth is the hardest organ of the human body, and within is confined dental pulp. The pulp morphology is defined as a lax conjunctive tissue with great sensory innervation, abundant microcirculation and great presence of groups of cell types. The aim of this study is to describe the potential use of pulp post mortem alterations to estimate PMI, using a new methodology that will allow obtainment of pulp tissue to be used for histomorphological analysis. The current study will identify potential histological indicators in dental pulp tissue to estimate PMI in time intervals of 24h, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. This study used 26 teeth from individuals with known PMI of 24h, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months. All samples were manipulated with the new methodology (Carrasco, P. and Inostroza C. inventors; Universidad de los Andes, assignee. Forensic identification, post mortem interval estimation and cause of death determination by recovery of dental tissue. United State patent US 61/826,558 23.05.2013) to extract pulp tissue without the destruction of the tooth. The dental pulp tissues obtained were fixed in formalin for the subsequent generation of histological sections, stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Masson's Trichrome. All sections were observed under an optical microscope using magnifications of 10× and 40×. The microscopic analysis of the samples showed a progressive transformation of the cellular components and fibers of dental pulp along PMI. These results allowed creating a

  19. Post-mortem MRI of the foetal spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, E.; Whitby, E.H.; Cohen, M.; Paley, M.N.J.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To compare the findings of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foetal spine with autopsy with a view to using post-mortem MRI as an alternative or adjunct to autopsy, particularly in foetal and neonatal cases. Materials and Methods: The brains and spines of 41 foetuses, with a gestational age range of 14-41 weeks, underwent post-mortem MRI before autopsy. Post-mortem MRI of the brain consisted of T2-weighted sequences in three orthogonal planes and MRI of the spine consisted of T2-weighted sequence in the sagittal and axial planes in all cases and coronal planes in selected cases. Results: Thirty of 41 (78%) foetal spines were found to be normal at autopsy and on post-mortem MRI. Eleven of 41 (22%) foetal spines were abnormal: eight foetuses had myelomeningocoeles and Chiari 2 deformities, one foetus had limited dorsal myeloschisis, one foetus had caudal regression syndrome, and one had diastematomyelia. The post-mortem MRI findings concurred with the autopsy findings in 10/11 of the abnormal cases, the disagreement being the case of diastematomyelia that was shown on post-mortem MRI but was not diagnosed at autopsy. Conclusions: In this series, post-mortem MRI findings agreed with the autopsy findings in 40/41(98%) cases and in one case the post-mortem MRI demonstrated an abnormality not demonstrated at autopsy

  20. Trend Analysis of Organ and Tissue Donation for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, M J; Leal de Moraes, E; Santini Martins, M; Carlos de Almeida, E; Borges de Barros E Silva, L; Urias, V; Silvano Corrêa Pacheco Furtado, M C; Brito Nunes, Á; El Hage, S

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the tendency toward donations of tissue and organs from donors with brain death between 2001 and 2016 as registered by an organ procurement organization in São Paulo City. This quantitative, retrospective, exploratory study encompassed all Tissue and Organ Donation Terms signed between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied to verify whether there was an upward or downward trend in donation. After statistical analysis, a significant change trend was identified in skin, bones, valve, vessel, heart, lung, and pancreas donations, indicating an increase in the donation rate through the years. The donation rate did not show changes over the years for donations of liver, kidneys, and corneas. The decision-making process regarding organ and tissue donation is restricted not only to the dilemma of whether to donate but another question then arises as well: which organs and tissues are to be donated? The discrepancy between the authorization for organ donation and the authorization for tissue donation, as well as the option for one or another organ and/or tissue, must be thoroughly examined because these factors directly affect the number of transplants and acquirements effectively accomplished. These factors may be related to explaining to one's relatives aspects of the surgery, body reassembling, and usage of such organs and/or tissues. They may also be related to the lack of knowledge concerning organ donation and the symbolism represented by the organ and/or tissue, among other factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Note sulla concezione del post mortem presso gli Ittiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Matteo; Bellucci, Benedetta

    significato escatologico della morte; 2) la definizione dello status ultraterreno dei defunti (i.e. il diverso trattamento del defunto, ad esempio dal punto di vista cultuale, sulla base della sua condizione sociale); 3) il delineamento dei caratteri e delle funzioni delle divinità ultra-terrene; 4) la......Oggetto d’analisi di questo paper è la concezione della sfera del post-mortem presso la civiltà degli Ittiti. Lo studio delle tematiche che riguardano la concezione dell’“aldilà” nel mondo ittita, sia in senso fisico che metafisico, riveste una larga importanza nella letteratura ittitologica ed è...... stato, pertanto, diffusamente trattato. Nel presente contributo si è scelto quindi di approfondire solo alcuni aspetti della concezione dell’oltretomba, inteso come dimensione metafisica in cui il corpo del defunto giace, staziona o transita dopo la morte. I temi approfonditi saranno quindi: 1) il...

  2. Post-mortem virtual estimation of free abdominal blood volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Hatch, Gary M.; Ruder, Thomas D.; Flach, Patricia M.; Germerott, Tanja; Thali, Michael J.; Ebert, Lars C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the reliability of virtually estimated abdominal blood volume using segmentation from postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) data. Materials and methods: Twenty-one cases with free abdominal blood were investigated by PMCT and autopsy. The volume of the blood was estimated using a manual segmentation technique (Amira, Visage Imaging, Germany) and the results were compared to autopsy data. Six of 21 cases had undergone additional post-mortem computed tomographic angiography (PMCTA). Results: The virtually estimated abdominal blood volumes did not differ significantly from those measured at autopsy. Additional PMCTA did not bias data significantly. Conclusion: Virtual estimation of abdominal blood volume is a reliable technique. The virtual blood volume estimation is a useful tool to deliver additional information in cases where autopsy is not performed or in cases where a postmortem angiography is performed

  3. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

  4. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  5. Regulatory aspects of tissue donation, banking and transplantation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid

    2018-05-04

    Amendments to India's Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, have established the legality of tissue donation and transplantation from deceased donors and the conditions under which they are permitted. The amended Act, now known as The Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994, seeks to prevent the commercialization of tissue donation and to guarantee the safety of indigenous allografts. Registration of tissue banks, compliance with national standards and the appointment of transplant co-ordinators in hospitals registered under the Act are now mandatory. A national registry and Regional and State networks for donation and transplantation of tissues have been introduced. Despite the amendments a few anomalies of the principal Act persist as some of the differences between tissue and organ donation and transplantation have been overlooked. These include the possibility of skin donation in locations other than hospitals; the donation of medical and surgical tissue residues which does not pose any risk to the living donor; the non-requirement for compatibility between donor and recipient; the delayed time factor between tissue donation and transplantation which makes identification of a recipient at the time of donation impossible; and the easy availability of alternatives to tissues which make waiting lists redundant for many tissues. Rules for the implementation of the amended Act were framed in 2014 but like the Act must be adopted by the State health assemblies to become universally applicable in the country.

  6. Histopathological features of post-mortem pituitaries: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Tortosa Vallecillos

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: As a result of the use of neuroimaging techniques, silent pituitary lesions are diagnosed more and more frequently; however, there are few published post-mortem studies about this gland. Incidence data of pituitary lesions are rare and in Portugal they are outdated or even non-existent. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of normal patterns and incidental post-mortem pituitary pathology at Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, analyzing the associations with clinical data and assessing the clinical relevance of the findings. Method: We reviewed retrospectively and histologically 167 pituitaries of a consecutive series of autopsies from the Department of Pathology of this centre. They were done between 2012 and 2014, and in all cases medical records were reviewed. The morphological patterns observed, were classified into three major groups: 1 Normal histological patterns and variants; 2 Infectious-inflammatory pathology, metabolic and vascular disorders; 3 Incidental primary proliferation and secondary to systemic diseases. Results: The subjects included in this study were of all age groups (from 1 day to 91 years old, 71 were female and 96 male. Fifty-seven of these glands didn’t show any alteration; 51 showed colloid cysts arising from Rathke cleft; 44 presented hyperplasia in adenohypophysis and we identified 20 adenomas in 19 glands (immunohistochemically, eight PRL-producing and five ACTH-producing tumors, ten of which associated with obesity, 11 to hypertension and six to diabetes mellitus. There were two cases with metastasis. Conclusion: Subclinical pathology in our country is similar to that seen in other parts of the world, but at older ages.

  7. Quantification of maceration changes using post mortem MRI in fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaldo, P.; Addison, S.; Oliveira, V.; Lally, P. J.; Taylor, A. M.; Sebire, N. J.; Thayyil, S.; Arthurs, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Post mortem imaging is playing an increasingly important role in perinatal autopsy, and correct interpretation of imaging changes is paramount. This is particularly important following intra-uterine fetal death, where there may be fetal maceration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes seen on a whole body fetal post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) correspond to maceration at conventional autopsy. We performed pre-autopsy PMMR in 75 fetuses using a 1.5 Tesla Siemens Avanto MR scanner (Erlangen, Germany). PMMR images were reported blinded to the clinical history and autopsy data using a numerical severity scale (0 = no maceration changes to 2 = severe maceration changes) for 6 different visceral organs (total 12). The degree of maceration at autopsy was categorized according to severity on a numerical scale (1 = no maceration to 4 = severe maceration). We also generated quantitative maps to measure the liver and lung T 2 . The mean PMMR maceration score correlated well with the autopsy maceration score (R 2 = 0.93). A PMMR score of ≥4.5 had a sensitivity of 91 %, specificity of 64 %, for detecting moderate or severe maceration at autopsy. Liver and lung T 2 were increased in fetuses with maceration scores of 3–4 in comparison to those with 1–2 (liver p = 0.03, lung p = 0.02). There was a good correlation between PMMR maceration score and the extent of maceration seen at conventional autopsy. This score may be useful in interpretation of fetal PMMR

  8. Joint analysis of three-dimensional anatomical and functional data considering the cerebral post mortem imaging in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Albertine

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of dedicated small animal anatomical (MRI) and functional (micro-PET) scanners has opened up the possibility of performing repeated functional in vivo studies in the same animal as the longitudinal follow-up of cerebral glucose metabolism. However, these systems still suffer technical limitations including a limited sensitivity and a reduced spatial resolution. Hence, autoradiography and histological studies remain the reference and widely used techniques for biological studies in small animals. The major disadvantage of these post mortem imaging techniques is that they require brain tissue sectioning, entailing the production of large numbers (up to several hundreds) of serial sections and the inherent loss of three-dimensional (3D) spatial consistency. The first step towards improving the analysis of this post mortem information was the development of reliable, automated procedures for the 3D reconstruction of the whole brain sections. We first developed an optimized data acquisition from large numbers of post mortem data (2D sections and block-face photographs). Then, we proposed different strategies of 3D reconstruction of the corresponding volumes. We also addressed the histological to autoradiographic sections and to block-face photographs co-registration problem (the photographic volume is intrinsically spatially consistent). These developments were essential for the 3D reconstruction but also enabled the evaluation of different methods of functional data analysis, from the most straightforward (manual delineation of regions of interest) to the most automated (Statistical Parametric Mapping-like approaches for group analysis). Two biological applications were carried out: visual stimulation in rats and cerebral metabolism in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. One perspective of this work is to match reconstructed post mortem data with in vivo images of the same animal. (author) [fr

  9. Small vessel disease, neurovascular regulation and cognitive impairment: post-mortem studies reveal a complex relationship, still poorly understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2017-07-15

    The contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment is under-recognized and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. This information gap has multiple causes, including a lack of post-mortem validation of clinical diagnoses of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD), the exclusion of cases with concomitant neurodegenerative disease when diagnosing VCI/VaD, and a lack of standardization of neuropathological assessment protocols for vascular disease. Other contributors include a focus on end-stage destructive lesions to the exclusion of more subtle types of diffuse brain injury, on structural abnormalities of arteries and arterioles to the exclusion of non-structural abnormalities and capillary damage, and the use of post-mortem sampling strategies that are biased towards the identification of neurodegenerative pathologies. Recent studies have demonstrated the value of detailed neuropathology in characterizing vascular contributions to cognitive impairment (e.g. in diabetes), and highlight the importance of diffuse white matter changes, capillary damage and vasoregulatory abnormalities in VCI/VaD. The use of standardized, evidence-based post-mortem assessment protocols and the inclusion of biochemical as well as morphological methods in neuropathological studies should improve the accuracy of determination of the contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment and clarify the relative contribution of different pathogenic processes to the tissue damage. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Usefulness of post-mortem ophthalmological endoscopy during forensic autopsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujinaka, Masatake; Akaza, Kayoko; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Post-mortem intraocular findings in two autopsy cases with traumatic intracranial haemorrhage were obtained using an ophthalmological endoscope. The endoscopy results clearly revealed the presence of intraocular haemorrhages and papilledema caused by intracranial haemorrhage. Post-mortem ophthalmological endoscopy offers several benefits. First, post-mortem intraocular findings can be directly observed in corpses with post-mortem clouding of the cornea. Secondly, the endoscopy only requires a 0.9 mm incision in the sclera and does not require the removal of the eye from the corpse, a procedure that should be avoided for ethical and cosmetic reasons. Thus, post-mortem opthalmological endoscopy is a useful method for obtaining intraocular findings in autopsies.

  11. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  12. The influence of body temperature on image contrast in post mortem MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruder, Thomas D.; Hatch, Gary M.; Siegenthaler, Lea; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Mathier, Sandra; Thali, Michael J.; Weber, Oliver M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the temperature dependency of tissue contrast on post mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) images both objectively and subjectively; and to visually demonstrate the changes of image contrast at various temperatures. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the responsible justice department and the ethics committee. The contrast of water, fat, and muscle was measured using regions of interest (ROI) in the orbit of 41 human corpses to assess how body temperature (range 2.1–39.8 °C) relates to image contrast of T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) sequences on PMMR. Regressions were calculated using the method of least squares. Three readers judged visible changes of image contrast subjectively by consensus. Results: There was a positive relationship between temperature and contrast on T1-weighted (T1W) images and between temperature and the contrast of fat/muscle on T2-weighted (T2W) images. There was a negative relationship between temperature and the contrast of water/fat and water/muscle on T2W images. Subjectively, the influence of temperature became visible below 20 °C on T2W images, and below 10 °C on T1W images. Conclusion: Image contrast on PMMR depends on the temperature of a corpse. Radiologists involved in post mortem imaging must be aware of temperature-related changes in MR image contrast. To preserve technical quality, scanning corpses below 10 °C should be avoided.

  13. Application of contrast media in post-mortem imaging (CT and MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Grimm, Jochen; Baumann, Pia; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    The application of contrast media in post-mortem radiology differs from clinical approaches in living patients. Post-mortem changes in the vascular system and the absence of blood flow lead to specific problems that have to be considered for the performance of post-mortem angiography. In addition, interpreting the images is challenging due to technique-related and post-mortem artefacts that have to be known and that are specific for each applied technique. Although the idea of injecting contrast media is old, classic methods are not simply transferable to modern radiological techniques in forensic medicine, as they are mostly dedicated to single-organ studies or applicable only shortly after death. With the introduction of modern imaging techniques, such as post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR), to forensic death investigations, intensive research started to explore their advantages and limitations compared to conventional autopsy. PMCT has already become a routine investigation in several centres, and different techniques have been developed to better visualise the vascular system and organ parenchyma in PMCT. In contrast, the use of PMMR is still limited due to practical issues, and research is now starting in the field of PMMR angiography. This article gives an overview of the problems in post-mortem contrast media application, the various classic and modern techniques, and the issues to consider by using different media.

  14. [Level of information of students at the University of Regensburg concerning organ donation and transplantation--informed or not informed consent in organ donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, B; Bleyer, B; Eckert, M; Gruber, H; Pfirstinger, J; Schaller, O; Dietl, B

    2013-04-01

    As a result of the actual amendment of the German transplantation law, every citizen will be regularly asked by health insurance companies about his attitude towards post-mortem organ donation--without the obligation to decide. The aim is to increase the willingness of donations as well as the availability of organs. Therefore, we investigated the level of information of students at the University of Regensburg and their agreement to organ transplantation regarding an informed consent. Using an interdisciplinary developed questionnaire (Medicine, Theology, Educational Science) the level of information concerning process and possibilities of organ donation, the possession of an organ donor card, as well as the active or passive consent to donate organs was investigated. Out of 1225 respondents 31.5% had an organ donor card, 49.1% wanted to donate organs, 32.1% were unsure. 98% generally favoured organ donation. However, serious information deficits about brain death were identified: 37.4% did not know that brain death is a prerequisite for a post-mortem organ donation, 18% thought brain death is reversible, 52.7% were not aware of the necessity of intensive medical care. Furthermore, providing information about other potential donor organs including lungs, pancreas, small intestine, and tissue is required. Health insurance companies and responsible authorities need to close the identified gaps in knowledge in order to achieve "informed" consent with organ donation, which might increase the availability and number of donor organs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Differential Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Preservation in Post-Mortem Teeth with Implications for Forensic and Ancient DNA Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Futhermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  16. Stomach: ultrasonography evaluation and post mortem inspection in adult horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Chaves Pessoa da Veiga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Veiga C.C.P., Cascon C.M., Souza B.G., Braga L.S.M., Souza V.C., Ferreira A.M.R. & Leite J.S. [Stomach: ultrasonography evaluation and post mortem inspection in adult horses.] Avaliação ultrassonográfica e anatomopatológica macroscópica do estômago de equinos destinados ao abate comercial. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:125-130, 2014. Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, km 7, Seropédica, 23890-000, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: radiovet@ufrrj.br The equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS includes all symptomatic or asymptomatic cases of erosions, ulcers, gastritis, gastric emptying disorders, duodenitis, duodenal ulcers and complications of these disorders. Occupies a prominent place in the equine clinic where you can go for the death of the animal. Ultrasonography of the stomach is indicated when the animals showed clinical signs of gastric disease. The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic evaluation and macroscopic pathological findings of the stomach of adult horses intended for commercial slaughter. To this 39 intended for commercial slaughter horses were evaluated. Sonographic evaluation before slaughter transabdominal via the left side of abdomen for evaluation of the stomach was performed. After the slaughter of these animals their stomachs were collected, evaluated and photographed. The study concluded that ultrasonography identified the stomach in all animals evaluated, but did not allow a careful evaluation of the entire length of the viscera, especially the aglandular region and pleated border. All animals evaluated had injury to the gastric mucosa in different degrees. In animals evaluated, the stomach region was most affected by injuries glandular region, although the most severe lesions have been found in the ruffled border adjacent to aglandular region.

  17. O líquido cefalorraqueano no post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o LCR de 45 cadáveres, sendo os resultados considerados em função do tempo decorrido entre o momento da morte e a colheita do LCR (TOC. Obedecendo a esse critério os casos foram assim grupados: 1 aqueles com TOC até 4 horas; 2 aqueles com TOC de 4 a 8 horas; 3 aqueles com TOC de 8 horas ou mais. Com o aumento do TOC a presença de hemácias no LCR de cadáveres se torna mais freqüente e mais intensa. A mistura de sangue ao LCR prejudica a avaliação das modificações cadavéricas de outros componentes do LCR, conforme foi demonstrado para as concentrações de cloretos glicose e proteínas totais, para o perfil protêico e para a atividade de transaminases. Assim sendo, para avaliar as modificações da composição do LCR próprias ao post-mortem devem ser considerados apenas os casos com menos de 1000 hemácias/mm³. O número normal de leucócitos foi proporcionalmente mais comum nas amostras provenientes de cadáveres cujo TOC era igual ou superior a 8 horas. A pleocitose foi observada com mais freqüência que o número normal de leucócitos, sendo mais comumente ligeira ou discreta. Quantidades superiores a 50 leucócitos/mm³ foram observadas geralmente em casos relativos a pacientes que faleceram na vigência de processos infecciosos agudos. As concentrações de cloretos e de glicose no LCR tendem a cair no postmortem e as diminuições mostraram-se, em média, tanto mais intensas quanto maior o TOC. A hipoglicorraquia foi, em média mais acentuada nos casos com pleoeitose mais intensa. A concentração de uréia tende a elevar-se de modo precoce, não tendo sido encontradas médias significativamente diversas em função do TOC. A atividade de TGO tende a elevar-se no post-mortem sendo esta elevação, em média, mais nítida a partir do grupo de casos com TOC de 4 até 8 horas. Ocorre também tendência a aumento da atividade de TGP; esta se mostrou menos intensa que a de TGO e, em média, foi mais nítida a

  18. Efeito do resfriamento sobre a textura post-mortem da carne do peixe matrinxã Brycon cephalus Chilling effect on the post-mortem texture of the matrinxã fish muscle Brycon cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suárez-Mahecha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos que causam o amolecimento e a perda na textura post-mortem da carne de matrinxã foram determinados por meio das mudanças na microestrutura do músculo, imediatamente após a morte e depois de 12 horas de estocagem a -3°C. As observações na microestrutura, realizadas com microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, foram semelhantes aos resultados obtidos na força de ruptura do músculo medidos com o texturômetro. Os valores da força da ruptura foram menores para a carne após o resfriamento. Observou-se que as fibras do colágeno do tecido conectivo pericelular se desintegraram e que as do colágeno do tecido conectivo do miocommata conservaram sua arquitetura e integridade. Houve pouca degradação da linha Z. Isso sugere que o amolecimento post-mortem da carne de mantrinxã, durante a estocagem a -3°C, é causado pela degradação do tecido conectivo pericelular.In order to determine the mechanisms that cause the post mortem muscle softness of the matrinxã Brycon cephalus, changes in the micro structure of the muscle were observed immediately after death and after 12 hours of storage at -3º C, measuring the firmness of the flesh with test instruments. Observations by the transmission electron microscope were similar to the results obtained in the breaking strength of the muscle measured with a texturometer. The values of the breaking strength of the fish muscle were smaller after chilling. At the same time, it was observed that the collagen fibers of the pericellular connective tissue had disintegrated, while the collagen fibers of the miocommata connective tissue maintained their organization and integrity. No evident breakdown of Z-discs was observed. It is suggested that the post-mortem tenderization of the matrinxã muscle during chilled storage was due to the disintegration of the collagen fibers in the pericellular connective tissue and, in a smaller extent, to the weakening of Z-disk.

  19. Post-Mortem Projections: Medieval Mystical Resurrection and the Return of Tupac Shakur

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer-Hall, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Medieval hagiographies abound with tales of post-mortem visits and miracles by saints. The saint was a powerful religious individual both in life and in death, a conduit of divine grace and lightning rod for Christian fervour. With her post-mortem presence, the presumptive boundary between living and dead, spirit and flesh, is rent apart: showing the reality of the hereafter and shattering the fantasies of the mortal world. The phenomenon of a glorified individual returning to a worshipful co...

  20. Post-Mortem Projections: Medieval Mystical Resurrection and the Return of Tupac Shakur

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer-Hall, A.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval hagiographies abound with tales of post-mortem visits and miracles by saints. The saint was a powerful religious individual both in life and in death, a conduit of divine grace and lightning rod for Christian fervour. With her post-mortem presence, the presumptive boundary between living and dead, spirit and flesh, is rent apart: showing the reality of the hereafter and shattering the fantasies of the mortal world. The phenomenon of a glorified individual returning to ...

  1. O líquido cefalorraqueano no post-mortem The cerebrospinal fluid in the post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o LCR de 45 cadáveres, sendo os resultados considerados em função do tempo decorrido entre o momento da morte e a colheita do LCR (TOC. Obedecendo a esse critério os casos foram assim grupados: 1 aqueles com TOC até 4 horas; 2 aqueles com TOC de 4 a 8 horas; 3 aqueles com TOC de 8 horas ou mais. Com o aumento do TOC a presença de hemácias no LCR de cadáveres se torna mais freqüente e mais intensa. A mistura de sangue ao LCR prejudica a avaliação das modificações cadavéricas de outros componentes do LCR, conforme foi demonstrado para as concentrações de cloretos glicose e proteínas totais, para o perfil protêico e para a atividade de transaminases. Assim sendo, para avaliar as modificações da composição do LCR próprias ao post-mortem devem ser considerados apenas os casos com menos de 1000 hemácias/mm³. O número normal de leucócitos foi proporcionalmente mais comum nas amostras provenientes de cadáveres cujo TOC era igual ou superior a 8 horas. A pleocitose foi observada com mais freqüência que o número normal de leucócitos, sendo mais comumente ligeira ou discreta. Quantidades superiores a 50 leucócitos/mm³ foram observadas geralmente em casos relativos a pacientes que faleceram na vigência de processos infecciosos agudos. As concentrações de cloretos e de glicose no LCR tendem a cair no postmortem e as diminuições mostraram-se, em média, tanto mais intensas quanto maior o TOC. A hipoglicorraquia foi, em média mais acentuada nos casos com pleoeitose mais intensa. A concentração de uréia tende a elevar-se de modo precoce, não tendo sido encontradas médias significativamente diversas em função do TOC. A atividade de TGO tende a elevar-se no post-mortem sendo esta elevação, em média, mais nítida a partir do grupo de casos com TOC de 4 até 8 horas. Ocorre também tendência a aumento da atividade de TGP; esta se mostrou menos intensa que a de TGO e, em média, foi mais nítida a

  2. Forensic radiology: The role of cross-sectional imaging in virtual post-mortem examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham-Jones, Joshua; Ward, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this review is to assess the benefits and limitations of using Multi Slice Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance as non-invasive post-mortem imaging methods. Method: The author utilised SciVerse (Science Direct), Scopus, PubMed and Discover to search for relevant articles. The following search terms were used: virtopsy, minimally invasive post-mortem imaging, autopsy, Multi Slice Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance. Articles which discussed the use of non-invasive imaging techniques for post-mortem examinations were included in the review. Any articles published before 2003 were excluded with a few exceptions. Findings: The decline in use of the conventional post-mortem method has led to the need for an alternative method of investigation which increases both sensitivity and specificity, and also is more acceptable to the family of the deceased. Discussion/conclusion: There are numerous factors affecting the usability of these non-invasive post-mortem options including cost and availability. With the price of non-invasive post-mortem examinations often rising above £1000, it is considered to be less economically viable than the conventional method. Therefore, further research into this method and its implementation in hospitals has been delayed

  3. An assessment of advance relatives approach for brain death organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Carine; Baumann, Antoine; Gregoire, Hélène; Laviale, Corinne; Audibert, Gérard; Ducrocq, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Advance announcement of forthcoming brain death has developed to enable intensivists and organ procurement organisation coordinators to more appropriately, and separately from each other, explain to relatives brain death and the subsequent post-mortem organ donation opportunity. Research aim: The aim was to assess how potentially involved healthcare professionals perceived ethical issues surrounding the strategy of advance approach. A multi-centre opinion survey using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in the six-member hospitals of the publicly funded East of France regional organ and tissue procurement network called 'Prélor'. The study population comprised 460 physicians and nurses in the Neurosurgical, Surgical and Medical Intensive Care Units, the Stroke Units and the Emergency Departments. Ethical considerations: The project was approved by the board of the Lorraine University Diploma in Medical Ethics and the Prélor Network administrators. A slight majority of 53.5% of respondents had previously participated in an advance relatives approach: 83% of the physicians and 42% of the nurses. A majority of healthcare professionals (68%) think that the main justification for advance relatives approach is the comprehensive care of the dying patient and the research of his or her most likely opinion (74%). The misunderstanding of the related issues by relatives is an obstacle for 47% of healthcare professionals and 51% think that the answer given by the relatives regarding the most likely opinion of the person regarding post-mortem organ donation really corresponds to the person opinion in only 50% of the cases or less. Time given by advance approach should be employed to help and enable relatives to authentically bear the values and interests of the potential donor in the post-mortem organ donation discussion. Nurses' attendance of advance relatives approach seems necessary to enable them to optimally support the families facing death and

  4. Dutch guideline for clinical foetal-neonatal and paediatric post-mortem radiology, including a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemans, L J P; Vester, M E M; Kolsteren, E E M; Erwich, J J H M; Nikkels, P G J; Kint, P A M; van Rijn, R R; Klein, W M

    2018-06-01

    Clinical post-mortem radiology is a relatively new field of expertise and not common practice in most hospitals yet. With the declining numbers of autopsies and increasing demand for quality control of clinical care, post-mortem radiology can offer a solution, or at least be complementary. A working group consisting of radiologists, pathologists and other clinical medical specialists reviewed and evaluated the literature on the diagnostic value of post-mortem conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography, computed tomography (PMCT), magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI), and minimally invasive autopsy (MIA). Evidence tables were built and subsequently a Dutch national evidence-based guideline for post-mortem radiology was developed. We present this evaluation of the radiological modalities in a clinical post-mortem setting, including MIA, as well as the recently published Dutch guidelines for post-mortem radiology in foetuses, neonates, and children. In general, for post-mortem radiology modalities, PMMRI is the modality of choice in foetuses, neonates, and infants, whereas PMCT is advised in older children. There is a limited role for post-mortem CR and ultrasonography. In most cases, conventional autopsy will remain the diagnostic method of choice. Based on a literature review and clinical expertise, an evidence-based guideline was developed for post-mortem radiology of foetal, neonatal, and paediatric patients. What is Known: • Post-mortem investigations serve as a quality check for the provided health care and are important for reliable epidemiological registration. • Post-mortem radiology, sometimes combined with minimally invasive techniques, is considered as an adjunct or alternative to autopsy. What is New: • We present the Dutch guidelines for post-mortem radiology in foetuses, neonates and children. • Autopsy remains the reference standard, however minimal invasive autopsy with a skeletal survey, post-mortem computed tomography, or post-mortem

  5. Late stillbirth post mortem examination in New Zealand: Maternal decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robin S; Li, Minglan; Wise, Michelle; Bradford, Billie; Culling, Vicki; Zuccollo, Jane; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2018-03-05

    For parents who experience stillbirth, knowing the cause of their baby's death is important. A post mortem examination is the gold standard investigation, but little is known about what may influence parents' decisions to accept or decline. We aimed to identify factors influencing maternal decision-making about post mortem examination after late stillbirth. In the New Zealand Multicentre Stillbirth Study, 169 women with singleton pregnancies, no known abnormality at recruitment, and late stillbirth (≥28weeks gestation), from seven health regions were interviewed within six weeks of birth. The purpose of this paper was to explore factors related to post mortem examination decision-making and the reasons for declining. We asked women if they would make the same decision again. Maternal decision to decline a post mortem (70/169, 41.4%) was more common among women of Māori (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.99 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70-14.64) and Pacific (aOR 3.94 95% CI 1.47-10.54) ethnicity compared to European, and parity two or more (aOR 2.95 95% CI 1.14-7.62) compared to primiparous. The main reason for declining was that women 'did not want baby to be cut'. Ten percent (7/70) who declined said they would not make this decision again. No woman who consented regretted her decision. Ethnic differences observed in women's post mortem decision-making should be further explored in future studies. Providing information of the effect of post mortem on the baby's body and the possible emotional benefits of a post mortem may assist women faced with this decision in the future. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Rigor mortis at the myocardium investigated by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzon, Jérôme; Schön, Corinna A; Schwendener, Nicole; Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Kara, Levent; Persson, Anders; Jackowski, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Post-mortem cardiac MR exams present with different contraction appearances of the left ventricle in cardiac short axis images. It was hypothesized that the grade of post-mortem contraction may be related to the post-mortem interval (PMI) or cause of death and a phenomenon caused by internal rigor mortis that may give further insights in the circumstances of death. The cardiac contraction grade was investigated in 71 post-mortem cardiac MR exams (mean age at death 52 y, range 12-89 y; 48 males, 23 females). In cardiac short axis images the left ventricular lumen volume as well as the left ventricular myocardial volume were assessed by manual segmentation. The quotient of both (LVQ) represents the grade of myocardial contraction. LVQ was correlated to the PMI, sex, age, cardiac weight, body mass and height, cause of death and pericardial tamponade when present. In cardiac causes of death a separate correlation was investigated for acute myocardial infarction cases and arrhythmic deaths. LVQ values ranged from 1.99 (maximum dilatation) to 42.91 (maximum contraction) with a mean of 15.13. LVQ decreased slightly with increasing PMI, however without significant correlation. Pericardial tamponade positively correlated with higher LVQ values. Variables such as sex, age, body mass and height, cardiac weight and cause of death did not correlate with LVQ values. There was no difference in LVQ values for myocardial infarction without tamponade and arrhythmic deaths. Based on the observation in our investigated cases, the phenomenon of post-mortem myocardial contraction cannot be explained by the influence of the investigated variables, except for pericardial tamponade cases. Further research addressing post-mortem myocardial contraction has to focus on other, less obvious factors, which may influence the early post-mortem phase too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: reconciling particle balance and post-mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.; Gauthier, E.; Bouvet, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Carpentier, S.; Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E.; Dittmar, T.; Douai, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J.; Hong, S.H.; Desgranges, L.; Escarguel, A.; Jacob, W.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel retention, a crucial issue for next step devices, is assessed in present-day tokamaks using two methods: particle balance performed during shots and post-mortem analysis carried out during shutdowns between experimental campaigns. Post-mortem analysis generally gives lower estimates of fuel retention than integrated particle balance. In order to understand the discrepancy between these two methods, a dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in Tore Supra to load the vessel walls with deuterium (D) and monitor the trapped D inventory through particle balance. The campaign was followed by an extensive post-mortem analysis phase of the Tore Supra limiter. This paper presents the status of the analysis phase, including the assessment of the D content in the castellated tile structure of the limiter. Indeed, using combined surface analysis techniques, it was possible to derive the relative contributions of different zones of interest on the limiter (erosion, thick deposits, thin deposits), showing that the post-mortem inventory is mainly due to codeposition (90% of the total), in particular due to gap deposits. However, deuterium was also evidenced deep into the material in erosion zones (10% of the total). At the present stage of the analysis, 50% of the inventory deduced from particle balance has been found through post-mortem analysis, a significant progress with respect to previous studies (factor 8-10 discrepancy). This shows that post-mortem analysis can be consistent with particle balance provided specific procedures are implemented (dedicated campaign followed by extensive post-mortem analysis). Both techniques are needed for a reliable assessment of fuel retention in tokamaks, giving complementary information on how much and where fuel is retained in the vessel walls.

  8. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2016-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy-related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  9. Breast density quantification with cone-beam CT: a post-mortem study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Travis; Ding, Huanjun; Le, Huy Q; Ducote, Justin L; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    Forty post-mortem breasts were imaged with a flat-panel based cone-beam x-ray CT system at 50 kVp. The feasibility of breast density quantification has been investigated using standard histogram thresholding and an automatic segmentation method based on the fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). The breasts were chemically decomposed into water, lipid, and protein immediately after image acquisition was completed. The per cent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis was used as the gold standard for breast density comparison. Both image-based segmentation techniques showed good precision in breast density quantification with high linear coefficients between the right and left breast of each pair. When comparing with the gold standard using %FGV from chemical analysis, Pearson's r-values were estimated to be 0.983 and 0.968 for the FCM clustering and the histogram thresholding techniques, respectively. The standard error of the estimate was also reduced from 3.92% to 2.45% by applying the automatic clustering technique. The results of the postmortem study suggested that breast tissue can be characterized in terms of water, lipid and protein contents with high accuracy by using chemical analysis, which offers a gold standard for breast density studies comparing different techniques. In the investigated image segmentation techniques, the FCM algorithm had high precision and accuracy in breast density quantification. In comparison to conventional histogram thresholding, it was more efficient and reduced inter-observer variation. (paper)

  10. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. Methods We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Results Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P epilepsy history and investigations. Conclusion Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy‐related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. PMID:26300477

  11. Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): factors which may affect the tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Muller, Nina; Frylinck, Lorinda; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    Baseline research on the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. This study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min-4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = -0.806; ultimate pH ∼ 5.86) compared with other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20 °C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the µ/m-calpain activity remained constant during the rigor period, while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepsin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during aging is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The importance of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in confrontation with conventional forensic autopsy of victims of motorcycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskała, Artur; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kluza, Piotr; Romaszko, Karol; Lopatin, Oleksij

    2016-01-01

    Since traffic accidents are an important problem in forensic medicine, there is a constant search for new solutions to help with an investigation process in such cases. In recent years there was a rapid development of post-mortem imaging techniques, especially post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). In our work we concentrated on a potential advantage of PMCT in cases of motorcycle accident fatalities. The results of forensic autopsy were compared with combined results of the autopsy and PMCT to check in which areas use of these two techniques gives statistically important increase in number of findings. The hypothesis was confirmed in case of pneumothorax and fractures of skull, spine, clavicle, scapula, lower leg bones. As for majority of other bone fractures locations and brain injures there were single cases with pathologies visible only in PMCT, but too few to reach expected level of p-value. In case of injuries of solid organs and soft tissues statistical analysis did not confirmed any advantage of unenhanced PMCT use. On the whole it has been shown that PMCT used as an adjunct to forensic autopsy can cause an increase in information about vitally important regions in case of motorcycle accident fatalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of contributions of human tissue studies to biokinetics, bio-effects and dosimetry of plutonium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contributions made by human tissue studies to improved understanding of the biokinetics, dosimetry and potential bio-effects of plutonium in man. It includes consideration of tissue donations from both environmental and occupational populations, along with a brief history of human experience with plutonium and consideration of the bio-ethical aspects of post-mortem human tissue sampling. (authors)

  14. Post-mortem fetal MRI: What do we learn from it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitby, E.H.; Paley, M.N.J.; Cohen, M.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-mortem magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is of increasing interest not only as an alternative to autopsy but as a research tool to aid the interpretation and diagnosis of in utero MR images. The information from the post-mortem MR has allowed the development of imaging sequences applicable to in utero imaging and neonatal imaging. It has established brain development during gestation and has provided data on this to which in utero MR can be compared. The detail available from the post-mortem images is such that brain development can be studied in a non-invasive manner, a permanent record on the normal and abnormal areas is available and a greater understanding of developmental abnormalities is possible

  15. Post-mortem radiography of the lungs: Experiments to compare various methods of examination and descriptions of their usefulness in actual practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankow, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is the post-mortem examination of the isolated lung using radiologic-morphologic and histologic methods. Comparisons are made ragarding practical value of the conservation techniques chosen, which were the method of Markaria and Heitzmann that is based on fixing in alcohol and air drying and the nitrogen freezing method developed by Rau and colleagues. Both methods ensure adequate visualition of the pulmonary ultrastructure by X-rays, even though this observation should be qualified by the fact that pulmonary tissue fixed in alcohol tends to shrink and that intraalveolar edema are thus artificially reduced. Either of the methods under investigation permits angiographic and bronchographic examinations to be carried out without difficulty. In macroscopic evaluations better results are obtained for lungs fixed in alcohol. Freeze-dried samples offer advantages in the histological assessment of the pulmonary ultrastructure. Post-mortem radiography of the lungs is particularly valuable in the analysis of pathological changes in the pulmonary structure. (MBC) [de

  16. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) as a means to measure brain iron? A post mortem validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Schweser, Ferdinand; Krebs, Nikolaus; Deistung, Andreas; Goessler, Walter; Scheurer, Eva; Sommer, Karsten; Reishofer, Gernot; Yen, Kathrin; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique which allows determining the bulk magnetic susceptibility distribution of tissue in vivo from gradient echo magnetic resonance phase images. It is commonly assumed that paramagnetic iron is the predominant source of susceptibility variations in gray matter as many studies have reported a reasonable correlation of magnetic susceptibility with brain iron concentrations in vivo. Instead of performing direct comparisons, however, all these studies used the putative iron concentrations reported in the hallmark study by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) for their analysis. Consequently, the extent to which QSM can serve to reliably assess brain iron levels is not yet fully clear. To provide such information we investigated the relation between bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility and brain iron concentration in unfixed (in situ) post mortem brains of 13 subjects using MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A strong linear correlation between chemically determined iron concentration and bulk magnetic susceptibility was found in gray matter structures (r = 0.84, p < 0.001), whereas the correlation coefficient was much lower in white matter (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). The slope of the overall linear correlation was consistent with theoretical considerations of the magnetism of ferritin supporting that most of the iron in the brain is bound to ferritin proteins. In conclusion, iron is the dominant source of magnetic susceptibility in deep gray matter and can be assessed with QSM. In white matter regions the estimation of iron concentrations by QSM is less accurate and more complex because the counteracting contribution from diamagnetic myelinated neuronal fibers confounds the interpretation. PMID:22634862

  17. Performance of post-mortem CT compared to autopsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Beatriz V; Alamo, Leonor; Grimm, Jochen; Dédouit, Fabrice; Bruguier, Christine; Chevallier, Christine; Egger, Coraline; Da Silva, Luiz F F; Grabherr, Silke

    2016-07-01

    Radiological techniques such as non-enhanced post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) play an increasingly important role in death investigations, especially in cases of non-medicolegal context of death, where the consent of the next of kin is required to perform autopsy. Such consent is often difficult to obtain for deceased children, and radiological methods may be an acceptable alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of PMCT explorations compared to medicolegal conventional autopsies in children and its potential usefulness in non-medicolegal situations. We retrospectively reviewed a group of 26 children aged 0-12 years who died of different causes, which were investigated by both conventional autopsy and PMCT. We compared the findings extracted from radiological and autopsy reports. All findings were grouped according to their importance with respect to cause of death and to the anatomical structure they covered: organs, vascular system, soft tissue, and skeletal system. A significantly larger number of findings were detected by autopsy compared to PMCT. Autopsy proved to be superior to PMCT, notably at detecting organ, soft tissue, and vascular findings, while PMCT was superior at detecting bone findings. However, no statistically significant differences were found between the methods concerning the essential findings used to define the cause of death. In children, PMCT was less sensitive than conventional autopsy for detecting general findings. However, most essential findings were detected by both methods. PMCT was superior to autopsy for the detection of bone lesions in children. Up to today, very rare literature exists concerning PMCT in children, especially in a forensic setting. This article investigates the advantages and limitations of PMCT compared to autopsy in a unique study group and discusses possibilities for future developments.

  18. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Ware, James S.; Papadakis, Michael; Tadros, Rafik; Cole, Della; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Crawford, Jackie; Love, Donald R.; Pua, Chee J.; Soh, Bee Y.; Bhalshankar, Jaydutt D.; Govind, Risha; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo G.; van der Werf, Christian; Wijeyeratne, Yanushi D.; Mellor, Greg; Till, Jan; Cohen, Marta C.; Tome-Esteban, Maria; Sharma, Sanjay; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Cook, Stuart A.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Behr, Elijah R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) in cases of SADS and

  19. Post-mortem cardiac diffusion tensor imaging: detection of myocardial infarction and remodeling of myofiber architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stoeck, Christian T; Berger, Nicole; Thali, Michael; Manka, Robert; Kozerke, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Stolzmann, Paul

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the accuracy of post-mortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) and to demonstrate the feasibility of helix angle (HA) calculation to study remodelling of myofibre architecture. Cardiac DTI was performed in 26 deceased subjects prior to autopsy for medicolegal reasons. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were determined. Accuracy was calculated on per-segment (AHA classification), per-territory, and per-patient basis, with pathology as reference standard. HAs were calculated and compared between healthy segments and those with MI. Autopsy demonstrated MI in 61/440 segments (13.9 %) in 12/26 deceased subjects. Healthy myocardial segments had significantly higher FA (p Analysis of HA distribution demonstrated remodelling of myofibre architecture, with significant differences between healthy segments and segments with chronic (p  0.05). Post-mortem cardiac DTI enables differentiation between healthy and infarcted myocardial segments by means of FA and MD. HA assessment allows for the demonstration of remodelling of myofibre architecture following chronic MI. • DTI enables post-mortem detection of myocardial infarction with good accuracy. • A decrease in right-handed helical fibre indicates myofibre remodelling following chronic myocardial infarction. • DTI allows for ruling out myocardial infarction by means of FA. • Post-mortem DTI may represent a valuable screening tool in forensic investigations.

  20. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy...

  1. Experience with post-mortem computed tomography in Southern Denmark 2006-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To explore the ability of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) to establish the cause of death. (2) To investigate the inter-method variation between autopsy and PMCT. (3) To investigate whether PMCT can select cases for autopsy. (4) To investigate the importance of histology...

  2. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.16 Autopsies and other post-mortem... to in writing by a person authorized under the law of the State in which the station or hospital is... made a part of the clinical record. [25 FR 6331, July 6, 1960] ...

  3. Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem radiography: detection rates and implications for practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Calder, Alistair D. [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Kiho, Liina [Camelia Botnar Laboratories Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Paediatric Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Camelia Botnar Laboratories Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Paediatric Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem plain radiography allows for the diagnosis and assessment of skeletal dysplasias, fractures and other bony abnormalities. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic yield of this practice. We identified 1,027 cases performed in a single institution over a 21/2-year period, including babygrams (whole-body examinations) and full skeletal surveys. Images were reported prior to autopsy in all cases. Radiology findings were cross-referenced with the autopsy findings using an autopsy database. We scored each case from 0 to 4 according to the level of diagnostic usefulness. The overall abnormality rate was 126/1,027 (12.3%). There was a significantly higher rate of abnormality when a skeletal survey was performed (18%) rather than a babygram (10%; P < 0.01); 90% (665/739) of babygrams were normal. Of the 74 abnormal babygrams, we found 33 incidental non-contributory cases, 19 contributory, 20 diagnostic, and 2 false-positive cases. There were only 2 cases out of 739 (0.27%) in whom routine post-mortem imaging identified potentially significant abnormalities that would not have been detected if only selected imaging had been performed. A policy of performing selected, rather than routine, foetal post-mortem radiography could result in a significant cost saving. Routine post-mortem paediatric radiography in foetuses and neonates is neither diagnostically useful nor cost-effective. A more evidence-based, selective protocol should yield significant cost savings. (orig.)

  4. Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem radiography: detection rates and implications for practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Calder, Alistair D.; Kiho, Liina; Taylor, Andrew M.; Sebire, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem plain radiography allows for the diagnosis and assessment of skeletal dysplasias, fractures and other bony abnormalities. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic yield of this practice. We identified 1,027 cases performed in a single institution over a 21/2-year period, including babygrams (whole-body examinations) and full skeletal surveys. Images were reported prior to autopsy in all cases. Radiology findings were cross-referenced with the autopsy findings using an autopsy database. We scored each case from 0 to 4 according to the level of diagnostic usefulness. The overall abnormality rate was 126/1,027 (12.3%). There was a significantly higher rate of abnormality when a skeletal survey was performed (18%) rather than a babygram (10%; P < 0.01); 90% (665/739) of babygrams were normal. Of the 74 abnormal babygrams, we found 33 incidental non-contributory cases, 19 contributory, 20 diagnostic, and 2 false-positive cases. There were only 2 cases out of 739 (0.27%) in whom routine post-mortem imaging identified potentially significant abnormalities that would not have been detected if only selected imaging had been performed. A policy of performing selected, rather than routine, foetal post-mortem radiography could result in a significant cost saving. Routine post-mortem paediatric radiography in foetuses and neonates is neither diagnostically useful nor cost-effective. A more evidence-based, selective protocol should yield significant cost savings. (orig.)

  5. Current status of paediatric post-mortem imaging: an ESPR questionnaire-based survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The use of post-mortem imaging, including skeletal radiography, CT and MRI, is increasing, providing a minimally invasive alternative to conventional autopsy techniques. The development of clinical guidelines and national standards is being encouraged, particularly for cross-sectional techniques. To outline the current practice of post-mortem imaging amongst members of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). We e-mailed an online questionnaire of current post-mortem service provisions to members of the ESPR in January 2013. The survey included direct questions about what services were offered, the population imaged, current techniques used, imaging protocols, reporting experience and intended future involvement. Seventy-one percent (47/66) of centres from which surveys were returned reported performing some form of post-mortem imaging in children, of which 81 % perform radiographs, 51% CT and 38% MRI. Eighty-seven percent of the imaging is performed within the radiology or imaging departments, usually by radiographers (75%), and 89% is reported by radiologists, of which 64% is reported by paediatric radiologists. Overall, 72% of positive respondents have a standardised protocol for radiographs, but only 32% have such a protocol for CT and 27% for MRI. Sixty-one percent of respondents wrote that this is an important area that needs to be developed. Overall, the majority of centres provide some post-mortem imaging service, most of which is performed within an imaging department and reported by a paediatric radiologist. However, the populations imaged as well as the details of the services offered are highly variable among institutions and lack standardisation. We have identified people who would be interested in taking this work forwards. (orig.)

  6. Automatic entry point planning for robotic post-mortem CT-based needle placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Fürst, Martin; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Ruder, Thomas D; Gascho, Dominic; Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2016-09-01

    Post-mortem computed tomography guided placement of co-axial introducer needles allows for the extraction of tissue and liquid samples for histological and toxicological analyses. Automation of this process can increase the accuracy and speed of the needle placement, thereby making it more feasible for routine examinations. To speed up the planning process and increase safety, we developed an algorithm that calculates an optimal entry point and end-effector orientation for a given target point, while taking constraints such as accessibility or bone collisions into account. The algorithm identifies the best entry point for needle trajectories in three steps. First, the source CT data is prepared and bone as well as surface data are extracted and optimized. All vertices of the generated surface polygon are considered to be potential entry points. Second, all surface points are tested for validity within the defined hard constraints (reachability, bone collision as well as collision with other needles) and removed if invalid. All remaining vertices are reachable entry points and are rated with respect to needle insertion angle. Third, the vertex with the highest rating is selected as the final entry point, and the best end-effector rotation is calculated to avoid collisions with the body and already set needles. In most cases, the algorithm is sufficiently fast with approximately 5-6 s per entry point. This is the case if there is no collision between the end-effector and the body. If the end-effector has to be rotated to avoid collision, calculation times can increase up to 24 s due to the inefficient collision detection used here. In conclusion, the algorithm allows for fast and facilitated trajectory planning in forensic imaging.

  7. Partitioning the proteome: phase separation for targeted analysis of membrane proteins in human post-mortem brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A English

    Full Text Available Neuroproteomics is a powerful platform for targeted and hypothesis driven research, providing comprehensive insights into cellular and sub-cellular disease states, Gene × Environmental effects, and cellular response to medication effects in human, animal, and cell culture models. Analysis of sub-proteomes is becoming increasingly important in clinical proteomics, enriching for otherwise undetectable proteins that are possible markers for disease. Membrane proteins are one such sub-proteome class that merit in-depth targeted analysis, particularly in psychiatric disorders. As membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to analyse using traditional proteomics methods, we evaluate a paradigm to enrich for and study membrane proteins from human post-mortem brain tissue. This is the first study to extensively characterise the integral trans-membrane spanning proteins present in human brain. Using Triton X-114 phase separation and LC-MS/MS analysis, we enriched for and identified 494 membrane proteins, with 194 trans-membrane helices present, ranging from 1 to 21 helices per protein. Isolated proteins included glutamate receptors, G proteins, voltage gated and calcium channels, synaptic proteins, and myelin proteins, all of which warrant quantitative proteomic investigation in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Overall, our sub-proteome analysis reduced sample complexity and enriched for integral membrane proteins by 2.3 fold, thus allowing for more manageable, reproducible, and targeted proteomics in case vs. control biomarker studies. This study provides a valuable reference for future neuroproteomic investigations of membrane proteins, and validates the use Triton X-114 detergent phase extraction on human post mortem brain.

  8. Establishing post mortem criteria for the metabolic syndrome: an autopsy based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin Roest; Bugge, Anne; Malik, Mariam Elmegaard; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Lynnerup, Niels; Rungby, Jørgen; Banner, Jytte

    2018-01-01

    Individuals who suffer from mental illness are more prone to obesity and related co-morbidities, including the metabolic syndrome. Autopsies provide an outstanding platform for the macroscopic, microscopic and molecular-biological investigation of diseases. Autopsy-based findings may assist in the investigation of the metabolic syndrome. To utilise the vast information that an autopsy encompasses to elucidate the pathophysiology behind the syndrome further, we aimed to both develop and evaluate a method for the post mortem definition of the metabolic syndrome. Based on the nationwide Danish SURVIVE study of deceased mentally ill, we established a set of post mortem criteria for each of the harmonized criteria of the metabolic syndrome. We based the post mortem (PM) evaluation on information from the police reports and the data collected at autopsy, such as anthropometric measurements and biochemical and toxicological analyses (PM information). We compared our PM evaluation with the data from the Danish health registries [ante mortem (AM) information, considered the gold standard] from each individual. The study included 443 deceased individuals (272 male and 171 female) with a mean age of 50.4 (± 15.5) years and a median (interquartile range) post mortem interval of 114 (84-156) hours. We found no significant difference when defining the metabolic syndrome from the PM information in comparison to the AM information ( P  = 0.175). The PM evaluation yielded a high specificity (0.93) and a moderate sensitivity (0.63) with a moderate level of agreement compared to the AM evaluation (Cohen's κ = 0.51). Neither age nor post mortem interval affected the final results. Our model of a PM definition of the metabolic syndrome proved reliable when compared to the AM information. We believe that an appropriate estimate of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome can be established post mortem. However, while neither the PM nor the AM information is exhaustive in

  9. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples. Routinely, femur shafts are obtained from recovered bodies for human identification because the calcium matrix protects the DNA contained in the osteocytes. In the Philippines, there is difficulty in collecting femur samples after natural disasters or even human-made disasters, because these events are usually characterized by a large number of fatalities. Identification of casualties is further delayed by limitation in human and material resources. Hence, it is imperative to test other types of biological samples that are easier to collect, transport, process and store. We analyzed DNA that were obtained from body fluid, bone marrow, muscle tissue, clavicle, femur, metatarsal, patella, rib and vertebral samples from five recently deceased untreated male cadavers and seven male human remains that were embalmed, buried for ∼ 1 month and then exhumed. The bodies had undergone different environmental conditions and were in various stages of putrefaction. A DNA extraction method utilizing a detergent-washing step followed by an organic procedure was used. The utility of bone marrow and vitreous fluid including bone marrow and vitreous fluid that was transferred on FTA(®) cards and subjected to autosomal STR and Y-STR DNA typing were also evaluated. DNA yield was measured and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts was assessed using Plexor(®)HY. All samples were amplified using

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microstructure and post-mortem anaerobic metabolism of bovine muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.-S.; Lee, J.-W.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, M.-K.; Song, C.-W.; Byun, M.-W.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on morphological properties and post-mortem metabolism in bovine M. sternomandibularis with special reference to ultrastructure, shear force, pH and ATP breakdown. The shortening of sarcomere was not observed in gamma-irradiated muscle, however, the disappearance of M-line and of A- and I-bands was perceptible. During cold storage, the destruction of muscle bundles was faster in the gamma-irradiated muscle than in the non-irradiated with a dose-dependent manner. The same is true for the post mortem pH drop and ATP breakdown. So, experimental results confirmed that the anaerobic metabolism and morphological properties are noticeably affected by gamma irradiation in beef

  11. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis: report of a post-mortem case studied electron microscopically and immunohisiochemically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eymard Homem Pitella

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A post-mortem examined case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis is presented. Clinically, the patient had cephalea followed by ataxia, drowsiness and multiple palsies of some cranial nerves, developing into death in eight days. The pathologic examination of the brain showed necrotizing encephalitis in multiple foci limited to the brainstem, more distinctly in the pons and medula oblongata. The technique of immunoperoxidase revealed rare glial cells with intranuclear immunoreactivity for herpes antigen. Rare viral particles with the morphological characteristics of the herpesvirus were identified in the nuclei of neurons in 10% formol fixed material. This is the second reported case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis confirmed by post-mortem examination. The pathway used by the virus to reach the central nervous system and its posterior dissemination to the oral cavity, the orbitofrontal region and the temporal lobes as well as to the brainstem, after a period of latency and reactivation, are discussed.

  12. Diagnosis of drowning using post-mortem computed tomography - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, C; Saval, F; Rouge, D; Telmon, N; Dedouit, F

    Recent studies using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) have suggested this imaging modality is of value in the positive diagnosis of drowning. We summarize the data from the literature regarding the diagnostic value of CT in cases of drowning. We performed an all-language search of literature published from 1999 to 2013 with the key words "post-mortem CT scan", "drowning and CT scan", "near-drowning diagnosis", and "drowning diagnosis". Only 11 articles, whose data enabled complementary statistical analysis, were included. The presence of fluid and sediment in paranasal sinuses appear to be the determinants of the diagnosis of drowning. The presence of fluid in the sinuses had a sensitivity of 100%, and of 90% in the trachea and main bronchi. The results were completed by the high specificity of the presence of sediment in the paranasal sinuses, upper airways and stomach, which was 100% for all three. Haemodilution was present in cases of drowning (p drowning.

  13. Post-mortem cardiac diffusion tensor imaging: detection of myocardial infarction and remodeling of myofiber architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Berger, Nicole; Stolzmann, Paul; Stoeck, Christian T.; Kozerke, Sebastian; Thali, Michael; Manka, Robert; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of post-mortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) and to demonstrate the feasibility of helix angle (HA) calculation to study remodelling of myofibre architecture. Cardiac DTI was performed in 26 deceased subjects prior to autopsy for medicolegal reasons. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were determined. Accuracy was calculated on per-segment (AHA classification), per-territory, and per-patient basis, with pathology as reference standard. HAs were calculated and compared between healthy segments and those with MI. Autopsy demonstrated MI in 61/440 segments (13.9 %) in 12/26 deceased subjects. Healthy myocardial segments had significantly higher FA (p 0.05). Post-mortem cardiac DTI enablesdifferentiation between healthy and infarcted myocardial segments by means of FA and MD. HA assessment allows for the demonstration of remodelling of myofibre architecture following chronic MI. (orig.)

  14. Various methods for the estimation of the post mortem interval from Calliphoridae: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Forensic entomology is recognized in many countries as an important tool for legal investigations. Unfortunately, it has not received much attention in India as an important investigative tool. The maggots of the flies crawling on the dead bodies are widely considered to be just another disgusting element of decay and are not collected at the time of autopsy. They can aid in death investigations (time since death, manner of death, etc.. This paper reviews the various methods of post mortem interval estimation using Calliphoridae to make the investigators, law personnel and researchers aware of the importance of entomology in criminal investigations. The various problems confronted by forensic entomologists in estimating the time since death have also been discussed and there is a need for further research in the field as well as the laborator. Correct estimation of the post mortem interval is one of the most important aspects of legal medicine.

  15. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  16. Organ and tissue donation: what do high school students know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina de Lemos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To know the opinion of senior high school students in publicand private schools on the process of donating and transplanting organsand tissues, and their desire to be donors. Methods: A descriptive crosssectionalstudy, conducted from 2004 to 2005, on the opinion/knowledgeof senior high school students in public and private schools in the VilaMariana region of the city of São Paulo, on the process of organ and tissuedonation and transplantation. The convenience sample was made up of140 (81% students from two private schools and 167 (51% studentsfrom a public school. The project was approved by the Research EthicsCommittee of the UNIFESP. Results: Data showed that 163 (53.1%students believe that donation is by presumed consent and 147 (47.9%that consider that it occurs by informed consent. Of the public schoolstudents, 120 (71.9% believe that transplants are public and free ofcharge in Brazil versus 94 (67.1% of the students from private schools.Students know that donations may be made by living or dead donors(121 - 86.4% private schools versus 113 – 67.7% public school. Wehighlight that 22 (15.7% of the private school students and 16 (9.6%of those from the public school believe that the commerce of organs isallowed in Brazil. As to intentions of being a donor, 108 (77.1% of theprivate school students declared themselves organ and tissue donorsversus 106 (63.5% from the public school, and 63 (59.4% from thepublic versus 61 (56.5% from the private schools have already informedtheir families. Conclusion: There was no difference in knowledge andopinion among the students from the public and private schools as toaspects regarding donation and transplantation.

  17. [Inheritance rights fo the child born from post-mortem fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta Delgado, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Law allows in the possibility of post mortem fertilization, recognizing the paternity of the deceased male. The most prominent legal effects of this fact have to do with the succession of his father. The way of fixing the child's portion in the forced succession and its protection, the question of determining his share in the inheritance and the necessity of defending his rights until the verification of the birth are some of the issues that are discussed in this article.

  18. Post-mortem changes in the physical meat quality characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... apparatus) of the muscle generally improved with time. The quadratic equation y = -0.0817x2 + 0.4468x + 10.477 best described (R2 = 0.32) this improvement in tenderness. The implications of this result is that fresh game meat producers can de-bone carcasses after 24 hours post mortem and leave the primal cuts to age ...

  19. Uses and social meanings of post-mortem photography in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Henao Albarracín

    2013-01-01

    This research is intended to understand the social uses and meanings of post-mortem or funeral photography between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth century in Colombia. The article seeks to contribute to the analysis of the relationship between photography and society, and more particularly, between photography and a social representation of death, identifying the conventions and rules of this photographic practice that determine aesthetic behaviors around death.

  20. Uses and social meanings of post-mortem photography in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Henao Albarracín

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to understand the social uses and meanings of post-mortem or funeral photography between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth century in Colombia. The article seeks to contribute to the analysis of the relationship between photography and society, and more particularly, between photography and a social representation of death, identifying the conventions and rules of this photographic practice that determine aesthetic behaviors around death.

  1. The use of contrast-enhanced post Mortem CT in the detection of cardiovascular deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Christoph Apitzsch

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast enhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT in comparison to non-enhanced post mortem CT in the detection of cardiovascular causes of death (COD. BACKGROUND: As autopsy rates decline, new methods to determine CODs are necessary. So contrast enhanced PMCT shall be evaluated in comparison to established non-enhanced PMCT in order to further improve the method. METHODS: In a prospective study, 20 corpses were examined using a 64-row multisclice CT (MSCT before and after intraarterial perfusion with a newly developed, barium-bearing contrast agent and ventilation of the lungs. The cause of death was determined in enhanced and unenhanced scans and a level of confidence (LOC was given by three experienced radiologists on a scale between 0 and 4. Results were compared to autopsy results as gold standard. Autopsy was performed blinded to PMCT-findings. RESULTS: The method allowed visualization of different types of cause of death. There was a significant improvement in LOC in enhanced scans compared to unenhanced scans as well as an improvement in the detection of COD. The cause of death could be determined in 19 out of 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: PMCT is feasible and appears to be robust for diagnosing cardiovascular causes of death. When compared with unenhanced post-mortem CT intraarterial perfusion and pulmonary ventilation significantly improve visualization and diagnostic accuracy. These promising results warrant further studies.

  2. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully recognize its strengths and weaknesses. The design of a homeless shelter bedroom was subjected to two POE analyses: a 'demand side' focused study that analyzed user accommodation, and a 'supply side' study that addressed issues including budget and funding. The two POEs yielded both corroborative and contrasting findings that sometimes worked at cross purposes. Three evaluation tactics emerged that could be extended to other fields' post mortem assessment activities: 1 conduct two or more POEs; 2 vary the POE criteria so that one is deep and focused 'demand side' user analysis and the other is 'supply side' operational and installation issues; and 3 conduct the POEs over a broad time period.

  3. Assessment of coronary artery disease by post-mortem cardiac MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruder, Thomas D.; Bauer-Kreutz, Regula; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Rosskopf, Andrea B.; Pilgrim, Thomas M.; Weber, Oliver M.; Thali, Michael J.; Hatch, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Minimally invasive or virtual autopsies are being advocated as alternative to traditional autopsy, but have limited abilities to detect coronary artery disease. It was the objective of this study to assess if the occurrence of chemical shift artifacts (CSA) along the coronary arteries on non-contrast, post-mortem cardiac MR may be used to investigate coronary artery disease. Methods: We retrospectively compared autopsy and CT findings of 30 cases with significant (≥75%), insignificant (<75%), or absent coronary artery stenosis to post-mortem cardiac MR findings. The chi-square test was used to investigate if the occurrence of CSA depends on the presence or absence of stenosis. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for each finding. Results: CSA indicates the absence of (significant) stenosis (p < 0.001). The occurrence of paired dark bands in lieu of CSA on post-mortem cardiac MR suggests (significant) coronary arteries stenosis (p < 0.001). Both findings have a high specificity but low sensitivity. Conclusions: CSA is a marker of vessel patency. The presence of paired dark bands indicates stenosis. These criteria improve the ability of minimally invasive or virtual autopsy to detect coronary artery disease related deaths

  4. Post-mortem cardiac diffusion tensor imaging: detection of myocardial infarction and remodeling of myofiber architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Berger, Nicole; Stolzmann, Paul [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Stoeck, Christian T.; Kozerke, Sebastian [Institute for Biomedical Engineering University and ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Manka, Robert [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering University and ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the accuracy of post-mortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) and to demonstrate the feasibility of helix angle (HA) calculation to study remodelling of myofibre architecture. Cardiac DTI was performed in 26 deceased subjects prior to autopsy for medicolegal reasons. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were determined. Accuracy was calculated on per-segment (AHA classification), per-territory, and per-patient basis, with pathology as reference standard. HAs were calculated and compared between healthy segments and those with MI. Autopsy demonstrated MI in 61/440 segments (13.9 %) in 12/26 deceased subjects. Healthy myocardial segments had significantly higher FA (p < 0.01) and lower MD (p < 0.001) compared to segments with MI. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that FA (p < 0.10) and MD (p = 0.01) with the covariate post-mortem time (p < 0.01) predicted MI with an accuracy of 0.73. Analysis of HA distribution demonstrated remodelling of myofibre architecture, with significant differences between healthy segments and segments with chronic (p < 0.001) but not with acute MI (p > 0.05). Post-mortem cardiac DTI enablesdifferentiation between healthy and infarcted myocardial segments by means of FA and MD. HA assessment allows for the demonstration of remodelling of myofibre architecture following chronic MI. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem CT with targeted coronary angiography versus autopsy for coroner-requested post-mortem investigations: a prospective, masked, comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Guy N; Morgan, Bruno; Robinson, Claire; Raj, Vimal; Pakkal, Mini; Amoroso, Jasmin; Visser, Theresa; Saunders, Sarah; Biggs, Mike; Hollingbury, Frances; McGregor, Angus; West, Kevin; Richards, Cathy; Brown, Laurence; Harrison, Rebecca; Hew, Roger

    2017-07-08

    England and Wales have one of the highest frequencies of autopsy in the world. Implementation of post-mortem CT (PMCT), enhanced with targeted coronary angiography (PMCTA), in adults to avoid invasive autopsy would have cultural, religious, and potential economic benefits. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PMCTA as a first-line technique in post-mortem investigations. In this single-centre (Leicester, UK), prospective, controlled study, we selected cases of natural and non-suspicious unnatural death referred to Her Majesty's (HM) Coroners. We excluded cases younger than 18 years, known to have had a transmittable disease, or who weighed more than 125 kg. Each case was assessed by PMCTA, followed by autopsy. Pathologists were masked to the PMCTA findings, unless a potential risk was shown. The primary endpoint was the accuracy of the cause of death diagnosis from PMCTA against a gold standard of autopsy findings, modified by PMCTA findings only if additional substantially incontrovertible findings were identified. Between Jan 20, 2010, and Sept 13, 2012, we selected 241 cases, for which PMCTA was successful in 204 (85%). Seven cases were excluded from the analysis because of procedural unmasking or no autopsy data, as were 24 cases with a clear diagnosis of traumatic death before investigation; 210 cases were included. In 40 (19%) cases, predictable toxicology or histology testing accessible by PMCT informed the result. PMCTA provided a cause of death in 193 (92%) cases. A major discrepancy with the gold standard was noted in 12 (6%) cases identified by PMCTA, and in nine (5%) cases identified by autopsy (because of specific findings on PMCTA). The frequency of autopsy and PMCTA discrepancies were not significantly different (p=0·65 for major discrepancies and p=0·21 for minor discrepancies). Cause of death given by PMCTA did not overlook clinically significant trauma, occupational lung disease, or reportable disease, and did not significantly affect

  6. [Research Progress of Carrion-breeding Phorid Flies for Post-mortem Interval Estimation in Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Feng, D X; Wu, J

    2016-10-01

    It is a difficult problem of forensic medicine to accurately estimate the post-mortem interval. Entomological approach has been regarded as an effective way to estimate the post-mortem interval. The developmental biology of carrion-breeding flies has an important position at the post-mortem interval estimation. Phorid flies are tiny and occur as the main or even the only insect evidence in relatively enclosed environments. This paper reviews the research progress of carrion-breeding phorid flies for estimating post-mortem interval in forensic medicine which includes their roles, species identification and age determination of immatures. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. Time to address the problem of post-mortem procurement of organs for transplantation occurring without proper pre-mortem consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood-Gowers, Austen

    2013-09-01

    Current cadaveric organ transplant systems allow individuals to be classified as donors after death where they registered wishes in favour of this prior to death. However, systems for registering wishes pertaining to donation fall woefully short of securing proper consent. Furthermore, even jurisdictions which technically require consent to be obtained in order to treat an individual as a donor, allow that consent to be given by next of kin after death in circumstances where there is no evidence of the individual having refused prior to death. This article explores these and related issues with current systems from the perspectives of health law norms, ethics and human rights. It concludes that proper pre-mortem consent ought to be a pre-requisite for post-mortem organ transplantation.

  8. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gi Lee

    Full Text Available We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA. The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene.

  9. An analysis of knowledge and attitudes of hospice staff towards organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wale, J; Arthur, A; Faull, C

    2014-03-01

    Only a minority of hospice patients eligible to donate tissue and organs choose to do so. Hospice care staff play a key role in discussions about donation, but their willingness to engage in these discussions and their understanding of issues around tissue and organ donation is poorly understood. To (i) identify factors associated with the wish of hospice doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to donate their own organs after death; (ii) survey the experience of discussing the subject with patients; (iii) determine staff members' knowledge of organ and tissue donation and (iv) identify factors associated with knowledge of organ and tissue donation. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of hospice care staff. 76 of the 94 care staff of one large UK hospice completed and returned the questionnaire. Staff wishing to donate their organs after death (43/76 56.6%) were more likely to be doctors or nurses than healthcare assistants (p=0.011) and more likely to have discussed organ or tissue donation with their family (pdonation with patients had more years' experience (p=0.045) and had similarly discussed donation with their own family (p=0.039). Those with greater knowledge were more likely to have discussed organ or tissue donation with a patient (p=0.042). A reluctance to instigate discussions about organ and tissue donation may prevent palliative patients and their families being allowed the opportunity to donate. Suboptimal knowledge among hospice staff suggests the need for greater liaison between hospice staff, and the organ and tissue donation teams.

  10. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  11. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling

    2014-01-01

    . Here, a new method for optimising cardiac coronary CT with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology is presented. Materials and methods: Twenty human hearts obtained from autopsies were used. A contrast agent that solidifies after cooling was injected into the coronary arteries. CT...... of the images was also developed. Results: We have succeeded in developing a new method for post-mortem coronary CT angiography in which an autopsy heart is placed in a chest phantom to simulate clinical CT. Conclusion: The new method permits comparison of CT with OCT and histopathology. This method can also...

  12. Microstructural analysis of geopolymer developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jailes de Santana; Mafra, Marcio Paulo de Araujo; Rabelo, Adriano Alves; Fagury, Renata Lilian Ribeiro Portugal; Fagury Neto, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Geopolymers are one of the widely discussed topics of materials science in recent times due to its vast potential as an alternative binder material to cement. This work aimed to evaluate the microstructure of geopolymers developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin. A preliminary study has been completed and achieved significant results compressive strength: the best formulation of geopolymer paste obtained approximately 25 MPa. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy, the geopolymer paste, allowed to verify the homogeneity, distribution of components, and providing evidence of raw materials that do not respond if there was crystalline phase, porosity and density of the structure. (author)

  13. Intravital and post-mortem CT examinations of cerebral gunshot injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.; Oehmichen, M.; Koenig, H.G.; Einighammer, H.; Koeln Univ.; Tuebingen Univ.; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The value of CT was assessed in 24 patients who died of cerebral gun-shot injuries and in two patients with more recent injuries in order to reconstruct the mode of injury and for adding forensic information. The post-mortem and intravital appearances are described and are compared with ultrasound rotation compound scans of the isolated brains. CT showed good agreement with pathological findings. Ultrasound produced images with an accuracy between CT and photographs of the brain specimen. Both methods are regarded as valuable additions to the pathological and forensic information concerning gunshot injuries. (orig.) [de

  14. Usos y significados sociales de la fotografía post-mortem en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Albarracín, Ana María; Universidad Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Paris, Francia

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como finalidad conocer los usos y significados sociales de la fotografía post-mortem o fúnebre entre finales del XIX y mediados del siglo XX en Colombia. De tal forma, busca contribuir al análisis de las relaciones entre fotografía y sociedad, y más particularmente, entre la fotografía y una representación social de la muerte, identificando las convenciones y reglas de esta práctica fotográfica que determinan comportamientos estéticos alrededor de la muerte. This r...

  15. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification.

  16. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Santos,Marcelo José dos; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation proce...

  17. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43−at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43− from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with

  18. Assessing various Infrared (IR microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Woess

    Full Text Available Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio

  19. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woess, Claudia; Unterberger, Seraphin Hubert; Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with time

  20. Using bacterial and necrophagous insect dynamics for post-mortem interval estimation during cold season: Novel case study in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Lavinia; Carter, David O; Junkins, Emily N; Purcarea, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13°C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18°C, starting with

  1. [Attitude towards organ and tissue donation in Europe : Prerequisite for osteochondral allograft treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Schulte, A; Schwarz, S; Hofmann, N; Tietz, S; Boergel, M; Sixt, S U

    2017-11-01

    The biggest obstacle to overcome for routine treatment of various pathologies with fresh osteochondral allograft is the availability of tissue for transplantation. Large fresh osteochondral allografts are usually harvested from organ donors, but in contrast to organs, tissues can be procured after cardiac arrest. Medical staff as well the general public are much less aware of the possibilities and requirements of tissue donation compared to organ donation. This review aims to highlight the current situation of organ and tissue donation in Europe and to raise this much needed awareness. For this research, PubMed database was scanned using the terms "tissue/organ donation", "bone donation/transplantation", "cartilage transplantation/allografts" and "osteochrondral allografts". Relatives of potential donors are often not approached because physicians and nurses do not feel sufficiently prepared for this task and, thus, are reluctant to address this topic. Different options could alleviate the pressure medical staff is feeling. Furthermore, there are different factors influencing consent that can be addressed to increase donation rates. Currently, a lot of potential concerning musculoskeletal tissue grafts remains unused. Most importantly, families should be encouraged to speak about their potenzial will to donate and educational programs should be established to increase trust in organ and tissue donation and the allocation system and to increase knowledge about the importance of transplantation medicine. But joined efforts of different parts of the medical systems and different organizations involved in tissue transplantation should improve the situation for patients waiting for much needed transplants.

  2. Post-mortem 3H-thymidine incorporation in human epidermis and oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellmann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Using the 3H-thymidine labelling method, the authors studied post-mortem incorporation activity in the epidermis and oral mucosa of corpses which were stored with their clothes on under conditions of normal room temperature (+20 0 ) and of cooling (+4 0 C). Samples were taken in the form of skin punches at 2 h or 4 h intervals, respec.. Using histo-autoradiograms, the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in dependence from the time interval between the points of time of death and sampling were determined in situe and given as the ratio of labelled cells of the germinative layer per 100 μm length of basement membrane. A linear drop of post-mortem thymidine incorporation rates in epidermis and oral mucosa was found in human corpse skin correlating with increasing temporal distance from the point of time of death. Incorporation rates in the oral mucosa were markedly higher (by a factor of 3 to 5) than those of the epidermis which agrees well with in vivo conditions. No labelling of cell nuclei, i.e. no synthetic activity of the germinative layer, could be detected in the epidermis 35-40 h after individual death at the latest (in the oral mucosa after 45-50 h). However, clear incorporation activities could be observed in the germinative layer of epidermis and oral mucosa after more than 4 d in the case of storage at +4 0 C. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Diagnosis of drowning using post-mortem computed tomography – state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Raux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Recent studies using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT have suggested this imaging modality is of value in the positive diagnosis of drowning. We summarize the data from the literature regarding the diagnostic value of CT in cases of drowning. Material and methods: We performed an all-language search of literature published from 1999 to 2013 with the key words “post-mortem CT scan”, “drowning and CT scan”, “near-drowning diagnosis”, and “drowning diagnosis”. Results : Only 11 articles, whose data enabled complementary statistical analysis, were included. The presence of fluid and sediment in paranasal sinuses appear to be the determinants of the diagnosis of drowning. The presence of fluid in the sinuses had a sensitivity of 100%, and of 90% in the trachea and main bronchi. The results were completed by the high specificity of the presence of sediment in the paranasal sinuses, upper airways and stomach, which was 100% for all three. Haemodilution was present in cases of drowning (p < 0.001. The values made it possible to formulate a decision algorithm for the diagnosis of drowning.

  4. Burned bodies: post-mortem computed tomography, an essential tool for modern forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, J-B; Nedelcu, C; Yahya, S; Dupont, V; Rougé-Maillart, C; Verschoore, M; Ridereau Zins, C; Aubé, C

    2018-06-07

    Currently, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become an accessible and contemporary tool for forensic investigations. In the case of burn victims, it provides specific semiologies requiring a prudent understanding to differentiate between the normal post-mortem changes from heat-related changes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to provide to the radiologist the keys to establish complete and focused reports in cases of PMCT of burn victims. Thus, the radiologist must discern all the contextual divergences with the forensic history, and must be able to report all the relevant elements to answer to the forensic pathologist the following questions: Are there tomographic features that could help to identify the victim? Is there evidence of remains of biological fluids in liquid form available for toxicological analysis and DNA sampling? Is there another obvious cause of death than heat-related lesions, especially metallic foreign bodies of ballistic origin? Finally, what are the characteristic burn-related injuries seen on the corpse that should be sought during the autopsy? • CT is highly useful to find features permitting the identification of a severely burned body. • PMCT is a major asset in gunshot injuries to depict ballistic foreign bodies in the burned cadavers. • CT is able to recognise accessible blood for tests versus heat clot (air-crescent sign). • Heat-related fractures are easily differentiated from traumatic fractures. • Epidural collections with a subdural appearance are typical heat-related head lesions.

  5. Comparison of diagnostic performance for perinatal and paediatric post-mortem imaging: CT versus MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Guy, Anna; Chong, W.K.; Gunny, Roxanna; Saunders, Dawn; Olsen, Oystein E.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Wade, Angie; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M.; Scott, Rosemary; Robertson, Nicola J.; Owens, Catherine M.; Offiah, Amaka C.; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic yield of whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) imaging to post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging in a prospective study of fetuses and children. We compared PMCT and PMMR to conventional autopsy as the gold standard for the detection of (a) major pathological abnormalities related to the cause of death and (b) all diagnostic findings in five different body organ systems. Eighty two cases (53 fetuses and 29 children) underwent PMCT and PMMR prior to autopsy, at which 55 major abnormalities were identified. Significantly more PMCT than PMMR examinations were non-diagnostic (18/82 vs. 4/82; 21.9 % vs. 4.9 %, diff 17.1 % (95 % CI 6.7, 27.6; p < 0.05)). PMMR gave an accurate diagnosis in 24/55 (43.64 %; 95 % CI 31.37, 56.73 %) compared to 18/55 PMCT (32.73 %; 95 % CI 21.81, 45.90). PMCT was particularly poor in fetuses <24 weeks, with 28.6 % (8.1, 46.4 %) more non-diagnostic scans. Where both PMCT and PMMR were diagnostic, PMMR gave slightly higher diagnostic accuracy than PMCT (62.8 % vs. 59.4 %). Unenhanced PMCT has limited value in detection of major pathology primarily because of poor-quality, non-diagnostic fetal images. On this basis, PMMR should be the modality of choice for non-invasive PM imaging in fetuses and children. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, children and adults: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.u [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Chandrasekaran, Manigandan [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Clinical Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [Medical Statistics, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Skordis-Worrall, Jolene [Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Bennett-Britton, Ian [Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Health Economics and Financing Program, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cohen, Marta [Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Withby, Elspeth [Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Department of Histopathology, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    To determine, in a systematic review, the diagnostic accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of less invasive autopsy by post-mortem MR imaging, in fetuses, children and adults. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and reference lists to identify all studies comparing post-mortem MR imaging with conventional autopsy, published between January 1990 and March 2009. 539 abstracts were identified; 15 papers met the inclusion criteria; data from 9 studies were extracted (total: 146 fetuses, 11 children and 24 adults). In accurately identifying the final cause of death or most clinically significant abnormality, post-mortem MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 69% (95% CI-56%, 80%) and 95% (95% CI-88%, 98%) in fetuses, and 28% (95% CI-13%, 47%) and 64% (95% CI-23%, 94%) in children and adults, respectively; however the published data is limited to small, heterogenous and poorly designed studies. Insufficient data is available on acceptability and economic evaluation of post-mortem MR imaging. Well designed, large, prospective studies are required to evaluate the accuracy of post-mortem MR imaging, before it can be offered as a clinical tool.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, children and adults: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Chitty, Lyn S.; Wade, Angie; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bennett-Britton, Ian; Cohen, Marta; Withby, Elspeth; Sebire, Neil J.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine, in a systematic review, the diagnostic accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of less invasive autopsy by post-mortem MR imaging, in fetuses, children and adults. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and reference lists to identify all studies comparing post-mortem MR imaging with conventional autopsy, published between January 1990 and March 2009. 539 abstracts were identified; 15 papers met the inclusion criteria; data from 9 studies were extracted (total: 146 fetuses, 11 children and 24 adults). In accurately identifying the final cause of death or most clinically significant abnormality, post-mortem MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 69% (95% CI-56%, 80%) and 95% (95% CI-88%, 98%) in fetuses, and 28% (95% CI-13%, 47%) and 64% (95% CI-23%, 94%) in children and adults, respectively; however the published data is limited to small, heterogenous and poorly designed studies. Insufficient data is available on acceptability and economic evaluation of post-mortem MR imaging. Well designed, large, prospective studies are required to evaluate the accuracy of post-mortem MR imaging, before it can be offered as a clinical tool.

  8. The social life of the dead: The role of post-mortem examinations in medical student socialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Dawn; Machin, Laura; Taylor, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Dissection has held a privileged position in medical education although the professional values it inculcates have been subject to intense debate. Claims vary from it generating a dehumanising level of emotional detachment, to promotion of rational and dispassionate decision-making, even to being a positive vehicle for ethical education. Social scientists have positioned dissection as a critical experience in the emotional socialisation of medical students. However, curricular revision has provoked debate about the style and quantity of anatomy teaching thus threatening this 'rite of passage' of medical students. Consequently, some UK medical schools do not employ dissection at all. In its place, observation of post-mortem examinations - a long established, if underutilised, practice - has re-emerged in an attempt to recoup aspects of anatomical knowledge that are arguably lost when dissection is omitted. Bodies for post-mortem examinations and bodies for dissection, however, have striking differences, meaning that post-mortem examinations and dissection cannot be considered comparable opportunities to learn anatomy. In this article, we explore the distinctions between dissection and post-mortem examinations. In particular, we focus on the absence of a discourse of consent, concerns about bodily integrity, how the body's shifting ontology, between object and person, disrupts students' attempts to distance themselves, and how the observation of post-mortem examinations features in the emotional socialisation of medical students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Post mortem temperature equilibration of the structures of the head. I. Thermometric techniques and principal investigations (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, B; May, D; Riemann, U

    1976-06-30

    Special thin and flexible thermometric probes showing a diameter of 1 mm and a sharp end were used for post mortem (p.m.) thermometric studies in several tissues. Brain temperatures were measured by inserting a double probe through the superior orbital fissura thus allowing to record the central and the peripheral brain regions separately. Another probe was inserted into the galea and a fourth into the liver. Temperature changes were recorded simultaneously. Many variables of the human head were measured. Sixteen corpses were investigated. The results were as follows: 1. Of all temperature curves registered those of the central brain regions showed the smallest variance. 2. The p.m. temperature curve of the brain shows a sigmoid shape with a rather short "plateau" in the beginning. 3. In the early p.m. phase there is an increasing difference of temperatures between central and peripheral brain regions amounting to 2-4, 6 degrees C in the time period between 78th and 128th minute. 4. The insertion of the thin probes does not cause visible damages. Thus it should be considered for use in forensic practice. 5. Some artificial "head models" were constructed and temperature decrease recorded after warming. The curves showed the same type of sigmoid shape as those obtained from the corpses. 6. Of the possible variables measured that could influence the temperature decrease only the density of the hair seems to be of interest.

  10. The toxicological significance of post-mortem drug concentrations in bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Robin E; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2018-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that post-mortem drug concentrations in bile are useful in estimating concentrations in blood. Both The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT) and the US Federal Aviation Administration recommend that samples of bile should be obtained in some circumstances. Furthermore, standard toxicological texts compare blood and bile concentrations, implying that concentrations in bile are of forensic value. To review the evidence on simultaneous measurements of blood and bile drug concentrations reported in the medical literature. We made a systematic search of EMBASE 1980-2016 using the search terms ("bile/" OR "exp drug bile level/concentration/") AND "drug blood level/concentration/", PubMed 1975-2017 for ("bile[tw]" OR "biliary[tw]") AND ("concentration[tw]" OR "concentrations[tw]" OR "level[tw]" OR "levels[tw]") AND "post-mortem[tw]" and also MEDLINE 1990-2016 for information on drugs whose biliary concentrations were mentioned in standard textbooks. The search was limited to human studies without language restrictions. We also examined recent reviews, indexes of relevant journals and citations in Web of Science and Google Scholar. We calculated the bile:blood concentration ratio. The searches together yielded 1031 titles with abstracts. We scanned titles and abstracts for relevance and retrieved 230, of which 161 were considered further. We excluded 49 papers because: the paper reported only one case (30 references); the data referred only to a metabolite (1); the work was published before 1980 (3); the information concerned only samples taken during life (10); or the paper referred to a toxin or unusual recreational drug (5). The remaining 112 papers provided data for analysis, with at least two observations for each of 58 drugs. Bile:blood concentration ratios: Median bile:blood concentration ratios varied from 0.18 (range 0.058-0.32) for dextromoramide to 520 (range 0.62-43,000) for buprenorphine. Median bile

  11. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  12. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  13. Post-mortem diagnosis of chronic Chagas's disease comparative evaluation of three serological tests on pericardial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, E R; Chapadeiro, E; Batista, S M; Cunha, J G; Rocha, A; Miziara, L; Ribeiro, J U; Patto, R J

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the post-mortem diagnosis of Chagas's disease the authors performed haemagglutination tests (HAT), fluorescent Trypanosoma cruzi antibody tests (FAT), and complement fixation tests (CFT) on the pericardial fluid obtained at autopsy of 50 individuals with Chagas's heart disease, and 93 patients in whom this disease was not thought to be present. The results demonstrate that all three tests are efficient for the post-mortem diagnosis of Chagas's disease but suggest that their combined use would detect more cases than would one isolated reaction only.

  14. Abnormal fetal cerebral laminar organization in cobblestone complex as seen on post-mortem MRI and DTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Blaser, Susan; Rayner, Tammy; Shannon, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    We report a unique case of cobblestone complex using post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging to assess the laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum. The imaging findings were correlated with autopsy findings. Abnormal cortical development in cobblestone complex resulted in disruption of normal laminar organization of the fetal brain, which was seen as interruption and nodularity of the high-signal T1 cortical band with increased anisotropy and medium diffusivity extending beyond the cortical band into the cerebral mantle on post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging. (orig.)

  15. Abnormal fetal cerebral laminar organization in cobblestone complex as seen on post-mortem MRI and DTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Blaser, Susan; Rayner, Tammy [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Shannon, Patrick [University of Toronto, Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    We report a unique case of cobblestone complex using post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging to assess the laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum. The imaging findings were correlated with autopsy findings. Abnormal cortical development in cobblestone complex resulted in disruption of normal laminar organization of the fetal brain, which was seen as interruption and nodularity of the high-signal T1 cortical band with increased anisotropy and medium diffusivity extending beyond the cortical band into the cerebral mantle on post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging. (orig.)

  16. The effect of stress and exercise on post-mortem biochemistry of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Pankhurst, N.W.; Bremner, Allan

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss responded similarly to increase in water flow (exercise), reduction in holding tank water level (stress), or 30 min chasing with water level reduction (stress and exercise). Stress generally resulted in elevated plasma c...... and exercise, results in mostly transient changes in post-mortem muscle biochemistry. These changes lead to an earlier onset and resolution of rigor, and lower post-mortem muscle pH in comparison to the control. (C) 1999 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  17. Lipoma of the midbrain: post-mortem finding in a patient with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Maia Gouvea

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas are rare, usually do not have clinical expression and are located mare frequently in the corpus callosum. Other locations include the spinal cord, midbrain tectum, superior vermis, tuber cinereum, infundibulum and more rarely cerebellopontine angle, hypothalamus, superior medullary velum and insula. We report the case of a lipoma of the left inferior colliculus which was a post-mortem finding in a woman who died of breast cancer. Although there are reports of intracranial lipomas in patients with malignant tumors there is no explanation for the co-existence of the two tumors. The present tumor also includes a segment of a nerve which is not uncommon, but a less common finding was the presence of nests of Schwann cells within it, shown by immunohistochemistry.

  18. Fuel retention in JET ITER-Like Wall from post-mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinola, K., E-mail: kalle.heinola@ccfe.ac.uk [Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Widdowson, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Likonen, J. [Association EURATOM-TEKES, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Baron-Wiechec, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Barradas, N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Catarino, N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Coad, P. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Koivuranta, S. [Association EURATOM-TEKES, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Matthews, G.F. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Petersson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-VR, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Selected Ion Beam Analysis techniques applicable for detecting deuterium and heavier impurities have been used in the post-mortem analyses of tiles removed after the first JET ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW) campaign. Over half of the retained fuel was measured in the divertor region. The highest figures for fuel retention were obtained from regions with the thickest deposited layers, i.e. in the inner divertor on top of tile 1 and on the High Field Gap Closure tile, which resides deep in the plasma scrape-off layer. Least retention was found in the main chamber high erosion regions, i.e. in the mid-plane of Inner Wall Guard Limiter. The fuel retention values found typically varied with deposition layer thicknesses. The reported retention values support the observed decrease in fuel retention obtained with gas balance experiments of JET-ILW.

  19. Plug-in Based Analysis Framework for LHC Post-Mortem Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbonosov, R; Zerlauth, M; Baggiolini, V

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in based software architectures [1] are extensible, enforce modularity and allow several teams to work in parallel. But they have certain technical and organizational challenges, which we discuss in this paper. We gained our experience when developing the Post-Mortem Analysis (PMA) system, which is a mission critical system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We used a plugin-based architecture with a general-purpose analysis engine, for which physicists and equipment experts code plugins containing the analysis algorithms. We have over 45 analysis plugins developed by a dozen of domain experts. This paper focuses on the design challenges we faced in order to mitigate the risks of executing third-party code: assurance that even a badly written plugin doesn't perturb the work of the overall application; plugin execution control which allows to detect plugin misbehaviour and react; robust communication mechanism between plugins, diagnostics facilitation in case of plugin failure; testing of the plugins be...

  20. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  1. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  2. "Project ACTS": An Intervention to Increase Organ and Tissue Donation Intentions among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…

  3. Hypothermic death: Possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana; Usui, Akihito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Miho; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p = 0.0007, p < 0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p = 0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high

  4. Hypothermic death: possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana; Usui, Akihito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Miho; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato

    2013-02-01

    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p=0.0007, p<0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p=0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothermic death: Possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Sato, Miho, E-mail: meifan58@m.tains.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p = 0.0007, p < 0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p = 0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high.

  6. Effect of cooling rate upon processing characteristics of pork meat of different glycolysis type during post mortem ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vada, M

    1977-10-01

    Rapid chilling was applied to porcine longissimus dorsi muscles at 1 h post mortem in order to observe its effect on the quality of canned products prepared from those of different pH(1) values. The muscle from one side of each animal was removed from the carcase 50 minutes post mortem and divided into two longitudinal strips. One was chilled immediately to 13-15°C (1 h post mortem): the other after a further hour (2 h post mortem) acted as control. After the centre temperature had reached 10°C the muscles were stored in a refrigerator at 3-5°C. Compared with the control samples (chilled at 2 h p.m.), rapid chilling from 1 h p.m. caused an improvement in the water-holding capacity and the texture of pork meat, which had higher pH(1) values and was processed at 2, 4 and 48 h p.m. There was minimum brine retention and texture score if samples-both rapidly chilled and control-were processed at 24 h p.m. Although brine retention of PSE pork meat could not be increased even by rapid chilling, the texture of heat treated PSE pork showed an improvement during storage, which was more pronounced after ageing for 48 h, if PSE samples were chilled at 1 h p.m. Copyright © 1977. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Identification of discrete vascular lesions in the extremities using post-mortem computed tomography angiography – Case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Wieke; Rohde, Marianne; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2017-01-01

    In this case report, we introduced post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) in three cases suffering from vascular lesions in the upper extremities. In each subject, the third part of the axillary arteries and veins were used to catheterize the arms. The vessels were filled with a barium

  8. Post-mortem computed tomography angiography utilizing barium sulfate to identify microvascular structures : a preliminary phantom model and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Wieke; Rohde, Marianne; Kuster, Lidy; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of computer tomography angiography (CTA) to visualize microvascular structures in a vessel-mimicking phantom and post-mortem (PM) bodies. A contrast agent was used based on 22% barium sulfate, 20% polyethylene glycol and 58% distilled water. A vessel-mimicking phantom

  9. Corroboration of in utero MRI using post-mortem MRI and autopsy in foetuses with CNS abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitby, E.H.; Variend, S.; Rutter, S.; Paley, M.N.J.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Davies, N.P.; Sparey, C.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To corroborate the findings of in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy and post-mortem MRI in cases of known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities on ultrasound and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ante-natal ultrasound and in utero MRI. METHODS: Twelve pregnant women, whose foetuses had suspected central nervous system abnormalities underwent in utero MRI. The foetuses were imaged using MRi before autopsy. The data were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of in utero MRI when compared with a reference standard of autopsy and post-mortem MRI in 10 cases and post-mortem MRI alone in two cases. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI in correctly characterizing brain and spine abnormalities were 42 and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In utero MRI provides a useful adjuvant to antenatal ultrasound when assessing CNS abnormalities by providing more accurate anatomical information. Post-mortem MRI assists the diagnosis of macroscopic structural abnormalities

  10. Variation in post mortem rate of glycolyis does not necessarily affect drip loss of non-stimulated veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog-Meischke, den M.J.; Klont, R.E.; Smulders, F.J.M.; Logtestijn, van J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the effect of the rate of post mortem pH fall on the water-holding capacity of meat from moderately chilled veal carcasses was investigated. Also the relationship between muscle protein denaturation and drip loss of veal was examined. Three groups of 10 Friesian Holstein male veal

  11. External foam and the post-mortem period in freshwater drowning; results from a retrospective study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, G; Buster, M C; Vos, P J E; Reijnders, U J L

    2017-11-01

    Determining the time of death of bodies recovered from water can be difficult. A feature of drowning is the presence of external foam. This study describes the presence of external foam in relation to the post-mortem period. The study utilizes a database of death reports dated between January 2011 and July 2016. For bodies recovered from fresh water, the presence or absence of external foam was noted. In this study, 112 death reports are included. Of these reports, 18 mentioned external foam, which account for 16.1% of the entire study population. In the population with a post-mortem period of less than 24 h, external foam was detected in 27.7% of cases. All 18 incidents with external foam had an estimated post-mortem period of less than 24 h. In our study, external foam was only present in freshwater drowning cases with a post-mortem period of less than 24 h. Based on this finding, the presence of external foam may be useful as an additional indicator when estimating the time of death in freshwater drowning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Can we infer post mortem interval on the basis of decomposition rate? A case from a Portuguese cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M Teresa; Cunha, Eugénia

    2013-03-10

    Post mortem interval estimation is crucial in forensic sciences for both positive identification and reconstruction of perimortem events. However, reliable dating of skeletonized remains poses a scientific challenge since human remains decomposition involves a set of complex and highly variable processes. Many of the difficulties in determining post mortem interval and/or the permanence of a body in a specific environment relates with the lack of systematic observations and research in human body decomposition modalities in different environments. In March 2006, in order to solve a problem of misidentification, a team of the South Branch of Portuguese National Institute of Legal Medicine carried out the exhumation of 25 identified individuals buried for almost five years in the same cemetery plot. Even though all individuals shared similar post mortem intervals, they presented different stages of decomposition. In order to analyze the post mortem factors associated with the different stages of decomposition displayed by the 25 exhumed individuals, the stages of decomposition were scored. Information regarding age at death and sex of the individuals were gathered and recorded as well as data in the cause of death and grave and coffin characteristics. Although the observed distinct decay stages may be explained by the burial conditions, namely by the micro taphonomic environments, individual endogenous factors also play an important role on differential decomposition as witnessed by the present case. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  14. Organ and tissue donation in a regional paediatric intensive care unit: evaluation of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Laura; Alurkar, Shrirang; Kigozi, Phoebe; Vyas, Harish

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 2% of those on the organ transplant list in the UK are children. Early identification of donors and referral to organ donation teams (ODT) has proven to increase both the success rate of gaining consent and the number of organs actually retrieved. To evaluate the practice relating to organ donation for children receiving end-of-life care on a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured against the National Guidelines. All children 0-18 who received their end-of-life care and died on the PICU. A retrospective cohort study of organ donation patterns including referral, approach, consent and donation. This involved a review of case notes on PICU between the years 2009 and 2014. One hundred five deaths were identified and 100 notes were examined and data analysed to ascertain if religion, age and length of stay on PICU impacted on practice. Eighty-six children met the early identification criteria for potential donors, 40 (46.5%) children were referred to the ODT and 33 (38.3%) families were approached regarding donation. Twenty-one (24.4%) families consented to donation. Seventeen donations took place with a total of 41 sets of organs/tissues retrieved. Despite the majority of children meeting early identification for potential donors, many were not being referred. All children on end-of-life care should be referred for potential organ donation. Organ donation needs to be seen as a priority for hospitals as a part of routine end-of-life care to help increase referral rates and give families the opportunity to donate. Many paediatric deaths are not referred for consideration of organ donation, despite guidelines stating that this process should be standard of care. Further optimization of referral rates may aid in increasing the number of organs available for donation. What is Known: • Shortage of organs continues to be a national problem. • NICE guidelines state that all patients who are on end-of-life care should have the option of organ donation

  15. Bereaved donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation, and perceived influences on their decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sque, Magi; Walker, Wendy; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Rodney, Amanda

    2018-06-01

    To elicit bereaved families' experiences of organ and tissue donation. A specific objective was to determine families' perceptions of how their experiences influenced donation decision-making. Retrospective, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 43 participants of 31 donor families to generate rich, informative data. Participant recruitment was via 10 National Health Service Trusts, representative of five regional organ donation services in the UK. Twelve families agreed to DBD, 18 agreed to DCD, 1 unknown. Participants' responses were contextualised using a temporal framework of 'The Past', which represented families' prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions toward organ donation; 'The Present', which incorporated the moment in time when families experienced the potential for donation; and 'The Future', which corresponded to expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Temporally interwoven experiences appeared to influence families' decisions to donate the organs of their deceased relative for transplantation. The influence of temporality on donation-decision making is worthy of consideration in the planning of future education, policy, practice, and research for improved rates of family consent to donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [18F]FDDNP PET in Tauopathies: Correlation to post mortem Pathology in a Case of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Brendon Josef

    This investigation of [18F]FDDNP was conducted in an effort to confirm the presence of disease in a patient with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and to correlate the ante mortem PET scan results to the post mortem pathology. The immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining of Paired Helical Filamentous (PHF) tau (AT8) and Amyloid Beta (6F/3D) misfolded proteins demonstrated a widespread deposition in the cortical and subcortical nuclei, the white matter, cerebellar white matter and the medulla oblongata. The in vitro autoradiography demonstrated a neocortical signal comprised of well-delineated amyloid beta in the nucleated layers I/II and hyperphosphorylated tau in the deeper layers III through VI. The autoradiography was well correlated with the immunohistochemical staining in adjacent tissue slides. The binding of the parametric [ 18F]FDDNP distribution volume ratio (DVR) correlated well (Spearman's rho = 0.962, p = .004) with the deposition of tau but not with the presence of amyloid beta (Spearman's rho = -0.829, p = .041). The [ 18F]FDDNP DVR signal appears to be primarily due to the large amount of bound hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) and the amyloid beta negligibly contributes to the total signal. Unlabeled FDDNP was shown to bind to tau in the form of globose tangles in the rostral ventromedial medulla as confirmed with both Thioflavin S and PHF-tau Immunofluorescence. The binding of [18F]FDDNP to the human neuroanatomy was investigated in two cohorts of distinct tauopathies and compared to the binding in two tau-negative cohorts against control patients. A cohort of PSP patients (n = 12) with a mean age of 63.8 years and a cohort of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) patients (n = 14) with a mean age of 58.1 years are both characterized by the presence of various degrees of tau pathology in their brains. The cohort of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients (n = 16) with a mean age of 63.2 years is initially characterized by clinical symptoms

  17. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  18. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  19. Sociocultural perspective on organ and tissue donation among reservation-dwelling American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Stabnow, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults. This qualitative ethnographic study used a social-ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age >or= 19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from the social-ecological perspective of Stokols (1992). Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were categorized into construct codes to identify concepts and to discover emerging themes. Personal and environmental themes regarding organ and tissue donation emerged. There were two personal themes: uncertain knowledge and the diabetes crisis. Participants knew very little about organ and tissue donation but there was a basic understanding of donor/recipient compatibility. The prevalence of diabetes in the community is contributing to a dire need for kidney donors. The diabetes crisis was acknowledged by every participant. There were three environmental themes: cultural transitions, healthcare system competence and outreach efforts. Traditional cultural beliefs such as entering the spirit world with an intact body were acknowledged. However, conversations reflected re-examination of traditional beliefs because of the need for kidney donors. The healthcare environmental context of organ and tissue donation emerged as a theme. Participants were not confident that the local health system was prepared to either address traditional beliefs about organ and tissue donation or implement a donation protocol. The final theme was the environmental context of outreach efforts. Participants desired relevant outreach targeted to the community and disseminated through local communication networks including the family, the media and tribal leaders. Sociocultural factors relevant to the personal and environmental context of the

  20. Multimodal imaging and in vivo/post mortem co-registration in rodents and non human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delzescaux, T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of neuro-degenerative disease studies, animal models still remain essential for the improvement of our understanding of underlying pathological mechanisms and for the discovery and development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. The pre-clinical research especially requires the use of non-human primates models because of the similarities between their brain and Human's, whereas fundamental investigations in many areas of biology and medicine more widely involve the use of rodent models.The recent developments of in vivo imaging systems dedicated to small animals (μ-CT, μ-MRI and μ-PET) have made possible the study of brain anatomic alterations as well as the longitudinal follow-up of metabolism and neurotransmission impairments, which can be involved in neuro-degenerative diseases. In particular, μ-PET is becoming increasingly relevant to assess the efficiency of a potential candidate in the field of drug discovery and development and disease diagnosis. However, until today a few laboratories are equipped with them. Moreover, their limited spatial resolution and the lack of specific biological markers are still major limitations. As a consequence, the scientific community still needs comparative anatomical and/or functional analyses, in particular for studies concerning rodent brain. Hence, post mortem biological imaging remains the powerful, reference and predominantly technology used for small animal imaging and for the validation of in vivo imaging systems. Generally, anatomical and complementary functional information are, respectively, provided by histological staining and autoradiography of corresponding brain sections. The large variety of histological dyes (cresyl violet for Nissl bodies Congo red for amyloid plaques) and radioactive compounds ([ 14 C]Deoxyglucose for cerebral glucose metabolism, [ 14 C]leucine for cerebral protein synthesis [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine for cerebral blood flow), as well as the microscopic range of

  1. Multimodal imaging and in vivo/post mortem co-registration in rodents and non human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzescaux, T. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Isotopic Imaging, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Within the framework of neuro-degenerative disease studies, animal models still remain essential for the improvement of our understanding of underlying pathological mechanisms and for the discovery and development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. The pre-clinical research especially requires the use of non-human primates models because of the similarities between their brain and Human's, whereas fundamental investigations in many areas of biology and medicine more widely involve the use of rodent models.The recent developments of in vivo imaging systems dedicated to small animals ({mu}-CT, {mu}-MRI and {mu}-PET) have made possible the study of brain anatomic alterations as well as the longitudinal follow-up of metabolism and neurotransmission impairments, which can be involved in neuro-degenerative diseases. In particular, {mu}-PET is becoming increasingly relevant to assess the efficiency of a potential candidate in the field of drug discovery and development and disease diagnosis. However, until today a few laboratories are equipped with them. Moreover, their limited spatial resolution and the lack of specific biological markers are still major limitations. As a consequence, the scientific community still needs comparative anatomical and/or functional analyses, in particular for studies concerning rodent brain. Hence, post mortem biological imaging remains the powerful, reference and predominantly technology used for small animal imaging and for the validation of in vivo imaging systems. Generally, anatomical and complementary functional information are, respectively, provided by histological staining and autoradiography of corresponding brain sections. The large variety of histological dyes (cresyl violet for Nissl bodies Congo red for amyloid plaques) and radioactive compounds ([{sup 14}C]Deoxyglucose for cerebral glucose metabolism, [{sup 14}C]leucine for cerebral protein synthesis [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine for cerebral blood flow), as well as

  2. Post mortem scientific sampling and the search for causes of death in intensive care: what information should be given and what consent should be obtained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, J P; Quenot, J P; Borel, M; Plu, I; Hervé, C; Moutel, G

    2011-03-01

    The search for cause of death is important to improve knowledge and provide answers for the relatives of the deceased. Medical autopsy following unexplained death in hospital is one way to identify cause of death but is difficult to carry out routinely. Post mortem sampling (PMS) of tissues via thin biopsy needle or 'mini incisions' in the skin may be a useful alternative. A study was undertaken to assess how this approach is perceived by intensive care doctors and also to evaluate how this practice is considered in ethical terms in France. A study of PMS practices immediately after death in 10 intensive care departments was performed. The medical director of each centre was interviewed by telephone and asked to describe practices in their unit and to outline the questions raised by this practice. PMS is routinely performed in 70% of the units which responded, without systematically obtaining formal consent and without precise rules for communicating results. Approaches to PMS differed between centres, but all physicians felt that PMS is useful for the scientific information it gives and also for the information it provides for relatives. All physicians regret the lack of standards to structure PMS practices. Information from post mortem examinations is important for society to inform about causes of death, for doctors to improve practices and for decision-makers responsible for organising care. Debate persists regarding the balance between individual rights and community interests. It is suggested that an approach for identifying cause of death could easily be integrated into the relationship between carers and relatives, provided full transparency is maintained.

  3. Detection and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction with quantitative post-mortem cardiac 1.5T MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Schuster, Frederick; Riva, Fabiano; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, quantitative MR sequences have started being used in post-mortem imaging. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction can be detected and discerned by quantitative 1.5T post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values. In 80 deceased individuals (25 female, 55 male), a cardiac MR quantification sequence was performed prior to cardiac dissection at autopsy in a prospective study. Focal myocardial signal alterations detected in synthetically generated MR images were MR quantified for their T1, T2 and PD values. The locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at autopsy heart dissection and cardiac tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in PMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction. In PMCMR seventy-three focal myocardial signal alterations were detected in 49 of 80 investigated hearts. These signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n=39), acute (n=14), subacute (n=10) and chronic (n=10) age stages of myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their quantitative T1, T2 and PD values, a significant difference between all defined age groups of myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 1.5T PMCMR quantification based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values is feasible for characterization and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem MRI for thoracic abnormalities in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Addison, Shea; Olsen, Oystein E.; Wade, Angie; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M.; Scott, Rosemary J.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for non-cardiac thoracic pathology in fetuses and children, compared with conventional autopsy. Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. A total of 400 unselected fetuses and children underwent PMMR before conventional autopsy, reported blinded to the other dataset. Of 400 non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities, 113 (28 %) were found at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) of PMMR for any thoracic pathology was poor at 39.6 % (31.0, 48.9) and 85.5 % (80.7, 89.2) respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) 53.7 % (42.9, 64.0) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.0 % (71.8, 81.4). Overall agreement was 71.8 % (67.1, 76.2). PMMR was most sensitive at detecting anatomical abnormalities, including pleural effusions and lung or thoracic hypoplasia, but particularly poor at detecting infection. PMMR currently has relatively poor diagnostic detection rates for the commonest intra-thoracic pathologies identified at autopsy in fetuses and children, including respiratory tract infection and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The reasonable NPV suggests that normal thoracic appearances at PMMR exclude the majority of important thoracic lesions at autopsy, and so could be useful in the context of minimally invasive autopsy for detecting non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities. (orig.)

  5. Partial autolysis of μ/m-calpain during post mortem aging of chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Nanqi; Li, Miaozhen; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes occurring in μ/m-calpain in post mortem chicken muscles and to determine the origin of the unknown bands found in calpain casein zymography. The unknown bands were reported with slightly greater mobility compared to conventional μ/m-calpain bands in casein zymography. Identification of these bands was accomplished using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and with protein phosphatase treatment. Results showed that the unknown bands were corresponding to μ/m-calpain, and dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase did not change their appearance. The calpain samples were then incubated with various concentrations of Ca 2+ to determine the relationship between changes in μ/m-calpain and the appearance of the unknown bands. The products of μ/m-calpain partial autolysis were found to be consistent with the appearance of the unknown bands. Therefore, the appearance of these bands did not result from phosphorylation of μ/m-calpain as previously hypothesized, but from partial autolysis of μ/m-calpain. Also their presence suggests that μ/m-calpain undergoes partial autolysis during aging which may play certain roles in meat quality improvement. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Re-establishment of rigor mortis: evidence for a considerably longer post-mortem time span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crostack, Chiara; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Anders, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death. Re-establishment of rigor mortis was positive in 52.2% of cases and was observed up to 20 hpm. In contrast to the current doctrine that a recurrence of rigor mortis is always of a lesser degree than its first manifestation in a given patient, muscular rigidity at re-establishment equalled or even exceeded the degree observed before dissolving in 21 joints. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe that the phenomenon appears to be independent of body or ambient temperature.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem MRI for thoracic abnormalities in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin; Addison, Shea [Imperial College London, Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [UCL Institute of Child Health, Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J. [University College London Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, Academic Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); UCLH NHS Foundation Trusts, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Autopsy Study (MaRIAS) Collaborative Group

    2014-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for non-cardiac thoracic pathology in fetuses and children, compared with conventional autopsy. Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. A total of 400 unselected fetuses and children underwent PMMR before conventional autopsy, reported blinded to the other dataset. Of 400 non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities, 113 (28 %) were found at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) of PMMR for any thoracic pathology was poor at 39.6 % (31.0, 48.9) and 85.5 % (80.7, 89.2) respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) 53.7 % (42.9, 64.0) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.0 % (71.8, 81.4). Overall agreement was 71.8 % (67.1, 76.2). PMMR was most sensitive at detecting anatomical abnormalities, including pleural effusions and lung or thoracic hypoplasia, but particularly poor at detecting infection. PMMR currently has relatively poor diagnostic detection rates for the commonest intra-thoracic pathologies identified at autopsy in fetuses and children, including respiratory tract infection and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The reasonable NPV suggests that normal thoracic appearances at PMMR exclude the majority of important thoracic lesions at autopsy, and so could be useful in the context of minimally invasive autopsy for detecting non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. Value of systematic post mortem radiographic examinations of fetuses - 400 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalifa, G.; Sellier, N.; Barbet, J.P.; Labbe, F.; Houette, A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 400 cases of fetal deaths has been carried out to assess the value of systematic post mortem radiological examination. Apart from general diagnosis purpose, special attention was given to the assessment of bone age and mineralization. The results were correlated with the clinical, U.S., chromosomal and pathological data. Computerized analysis of our information show the following results: (1) The radiological examination was valuable for the final diagnosis in 13.5% of cases. (2) It brings additional information in 34.5% of cases. (3) It had no diagnostic value in 52%. Furthermore several points deserve attention such as apparition of teeth (21 weeks), calcaneum (24 weeks). Major osteoporosis was always associated with a constitutional bone disease or an infectious process. An excessive length of the upper limbs (12) was seen in 11 cases of anencephaly. We suggest that a radiological examination should not be routinely performed, when the diagnosis is otherwise obvious, but should be considered in the presence of dwarfism, or other limb abnormalities and when the gestational age is uncertain. The films provide essential information especially for further genetic counselling.

  9. Value of systematic post mortem radiographic examinations of fetuses - 400 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Sellier, N.; Barbet, J.P.; Labbe, F.; Houette, A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 400 cases of fetal deaths has been carried out to assess the value of systematic post mortem radiological examination. Apart from general diagnosis purpose, special attention was given to the assessment of bone age and mineralization. The results were correlated with the clinical, U.S., chromosomal and pathological data. Computerized analysis of our information show the following results: (1) The radiological examination was valuable for the final diagnosis in 13.5% of cases. (2) It brings additional information in 34.5% of cases. (3) It had no diagnostic value in 52%. Furthermore several points deserve attention such as apparition of teeth (21 weeks), calcaneum (24 weeks). Major osteoporosis was always associated with a constitutional bone disease or an infectious process. An excessive length of the upper limbs (12) was seen in 11 cases of anencephaly. We suggest that a radiological examination should not be routinely performed, when the diagnosis is otherwise obvious, but should be considered in the presence of dwarfism, or other limb abnormalities and when the gestational age is uncertain. The films provide essential information especially for further genetic counselling. (orig./MG)

  10. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in sand rats. III. Post-mortem investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Bulur, Nurdan; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2011-01-01

    The present report concerns several post-mortem variables examined in sand rats that were either maintained on a vegetal diet (control animals) or exposed first during a 20-day transition period to a mixed diet consisting of a fixed amount of a hypercaloric food and decreasing amounts of the vegetal food and then to a 30-day experimental period of exposure to the hypercaloric food. During the latter period, all animals were either given free access to food or fasting daily for 15 h, i.e. from 5.00 p.m. to 8.00 a.m. The body weight, liver wet weight, pancreas wet weight, plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c concentration, plasma insulin concentration, insulinogenic index, insulin resistance HOMA, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentration, liver triglyceride and phospholipid content were all measured. Pancreatic islet (insulin, GLUT2) and liver (lipid droplets) histology were also examined. The main findings consisted in a lower body weight of fasting than non-fasting animals, a higher liver weight in non-diabetic and diabetic rats than in control non-fasting (but not so in fasting) animals, a decrease of pancreas weight in non-diabetic and diabetic as distinct from control animals, a fasting-induced decrease in plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance HOMA, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and triglyceride liver content.

  11. Histological validation of high-resolution DTI in human post mortem tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seehaus, A.; Roebroeck, A.; Bastiani, M.; Fonseca, L.; Bratzke, H.; Lori, N.; Vilanova, A.; Goebel, R.; Galuske, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is amongst the simplest mathematical models available for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, yet still by far the most used one. Despite the success of DTI as an imaging tool for white matter fibers, its anatomical underpinnings on a microstructural basis remain

  12. Post-mortem brain tissue cultures from elderly control subjects and patients with a neurodegenerative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, R. W. H.; Baker, R. E.; Boiten, E. F. M.; Dubelaar, E. J. G.; van Ginkel, C. J. M.; Sluiter, A. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Aging may be viewed as a progressive loss of normal biological function. Due to complex genetic and environmental interactions, the sequence of functional impairment shows a high degree of individual variability. In humans life style and health care have an additional influence on the aging process.

  13. Life and Death Decisions: Using School-Based Health Education to Facilitate Family Discussion about Organ and Tissue Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…

  14. Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christina; Schön, Corinna A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin

    2008-10-01

    Accidental or intentional falls from a height are a form of blunt trauma and occur frequently in forensic medicine. Reports describing elevator accidents as a small subcategory of falls from heights are rare in the medical literature and no report on injury patterns or scene reconstruction of such an accident was found. A case of an accident in a hydraulic elevator with a man falling 3m was examined using post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and autopsy. The man suffered an unusually extensive trauma and died at the scene. Post-mortem MSCT examination showed a comminute fracture of the skull, the right femur and the first lumbar vertebra. Severe lacerations of the brain with epidural, subdural and subarachnoidal haemorrhages over both hemispheres were diagnosed. Autopsy confirmed these findings. To reconstruct the accident we used radiological and autopsy results as well as findings at the scene.

  15. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VII. Effect of ante- and post-mortem electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C

    1988-01-01

    The influence of electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis was studied on rats. Our experiments showed that: (1) Electrocution hastens the onset of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, a complete rigor develops already 1 h post-mortem (p.m.) compared to 5 h p.m. for the controls. (2) Electrocution hastens the passing of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, the first significant decrease occurs at 3 h p.m. (8 h p.m. in the controls). (3) These modifications in rigor mortis evolution are less pronounced in the limbs not directly touched by the electric current. (4) In case of post-mortem electrocution, the changes are slightly less pronounced, the resistance is higher and the absorbed energy is lower as compared with the ante-mortem electrocution cases. The results are completed by two practical observations on human electrocution cases.

  16. Feather retention force in broilers ante-, peri-, and post-mortem as influenced by electrical and carbon dioxide stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Rowland, G N

    1997-11-01

    Stunning and slaughter trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of stunning method (electrical 50 V alternating current, CO2 gas: 0 to 40% for 90 s or 40 to 60% for 30 s) on feather retention force (FRF) in commercial broilers. Feathers from the pectoral, sternal, and femoral feather tracts were sampled with a force gauge before stunning (ante-mortem) and contralaterally either after stunning (peri-mortem from 0.5 to 4 min) or after stunning and bleeding (post-mortem from 2 to 6 min). Prior to stunning, ante-mortem FRF values varied among assigned stunning methods only for the pectoral (7%) feather tract. After stunning, peri-mortem FRF values were higher only for the sternal tract (11% for 40 to 60% CO2 for 30 s); whereas after stunning and bleeding, post-mortem FRF values were lower than ante- or peri-mortem only for the sternal tract (10% lower for 40 to 60% CO2 for 30 s). Peri- and post-mortem FRF values did not differ among stunning methods for the pectoral and femoral feather tracts. Small changes in FRF values occurred from ante-mortem to peri-mortem (-1 to +12%), and from ante-mortem to post-mortem (-2 to +8%) across stunning methods. A significant increase was determined for only the pectoral tract (7%) from ante- to peri-mortem across stunning methods. Electrically stunned broilers that were not bled gained weight in excess of the 36 feathers removed (0.16%), apparently due to body surface water pickup during the brine-stunning process, whereas CO2-stunned broilers lost weight due to excretion of cloacal contents (-0.31 to -0.98%). The change in body weight among stunning methods was significant (P defeathering efficiency may not differ after scalding.

  17. Influence of Post-Mortem Sperm Recovery Method and Extender on Unstored and Refrigerated Rooster Sperm Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-02-01

    Many post-mortem sperm collection techniques have been described for mammalian species, but their use in birds is scarce. This paper compares the efficacy of two post-mortem sperm retrieval techniques - the flushing and float-out methods - in the collection of rooster sperm, in conjunction with the use of two extenders, i.e., L&R-84 medium and Lake 7.1 medium. To determine whether the protective effects of these extenders against refrigeration are different for post-mortem and ejaculated sperm, pooled ejaculated samples (procured via the massage technique) were also diluted in the above extenders. Post-mortem and ejaculated sperm variables were assessed immediately at room temperature (0 h), and after refrigeration at 5°C for 24 and 48 h. The flushing method retrieved more sperm than the float-out method (596.5 ± 75.4 million sperm vs 341.0 ± 87.6 million sperm; p < 0.05); indeed, the number retrieved by the former method was similar to that obtained by massage-induced ejaculation (630.3 ± 78.2 million sperm). For sperm collected by all methods, the L&R-84 medium provided an advantage in terms of sperm motility variables at 0 h. In the refrigerated sperm samples, however, the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages of viable sperm, and had a greater protective effect (p < 0.05) with respect to most motility variables. In conclusion, the flushing method is recommended for collecting sperm from dead birds. If this sperm needs to be refrigerated at 5°C until analysis, Lake 7.1 medium is recommended as an extender. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Estimating the Post-Mortem Interval of skeletonized remains: The use of Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectro-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, Dudley; Cameron, Alyce

    2017-08-01

    When skeletonized remains are found it becomes a police task to determine to identify the body and establish the cause of death. It assists investigators if the Post-Mortem Interval (PMI) can be established. Hitherto no reliable qualitative method of estimating the PMI has been found. A quantitative method has yet to be developed. This paper shows that IR spectroscopy and Raman microscopy have the potential to form the basis of a quantitative method.

  19. Quantification of ante-mortem hypoxic ischemic brain injury by post-mortem cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Paolo; Chaban, Badr; Lally, Peter J; Sebire, Neil J; Taylor, Andrew M; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2015-11-01

    Post-mortem (PM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an alternative to conventional autopsy in babies dying from neonatal encephalopathy. However, the confounding effect of post-mortem changes on the detection of ante-mortem ischemic injury is unclear. We examined whether quantitative MR measurements can accurately distinguish ante-mortem ischemic brain injury from artifacts using post-mortem MRI. We compared PM brain MRI (1.5 T Siemens, Avanto) in 7 infants who died with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of presumed hypoxic-ischemic origin with 7 newborn infants who had sudden unexplained neonatal death (SUND controls) without evidence of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury at autopsy. We measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), T1-weighted signal intensity ratios (SIRs) compared to vitreous humor and T2 relaxation times from 19 predefined brain areas typically involved in neonatal encephalopathy. There were no differences in mean ADC values, SIRs on T1-weighted images or T2 relaxation times in any of the 19 predefined brain areas between NE and SUND infants. All MRI images showed loss of cortical gray/white matter differentiation, loss of the normal high signal intensity (SI) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T1-weighted images, and high white matter SI on T2-weighted images. Normal post-mortem changes may be easily mistaken for ante-mortem ischemic injury, and current PM MRI quantitative assessment cannot reliably distinguish these. These findings may have important implications for appropriate interpretation of PM imaging findings, especially in medico-legal practice. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle: A proteomic insight into post-mortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Qian-Qian; Fu, Yu; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Jia, Fei; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2016-09-16

    Searching for potential predictors of meat color is a challenging task for the meat industry. In this study, the relationship between meat color parameters and the sarcoplasmic proteome of M. longissimuss lumborum (LL) and M. psoas major (PM) from Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15days) were explored with the aid of the integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Meat color attributes revealed that LL displayed better color stability than PM during storage. Furthermore, sarcoplasmic proteins of these two muscles were compared between days 5, 10, 15 and day 0. Several proteins were closely correlated with meat color attributes and they were muscle-specific and responsible for the meat color stability at different storage periods. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, glycogen phosphorylase, peroxiredoxin-2, phosphoglucomutase-1, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], heat shock cognate protein (71kDa) might serve as the candidate predictors of meat color stability during post-mortem storage. In addition, bioinformatics analyses indicated that more proteins were involved in glycolytic metabolism of LL, which contributed to better meat color stability of LL than PM. The present results could provide a proteomic insight into muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Usefulness of post mortem computed tomography versus conventional forensic autopsy of road accident victims (drivers and passengers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskała, Artur; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kluza, Piotr; Romaszko, Karol; Lopatin, Oleksiy

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: Deaths of in-vehicle victims (drivers and passengers) of road accidents represent a significant group of issues addressed by forensic medicine. Expressing opinions in this regard involves first of all the determination of the cause of death and the forensic pathologist's participation in the process of road accident reconstruction through defining the mechanism of bodily harm. The scope of the opinion as well as its accuracy and degree of detail largely depend on the scope of forensic autopsy. In this context, techniques that broaden the capabilities of standard autopsy are of particular importance. This paper compares the results of post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) of road accident victims (drivers and passengers) against the results of standard examination in order to determine the scope to which PMCT significantly enhances autopsy capabilities. Material and methods: The analysis covers 118 in-vehicle victims (drivers and passengers) examined from 2012 to 2014. In each case, post-mortem examination was preceded by PMCT examination using Somatom Emotion 16 (Siemens AG, Germany). Results: The results are presented in a tabular form. Conclusions: In most road accident victims (drivers and passengers), post mortem computed tomography significantly increases the results' degree of detail, particularly with regard to injuries of bones and gas collections.

  3. Laboratory experimental infection of sheep to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and its confirmation using post-mortem examination and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza karimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from genus Ornithobilharzia genus and family Schistosomatidae is an important agent of parasitological infection in sheep. This parasite has been reported from Russia, China, Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Parasitological infection due to this agent could be one of the important factors of decreasing the production rate of livestock in Iran. The purpose of this study, was to experimentally infect sheep with this parasite and confirm the infection by post-mortem examination and Histopathology which was done successfully. Twenty five sheep were used in the study of which 10 sheep were experimentally infected by Ornithobilharzia turkestanikum using subcutaneous injection and 10 sheep by skin contact method and the other 5 sheep were kept as control. Result of post-mortem and Histopathology during a one year period confirmed that all of sheep were infected and adult worm, were seen in their mesentery. Mean number of cercaria used for inducing the infection was 6425 and 462 adult worms were collected post-mortem. There was no significant relationship between the number of cercaria and adult worms collected. Male sheep were more infected than female.

  4. The capability of high field MRI in demonstrating post-mortem fetal brains at different gestational age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghe; Liu Shuwei; Lin Xiangtao; Gen Hequn; Teng Gaojun; Fang Fang; Zang Fengchao; Yu Taifei; Zhao Bin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the capability of high field MRI in demonstrating the post-mortem fetal brains at different gestational age (GA). Methods: One hundred and eight post-mortem fetal brains of 14-40 weeks GA were evaluated by 3.0 T MRI. Eleven brains of 14 to 27 weeks GA with good 3.0 T MRI images were chosen and scanned by 7.0 T MRI. The developing sulci, layered structures of fetal cerebral cortex and basal nuclei were evaluated on MRI of different Tesla (3.0 T and 7.0 T) and their results analyzed. Results: On T 1 WI of 3.0 T MRI, the layered structures of fetal cerebral cortex were present at 14 weeks GA, the sulci were more accurately identified after 16 weeks GA. The basal nuclei were clearly distinguishable after 20 weeks CA, and these structures were better visualized as the GA increased. On T 2 WI of 7.0 T MRI, the sulci, layered structures of fetal cerebral cortex and basal nuclei were shown more clearly at the same GA when compared to 3.0 T, especially the sulci at the early developmental stages. Conclusions: T 1 WI of 3.0 T MRI could show the developing structures of post-mortem fetal brain well, but the T 2 WI of 7.0 T MRI were comparatively better. (authors)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oystein E.; Wade, Angie; Addison, Shea; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Scott, Rosemary J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J., E-mail: owen.arthurs@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M., E-mail: Catherine.owens@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E., E-mail: oystein.olsen@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition and Biostatistics Section, UCL Institute of Child health, London (United Kingdom); Addison, Shea, E-mail: shea.addison@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod, E-mail: rod.jones@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Norman, Wendy, E-mail: wendy.norman@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J., E-mail: rosemary.scott@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities.

  7. SU-E-T-481: In Vivo and Post Mortem Animal Irradiation: Measured Vs. Calculated Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, P [Univ New Mexico Radiology Dept., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heintz, B [Texas Oncology, PA, Southlake, TX (United States); Sandoval, D [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W; Melo, D; Guilmette, R [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Computerized radiation therapy treatment planning is performed on almost all patients today. However it is seldom used for laboratory irradiations. The first objective is to assess whether modern radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) systems accurately predict the subject dose by comparing in vivo and decedent dose measurements to calculated doses. The other objective is determine the importance of using a RTP system for laboratory irradiations. Methods: 5 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the absorbed dose at 5 levels (carina, lung, heart, liver and rectum) during whole body irradiation. The subjects were treated with large opposed lateral fields and extended distances to cover the entire subject using a Varian 600C linac. CT simulation was performed ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM). To compare AM and PM doses, calculation points were placed at the location of each dosimeter in the treatment plan. The measured results were compared to the results using Varian Eclipse and Prowess Panther RTP systems. Results: The Varian and Prowess treatment planning system agreed to within in +1.5% for both subjects. However there were significant differences between the measured and calculated doses. For both animals the calculated central axis dose was higher than prescribed by 3–5%. This was caused in part by inaccurate measurement of animal thickness at the time of irradiation. For one subject the doses ranged from 4% to 7% high and the other subject the doses ranged 7% to 14% high when compared to the RTP doses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that using proper CT RTP system can more accurately deliver the prescribed dose to laboratory subjects. It also shows that there is significant dose variation in such subjects when inhomogeneities are not considered in the planning process.

  8. Skeletal abnormalities in fetuses with Down's syndrome: a radiographic post-mortem study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempfle, N.; Brisse, H.; Huten, Y.; Fredouille, C.; Nessmann, C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate skeletal abnormalities on post-mortem radiographs of fetuses with Down's syndrome. Materials and methods. Biometrical and morphological criteria, which are used for US prenatal detection of trisomy 21, were assessed. Limb long bones, biparietal diameter (BPD)/occipito-frontal diameter (OFD) ratio, ossification of nasal bones and appearance of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit (P2) in 60 fetuses with Down's syndrome were analysed and compared with 82 normal fetuses matched for gestational age (GA) from 15 to 40 weeks' gestation (WG). Results. We observed reduced growth velocity of limb long bones during the third trimester in both groups, but the reduction was more pronounced in the trisomic group. Brachycephaly was found as early as 15 WG in Down's syndrome and continued throughout gestation (sensitivity 0.28, specificity 1). Ossification of the nasal bones, which can be detected in normal fetuses from 14 WG, was absent in one quarter of trisomic fetuses, regardless of GA. The middle phalanx of the fifth digit was evaluated by comparison with the distal phalanx (P3) of the same digit. We found that P2 was not ossified in 11/31 trisomic fetuses before 23 WG, and was either not ossified or hypoplastic in 17/29 cases after 24 WG (sensitivity 0.56, specificity 1). Conclusions. Three key skeletal signs were present in trisomic fetuses: brachycephaly, absence of nasal bone ossification, and hypoplasia of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. All these signs are appropriate to prenatal US screening. When present, they fully justify determination of the fetal karyotype by amniocentesis. (orig.)

  9. An exploratory study of relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication in requests for tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Gordon, Nahida H

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the effects of tissue requesters' relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families' final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N = 1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation.

  10. Balancing hope and despair at the end of life: The contribution of organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wendy; Sque, Magi

    2016-04-01

    Concern for the grieving family can moderate the intentions of critical care staff to advocate deceased organ and tissue donation. Conversely, benevolent actions may provoke distress through missed opportunities to save or transform lives. This article provides insight into the perceived benefits of organ and tissue donation for grieving families who experienced end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Data were collected via semistructured, face-to-face or telephone interviews with 43 participants from 31 donor families. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study findings affirmed the importance of person-centered end-of-life care. Donor families shared examples of good-quality care and communication that contained the hallmarks of compassion, respect, dignity, and choice. We uncovered a trajectory of hope and despair in which the option of organ and tissue donation appeared to give meaning to the life and death of the deceased person and was comforting to some families in their bereavement. Our study findings underlined the significance of donation decision making for grieving families. Organ and tissue donation has the potential to balance hope and despair at the end of life when the wishes of the dying, deceased, and bereaved are fulfilled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conductometric titration to determine total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) for post-mortem interval (PMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Xiandun; Liu, Beibei; Mo, Yaonan

    2016-11-01

    Precise measurement of cadaver decomposition rate is the basis to accurate post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. There are many approaches explored in recent years, however, it is still unsolved completely. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), which is an important index to predict meat freshness and shelf life in food science, could serve as an indicator for measuring PMI associated decomposition rate of cadavers. The aim of this work was to establish a practical method to determine TVB-N in cadaver soft tissues (mainly skeletal muscle) for measuring decomposition rate. Determination of TVB-N in the simulation and animal experiments was conducted by steam distillation and conductometric titration using Kjeldahl distillation unit and conductivity meter. In simulation, standard concentrations of ammonium were used as TVB analogies, TVB-N contents were determined and the recovery rates of nitrogen were calculated. In animal experiment, TVB-N in skeletal muscle of forty-two rats was determined at different PMIs for 312 h at 24 °C ± 1 °C. The relationship between PMI and TVB-N was investigated also. The method showed high precision with 99%-100% recovery rates. TVB-N in skeletal muscle changed significantly with PMI especially after 24 h, and the data fit well to y = 3.35 E -5 x 3 -2.17 E -2 x 2 +6.13x-85.82 (adj. R 2  = 0.985). EC i (initial electrical conductivity in the samples just before titration) had positive linear relationship to final measured TVB-N values, y = 1.98x+16.16 (adj. R 2  = 0.985). The overall results demonstrated that the method is accurate, rapid and flexible, which could be expected as a basic technique for measuring decomposition rate in later PMI-estimation researches. Further studies are needed to validate our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical and post mortem analysis of combat neck injury used to inform a novel coverage of armour tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Fryer, R; Hare, J; Delaney, R; Hunt, N C; Lewis, E A; Clasper, J C

    2015-04-01

    There is a requirement in the Ministry of Defence for an objective method of comparing the area of coverage of different body armour designs for future applications. Existing comparisons derived from surface wound mapping are limited in that they can only demonstrate the skin entry wound location. The Coverage of Armour Tool (COAT) is a novel three-dimensional model capable of comparing the coverage provided by body armour designs, but limited information exists as to which anatomical structures require inclusion. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of COAT, in the assessment of neck protection, using clinically relevant injury data. Hospital notes and post mortem records of all UK soldiers injured by an explosive fragment to the neck between 01 Jan 2006 and 31 December 2012 from Iraq and Afghanistan were analysed to determine which anatomical structures were responsible for death or functional disability at one year post injury. Using COAT a comparison of three ballistic neck collar designs was undertaken with reference to the percentage of these anatomical structures left exposed. 13/81 (16%) survivors demonstrated complications at one year, most commonly upper limb weakness from brachial plexus injury or a weak voice from laryngeal trauma. In 14/94 (15%) soldiers the neck wound was believed to have been the sole cause of death, primarily from carotid artery damage, spinal cord transection or rupture of the larynx. COAT objectively demonstrated that despite the larger OSPREY collar having almost double the surface area than the two-piece prototype collar, the percentage area of vulnerable cervical structures left exposed only reduced from 16.3% to 14.4%. COAT demonstrated its ability to objectively quantify the potential effectiveness of different body armour designs in providing coverage of vulnerable anatomical structures from different shot line orientations. To improve its utility, it is recommended that COAT be further developed to enable weapon

  13. Family perspectives on organ and tissue donation for transplantation: a principlist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marcelo José; Feito, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not." For the treatment of qualitative data, we chose the method of content analysis and categorical thematic analysis. The study involved 18 nurses who worked in three municipal organ procurement organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, and who conducted family interviews for organ donation. Ethical considerations: The data were collected after approval of the study by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results were classified into four categories and three subcategories. The categories are the principles adopted by principlist bioethics. The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice permeate the family interview and reveal their importance in the organs and tissues donation process for transplantation. The analysis of family interviews for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation with a focus on principlist bioethics indicates that the process involves many ethical considerations. The elucidation of these aspects contributes to the discussion, training, and improvement of professionals, whether nurses or not, who work in organ procurement organizations and can improve the curriculum of existing training programs for transplant coordinators who pursue ethics in donation and transplantation as their foundation.

  14. Post mortem investigations of the NPP Greifswald WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhknecht, Jan; Viehrig, Hans-Werner; Weiss, Frank-Peter; Rindelhardt, Udo [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Safety Research; Keller, Werner [Studsvik GmbH und Co. KG, Stutensee (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents first results of the post mortem investigations performed at the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of the Russian WWER-440 type reactors. Trepans were taken from the core weld SN0.1.4 and base metal of the unit 1 RPV. This RPV was annealed after 15 years of operation and operated for two more years. At first the trepan of the core welding seam was investigated by Master Curve (MC) testing. Specimens from 5 locations through the thickness of the welding seam were tested according to ASTM E1921-05. The reference temperature T{sub 0} was calculated with the measured fracture toughness values, K{sub Jc}, at brittle failure of the specimen. Generally the K{sub Jc} values measured on pre-cracked and side-grooved Charpy size SE(B) specimens of the investigated weld metal follow the course of the Master Curve. The K{sub Jc} values show a remarkable scatter. More values than expected lie below the 5% fractile. In addition the MC SINTAP procedure was applied to determine T{sub 0}{sup SINTAP} of the brittle fraction of the data set. There are remarkable differences between T{sub 0} and T{sub 0}{sup SINTAP} indicating macroscopic inhomogeneous weld metal. The highest T{sub 0} was about 50 C at a distance of 22 mm from the inner surface of the weld. It is 40 K higher compared with T{sub 0} at the inner surface. This is important for the assessment of ductile-to-brittle temperatures measured with sub size Charpy specimens made of weld metal from the inner RPV wall. This material may not represent the most conservative condition. The results presented in this paper show that the Master Curve approach as adopted in the test standard ASTM E1921-05 is applicable to the investigated WWER-440 multilayer weld metal. The results are of direct importance for an advanced WWER-440 RPV integrity assessment. On the other hand the data pool is broadened for a general introduction of the MC based RPV integrity assessment in the national codes. Furthermore general experiences in

  15. Compressive rib fracture: peri-mortem and post-mortem trauma patterns in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A; Weller, Sarah; Swain, Michael V; Neil Waddell, J; Das, Raj

    2013-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on high impact fractures of ribs, little is known about compressive rib injuries. We studied rib fractures from a biomechanical and morphological perspective using 15, 5th ribs of domestic pigs Sus scrofa, divided into two groups, desiccated (representing post-mortem trauma) and fresh ribs with intact periosteum (representing peri-mortem trauma). Ribs were axially compressed and subjected to four-point bending in an Instron 3339 fitted with custom jigs. Morphoscopic analysis of resultant fractures consisted of standard optical methods, micro-CT (μCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). During axial compression, fresh ribs had slightly higher strength because of energy absorption capabilities of their soft and fluidic components. In flexure tests, dry ribs showed typical elastic-brittle behaviour with long linear load-extension curves, followed by relatively short non-linear elastic (hyperelastic) behaviour and brittle fracture. Fresh ribs showed initial linear-elastic behaviour, followed by strain softening, visco-plastic responses. During the course of loading, dry bone showed minimal observable damage prior to the onset of unstable fracture. In contrast, fresh bone showed buckling-like damage features on the compressive surface and cracking parallel to the axis of the bone. Morphologically, all dry ribs fractured precipitously, whereas all but one of the fresh ribs showed incomplete fracture. The mode of fracture, however, was remarkably similar for both groups, with butterfly fractures predominating (7/15, 46.6% dry and wet). Our study highlights the fact that under controlled loading, despite seemingly similar butterfly fracture morphology, fresh ribs (representing perimortem trauma) show a non-catastrophic response. While extensive strain softening observed for the fresh bone does show some additional micro-cracking damage, it appears that the periosteum may play a key role in imparting the observed pseudo-ductility to the ribs

  16. Post mortem investigations of the NPP Greifswald WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhknecht, Jan; Viehrig, Hans-Werner; Weiss, Frank-Peter; Rindelhardt, Udo

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents first results of the post mortem investigations performed at the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of the Russian WWER-440 type reactors. Trepans were taken from the core weld SN0.1.4 and base metal of the unit 1 RPV. This RPV was annealed after 15 years of operation and operated for two more years. At first the trepan of the core welding seam was investigated by Master Curve (MC) testing. Specimens from 5 locations through the thickness of the welding seam were tested according to ASTM E1921-05. The reference temperature T 0 was calculated with the measured fracture toughness values, K Jc , at brittle failure of the specimen. Generally the K Jc values measured on pre-cracked and side-grooved Charpy size SE(B) specimens of the investigated weld metal follow the course of the Master Curve. The K Jc values show a remarkable scatter. More values than expected lie below the 5% fractile. In addition the MC SINTAP procedure was applied to determine T 0 SINTAP of the brittle fraction of the data set. There are remarkable differences between T 0 and T 0 SINTAP indicating macroscopic inhomogeneous weld metal. The highest T 0 was about 50 C at a distance of 22 mm from the inner surface of the weld. It is 40 K higher compared with T 0 at the inner surface. This is important for the assessment of ductile-to-brittle temperatures measured with sub size Charpy specimens made of weld metal from the inner RPV wall. This material may not represent the most conservative condition. The results presented in this paper show that the Master Curve approach as adopted in the test standard ASTM E1921-05 is applicable to the investigated WWER-440 multilayer weld metal. The results are of direct importance for an advanced WWER-440 RPV integrity assessment. On the other hand the data pool is broadened for a general introduction of the MC based RPV integrity assessment in the national codes. Furthermore general experiences in the cutting of irradiated RPV steels are collected

  17. Human decomposition and the reliability of a 'Universal' model for post mortem interval estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockle, Diane L; Bell, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    Human decomposition is a complex biological process driven by an array of variables which are not clearly understood. The medico-legal community have long been searching for a reliable method to establish the post-mortem interval (PMI) for those whose deaths have either been hidden, or gone un-noticed. To date, attempts to develop a PMI estimation method based on the state of the body either at the scene or at autopsy have been unsuccessful. One recent study has proposed that two simple formulae, based on the level of decomposition humidity and temperature, could be used to accurately calculate the PMI for bodies outside, on or under the surface worldwide. This study attempted to validate 'Formula I' [1] (for bodies on the surface) using 42 Canadian cases with known PMIs. The results indicated that bodies exposed to warm temperatures consistently overestimated the known PMI by a large and inconsistent margin for Formula I estimations. And for bodies exposed to cold and freezing temperatures (less than 4°C), then the PMI was dramatically under estimated. The ability of 'Formulae II' to estimate the PMI for buried bodies was also examined using a set of 22 known Canadian burial cases. As these cases used in this study are retrospective, some of the data needed for Formula II was not available. The 4.6 value used in Formula II to represent the standard ratio of time that burial decelerates the rate of decomposition was examined. The average time taken to achieve each stage of decomposition both on, and under the surface was compared for the 118 known cases. It was found that the rate of decomposition was not consistent throughout all stages of decomposition. The rates of autolysis above and below the ground were equivalent with the buried cases staying in a state of putrefaction for a prolonged period of time. It is suggested that differences in temperature extremes and humidity levels between geographic regions may make it impractical to apply formulas developed in

  18. Perceptions about tissue donation for medical research among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue banking refers to a structured and organized resource collection of tissue. Recent advances in research technology and knowledge in the fields of human genetics/ genomics highlights the need to maintain a steady supply of tissue for researchers. Objective: To assess the perception and willingness of ...

  19. Microstructural analysis of geopolymer developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin; Analise microestrutural de geopolimero desenvolvido a partir de cinza de olaria, tijolo refratario dolomitico post-mortem e metacaulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jailes de Santana; Mafra, Marcio Paulo de Araujo; Rabelo, Adriano Alves; Fagury, Renata Lilian Ribeiro Portugal; Fagury Neto, Elias, E-mail: jailesmoura@hotmail.com, E-mail: fagury@unifesspa.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    Geopolymers are one of the widely discussed topics of materials science in recent times due to its vast potential as an alternative binder material to cement. This work aimed to evaluate the microstructure of geopolymers developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin. A preliminary study has been completed and achieved significant results compressive strength: the best formulation of geopolymer paste obtained approximately 25 MPa. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy, the geopolymer paste, allowed to verify the homogeneity, distribution of components, and providing evidence of raw materials that do not respond if there was crystalline phase, porosity and density of the structure. (author)

  20. Post-mortem magnetic resonance foetal imaging: a study of morphological correlation with conventional autopsy and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Annamaria; Panebianco, Valeria; Cannavale, Giuseppe; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Cipolloni, Luigi; Frati, Paola; Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Francesco; Catalano, Carlo; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to offer our experience concerning post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) in foetal death cases and an evaluation of the differences between the findings acquired by PMMR and by forensic autopsy. Fifteen foetuses were recruited from July 2014 to December 2015. These had suffered intrauterine death in women in the 21st to 38th week of gestation who were treated in the emergency department for non-perception of foetal movements. We performed a PMMR on foetuses, 3 ± 1 days on average from the time of death, and then a complete forensic autopsy was performed. All 15 foetuses were examined with a whole-body study protocol, starting from the skull, down to and including the lower limbs. The total time of examination ranged from 20 to 30 min in each case. The external evaluation and description of post-mortem phenomena (maceration), record of the weight and detection and the various measurements of foetal diameters were evaluated before performing autopsy. A complete histopathological study was performed in each case. Out of 15 cases examined, eight were negative for structural anatomical abnormalities and/or diseases, both in the preliminary radiological examination and the traditional autopsy. In the remaining seven cases, pathological findings were detected by PMMR with corresponding results at autopsy. PMMR can provide useful information on foetal medical conditions and result in improved diagnostic classification. It may enable the planning of a more suitable technique before proceeding to autopsy, including focusing on certain aspects of organ pathology otherwise not detectable. The association between PMMR, post-mortem examination and related histological study of the foetus-placenta unit could help reduce the percentage of cases in which the cause of foetal death remains unexplained. Lastly, it may allow a selective sampling of the organ in order to target histological investigations.

  1. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here. Case presentation A formerly healthy 40 year-old male became symptomatic 10 days after spending time in the jungle of North Borneo. Four days later, he presented to hospital in a state of collapse and died within two hours. He was hyponatraemic and had elevated blood urea, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase values; he was also thrombocytopenic and eosinophilic. Dengue haemorrhagic shock was suspected and a post-mortem examination performed. Investigations for dengue virus were negative. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia and single species P. knowlesi infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Macroscopic pathology of the brain and endocardium showed multiple petechial haemorrhages, the liver and spleen were enlarged and lungs had features consistent with ARDS. Microscopic pathology showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart and kidney without evidence of chronic inflammatory reaction in the brain or any other organ examined. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of acute tubular necrosis and endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Conclusions The overall picture in this case was one of systemic malaria infection that fit the WHO classification for severe malaria. Post-mortem findings in this case were unexpectedly similar to those that define fatal falciparum malaria, including cerebral pathology. There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the brain. These results suggest that further

  2. Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Coronary Stenosis in Asymptomatic North Indian Population: A Post-mortem Coronary Angiography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Yogender Singh; Mandal, Shatrugan Prasad; Kumar, Senthil; Setia, Puneet

    2015-09-01

    A preliminary study of coronaries using post-mortem angiography was undertaken to see the prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis in non-cardiac unnatural deaths. This study was conducted in a tertiary care centre located in Chandigarh. A total of 128 medico-legal cases were studied comprising 88 males and 40 females. Post-mortem examinations of these MLC cases were conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh. All hearts were visually screened by post-mortem coronary angiography first and then grossly examined using serial transverse incision technique in positive screening cases to find the degree of narrowing. Of the study group, 34% males and 20% females showed evidence of narrowing on angiography. Of the males showing coronary stenosis, 83% had single vessel disease and 13% had double vessel disease, while only one individual had triple vessel disease. In cases of female, all the cases of coronary stenosis were single vessel disease. Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was the most common vessel involved, followed by right coronary artery (RCA) & Left circumflex artery (LCX) and in cases of double vessel disease, LAD in combination with LCX was responsible for 75% of the cases. Remarkably 23.6% of study population in the age group of less than 40 years showed appreciable narrowing in at least one of the coronaries. In general, the prevalence of CAD is on the rise, particularly in younger population owing to the changes in their lifestyle and food habits. This preliminary study revealed evidence of narrowing of at least one coronary in 34% male and 20% female population and 23.6% subjects were less than 40 years old. Further detailed studies are needed especially in younger age group and to support the need for preventive cardiology in the early years of life.

  3. Hippocampal Microbleed on a Post-Mortem T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo 7.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Reuck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present post-mortem study of a brain from an Alzheimer patient showed on a T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0-T MRI of a coronal brain section a hyposignal in the hippocampus, suggesting a microbleed. On the corresponding histological examination, only iron deposits around the granular cellular layer and in blood vessel walls of the hippocampus were observed without evidence of a bleeding. This case report illustrates that the detection of microbleeds on MRI has to be interpreted with caution.

  4. Neither property right nor heroic gift, neither sacrifice nor aporia: the benefit of the theoretical lens of sharing in donation ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Two ethical frameworks have dominated the discussion of organ donation for long: that of property rights and that of gift-giving. However, recent years have seen a drastic rise in the number of philosophical analyses of the meaning of giving and generosity, which has been mirrored in ethical debates on organ donation and in critical sociological, anthropological and ethnological work on the gift metaphor in this context. In order to capture the flourishing of this field, this article distinguishes between four frameworks for thinking about bodily exchanges in medicine: those of property rights, heroic gift-giving, sacrifice, and gift-giving as aporia. These frameworks represent four different ways of making sense of donation of organs as well as tissue, gametes and blood, draw on different conceptions of the relations between the self and the other, and bring out different ethical issues as core ones. The article presents these frameworks, argues that all of them run into difficulties when trying to make sense of reciprocity and relational interdependence in donation, and shows how the three gift-giving frameworks (of heroism, sacrifice and aporia) hang together in a critical discussion about what is at stake in organ donation. It also presents and argues in favour of an alternative intercorporeal framework of giving-through-sharing that more thoroughly explicates the gift metaphor in the context of donation, and offers tools for making sense of relational dimensions of live and post mortem donations.

  5. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  6. Trace elements distribution and post-mortem intake in human bones from Middle Age by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Lima, M.T.; Reus, U.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the suitability of TXRF technique to study the distribution of trace elements along human bones of the 13th century, to conclude about environmental conditions and dietary habits of old populations and to study the uptake of some elements from the surrounding soil. In this work, we used TXRF to quantify and to make profiles of the elements through long bones. Two femur bones, one from a man and another from a woman, buried in the same grave were cross-sectioned in four different points at a distance of 1 cm. Microsamples of each section were taken at a distance of 1 mm from each other. Quantitative analysis was performed for Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb. Very high concentrations of Mn and Fe were obtained in the whole analysed samples, reaching values higher than 2% in some samples of trabecular tissue, very much alike to the concentrations in the burial soil. A sharp decrease for both elements was observed in cortical tissue. Zn and Sr present steady concentration levels in both kinds of bone tissues. Pb and Cu show very low concentrations in the inner tissue of cortical bone. However, these concentrations increase in the regions in contact to trabecular tissue and external surface in contact with the soil, where high levels of both elements were found. We suggest that contamination from the surrounding soil exists for Mn and Fe in the whole bone tissue. Pb can be both from post-mortem and ante-mortem origin. Inner compact tissue might represent in vivo accumulation and trabecular one corresponds to uptake during burial. The steady levels of Sr and Zn together with soil concentration lower levels for these elements may allow us to conclude that they are originated from in vivo incorporation in the hydroxyapatite bone matrix

  7. Perceptions of the gift relationship in organ and tissue donation: Views of intensivists and donor and recipient coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rhonda

    2010-02-01

    The international literature on organ donation and transplantation has drawn attention to the popularity of "gift of life" discourse among pro-donation advocates, transplantation specialists, and within organisations lobbying for improved donation rates to promote the benefits of organ donation among members of the general public. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, gift of life discourse is robust. Aside from attempts to elicit altruism by promoting tissue donation in the public domain, gift terminology separates the act of donation from that of commerce and the commodification of body tissues. In distancing donation from commodification and the potential to degrade and exploit human beings, it is assumed that gift discourse transmits the positive message that donation is a noble and morally worthy act. Recent sociological research has shown that assumptions of the gift as one-way and altruistic do not necessarily align with people's perceptions and experience of donating body tissues, and that the vocabulary used to describe these acts is often at variance with reality. This article draws on interview data with 15 critical care specialists (intensivists) and donor and recipient coordinators, examining their perceptions of the relevance of gift discourse and its applicability in the context of deceased donation in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The data indicate several problems with gift rhetoric to describe the situations health professionals encounter. In sum, gift terminology tends to downplay the sacrifice involved in tissue donation generally, as well as depoliticising the exchange relations of tissue transfer in contemporary consumer culture and in the global context. This raises questions about the underlying ethics of language choice and what, if anything, empirical accounts of tissue transfer can contribute to ethical debates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying the Health Belief Model and an Integrated Behavioral Model to Promote Breast Tissue Donation Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Autumn; Kaufhold, Kelly; Luo, Yunjuan

    2018-07-01

    An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population. This study builds on prior work promoting breast cancer screenings among Asian women by applying constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) to investigate why Asian-American women are less inclined to donate their healthy breast tissue than non-Asian women and how this population may be motivated to donate in the future. A national online survey (N = 1,317) found Asian women had significantly lower perceived severity, some lower perceived benefits, and higher perceived barriers to tissue donation than non-Asian women under HBM and significantly lower injunctive norms supporting breast tissue donation, lower perceived behavioral control, and lower intentions to donate under IBM. This study also compares and discusses similarities and differences among East, Southeast, and South Asian women on these same constructs.

  9. Prevalence and concordance between the clinical and the post-mortem diagnosis of dementia in a psychogeriatric clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandal Leiros, B; Pérez Méndez, L I; Zelaya Huerta, M V; Moreno Eguinoa, L; García-Bragado, F; Tuñón Álvarez, T; Roldán Larreta, J J

    The aim of our study is to describe the types of dementia found in a series of patients and to estimate the level of agreement between the clinical diagnosis and post-mortem diagnosis. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of the types of dementia found in our series and we established the level of concordance between the clinical and the post-mortem diagnoses. The diagnosis was made based on current diagnostic criteria. 114 cases were included. The most common clinical diagnoses both at a clinical and autopsy level were Alzheimer disease and mixed dementia but the prevalence was quite different. While at a clinical level, prevalence was 39% for Alzheimer disease and 18% for mixed dementia, in the autopsy level, prevalence was 22% and 34%, respectively. The agreement between the clinical and the autopsy diagnoses was 62% (95% CI 53-72%). Almost a third of our patients were not correctly diagnosed in vivo. The most common mistake was the underdiagnosis of cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-mortem hemoparasite detection in free-living Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia Angélica Gonçalves da; Rabelo, Elida Mara Leite; Lima, Paula Cristina Senra; Chaves, Bárbara Neves; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne infections can result in serious health problems for wild ruminants, and some of these infectious agents can be considered zoonosis. The aim of the present study was the post-mortem detection of hemoparasites in free-living Mazama gouazoubira from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The deer samples consisted of free-living M. gouazoubira (n = 9) individuals that died after capture. Necropsy examinations of the carcasses were performed to search for macroscopic alterations. Organ samples were collected for subsequent imprint slides, and nested PCR assays were performed to detect hemoparasite species. Imprint slide assays from four deer showed erythrocytes infected with Piroplasmida small trophozoites, and A. marginale corpuscles were observed in erythrocytes from two animals. A. marginale and trophozoite co-infections occurred in two deer. A nested PCR analysis of the organs showed that six of the nine samples were positive for Theileria sp., five were positive for A. phagocytophilum and three were positive for A. marginale, with co-infection occurring in four deer. The results of the present study demonstrate that post-mortem diagnostics using imprint slides and molecular assays are an effective method for detecting hemoparasites in organs.

  11. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Postgraduation School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan (Italy); Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ' L. Mangiagalli' , Milan (Italy); Rizzuti, Tommaso [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Pathology Unit, Milan (Italy); Triulzi, Fabio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Milan (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  12. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria; Conte, Giorgio; Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola; Rizzuti, Tommaso; Triulzi, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  13. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.

  14. Post mortem magnetic resonance imaging in the fetus, infant and child: A comparative study with conventional autopsy (MaRIAS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayyil Sudhin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system

  15. Back to the Future - Part 2. Post-mortem assessment and evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Cecchi, Rossana; Favretto, Donata; Grabherr, Silke; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kondo, Toshikazu; Montisci, Massimo; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; Shokry, Dina; Vennemann, Marielle; Bajanowski, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Part 2 of the review "Back to the Future" is dedicated to the evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences, reporting the historical profiles, the state of the art, and prospects for future development of the main related techniques and methods of the ancillary disciplines that have risen to the role of "autonomous" sciences, namely, Genetics and Genomics, Toxicology, Radiology, and Imaging, involved in historic synergy in the "post-mortem assessment," together with the mother discipline Legal Medicine, by way of its primary fundament, universally denominated as Forensic Pathology. The evolution of the scientific research and the increased accuracy of the various disciplines will be oriented towards the elaboration of an "algorithm," able to weigh the value of "evidence" placed at the disposal of the "justice system" as real truth and proof.

  16. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  17. Rapid determination of quetiapine in blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to post-mortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guarnido, Olga; Tabernero, María Jesús; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Bermejo, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive method for the determination of quetiapine in human blood has been developed and validated. The method involved a basic liquid-liquid extraction procedure and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, previous derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro-acetamide and chorotrimethylsilane (99 : 1). The methods of validation included linearity with a correlation coefficient > 0.99 over the range 0.02-1 µg ml(-1), intra- and interday precision (always < 12%) and accuracy (mean relative error always < 12%) to meet the bioanalytical acceptance criteria. The limit of detection was 0.005 µg ml(-1). The procedure was further applied to post mortems from the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Overview of JET post-mortem results following the 2007-9 operational period, and comparisons with previous campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, J P; Gruenhagen, S; Widdowson, A; Hole, D E; Hakola, A; Koivuranta, S; Likonen, J; Rubel, M

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, all the plasma-facing components were removed from JET so that the carbon-based surfaces could be replaced with beryllium (Be) or tungsten as part of the ITER-like wall (ILW) project. This gives unprecedented opportunities for post-mortem analyses of these plasma-facing surfaces; this paper reviews the data obtained so far and relates the information to studies of tiles removed during previous JET shutdowns. The general pattern of erosion/deposition at the JET divertor has been maintained, with deposition of impurities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) at the inner divertor and preferential removal of carbon and transport into the corner. However, the remaining films in the SOL contain very high Be/C ratios at the surface. The first measurements of erosion using a tile profiler have been completed, with up to 200 microns erosion being recorded at points on the inner wall guard limiters.

  19. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (pblood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of

  20. Post-Mortem Analysis after High-Power Operation of the TD24_R05 Tested in Xbox_1

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Mouriz Irazabal, Nerea; Aicheler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The CLIC prototype structure TD24_R05 has been high power tested in Xbox_1 in 2013. This report summarizes all examinations conducted after the high power test including bead-pull measurements, structure cutting, metrology and SEM observations. A synthesis of the various results is then made. The structure developed a hot cell progressively during operation and detuning was observed after the test was complete. The post mortem examination clearly showed a developed standing wave pattern which was explained by the physical deformation of one of the coupler iris. An elevated breakdown count through SEM imaging in the suspected hot cell however could not be confirmed. Neither any particular feature offering an explanation for the observed longitudinal breakdown distribution could be detected.

  1. Development of fetal brain of 20 weeks gestational age: Assessment with post-mortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghe; Liu Shuwei; Lin Xiangtao; Teng Gaojun; Yu Taifei; Fang Fang; Zang Fengchao

    2011-01-01

    Background: The 20th week gestational age (GA) is at mid-gestation and corresponds to the age at which the termination of pregnancy in several countries and the first Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be performed, and at which the premature babies may survive. However, at present, very little is known about the exact anatomical character at this GA. Objective: To delineate the developing fetal brain of 20 weeks GA and obtain the three dimensional visualization model. Materials and methods: 20 fetal specimens were scanned by 3.0 T and 7.0 T post-mortem MRI, and the three dimensional visualization model was obtained with Amira 4.1. Results: Most of the sulci or their anlage, except the postcentral sulcus and intraparietal sulcus, were present. The laminar organization, described as layers with different signal intensities, was most clearly distinguished at the parieto-occipital lobe and peripheral regions of the hippocampus. The basal nuclei could be clearly visualized, and the brain stem and cerebellum had formed their common shape. On the visualization model, the shape and relative relationship of the structures could be appropriately delineated. The ranges of normal values of the brain structures were obtained, but no sexual dimorphisms or cerebral asymmetries were found. Conclusions: The developing fetal brain of 20 weeks GA can be clearly delineated on 3.0 T and 7.0 T post-mortem MRIs, and the three dimensional visualization model supplies great help in precise cognition of the immature brain. These results may have positive influences on the evaluation of the fetal brain in the uterus.

  2. "Why throw away something useful?": Attitudes and opinions of people treated for bipolar disorder and their relatives on organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Carolina S; Garcia, Lucas F; Rodrigues, Aline A; Patusco, Lucas M; Atz, Mariana V; Kapczinski, Flavio; Goldim, José R; Magalhães, Pedro V S

    2017-03-01

    In regard to mental illness, brain donation is essential for the biological investigation of central pathology. Nevertheless, little is known about the thoughts of people with mental disorders on tissue donation for research. Here, our objective was to understand the attitudes and opinions of people treated for bipolar disorder and their relatives regarding donation in general, and particularly donation for research. This is a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to determine the thoughts of participants regarding tissue donation for research. Theoretical sampling was used as a recruitment method. Grounded theory was used as a framework for content analyses of the interviews. A semi-structured interview guide was applied with the topics: donation in general; donation for research; mental health and body organs; opinion regarding donation; feelings aroused by the topic. Although all participants were aware of organ donation for transplant, they were surprised that tissue could be donated for research. Nevertheless, once they understood the concept they were usually in favor of the idea. Although participants demonstrated a general lack of knowledge on donation for research, they were willing to learn more and viewed it as a good thing, with altruistic reasons often cited as a motive for donation. We speculate that bridging this knowledge gap may be a fundamental step towards a more ethical postmortem tissue donation process.

  3. Post-mortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of human fetuses: a comparison of 3-T vs. 1.5-T MR imaging with classical autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xin; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Jani, Jacques C. [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fetal Medicine Unit, Brussels (Belgium); Cannie, Mieke M. [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Arthurs, Owen J.; Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Segers, Valerie; Fourneau, Catherine [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Fetopathology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-08-15

    To prospectively compare diagnostic accuracy of fetal post-mortem whole-body MRI at 3-T vs. 1.5-T. Between 2012 and 2015, post-mortem MRI at 1.5-T and 3-T was performed in fetuses after miscarriage/stillbirth or termination. Clinical MRI diagnoses were assessed using a confidence diagnostic score and compared with classical autopsy to derive a diagnostic error score. The relation of diagnostic error for each organ group with gestational age was calculated and 1.5-T with 3-T was compared with accuracy analysis. 135 fetuses at 12-41 weeks underwent post-mortem MRI (followed by conventional autopsy in 92 fetuses). For all organ groups except the brain, and for both modalities, the diagnostic error decreased with gestation (P < 0.0001). 3-T MRI diagnostic error was significantly lower than that of 1.5-T for all anatomic structures and organ groups, except the orbits and brain. This difference was maintained for fetuses <20 weeks gestation. Moreover, 3-T was associated with fewer non-diagnostic scans and greater concordance with classical autopsy than 1.5-T MRI, especially for the thorax, heart and abdomen in fetuses <20 weeks. Post-mortem fetal 3-T MRI improves confidence scores and overall accuracy compared with 1.5-T, mainly for the thorax, heart and abdomen of fetuses <20 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  4. Minimally invasive autopsy employing post-mortem CT and targeted coronary angiography: evaluation of its application to a routine Coronial service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian S D; Traill, Zoe C

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem imaging is a potential alternative to traditional medicolegal autopsy. We investigate the reduction in number of invasive autopsies required by use of post-mortem CT ± coronary angiography. A total of 120 adult deaths referred to the Coroner were investigated by CT, with coronary angiography employed only for the second series of 60 cases, in order to determine the added value of angiography. The confidence of imaging cause of death was classified as definite (no autopsy), probable, possible or unascertained. Invasive autopsy was not required in 38% of cases without coronary angiography and 70% of cases with angiography. Full autopsy, including brain dissection, was required in only 9% of cases. There was complete agreement between autopsy and radiological causes of death in the cases with a 'probable' imaging cause of death, indicating that cases for which imaging provides an accurate cause of death without autopsy were identified correctly. In two patients, CT demonstrated unsuspected fractures, not detected at subsequent autopsy. A two-thirds reduction in the number of invasive coronial autopsies can be achieved by use of post-mortem CT plus coronary angiography. At the same time, use of post-mortem CT may improve accuracy of diagnosis, particularly for traumatic deaths. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of whole-body post mortem 3D CT and autopsy evaluation in accidental blunt force traumatic death using the abbreviated injury scale classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Barry; Abboud, Samir; Ali, Zabiullah; Sliker, Clint; Fowler, David

    2013-02-10

    Although 3D CT imaging data are available on survivors of accidental blunt trauma, little similar data has been collected and classified on major injuries in victims of fatal injuries. This study compared the sensitivity of post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) with that of conventional autopsy for major trauma findings classified according to the trauma Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Whole-body 3D PMCT imaging data and full autopsy findings were analyzed on 21 victims of accidental blunt force trauma death. All major injuries were classified on the AIS scale with ratings from 3 (serious) to 6 (unsurvivable). Agreement between sensitivity of autopsy and PMCT for major injuries was determined. A total of 195 major injuries were detected (mean per fatality, 9.3; range, 1-14). Skeletal injuries by AIS grade included 37 grade 3, 45 grade 4, 12 grade 5, and 2 grade 6 major findings. Soft tissue injuries included 10 grade 3, 68 grade 4, 16 grade 5, and 5 grade 6 major findings. Of these, PMCT detected 165 (88 skeletal, 77 soft tissue), and autopsy detected 127 (59 skeletal, 68 soft tissue). PMCT agreed with autopsy in 86% and 76% of skeletal and soft tissue injuries, respectively. PMCT detected an additional 37 skeletal and 31 soft tissue injuries that were not identified at autopsy. Autopsy detected 8 skeletal and 22 soft tissue injuries that were not detected by PMCT. PMCT was more sensitive for skeletal (P=0.05) and head and neck region injury (P=0.043) detection. PMCT showed a trend for greater sensitivity than autopsy, but this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.083). 3D PMCT detected significantly more skeletal injuries than autopsy and a similar number of soft tissue injuries to autopsy and promises to be a sensitive tool for detection and classification of skeletal injuries in fatal blunt force accidental trauma. Use of the AIS scale allows standardized categorization and quantification of injuries that contribute to death in such cases and allows more

  6. Effects of argon laser on atheromatous plaques. A preliminary study on post-mortem arterial specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernes, J.M.; Angel, C.Y.; Brenot, P.; Bruneval, P.; Camilleri, J.P.; Gaux, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of argon laser radiation of human atheroma were studied in vitro. Lesions produced were craters from total tissue volatilization surrounded by a thin zone of coagulation. The degree of tissue destruction was related to the energy used and the direction of the laser beam in relation to the atheromatous stenotic lesion. These findings confirm that it is possible to destroy the atheroma under controlled conditions, but a the non-negligeable risk of perforation. By allowing visual control, the angioscope should ensure increased safety in use and provide hope for future applications of this method by the percutaneous route in the treatment of established atheromatous disease [fr

  7. Diagnostic accuracy and limitations of post-mortem MRI for neurological abnormalities in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, O.J.; Thayyil, S.; Pauliah, S.S.; Jacques, T.S.; Chong, W.K.; Gunny, R.; Saunders, D.; Addison, S.; Lally, P.; Cady, E.; Jones, R.; Norman, W.; Scott, R.; Robertson, N.J.; Wade, A.; Chitty, L.; Taylor, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive cerebral post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) specifically for cerebral and neurological abnormalities in a series of fetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Materials and methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. Pre-autopsy cerebral PMMRI was performed in a sequential prospective cohort (n = 400) of fetuses (n = 277; 185 ≤ 24 weeks and 92 > 24 weeks gestation) and children <16 years (n = 123) of age. PMMRI and conventional autopsy findings were reported blinded and independently of each other. Results: Cerebral PMMRI had sensitivities and specificities (95% confidence interval) of 88.4% (75.5 to 94.9), and 95.2% (92.1 to 97.1), respectively, for cerebral malformations; 100% (83.9 to 100), and 99.1% (97.2 to 99.7) for major intracranial bleeds; and 87.5% (80.1 to 92.4) and 74.1% (68 to 79.4) for overall brain pathology. Formal neuropathological examination was non-diagnostic due to maceration/autolysis in 43/277 (16%) fetuses; of these, cerebral PMMRI imaging provided clinically important information in 23 (53%). The sensitivity of PMMRI for detecting significant ante-mortem ischaemic injury was only 68% (48.4 to 82.8) overall. Conclusions: PMMRI is an accurate investigational technique for identifying significant neuropathology in fetuses and children, and may provide important information even in cases where autolysis prevents formal neuropathological examination; however, PMMRI is less sensitive at detecting hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury, and may not detect rarer disorders not encountered in this study. -- Highlights: •Post mortem MRI (PMMRI) has a sensitivity of >87% for detecting cerebral malformations, intracranial bleeds and neurological cause of death. •PMMRI provides important diagnostic information in >50% of fetuses where conventional brain autopsy is non-diagnostic. •PMMRI is currently poor at reliably identifying

  8. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Igari, Yui, E-mail: igari@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosoya, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  9. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Usui, Akihito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Igari, Yui; Hosoya, Tadashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Funayama, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  10. DNA quality and quantity from up to 16 years old post-mortem blood stored on FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; de Leeuw, Wiljo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples preserved on FTA cards offer unique opportunities for genetic research. DNA recovered from these cards should be stable for long periods of time. However, it is not well established as how well the DNA stored on FTA card for substantial time periods meets the demands of forensic or genomic DNA analyses and especially so for from post-mortem (PM) samples in which the quality can vary upon initial collection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent degradation on DNA quality and quantity extracted from up to 16 years old post-mortem bloodstained FTA cards. Four random FTA samples from eight time points spanning 1998 to 2013 (n=32) were collected and extracted in triplicate. The quantity and quality of the extracted DNA samples were determined with Quantifiler(®) Human Plus (HP) Quantification kit. Internal sample and sample-to-sample variation were evaluated by comparing recovered DNA yields. The DNA from the triplicate samplings were subsequently combined and normalized for further analysis. The practical effect of degradation on DNA quality was evaluated from normalized samples both with forensic and pharmacogenetic target markers. Our results suggest that (1) a PM change, e.g. blood clotting prior to sampling, affects the recovered DNA yield, creating both internal and sample-to-sample variation; (2) a negative correlation between the FTA card storage time and DNA quantity (r=-0.836 at the 0.01 level) was observed; (3) a positive correlation (r=0.738 at the level 0.01) was found between FTA card storage time and degradation levels. However, no inhibition was observed with the method used. The effect of degradation was manifested clearly with functional applications. Although complete STR-profiles were obtained for all samples, there was evidence of degradation manifested as decreased peak heights in the larger-sized amplicons. Lower amplification success was notable with the large 5.1 kb CYP2D6 gene fragment which strongly supports

  11. [Gunshot wounds caused by non-lethal ammunition on the porcine model post-mortem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocký, Peter; Pivko, Juraj; Vondráková, Mária; Tažký, Boris

    2013-10-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of so called non-lethal ammunition. We studied possible mechanism of firearm injury formation as a consequence of using firearm on the body, to present a more comprehensive material in wound ballistics. We pointed out possible actions of a projectile causes on human, respectively other animal organisms, as well as to a manner in which an injury is caused by rifles or shotguns using non-lethal ammunition with rubber projectiles. In the experiment, we have focused on macroscopic analysis of the tissue penetrated by a rubber projectile fired from a long firearm and pump-action shotgun while focusing on the anatomical-morphological analysis of entry wounds to determine the effectiveness respectively, the wounding potential of the projectile. The results of the experiment based on the macroscopic analysis of entry wounds, cavities and exit wounds, show that when a rubber projectile penetrates the body it causes loss of the tissue (i.e. the minus effect) and mechanical disruption of the tissue similar to lethal projectile. Based on the measures and ballistic computations we concluded that in specific cases, like for example in a close range hit, a penetration of vital organs can cause serious or even lethal injuries.

  12. Cause marketing for tissue and organ donation to increase public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; Neely, D.; Warnack, K.; Willits, M.; Yriondo, L.

    1999-01-01

    Today the science of marketing is being applied more and more to increase the rate of tissue and organ donation in the United States. To benefit from the proven tools and techniques of successful marketing in the for-profit world transplantation agencies across the country are turning to integrated marketing communications strategies and strategic partnerships to help achieve their goals.The methods used in cause marketing include: Establishing clear and measurable outcomes and goals; building a marketing plan and timeline to achieve the goals; gathering resources (funding, personnel, organizations, partnerships) to execute the plan, implementation, and measurement of outcomes. This session will review the Tissue and Organ Donation campaign implemented in the Northwest and will touch on the national awareness program developed by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the United States. Segments of the Northwest's integrated campaign will include market segmentation strategies and targeted marketing, campaign development, public service advertising and public education campaigns. Media utilized include print, bus signs and billboards, broadcast (radio and TV), video and the internet. Strategies include public service advertising, paid advertising through sponsorships, direct mail, workshops and public speaking. The success of traditional product marketing can be achieved in cause marketing with a long-term, focused public education campaign. The potential benefit to the international community warrants exploration of similar strategies to overcome cultural resistance to life saving transplantation

  13. [Macroscopical estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) and exclusion of the forensically relevant resting period--a comparison of data presented in the literature with recent osteological findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Stephanie; Fiedler, Sabine; Graw, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine to what extent macroscopical parameters mentioned in the literature are suitable for the estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) and particularly for the exclusion of the forensically relevant resting period for recent bone material. The macroscopical examination of recent bone material with a known PMI showed that only one published parameter (relics of adipocere in the cross section of the compacta) was consistent with our findings for this particular resting period (27-28 years). Other macroscopical parameters presented in the literature were contradictory to the results observed in this study. Among those are the rigidity of bones, the adhesion of soft tissue, the filling of the marrow cavity, and the permeation of the epiphyses with adipocere. Concerning the exclusion of the forensically relevant resting period, a similar result was observed. This study identified some diagnostic findings in bones with a resting period of less than 50 years which according to the literature should only be present after a resting period of more than 50 years. These features included the lack of macroscopical traces of adipocere, degradation of the compacta surface, detachment of the cortical substance, the ability of bone to be broken with bare hands, and superficial usures. Moreover, in one-third of our cases we identified some intra-individual differences not previously described in the literature. In addition to the other results, those intra-individual differences make an estimation of the PMI more difficult. However it should be noted that those published parameters were collected from bone material which was stored in a "relatively arid sand-grit-clay soil of the broken stone layer of Munich". The bones in the present study were stored in acidic and clayey-loamy soil, partly with lateral water flow. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that one should use caution estimating the post mortem interval and excluding

  14. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Elliott, Marina [Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

  15. Properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2013-04-01

    The properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat meat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions were evaluated. The conditions evaluated were: cooking of meat within 1-2 h post-slaughter (condition 1); deboning meat storage at 25 ± 2 °C for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 2); post-slaughter storage of carcass at room temperature for 5-6 h, then deboning followed by storage of meat at refrigeration temperature for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 3); deboning and storage of meat at 25 ± 2 °C for 10-12 h and cooking (condition 4). Significant difference was observed in pH values in condition 1 (p meat as compared to the conditions 2, 3 and 4. However, the moisture content of cooked meat was significantly higher (p meat chunks, that is, the mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for condition 2 and significantly lower for condition 1. Sensory scores were significantly higher in condition 1 and significantly lower in condition 2. However, sensory scores for condition 4 were almost similar to the condition 1.

  16. Distribution of 5HT2A receptors in the human brain: Comparison of data in vivo and post mortem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forutan, F.; Estalji, S.; Beu, M.; Nikolaus, S.; Vosberg, H.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Larisch, R.; Hamacher, K.; Coenen, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The study presented here firstly compars the distribution of the binding potential of the serotonin-5HT 2A receptor as measured in vivo with data of receptor density taken from literature. Secondly, the sensitivity of the method to detect gradual differences in receptor densities is evaluated. Methods: Positron emission tomography (PET) studies were carried out in 6 healthy volunteers using the selective serotonin-5HT 2A ligand 18 F-altanserin. The binding potential was quantified in 12 regions using Logan's graphical method and the equilibrium method. These data were compared to the distribution of receptor density as taken from literature. Results: The binding data in vivo correlated to autoradiography data (post mortem) with r = 0.83 (Pearson regression coefficient; p 18 F-altanserin and PET in healthy volunteers and the true autoradiographically determined distribution of 5HT 2A receptors in human brains. The in vivo method seems to be sensitive enough to detect changes in receptor density of more than 18%. (orig.)

  17. Influence of carcass weight on meat quality of commercial feedlot steers with similar feedlot, slaughter and post-mortem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbeniga, Babatunde; Webb, Edward C

    2018-03-01

    The effects of beef carcass weight on muscle pH/temperature profile and selected meat quality attributes were evaluated. Twenty-six carcasses from light (≤260kg, n=15) and heavy (≥290kg, n=11) feedlot steers were randomly allocated and stimulated with low voltage electrical stimulation (LVES) for 30s at 7min post-mortem (pm). Quality evaluations were carried out on samples from the Longissimus et lumborum (LL) muscle from the left side of each carcass. Heavier carcasses showed faster pH decline and slower (P35°C) but there was no sign of sarcomere shortening in any carcass. Significantly lower (P0.05) drip loss at 3 and 14days pm as well as higher L* (meat lightness) (P<0.05) and C* (chroma) (P<0.05) values early (2days) pm. However, at 14days pm, there were no significant differences between the light and heavy carcasses in terms of L* and C*. No significant difference was observed between heavy and light carcasses in terms of H* at 2 and 14days pm. The study showed that heavier carcasses which favor slaughter house pricing can be produced and processed alongside lighter carcasses without significant detrimental effects on meat quality by using low voltage electrical stimulation (LVES). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinction between saltwater drowning and freshwater drowning by assessment of sinus fluid on post-mortem computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Sato, Yuki; Sato, Yumi; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Usui, Akihito; Daigaku, Nami; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in sinus fluid volume and density between saltwater and freshwater drowning and diagnose saltwater drowning in distinction from freshwater drowning. Ninety-three drowning cases (22 saltwater and 71 freshwater) were retrospectively investigated; all had undergone post-mortem CT and forensic autopsy. Sinus fluid volume and density were calculated using a 3D-DICOM workstation, and differences were evaluated. Diagnostic performance of these indicators for saltwater drowning was evaluated using a cut-off value calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median sinus fluid volume was 5.68 mL in cases of saltwater drowning (range 0.08 to 37.55) and 5.46 mL in cases of freshwater drowning (0.02 to 27.68), and the average densities were 47.28 (14.26 to 75.98) HU and 32.56 (-14.38 to 77.43) HU, respectively. While sinus volume did not differ significantly (p = 0.6000), sinus density was significantly higher in saltwater than freshwater drowning cases (p = 0.0002). ROC analysis for diagnosis of saltwater drowning determined the cut-off value as 37.77 HU, with a sensitivity of 77 %, specificity of 72 %, PPV of 46 % and NPV of 91 %. The average density of sinus fluid in cases of saltwater drowning was significantly higher than in freshwater drowning cases; there was no significant difference in the sinus fluid volume. (orig.)

  19. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul; Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ruder, Thomas; Elliott, Marina; Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

  20. The benefits and pitfalls of post-mortem computed tomography in forensic external examination: A retrospective study of 145 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaume, Thibault; Farrugia, Audrey; Kieffer, Estelle-Marie; Charton, Jeanne; Geraut, Annie; Berthelon, Laurent; Bierry, Guillaume; Raul, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become an integral part of Forensic practice. The purpose of the study was to determine PMCT impact on diagnosis of the cause of death within the context of the external examination of the body, when autopsy has, at first, not been requested. We reviewed the records of 145 cases for which unenhanced PMCT was performed in addition to the external examination of the body from January 2014 to July 2015 at the Institute of Forensic medicine in Strasbourg (France). We confronted final reports from forensic pathologist to the corresponding PMCT reports. Data were collected in a contingency table and the impact of PMCT on the final conclusions of the forensic pathologist was evaluated via a Chi 2 test. PMCT results significantly impact the final conclusions of forensic pathologist (pforensic pathologist. In other cases (traumatic death), PMCT enables fast and exhaustive lesion assessment. Lastly, there are situations where PMCT may be ineffective (intoxication, hanging or some natural deaths). Performing PMCT within the context of the external examination of the body when autopsy has, at first, not been requested could bring significant benefits in diagnosing the cause of death. The impact of PMCT varies depending on the circumstances of death. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinction between saltwater drowning and freshwater drowning by assessment of sinus fluid on post-mortem computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Sato, Yuki; Sato, Yumi; Ishibashi, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Usui, Akihito; Daigaku, Nami; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the difference in sinus fluid volume and density between saltwater and freshwater drowning and diagnose saltwater drowning in distinction from freshwater drowning. Ninety-three drowning cases (22 saltwater and 71 freshwater) were retrospectively investigated; all had undergone post-mortem CT and forensic autopsy. Sinus fluid volume and density were calculated using a 3D-DICOM workstation, and differences were evaluated. Diagnostic performance of these indicators for saltwater drowning was evaluated using a cut-off value calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median sinus fluid volume was 5.68 mL in cases of saltwater drowning (range 0.08 to 37.55) and 5.46 mL in cases of freshwater drowning (0.02 to 27.68), and the average densities were 47.28 (14.26 to 75.98) HU and 32.56 (-14.38 to 77.43) HU, respectively. While sinus volume did not differ significantly (p = 0.6000), sinus density was significantly higher in saltwater than freshwater drowning cases (p = 0.0002). ROC analysis for diagnosis of saltwater drowning determined the cut-off value as 37.77 HU, with a sensitivity of 77 %, specificity of 72 %, PPV of 46 % and NPV of 91 %. The average density of sinus fluid in cases of saltwater drowning was significantly higher than in freshwater drowning cases; there was no significant difference in the sinus fluid volume. (orig.)

  2. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-mortem prediction of primal and selected retail cut weights of New Zealand lamb from carcass and animal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, L; Ho, H; Hunter, P; Quinn, K; Thomson, A; Pearson, G

    2016-02-01

    Post-mortem measurements (cold weight, grade and external carcass linear dimensions) as well as live animal data (age, breed, sex) were used to predict ovine primal and retail cut weights for 792 lamb carcases. Significant levels of variance could be explained using these predictors. The predictive power of those measurements on primal and retail cut weights was studied by using the results from principal component analysis and the absolute value of the t-statistics of the linear regression model. High prediction accuracy for primal cut weight was achieved (adjusted R(2) up to 0.95), as well as moderate accuracy for key retail cut weight: tenderloins (adj-R(2)=0.60), loin (adj-R(2)=0.62), French rack (adj-R(2)=0.76) and rump (adj-R(2)=0.75). The carcass cold weight had the best predictive power, with the accuracy increasing by around 10% after including the next three most significant variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra (DITS): 2nd post-mortem analysis campaign and fuel retention in the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, T.; Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Cadez, I.; Pelicon, P.; Gauthier, E.; Languille, P.; Likonen, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Markelj, S.; Martin, C.; Mayer, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pardanaud, C.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Roubin, P.; Vavpetic, P.

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated study on fuel retention has been launched in Tore Supra, which includes a D wall-loading campaign and the dismantling of the main limiter (Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra, DITS project). This paper presents new results from a second post-mortem analysis campaign on 40 tiles with special emphasis on the D retention in the gaps. SIMS analysis reveals that only 1/3 of the thickness of deposits in the plasma shadowed zones are due to the DITS wall-loading campaign. As pre-DITS deposits contain less D than DITS deposits, the contribution of DITS to the D inventory is about 30-50%. The new estimate for the total amount of D retained in the Tore Supra limiter is 1.7 x 10 24 atoms, close to the previous estimate, with the gap surfaces contributing about 33%. NRA measurements show a stepped decrease of D along the gap with strong asymmetries between different gap orientations.

  5. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-mortem hemoparasite detection in free-living Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer 1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Angélica Gonçalves da Silveira

    Full Text Available Tick-borne infections can result in serious health problems for wild ruminants, and some of these infectious agents can be considered zoonosis. The aim of the present study was the post-mortem detection of hemoparasites in free-living Mazama gouazoubira from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The deer samples consisted of free-living M. gouazoubira (n = 9 individuals that died after capture. Necropsy examinations of the carcasses were performed to search for macroscopic alterations. Organ samples were collected for subsequent imprint slides, and nested PCR assays were performed to detect hemoparasite species. Imprint slide assays from four deer showed erythrocytes infected with Piroplasmida small trophozoites, and A. marginale corpuscles were observed in erythrocytes from two animals. A. marginale and trophozoite co-infections occurred in two deer. A nested PCR analysis of the organs showed that six of the nine samples were positive for Theileria sp., five were positive for A. phagocytophilum and three were positive for A. marginale, with co-infection occurring in four deer. The results of the present study demonstrate that post-mortemdiagnostics using imprint slides and molecular assays are an effective method for detecting hemoparasites in organs.

  7. Registration for deceased organ and tissue donation among Ontario immigrants: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Lam, Ngan N; Dhanani, Sonny; Weir, Matthew; Prakash, Versha; Kim, Joseph; Knoll, Greg; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Canada has low rates of deceased organ and tissue donation. Immigrants to Canada may differ in their registered support for deceased organ donation based on their country of origin. We used linked administrative databases in Ontario (about 11 million residents aged ≥ 16 yr) to study the proportion of immigrants and long-term residents registered for deceased organ and tissue donation as of October 2013. We used modified Poisson regression to identify and quantify predictors of donor registration. Compared with long-term residents ( n = 9 244 570), immigrants ( n = 1 947 646) were much less likely to register for deceased organ and tissue donation (11.9% v. 26.5%). Immigrants from the United States, Australia and New Zealand had the highest registration rate (40.0%), whereas immigrants with the lowest registration rates were from Eastern Europe and Central Asia (9.4%), East Asia and Pacific (8.4%) and sub-Saharan Africa (7.9%). The largest numbers of unregistered immigrants were from India ( n = 202 548), China ( n = 186 678) and the Philippines ( n = 125 686). Characteristics among the immigrant population associated with a higher likelihood of registration included economic immigrant status, living in a rural area (population speak English and French, and more years residing in Canada. Immigrants in Ontario were less likely to register for deceased organ and tissue donation than long-term residents. There is a need to better understand reasons for lower registration rates among Canadian immigrants and to create culture-sensitive materials to build support for deceased organ and tissue donation.

  8. Potential and Actual Neonatal Organ and Tissue Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, Justin; Aguayo, Cecile; Siatta, Angela; Presson, Angela P; Perez, Richard; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The need for transplants continues to exceed organ and tissue donor availability. Although recent surgical advances have resulted in successful transplants using very small pediatric donors, including neonates, the actual practice of neonatal organ donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) remains uncommon. To describe the percentage of neonates potentially eligible for DCDD, including those who underwent successful donation, and reasons for ineligibility in those who did not in a single neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We obtained data from the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database and Intermountain Donor Services (IDS) organ procurement records. The 136 deaths that occurred in the NICU of the Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 1, 2010, through May 7, 2013, were reviewed retrospectively from January 12 through July 1, 2014, to determine potential eligibility for DCDD as determined by IDS minimum eligibility criteria (requirement of life-sustaining interventions and weight >2 kg). For patients who did not undergo DCDD, we reviewed records to determine the reasons for ineligibility. Potential eligibility for DCDD among neonates who died in the study NICU. Of 136 deaths in the NICU, 60 (44.1%) met criteria for DCDD; however, fewer than 10% were referred appropriately to the regional organ procurement organization for evaluation. Forty-five neonates (33.1%) ultimately died within 90 minutes of withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions and thus would have been eligible for organ donation based on warm ischemic time. The most common causes of death among the 60 potentially eligible neonatal donors were neonatal encephalopathy (n = 17) and multiple congenital anomalies (n = 14). Nonreferral or late referral by the medical team was the most frequent reason for donor ineligibility, including 49 neonates (36.0%). Overall, only 4 neonates (2.9%) underwent successful DCDD. Although almost half of all neonatal deaths

  9. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhardt, Christian; Neuwirth, Christoph; Sommacal, Andreas; Andersen, Peter M.; Weber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown. Objective: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients. Methods: Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015. Fort...

  11. Myocardial contrast defect associated with thrombotic coronary occlusion: Pre-autopsy diagnosis of a cardiac death with post-mortem CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Soo Kyoung; Yang, Kyung Moo [Dept. of Forensic Medicine, National Forensic Service, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the case of a female who died of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Post-mortem CT angiography (PMCTA) was performed with intravascular contrast infusion before the standard autopsy, and it successfully demonstrated the complete thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery and also a corresponding perfusion defect on myocardium. We herein describe the PMCTA findings of a cardiac death with special emphasis on the potential benefits of this novel CT technique in forensic practice.

  12. Post-mortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of human fetuses: a comparison of 3-T vs. 1.5-T MR imaging with classical autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Cannie, Mieke M; Arthurs, Owen J; Segers, Valerie; Fourneau, Catherine; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Sebire, Neil J; Jani, Jacques C

    2017-08-01

    To prospectively compare diagnostic accuracy of fetal post-mortem whole-body MRI at 3-T vs. 1.5-T. Between 2012 and 2015, post-mortem MRI at 1.5-T and 3-T was performed in fetuses after miscarriage/stillbirth or termination. Clinical MRI diagnoses were assessed using a confidence diagnostic score and compared with classical autopsy to derive a diagnostic error score. The relation of diagnostic error for each organ group with gestational age was calculated and 1.5-T with 3-T was compared with accuracy analysis. 135 fetuses at 12-41 weeks underwent post-mortem MRI (followed by conventional autopsy in 92 fetuses). For all organ groups except the brain, and for both modalities, the diagnostic error decreased with gestation (P autopsy than 1.5-T MRI, especially for the thorax, heart and abdomen in fetuses autopsy increases with 3-T. • PM-MRI using 3-T is particularly interesting for thoracic and abdominal organs. • PM-MRI using 3-T is particularly interesting for fetuses < 20 weeks' gestation.

  13. Organ and tissue donation in clinical settings: a systematic review of the impact of interventions aimed at health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices. PMID:24628967

  14. A comparison between rib fracture patterns in peri- and post-mortem compressive injury in a piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Amanda L; Swain, Michael V; Neil Waddell, J; Das, Raj; Athens, Josie; Kieser, Jules A

    2014-05-01

    Forensic biomechanics is increasingly being used to explain how observed injuries occur. We studied infant rib fractures from a biomechanical and morphological perspective using a porcine model. We used 24, 6th ribs of one day old domestic pigs Sus scrofa, divided into three groups, desiccated (representing post-mortem trauma), fresh ribs with intact periosteum (representing peri-mortem trauma) and those stored at -20°C. Two experiments were designed to study their biomechanical behaviour fracture morphology: ribs were axially compressed and subjected to four-point bending in an Instron 3339 fitted with custom jigs. Morphoscopic analysis of resultant fractures consisted of standard optical methods, micro-CT (μCT) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). During axial compression fresh ribs did not fracture because of energy absorption capabilities of their soft and fluidic components. In flexure tests, dry ribs showed typical elastic-brittle behaviour with long linear load-extension curves, followed by short non-linear elastic (hyperelastic) behaviour and brittle fracture. Fresh ribs showed initial linear-elastic behaviour, followed by strain softening and visco-plastic responses. During the course of loading, dry bone showed minimal observable damage prior to the onset of unstable fracture. Frozen then thawed bone showed similar patterns to fresh bone. Morphologically, fresh ribs showed extensive periosteal damage to the tensile surface with areas of collagen fibre pull-out along the tensile surface. While all dry ribs fractured precipitously, with associated fibre pull-out, the latter feature was absent in thawed ribs. Our study highlights the fact that under controlled loading, fresh piglet ribs (representing perimortem trauma) did not fracture through bone, but was associated with periosteal tearing. These results suggest firstly, that complete lateral rib fracture in infants may in fact not result from pure compression as has been previously assumed; and

  15. Markers of microglia in post-mortem brain samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, K E; Mohammad, D; Trépanier, M O; Giuliano, V; Bazinet, R P

    2018-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is proposed as one of the mechanisms by which Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-β plaques, leads to neuronal death and dysfunction. Increases in the expression of markers of microglia, the main neuroinmmune cell, are widely reported in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, but the literature has not yet been systematically reviewed to determine whether this is a consistent pathological feature. A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PsychINFO for articles published up to 23 February 2017. Papers were included if they quantitatively compared microglia markers in post-mortem brain samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease and aged controls without neurological disease. A total of 113 relevant articles were identified. Consistent increases in markers related to activation, such as major histocompatibility complex II (36/43 studies) and cluster of differentiation 68 (17/21 studies), were identified relative to nonneurological aged controls, whereas other common markers that stain both resting and activated microglia, such as ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (10/20 studies) and cluster of differentiation 11b (2/5 studies), were not consistently elevated. Studies of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 that used cell counts almost uniformly identified no difference relative to control, indicating that increases in activation occurred without an expansion of the total number of microglia. White matter and cerebellum appeared to be more resistant to these increases than other brain regions. Nine studies were identified that included high pathology controls, patients who remained free of dementia despite Alzheimer's disease pathology. The majority (5/9) of these studies reported higher levels of microglial markers in Alzheimer's disease relative to controls, suggesting that these increases are not solely a consequence of Alzheimer's disease pathology. These results show that increased markers

  16. Layering of stomach contents in drowning cases in post-mortem computed tomography compared to forensic autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsmy, Walther; Lombardo, Paolo; Jackowski, Christian; Brencicova, Eva; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2018-04-24

    In forensic autopsy, the analysis of stomach contents is important when investigating drowning cases. Three-layering of stomach contents may be interpreted as a diagnostic hint to drowning due to swallowing of larger amounts of water or other drowning media. The authors experienced frequent discrepancies of numbers of stomach content layering in drowning cases between post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy in forensic casework. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare layering of stomach contents in drowning cases between PMCT and forensic autopsy. Drowning cases (n = 55; 40 male, 15 female, mean age 45.3 years; mean amount of stomach content 223 ml) that received PMCT prior to forensic autopsy were retrospectively analyzed by a forensic pathologist and a radiologist. Number of layers of stomach content in PMCT were compared to number of layers at forensic autopsy. In 28 of the 55 evaluated drowning cases, a discrepancy between layering of stomach contents at autopsy compared to PMCT was observed: 1 layer at autopsy (n = 28): 50% discrepancy to PMCT, 2 layers (n = 20): 45% discrepancy, and 3 layers (n = 7): 71.4% discrepancy. Sensitivity of correctly determining layering (as observed at forensic autopsy) in PMCT was 52% (positive predictive value 44.8%). Specificity was 46.6% (negative predictive value 53.8%). In a control group (n = 35) of non-drowning cases, three-layering of stomach contents was not observed. Discrepancies of observed numbers of stomach content layers between PMCT and forensic autopsy are a frequent finding possibly due to stomach content sampling technique at autopsy and movement of the corpse prior to PMCT and autopsy. Three-layering in PMCT, if indeed present, may be interpreted as a hint to drowning.

  17. GABAergic system impairment in the hippocampus and superior temporal gyrus of patients with paranoid schizophrenia: A post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Johann; Brisch, Ralf; Schiltz, Kolja; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Braun, Katharina; Schmitt, Andrea; Bogerts, Bernhard; Gos, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA synthesis and alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission related to glial abnormalities are thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potential differences regarding the neuropil expression of GAD between paranoid and residual schizophrenia. GAD65/67 immunostained histological sections were evaluated by quantitative densitometric analysis of GAD-immunoreactive (ir) neuropil. Regions of interest were the hippocampal formation (CA1 field and dentate gyrus [DG]), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and laterodorsal thalamic nucleus (LD). Data from 16 post-mortem schizophrenia patient samples (10 paranoid and 6 residual schizophrenia cases) were compared with those from 16 matched controls. Overall, schizophrenia patients showed a lower GAD-ir neuropil density (P=0.014), particularly in the right CA1 (P=0.033). However, the diagnostic subgroups differed significantly (Pparanoid versus residual patients (P=0.036) and controls (Pparanoid versus residual schizophrenia cases (P=0.042). GAD-ir neuropil density correlated positively with antipsychotic dosage, particularly in CA1 (right: r=0.850, P=0.004; left: r=0.800, P=0.010). Our finding of decreased relative density of GAD-ir neuropil suggests hypofunction of the GABAergic system, particularly in hippocampal CA1 field and STG layer V of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The finding that antipsychotic medication seems to counterbalance GABAergic hypofunction in schizophrenia patients suggests the possibility of exploring new treatment avenues which target this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in forensic autopsy cases of fire-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Oshima, Toru; Mimasaka, Sohtaro; Ohtsu, Yuki; Nishitani, Yoko

    2012-04-10

    Volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood from victims of fires were analyzed quantitatively by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The benzene and styrene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with the carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration, which is evidence that the deceased inhaled the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide simultaneously. By contrast, the concentrations of toluene and CO-Hb in the blood were not significantly correlated. This lack of correlation could be explained by two different sources of toluene, with low blood concentrations of toluene arising when the deceased inhaled smoke and high blood concentrations of toluene arising when the deceased inhaled petroleum vapor or other unknown vapors. The quantity of soot deposited in the respiratory tract was classified into four grades (-, 1+, 2+, 3+). The mean CO-Hb concentration in the 1+ soot group was significantly lower than those in the 2+ (ptypes of smoke produced by different materials. For example, petroleum combustion with a limited supply of oxygen, like in a compartment fire, may produce a large volume of dense black smoke that contains a large quantity of soot. Soot deposits in the airways and the blood CO-Hb concentration are basic and essential autopsy findings that are used to investigate fire-related deaths. The quantitative GC-MS analysis of blood volatile hydrocarbons can provide additional useful information on the cause of the fire and the circumstances surrounding the death. In combination, these three findings are useful for the reconstruction of cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo quantitative imaging of point-like bioluminescent and fluorescent sources: Validation studies in phantoms and small animals post mortem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comsa, Daria Craita

    2008-10-01

    source strength within 20 %. For sources 14mm deep, the inaccuracy in determining the relative source strength increased to 30 %. Measurements on small animals post mortem showed that the use of measured in situ optical properties to characterize heterogeneous tissue resulted in a superior estimation of the source strength and depth compared to when literature optical properties for organs or tissues were used. Moreover, it was found that regardless of the heterogeneity of the implant location or depth, our algorithm consistently showed an advantage over the simple assessment of the source strength based on the signal strength in the emission image. Our bioluminescence algorithm was generally able to predict the source strength within a factor of 2 of the true strength, but the performance varied with the implant location and depth. In fluorescence imaging a more complex technique is required, including knowledge of tissue optical properties at both the excitation and emission wavelengths. A theoretical study using simulated fluorescence data showed that, for example, for a source 5 mm deep in tissue, errors of up to 15 % in the optical properties would give rise to errors of +/-0.7 mm in the retrieved depth and the source strength would be over- or under-estimated by a factor ranging from 1.25 to 2. Fluorescent sources implanted in rats post mortem at the same depth were localized with an error just slightly higher than predicted theoretically: a root-mean-square value of 0.8 mm was obtained for all implants 5 mm deep. However, for this source depth, the source strength was assessed within a factor ranging from 1.3 to 4.2 from the value estimated in a controlled medium. Nonetheless, similarly to the bioluminescence study, the fluorescence quantification algorithm consistently showed an advantage over the simple assessment of the source strength based on the signal strength in the fluorescence image. Few studies have been reported in the literature that reconstruct known

  20. A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Lebarbé, Mathieu; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Yamaoka, Akira; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Douard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy/Mx peak values were 4500 N/50 Nm, 2400 N/130 Nm, and 5300 N/150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s. The shape and the orientation of the impacting face of the probe were selected to match the WorldSID pubic Fy and sacroiliac Fy/Mx loads of the three vehicle test configurations. Three PMHS were tested in each of the three configurations (nine PMHS in total). In the first PMHS configuration, one specimen sustained an AIS 3 injury and one sustained an AIS 4 injury (an unstable pelvis with complete disruption of the posterior arch, a sacroiliac joint disruption associated with an iliac fracture, and a pubic symphysis separation). In the second configuration, all specimens sustained a fracture of the superior lateral iliac wing (AIS 2). In the third configuration, one specimen sustained a partial disruption of the anterior arch (AIS 2). Based on the data from strain gauges located on the pubic rami and near the sacroiliac joint, the pubic rami fractures were identified as occurring prior to the sacroiliac fractures. Out of nine impactor tests performed, the PMHS S-I joint injuries were observed to consistently be associated with pelvic anterior arch fractures. In addition, from the injury

  1. Markers of microglia in post-mortem brain samples from patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, K E; Mohammad, D; Trépanier, M O; Giuliano, V; Bazinet, R P

    2018-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is proposed as one of the mechanisms by which Alzheimer’s disease pathology, including amyloid-β plaques, leads to neuronal death and dysfunction. Increases in the expression of markers of microglia, the main neuroinmmune cell, are widely reported in brains from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but the literature has not yet been systematically reviewed to determine whether this is a consistent pathological feature. A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PsychINFO for articles published up to 23 February 2017. Papers were included if they quantitatively compared microglia markers in post-mortem brain samples from patients with Alzheimer’s disease and aged controls without neurological disease. A total of 113 relevant articles were identified. Consistent increases in markers related to activation, such as major histocompatibility complex II (36/43 studies) and cluster of differentiation 68 (17/21 studies), were identified relative to nonneurological aged controls, whereas other common markers that stain both resting and activated microglia, such as ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (10/20 studies) and cluster of differentiation 11b (2/5 studies), were not consistently elevated. Studies of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 that used cell counts almost uniformly identified no difference relative to control, indicating that increases in activation occurred without an expansion of the total number of microglia. White matter and cerebellum appeared to be more resistant to these increases than other brain regions. Nine studies were identified that included high pathology controls, patients who remained free of dementia despite Alzheimer’s disease pathology. The majority (5/9) of these studies reported higher levels of microglial markers in Alzheimer’s disease relative to controls, suggesting that these increases are not solely a consequence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. These results show that

  2. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-02

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at the onset of putrefaction of the visceral organs, larvae migrated out of the visceral cavity towards the fish surface. Measured pH and biogenic amine profile during storage indicated that certain biochemical conditions trigger larval migration into fillets. Likewise, migration was observed at pH ~6.4 when sensory degradation of the fish was markedly visible. Although larval migration was delayed for approximately four days at a temperature of fillet was high and statistically significant at both 0 (r=0.998, p<0.01) and 4°C (r=0.946, p<0.05). Out of eight biogenic amines measured, cadaverine and putrescine levels correlated the most with the post-mortem migration at 4°C, while tyramine levels were significant at both temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An evaluation of the DRI-ETG EIA method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in clinical and post-mortem urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfus, Sophie C; Vo, Tu; Niehaus, Nadia; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    A commercial enzyme immunoassay for the qualitative and semi-quantitative measurement of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine was evaluated. Post-mortem (n=800), and clinical urine (n=200) samples were assayed using a Hitachi 902 analyzer. The determined concentrations were compared with those obtained using a previously published liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EtG and ethyl sulfate. Using a cut-off of 0.5 µg/ml and LC-MS/MS limit of reporting of 0.1 µg/ml, there was a sensitivity of 60.8% and a specificity of 100% for clinical samples. For post-mortem samples, sensitivity and specificity were 82.4% and 97.1%, respectively. When reducing the cut-off to 0.1 µg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 100% for clinical samples whereas for post-mortem samples the sensitivity and specificity were 90.3 % and 88.3 %, respectively. The best trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity for LC-MS/MS limits of reporting of 0.5 and 0.1 µg/ml were achieved when using immunoassay cut-offs of 0.3 and 0.092 µg/ml, respectively. There was good correlation between quantitative results obtained by both methods but analysis of samples by LC-MS/MS gave higher concentrations than by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with a statistically significant proportional bias (P<0.0001, Deming regression) for both sample types. The immunoassay is reliable for the qualitative and semi-quantitative presumptive detection of ethyl glucuronide in urine. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An audit of the contribution to post-mortem examination diagnosis of individual analyte results obtained from biochemical analysis of the vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Charlwood, Cheryl; Thomas, Sunethra Devika; Bellis, Maria; Langlois, Neil E I

    2013-12-01

    Biochemical analysis of the vitreous humor from the eye is an accepted accessory test for post-mortem investigation of cause of death. Modern biochemical analyzers allow testing of a range of analytes from a sample. However, it is not clear which analytes should be requested in order to prevent unnecessary testing (and expense). The means and standard deviation of the values obtained from analysis of the vitreous humor for sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolality, glucose, ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate), creatinine, urea, calcium, lactate, and ammonia were calculated from which the contribution of each analyte was reviewed in the context of post-mortem findings and final cause of death. For sodium 32 cases were regarded as high (more than one standard deviation above the mean), from which 9 contributed to post-mortem diagnosis [drowning (4), heat related death (2), diabetic hyperglycemia (2), and dehydration (1)], but 25 low values (greater than one standard deviation below the mean) made no contribution. For chloride 29 high values contributed to 4 cases--3 drowning and 1 heat-related, but these were all previously identified by a high sodium level. There were 29 high and 35 low potassium values, none of which contributed to determining the final cause of death. Of 22 high values of creatinine, 12 contributed to a diagnosis of renal failure. From 32 high values of urea, 18 contributed to 16 cases of renal failure (2 associated with diabetic hyperglycemia), 1 heat-related death, and one case with dehydration. Osmolarity contributed to 12 cases (5 heat-related, 4 diabetes, 2 renal failure, and 1 dehydration) from 36 high values. There was no contribution from 32 high values and 19 low values of calcium and there was no contribution from 4 high and 2 low values of ammonia. There were 11 high values of glucose, which contributed to the diagnosis of 6 cases of diabetic hyperglycemia and 21 high ketone levels contributed to 8 cases: 4 diabetic ketosis, 3 hypothermia, 3

  5. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  6. The family interview in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation: perceptions of potential donors' relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, M J; Massarollo, M C K B; de Moraes, E L

    2014-01-01

    The family interview is a complex phase of the organ donation process because it involves aspects of the interviewer, the interviewee, the interview location, and ethical and legal issues. However, there are few publications on this phase of the donation process. This study aimed to reveal the meaning assigned to the interview phase, in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation, by the families of potential donors. We performed a qualitative study of the phenomenologic aspect, within the modality "structure situated phenomena." The study included the participation of 10 families. After analyzing the interviews, the meaning of the interview was unveiled by the family members. The statements revealed that the family interview is considered to be an important step for warnings, clarifications, and encouraging families to think about the possibility of donating to save and/or improve the quality of life of people in need for a transplant, and that studies contribute to the technical and scientific qualification of the interviewer as well as stimulate discussion among health professionals to improve the interviewing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal assessment of short-term memory deterioration in a logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia with post-mortem confirmed Alzheimer's Disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Jeremy; Kay, Janice

    2015-09-01

    In the field of dementia research, there are reports of neurodegenerative cases with a focal loss of language, termed primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Currently, this condition has been further sub-classified, with the most recent sub-type dubbed logopenic variant (PPA-LV). As yet, there remains somewhat limited evaluation of the characteristics of this condition, with no studies providing longitudinal assessment accompanied by post-mortem examination. Moreover, a key characteristic of the PPA-LV case is a deterioration of phonological short-term memory, but again little work has scrutinized the nature of this impairment over time. The current study seeks to redress these oversights and presents detailed longitudinal examination of language and memory function in a case of PPA-LV, with special focus on tests linked to components of phonological short-term memory function. Our findings are then considered with reference to a contemporary model of the neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory. Additionally, post-mortem examinations indicated Alzheimer's disease type pathology, providing further evidence that the PPA-LV presentation may reflect an atypical presentation of this condition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Reflexiones Acerca del Papel de la Mujer en la Reproducción Artificial Post Mortem (Analysis of the Role of Women in the Posthumous Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Marìa Rodrìguez Guitián

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the analysis of the role of women in the posthumous reproduction. In the first place, it studies whether the woman's right to have children should be subject to limits and, if so, to which ones. Second, it explores if the posthumous reproduction extends to lesbian couples, married or not, and finally it focuses on the relevance of the mother's will to decide the deceased to be registered as the parent of the child. Este trabajo tiene por objeto el análisis del papel de la mujer en la hipótesis de la reproducción artificial post mortem. En primer lugar, aborda si el derecho a procrear de la mujer está sujeto a límites y, si es así, cuáles son. En segundo lugar, si la reproducción artificial post mortem se extiende desde el punto de vista subjetivo al matrimonio y parejas de mujeres y, por último, cuál es la relevancia de la voluntad de la madre gestante a la hora de decidir la determinación de la paternidad o maternidad de la persona fallecida. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2921870

  10. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-02

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Marketing role of corneal graft tissue donation to an eye bank and donors' socioeconomic profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Roberta Jansen de Mello; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de

    2008-01-01

    Penetrating keratoplasty has been the leading and the most successful type of transplant in the world, however corneal deficiency is a commom problem usually presented to corneal surgeons. Impact evaluation of the number of corneal graft donations to the Sorocaba Eye Bank after the implementation of a corneal graft procurement system; to draw the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors of the Sorocaba Eye Bank (SEB). Retrospective study on donations to SEB from its creation and after the development of media marketing. Prospective analysis of the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors by a questionnaire sent as letters to the families of the donors in a certain month. SEB began its work in 1971 by spreading need of organ donation through lectures in churches, shopping malls, community meetings, radio programs, television programs, etc. In the 70s, the number of retrieved corneal grafts was 1 or 2/month. Between 1984 - 1989 a procurement coordination team was trained to act in mortuaries and by 2000 they also began to work in public hospitals. In 1984 only 260 corneal grafts were retrieved. This number has been increasing to 2,778 corneal graft donations in 2004. The questionnaire was answered by 76 of the 93 donor families, with a response rate of 81.7%. Donor age had a mean of 65.1 +/- 14.7 y/o, forty-two (55.3%) were men. Educational level of the donor families was an important factor for organ donation, once 36.8% had concluded high school and 34.2% completed university. The great majority, sixty-three (82.9%) of the corneal grafts were donated through the efforts of the procurement coordination team. The role of the media and institutional credibility are mandatory for public commitment to organ donation. The proficiency of the procurement coordination team requires intensive training, as the results show that 82.9% donations were made thanks to their efforts.

  12. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M

    2017-07-01

    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Organ Donation in Switzerland - An Analysis of Factors Associated with Consent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Isabelle; Immer, Franz F.; Jüni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased’s next of kin (NOK) for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. Methods and Analysis During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions. PMID:25208215

  14. Measurements using 7.0 T post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging of the scalar dimensions of the fetal brain between 12 and 20 weeks gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangtao; Zhang, Zhonghe; Teng, Gaojun; Meng, Haiwei; Yu, Taifei; Hou, Zhongyu; Fang, Fang; Zang, Fengchao; Liu, Shuwei

    2011-12-01

    In this study, scalar values for the fetal brain from 12 to 20 weeks gestational age were obtained. Fifty-two fetal specimens of 12-20 weeks gestational age with an anatomically normal and developmentally appropriate central nervous system (CNS) were scanned using a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The linear biometric measurements of the brain were then determined. All the measurements (except for the interhemispheric distance) were found to increase linearly with gestational age, although each increased at a different growth rates. The 95% confidence interval for each value was obtained. These data may be considered to be a valuable reference for the assessment of normal fetal brain development in clinical settings and as a supplement to post-mortem MRI or anatomical investigations. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of supplemental maslinic acid (olive-derived triterpene) on the post-mortem muscle properties and quality traits of gilthead seabream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, E.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Wulff, Tune

    2013-01-01

    , enzymatic activities and protein expression in the muscle were assessed. Supplementing gilthead seabream diets with maslinic acid mainly resulted in hypertrophy of muscle fibres and inhibition of cathepsin B activity, with no observed differences in terms of glycogen and ATP content of the muscle, as well...... as glycogen phosphorylase activity. Proteomic analysis showed a low impact of maslinic acid supplementation on muscle metabolism, with most changes reflecting increased stress coping capacity and muscle hypertrophy in maslinic acid-fed fish. As a finishing strategy to improve the muscle's energetic status......Maslinic acid, a natural triterpene, was evaluated as a dietary supplement to modulate glycogen post-mortem mobilization in gilthead seabream muscle. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary trial was undertaken, where flesh quality criteria, as well as biochemical and histological parameters...

  16. Post-mortem MRI as an alternative to non-forensic autopsy in foetuses and children: from research into clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, S; Arthurs, O J

    2014-01-01

    Although post-mortem MRI (PMMR) was proposed as an alternative to conventional autopsy more than a decade ago, the lack of systematic validation has limited its clinical uptake. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) using PMMR together with ancillary investigations has now been shown to be as accurate as conventional autopsy in foetuses, newborns and infants and is particularly useful for cerebral, cardiac and genitourinary imaging. Unlike conventional autopsy, PMMR provides a permanent three-dimensional auditable record, with accurate estimation of internal organ volumes. MIA is becoming highly acceptable to parents and professionals, and there is widespread political support and public interest in its clinical implementation in the UK. In the short to medium term, it is desirable that a supraregional network of specialist centres should be established to provide this service within the current National Health Service framework. PMID:24288400

  17. Evaluation of hypostasis using a colorimeter measuring system and its application to assessment of the post-mortem interval (time of death).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanezis, P; Trujillo, O

    1996-03-05

    Hypostasis was measured in 93 cadavers using a tristimulus colorimeter in order to investigate its relationship with the time of death. The intensity (lightness) of the hypostasis in each case was measured over a period of 4 h and the rate of change in lightness derived. When examined against the time of death, it was found that there was a good correlation between the two. Namely, that the rate of change of lightness (and it can be inferred that this represents displaceability) decreases as the post-mortem period increases. The shift in hypostasis was particularly marked in the first 12 h and decreased thereafter. However, hypostasis could be useful for time of death estimation for up to 48 h. After this time, the degree of change was small or non-existent and by 72 h hypostasis had become fixed in the majority of cases, within our measuring period of 4 h.

  18. Microstructural parcellation of the human cerebral cortex – from Brodmann's post-mortem map to in vivo mapping with high-field magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Geyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2009 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of the famous brain map of Korbinian Brodmann. Although a "classic" guide to microanatomical parcellation of the cerebral cortex, it is – from today's state-of-the-art neuroimaging perspective – problematic to use Brodmann's map as a structural guide to functional units in the cortex. In this article we discuss some of the reasons, especially the problematic compatibility of the "post-mortem world" of microstructural brain maps with the "in vivo world" of neuroimaging. We conclude with some prospects for the future of in vivo structural brain mapping: a new approach which has the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains: "in vivo Brodmann mapping" with high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. PMICALC: an R code-based software for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) compatible with Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Barús, José I; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M; Vieira, Duarte N; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Febrero-Bande, Manuel

    2010-01-30

    In legal medicine the correct determination of the time of death is of utmost importance. Recent advances in estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) have made use of vitreous humour chemistry in conjunction with Linear Regression, but the results are questionable. In this paper we present PMICALC, an R code-based freeware package which estimates PMI in cadavers of recent death by measuring the concentrations of potassium ([K+]), hypoxanthine ([Hx]) and urea ([U]) in the vitreous humor using two different regression models: Additive Models (AM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), which offer more flexibility than the previously used Linear Regression. The results from both models are better than those published to date and can give numerical expression of PMI with confidence intervals and graphic support within 20 min. The program also takes into account the cause of death. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Schievano, Silvia; Robertson, Nicola J.; Jones, Rodney; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r 2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  1. "What happens behind the curtains?" An exploration of ICU nurses' experiences of post mortem care on patients who have died in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swardt, Carien; Fouché, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of intensive care nurses performing post mortem care on patients who had died in an intensive care unit at a private hospital in Cape Town. The study further sets out to identify educational needs and to offer recommendations that may address these needs for this sample of nurses. A qualitative research design using a descriptive method was used to explore the experiences of a purposive heterogeneous sample of six nurses who were working in an intensive care unit in a private hospital in Cape Town. A semi-structured interview which was audio-taped and transcribed verbatim was employed to collect data. Colaizzi's (1978) seven step inductive method was used to formulate naïve themes. Following participant feedback, three main themes emerged: care of the dead body, detachment and thanatophobia. Safeguarding the integrity and physical appearance of the dead body was the major finding and of the utmost priority for the participants in this study. Regardless of how the nurses felt about death, providing professional and quality care to the dead body and the family was seen as significantly important. The nurses, whilst performing post mortem care, experienced detachment from various relationships. This comprised of the nurse detaching him/herself professionally and emotionally from the dead patient, the family and him/herself from the death experience. This 'unspoken' experience of thanatophobia became apparent when the nurses were confronted by the reality of their own deaths. In a technological society, where answers to many questions can be pursued through science, understanding the experience of death, as opposed to dying, may be logically incomprehensible. Death remains one of the most traumatic events experienced by the patient and their family, and in some instances nurses themselves. The study has drawn attention to the nurses' experiences and in doing so; the emotional and educational needs have been

  2. Attitudes toward organ donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P <0.05).In all,85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media

  3. Leading Efforts to Increase Organ Donation Through Professionalization of Organ Procurement Organizations and Establishment of Organ and Tissue Donor Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertanous, T; Czer, L S C; de Robertis, M; Kiankhooy, A; Kobashigawa, J; Esmailian, F; Trento, A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of new donor registrations through the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry on the local OneLegacy Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) was examined during a 6-year period. Publicly available data from Donate Life America for California were examined for the 6 calendar years of 2009-2014. Performance data from OneLegacy for the same 6 years for organ donors and number of transplants were also examined. The donor designation rate (DDR) was defined as the rate at which new individuals joined the state donor registry as a percentage of all driver licenses and ID cards issued within a calendar year. The total donor designation (TDD) was defined as the sum of the new and existing people who were registered organ donors. Donor designation share (DDS) was the total number of designated donors as a percentage of all residents of the state who were ≥18 years old. The business practices and educational efforts of the OneLegacy OPO were examined as well. In California, from 2009 through 2014, the DDR was 25.5%-28%. When added to the existing donor registrations, the TDD and DDS increased each year from 2009 through 2014. With the current level of growth, it is projected that California will be able to reach a DDS of 50% by 2017. For the OneLegacy OPO, designated donors from the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry made up 15% of the total donations in 2009, and 39% of the total donations in 2014, increasing by ∼5% each year since 2009. By increasing professionalization and transparency, and widening its educational and training efforts, OneLegacy was able to take advantage of an increasing percentage of donors who were designated donors and to increase the overall number of donors and organs transplanted, becoming one of the largest OPOs in the nation. This can be a model for OPOs in other donor service areas, and it may set the stage for the United States to serve as an example to the global community in the practice of organ donation. Copyright

  4. Understanding Early Post-Mortem Biochemical Processes Underlying Meat Color and pH Decline in the Longissimus thoracis Muscle of Young Blond d'Aquitaine Bulls Using Protein Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Micol, Didier; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Hocquette, Jean-François; Picard, Brigitte

    2015-08-05

    Many studies on color biochemistry and protein biomarkers were undertaken in post-mortem beef muscles after ≥24 hours. The present study was conducted on Longissimus thoracis muscles of 21 Blond d'Aquitaine young bulls to evaluate the relationships between protein biomarkers present during the early post-mortem and known to be related to tenderness and pH decline and color development. pH values at 45 min, 3 h, and 30 h post-mortem were correlated with three, seven, and six biomarkers, respectively. L*a*b* color coordinates 24 h post-mortem were correlated with nine, five, and eight protein biomarkers, respectively. Regression models included Hsp proteins and explained between 47 and 59% of the variability between individuals in pH and between 47 and 65% of the variability in L*a*b* color coordinates. Proteins correlated with pH and/or color coordinates were involved in apoptosis or had antioxidative or chaperone activities. The main results include the negative correlations between pH45 min, pH3 h, and pHu and Prdx6, which may be explained by the antioxidative and phospholipase activities of this biomarker. Similarly, inducible Hsp70-1A/B and μ-calpain were correlated with L*a*b* coordinates, due to the protective action of Hsp70-1A/B on the proteolytic activities of μ-calpain on structural proteins. Correlations existed further between MDH1, ENO3, and LDH-B and pH decline and color stability probably due to the involvement of these enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and, thus, the energy status of the cell. The present results show that research using protein indicators may increase the understanding of early post-mortem biological mechanisms involved in pH and beef color development.

  5. Influence of operational condition on lithium plating for commercial lithium-ion batteries – Electrochemical experiments and post-mortem-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Shafiei Sabet, Pouyan; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Investigation of lithium plating to support reliable system integration. •Influence of operational conditions at low temperature on lithium plating. •Comparison of different lithium-ion battery technologies. •Large differences in low-temperature behaviour for different technologies. •Post-mortem analysis reveals inhomogeneous deposition of metallic lithium. -- Abstract: The lifetime and safety of lithium-ion batteries are key requirements for successful market introduction of electro mobility. Especially charging at low temperature and fast charging, known to provoke lithium plating, is an important issue for automotive engineers. Lithium plating, leading both to ageing as well as safety risks, is known to play a crucial role in system design of the application. To gain knowledge of different influence factors on lithium plating, low-temperature ageing tests are performed in this work. Commercial lithium-ion batteries of various types are tested under various operational conditions such as temperature, current, state of charge, charging strategy as well as state of health. To analyse the ageing behaviour, capacity fade and resistance increase are tracked over lifetime. The results of this large experimental survey on lithium plating provide support for the design of operation strategies for the implementation in battery management systems. To further investigate the underlying degradation mechanisms, differential voltage curves and impedance spectra are analysed and a post-mortem analysis of anode degradation is performed for a selected technology. The results confirm the deposition of metallic lithium or lithium compounds in the porous structure and suggest a strongly inhomogeneous deposition over the electrode thickness with a dense deposition layer close to the separator for the considered cell. It is shown that this inhomogeneous deposition can even lead to loss of active material. The plurality of the investigated technologies

  6. Post Mortem Validation of MRI-Identified Veins on the Surface of the Cerebral Cortex as Potential Landmarks for Neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Grabner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Image-guided neurosurgery uses information from a wide spectrum of methods to inform the neurosurgeon's judgement about which tissue to resect and which to spare. Imaging data are registered to the patient's skull so that they correspond to the intraoperative macro- and microscopic view. The correspondence between imaging and optical systems breaks down during surgery, however, as a result of cerebro-spinal fluid drain age, tissue resection, and gravity-based brain shift. In this work we investigate whether a map of surface veins, automatically segmented from MRI, could serve as additional reference system.Methods: Gradient-echo based T2*-weighted imaging was performed on two human cadavers heads using a 7 Tesla MRI scanner. Automatic vessel segmentation was performed using the Frangi vesselness filter, and surface renderings of vessels compared with photographs of the surface of the brain following craniotomy.Results: A high level of correspondence was established between vessel maps and the post autopsy photographs. Corresponding veins, including the prominent superior anastomotic veins, could be identified in all brain lobes.Conclusion: Automatic surface vessel segmentation is feasible and the high correspondence to post autopsy photographs indicates that they could be used as an additional reference system for image-guided neurosurgery in order to maintain the correspondence between imaging and optical systems.This has the advantage over a skull-based reference system that veins are clearly visible to the surgeon and move and deform with the underlying tissue, potentially making this surface net of landmarks robust to brain shift.

  7. Simple spectrophotometric methods for determination of fluoxetine and clomipramine hydrochlorides in dosage forms and in some post-mortem biological fluids samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emam A. Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive, simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods for micro determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLU and clomipramine hydrochloride (CLO. The methods are based on the reaction between the examined drugs and acid dyes, namely; bromocresol green (BCG, phenol red (PhR and metanil yellow (MY producing yellow ion-pair complexes followed by their extraction with methylene chloride and measured at 412, 407 and 409 nm for FLU with BCG, PhR and MY, respectively; whereas for CLO at 409, 406 and 407 nm, respectively. All variables that affect the performance of the proposed methods were carefully studied and optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.86–24.32 μg/mL, 8.64–41.30 μg/mL, 0.86–34.76 μg/mL for FLU and 1.75–24.55 μg/mL, 7.0–50 μg/mL, 1.65–34.78 μg/mL for CLO using BCG, PhR and MY respectively. The methods were validated in terms of accuracy and precision. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride and clomipramine hydrochloride in pure samples, pharmaceutical formulations, spiked post-mortem urine and blood samples.

  8. A morphometric study of measurements of heart in adults and its relation with age and height of the individual: A post-mortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reconstructive and replacement operations of diseased cardiac valves are commonly practiced these days. It may be noted that the choice of proper reconstructive intervention and prosthetic replacement might require the normal morphometric measurements of heart in relation with general body parameters, like age and height. So, this study was undertaken to measure various measurements of heart and its relation with age and height of the individual. Materials and Methods: Sixty five normal post-mortem hearts of adults were taken from the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine. Age of the individual was noted. Length of the deceased was measured with a measuring tape from the level of vertex to the outer border of heel. Length (from apex to base, breadth (at broadest diameter and thickness of the heart were measured with slide callipers. Weight was measured with weighing machine. Results: The mean length, breadth, thickness of heart in males and females are 11.25, 8.78, 3.97 cm and 10.60, 8.31, 3.63 cm. The mean weight of heart in males and females was 323 and 276 gms. There was significant correlation with weight of individual and weight of heart in males. There was significant correlation with age of individual and length of heart in females. Conclusion: This study will be helpful for cardiothoracic surgeons while doing surgery on hearts.

  9. Entomología forense: el ciclo de vida de la mosca verde Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae, como herramienta para estimar el intervalo post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio B. Cano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de vida de la mosca verde Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann en condiciones controladas de laboratorio a 26 o C, con una humedad relativa de 75% y un período de iluminación de 12 h de luz y 12 h de oscuridad. El tiempo promedio de desarrollo estimado desde la oviposición hasta la salida de los adultos fue de 306 h (una media de casi 13 días. Bajo estas condiciones de temperatura y humedad, los huevos duran cerca de 19 h (0.8 días, las larvas duran unas 170 h (7.1 días y las pupas unas 116 h (4.8 días. En los meses secos y fríos de noviembre y diciembre en condiciones naturales, el ciclo de vida empírico fue de 25 días, implicando que las bajas temperaturas ralentizan el crecimiento y las altas lo aceleran. Se discute acerca de la importancia del ciclo de vida en la estimación del intervalo post-mortem en casos de muertes violentas en Guatemala.

  10. Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Christian; Neuwirth, Christoph; Sommacal, Andreas; Andersen, Peter M; Weber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown. To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients. Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015. Forty-two of these patients consented for genetic testing. Effects of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death were analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression. Six patients, who requested assisted suicide causing drug-induced hypoxia, were excluded from final analysis. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death in 72 out of 74 patients. Fifteen out of 74 died of aspiration pneumonia 23/74 of bronchopneumonia and 8/74 of a combination of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. Twenty died of hypoxia without concomitant infection, and six patients had pulmonary embolism alone or in combination with pneumonia. NIV (p = 0.01) and PEG (pNIV bronchopneumonia was significantly more frequent (p NIV patients. This effect was even more pronounced in limb onset patients (pNIV and PEG prolongs survival in ALS. This study supports current AAN and EFNS guidelines which recommend NIV and PEG as a treatment option in ALS. The risk of bronchopneumonia as cause of death may be increased by NIV.

  11. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB, diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024. The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087. There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB.

  12. The potential of non-invasive pre- and post-mortem carcass measurements to predict the contribution of carcass components to slaughter yield of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Lida; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba, Iván; Rodríguez, Nibaldo

    2018-06-01

    Guinea pig meat consumption is increasing exponentially worldwide. The evaluation of the contribution of carcass components to carcass quality potentially can allow for the estimation of the value added to food animal origin and make research in guinea pigs more practicable. The aim of this study was to propose a methodology for modelling the contribution of different carcass components to the overall carcass quality of guinea pigs by using non-invasive pre- and post mortem carcass measurements. The selection of predictors was developed through correlation analysis and statistical significance; whereas the prediction models were based on Multiple Linear Regression. The prediction results showed higher accuracy in the prediction of carcass component contribution expressed in grams, compared to when expressed as a percentage of carcass quality components. The proposed prediction models can be useful for the guinea pig meat industry and research institutions by using non-invasive and time- and cost-efficient carcass component measuring techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative analysis of bones, mites, soil chemistry, nematodes and soil micro-eukaryotes from a suspected homicide to estimate the post-mortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelecz, Ildikó; Lösch, Sandra; Seppey, Christophe V W; Lara, Enrique; Singer, David; Sorge, Franziska; Tschui, Joelle; Perotti, M Alejandra; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2018-01-08

    Criminal investigations of suspected murder cases require estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI, or time after death) which is challenging for long PMIs. Here we present the case of human remains found in a Swiss forest. We have used a multidisciplinary approach involving the analysis of bones and soil samples collected beneath the remains of the head, upper and lower body and "control" samples taken a few meters away. We analysed soil chemical characteristics, mites and nematodes (by microscopy) and micro-eukaryotes (by Illumina high throughput sequencing). The PMI estimate on hair 14 C-data via bomb peak radiocarbon dating gave a time range of 1 to 3 years before the discovery of the remains. Cluster analyses for soil chemical constituents, nematodes, mites and micro-eukaryotes revealed two clusters 1) head and upper body and 2) lower body and controls. From mite evidence, we conclude that the body was probably brought to the site after death. However, chemical analyses, nematode community analyses and the analyses of micro-eukaryotes indicate that decomposition took place at least partly on site. This study illustrates the usefulness of combining several lines of evidence for the study of homicide cases to better calibrate PMI inference tools.

  14. Post-mortem analysis on LiFePO4|Graphite cells describing the evolution & composition of covering layer on anode and their impact on cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-11-01

    During cyclic aging of lithium-ion batteries the formation of a μm-thick covering layer on top of the anode facing the separator is found on top of the anode. In this work several post-mortem analyses of cyclic aged cylindrical LFP|Graphite cells are evaluated to give a detailed characterization of the covering layer and to find possible causes for the evolution of such a layer. The analyses of the layer with different methods return that it consists to high percentage of plated active lithium, deposited Fe and products of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The deposition is located mainly in the center of the cell symmetrical to the coating direction. The origin of these depositions is assumed in locally overcharged particles, Fe deposition or inhomogeneous distribution of capacity density. As a secondary effect the deposition on one side increases the thickness locally; thereafter a pressure-induced overcharging due to charge agglomeration of the back side of the anode occurs. Finally a compact and dense covering layer in a late state of aging leads to deactivation of the covered parts of the anode and cathode due to suppressed lithium-ion conductivity. This leads to increasing slope of capacity fade and increase of internal resistance.

  15. Toward Identification of the Sexual Killer: A Comparison of Sexual Killers Engaging in Post-Mortem Sexual Interference and Non-Homicide Sexual Aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Tamsin; Carter, Adam J; Stefanska, Ewa B; Glorney, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Establishing a model of sexual assault reflecting psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of perpetrators of sexual killing and rape is necessary for development in risk assessment and intervention. Methodological variations in defining sexual killing have amalgamated serial and non-serial offenders and perpetrators with direct and indirect associations between killing and sexual arousal. This study defined sexual killing specifying that killing should be directly linked to sexual arousal, and sampled 48 sexual killers, operationalized to include only those engaging in post-mortem sexual interference, with one or two known female victims (non-serial), from prison service national (England and Wales) databases. These sexual killers were compared with 48 non-homicide, life or indeterminately sentenced sexual aggressors on psychological and crime scene characteristics. Contrary to previous research, fatal outcomes were associated with neither stranger victims nor weapon presence; sexual killing was characterized by severity of violence less so than non-fatal assault. Sexual killers more often reported problems with emotional loneliness, empathic concern, and sexual entitlement than the sexual aggressors. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  16. Effective segmentation of fresh post-mortem murine lung parenchyma in phase contrast X-ray tomographic microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomidis, Ioannis Vogiatzis; Cremona, Tiziana P; Schittny, Johannes C; Lovric, Goran; Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The acinus represents the functional unit of the mammalian lung. It is defined as the small tree of gas-exchanging airways, which is fed by the most distal purely conducting airway. Different hypotheses exist on how the fine structure of the acinus changes during ventilation and development. Since in classical 2-dimensional (2D) sections of the lung the borders of the acini are not detectable, every study of acini requires 3-dimensional (3D) datasets. As a basis for further studies of pulmonary acini we imaged rodent lungs as close to life as possible using phase contrast synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), and developed a protocol for the segmentation of the alveolar septa. The method is based on a combined multilevel filtering approach. Seeds are automatically defined for separate regions of tissue and airspace during each 2D filtering level and then given as input to a 3D random walk segmentation. Thus, the different types of artifacts present in the images are treated separately, taking into account the sample’s structural complexity. The proposed procedure yields high-quality 3D segmentations of acinar microstructure that can be used for a reliable morphological analysis. (paper)

  17. Preslaughter Transport Effect on Broiler Meat Quality and Post-mortem Glycolysis Metabolism of Muscles with Different Fiber Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Chen, Xiangxing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-11-29

    Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh muscles of transported broilers has not been well studied. We thus investigated the differences in meat quality, adenosine phosphates, glycolysis, and bound key enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolism in skeletal muscles with different fiber types of preslaughter transported broilers during summer. Compared to a 0.5 h transport, a 3 h transport during summer decreased ATP content, increased AMP content and AMP/ATP ratio, and accelerated glycolysis metabolism via the upregulation of glycogen phosphorylase expression accompanied by increased activities of bound glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in pectoralis major muscle, which subsequently increased the likelihood of pale, soft, and exudative-like breast meat. On the other hand, a 3 h transport induced only a moderate glycolysis metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle, which did not cause any noticeable changes in the quality traits of the thigh meat.

  18. The morphological substrate for Renal Denervation: Nerve distribution patterns and parasympathetic nerves. A post-mortem histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Wouter A C; Blankestijn, Peter J; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L A W

    2016-03-01

    Renal Denervation as a possible treatment for hypertension has been studied extensively, but knowledge on the distribution of nerves surrounding the renal artery is still incomplete. While sympathetic and sensory nerves have been demonstrated, there is no mention of the presence of parasympathetic nerve fibers. To provide a description of the distribution patterns of the renal nerves in man, and, in addition, provide a detailed representation of the relative contribution of the sympathetic, parasympathetic and afferent divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Renal arteries of human cadavers were each divided into four longitudinal segments and immunohistochemically stained with specific markers for afferent, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Nerve fibers were semi-automatically quantified by computerized image analysis, and expressed as cross-sectional area relative to the distance to the lumen. A total of 3372 nerve segments were identified in 8 arteries of 7 cadavers. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and afferent nerves contributed for 73.5% (95% CI: 65.4-81.5%), 17.9% (10.7-25.1%) and 8.7% (5.0-12.3%) of the total cross-sectional nerve area, respectively. Nerves are closer to the lumen in more distal segments and larger bundles that presumably innervate the kidney lie at 1-3.5mm distance from the lumen. The tissue-penetration depth of the ablation required to destroy 50% of the nerve fibers is 2.37 mm in the proximal segment and 1.78 mm in the most distal segments. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and afferent nerves exist in the vicinity of the renal artery. The results warrant further investigation of the role of the parasympathetic nervous system on renal physiology, and may contribute to refinement of the procedure by focusing the ablation on the most distal segment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigations into the analysis of the rate of decay of the compound action potentials recorded from the rat sciatic nerve after death: significance for the prediction of the post-mortem period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, L D; Daniel, D; Flint, T; Barasi, S

    1991-01-01

    There have been a number of papers that have reported the investigations of electrical stimulation of muscle groups in order to determine the post-mortem period. To the authors knowledge, no techniques have been described that analyse the compound action potentials (CAP) of various nerve fibre groups after death. This paper reports the monitoring of both the amplitude and latency changes of the CAP recorded from a stimulated rat sciatic nerve after death. Initial results suggest that the method my be useful in determining the early post-mortem period within 1 or 2 h after death. It may also be of use in measuring nerve conduction delay in various pathological conditions that can affect the neural network; for example diabetes.

  20. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... centers must verify annually in January of each calendar year with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that an eye bank or tissue bank has complied with the FDA registration requirements of 21 CFR part 1271 and that the registration status is active before permitting an eye bank or tissue bank to receive...

  1. Factors influencing the results of tissue and organ donation: a survey from Cho Ray hospital Mortuary in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Cong Toai; Hoang Van Thuc; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Pham Anh Tuan; Yongyudh Vajaradul; Tran Bac Hai; Nguyen Giang Son; Hyunh Ngoc Linh

    1999-01-01

    The study was carried out on next-of-kins of the deceased one to identify factors affecting the final results of organ donation. Among 225 interviewers (67.1% men), 80 people (35.6%) would be willing to give consent for donation of their relative's tissue and organ. When faced with the beloved death, only 8 cases were procured in reality. The obstacles that limited the organ procurement are due to: consent with some conditions (26/80); not the right relative available to make consent (25/80); initial consent subsequently withdrawn (12/80); exclusion criteria by Tissue Bank (7/80) and interview too late (2/80). There were 62.2% of respondents heard about tissue and organ transplantation, but only 50.3% were aware of transplantation operations possible in Viet Nam. Awareness of transplantation and donation revealed the statistically significant association with the consent for organ donation. It is important that these all such factors need to be considered in their cultural, ethical, religious and legislative environment

  2. Association of Protein Distribution and Gene Expression Revealed by PET and Post-Mortem Quantification in the Serotonergic System of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, A; James, G M; Philippe, C; Gryglewski, G; Bauer, A; Hienert, M; Spies, M; Kautzky, A; Vanicek, T; Hahn, A; Traub-Weidinger, T; Winkler, D; Wadsak, W; Mitterhauser, M; Hacker, M; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R

    2017-01-01

    Regional differences in posttranscriptional mechanisms may influence in vivo protein densities. The association of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data from 112 healthy controls and gene expression values from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, based on post-mortem brains, was investigated for key serotonergic proteins. PET binding values and gene expression intensities were correlated for the main inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT2A) serotonin receptor, the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) in a voxel-wise and region-wise analysis. Correlations indicated a strong linear relationship between gene and protein expression for both the 5-HT1A (voxel-wise rs = 0.71; region-wise rs = 0.93) and the 5-HT2A receptor (rs = 0.66; 0.75), but only a weak association for MAO-A (rs = 0.26; 0.66) and no clear correlation for SERT (rs = 0.17; 0.29). Additionally, region-wise correlations were performed using mRNA expression from the HBT, yielding comparable results (5-HT1Ars = 0.82; 5-HT2Ars = 0.88; MAO-A rs = 0.50; SERT rs = -0.01). The SERT and MAO-A appear to be regulated in a region-specific manner across the whole brain. In contrast, the serotonin-1A and -2A receptors are presumably targeted by common posttranscriptional processes similar in all brain areas suggesting the applicability of mRNA expression as surrogate parameter for density of these proteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Juhui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Farouk, Mustafa M; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Lamb loins ( M. longissimus lumborum , n = 25) were aged at -1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk). The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity), water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C). Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05) made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05) and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009) of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003) and lipid oxidation (p<0.05) of model sausages. This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  4. The impact of body mass index in gene expression of reelin pathway mediators in individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders: A post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, Elisa; Trevizol, Alisson P; Fries, Gabriel R; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Kapczinski, Flavio; McIntyre, Roger S; Mansur, Rodrigo B

    2018-04-13

    The objective of this study was to compare the expression of genes involved in the reelin pathway, in the post-mortem brain of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and mood disorders (MD) with a healthy control (HC) group; and to investigate the role f body mass index (BMI) as a potential mediator. The "Gene Expression in Postmortem dlPFC and Hippocampus from Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders" study holds microarray data on individuals with SZ, MD and HCs (from whom 849 specimens are from the dlPFC and 579 from the hippocampus). mRNA data was obtained using HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip arrays (Illumina). Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the main effects of group and relevant covariates on RELNm, NOTCH1, GRIN1m, GRIN3A, CAMK2Gm, CAMK2A, CAMK2Bm, CAMK2N2, GRIN2Bm, GRIN2A, CREBBPm, APOE, LDLR and DAB1 gene expression. In the dlPFC, individuals with SZ had higher expression, relative to HCs, of APOE. Individuals with MD had higher expression, relative to HCs, of CAMK2A, CAMK2N2, and GRIN2Bm. Moreover, individuals with MD had higher expression, relative to SZ patients, of CAMK2N2. There were significant group by BMI effects for expression of RELN, CAMK2A, CAMK2N2, and GRIN2A. In the hippocampus, individuals with MD had lower expression, relative to HCs, of APOE. The results of this study suggest that the expression of genes related to the reelin pathway could be different between individuals with SZ and MD and healthy controls, with a greater vulnerability associated with greater BMI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°.

  6. Post-Mortem Evaluation of Pathological Lesions in European Bison (Bison Bonasus in the Białowieża Primeval Forest Between 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krzysiak Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%, 77 (32.9%, 82 (35.0%, 68 (29.1%, and 56 (23.9% animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1% tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7% and 80 (32.9% bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001. Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001, changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04, and emphysema (P < 0.001. Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.

  7. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhui Choe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25 were aged at −1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk. The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity, water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C. Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Results Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05 made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05 and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009 of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003 and lipid oxidation (p<0.05 of model sausages. Conclusion This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat.

  8. Dating Pupae of the Blow Fly Calliphora vicina Robineau–Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae for Post Mortem Interval—Estimation: Validation of Molecular Age Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara K. Zajac

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the age of juvenile blow flies is one of the key tasks of forensic entomology when providing evidence for the minimum post mortem interval. While the age determination of blow fly larvae is well established using morphological parameters, the current study focuses on molecular methods for estimating the age of blow flies during the metamorphosis in the pupal stage, which lasts about half the total juvenile development. It has already been demonstrated in several studies that the intraspecific variance in expression of so far used genes in blow flies is often too high to assign a certain expression level to a distinct age, leading to an inaccurate prediction. To overcome this problem, we previously identified new markers, which show a very sharp age dependent expression course during pupal development of the forensically-important blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau–Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae by analyzing massive parallel sequencing (MPS generated transcriptome data. We initially designed and validated two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays for each of 15 defined pupal ages representing a daily progress during the total pupal development if grown at 17 °C. We also investigated whether the performance of these assays is affected by the ambient temperature, when rearing pupae of C. vicina at three different constant temperatures—namely 17 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C. A temperature dependency of the performance could not be observed, except for one marker. Hence, for each of the defined development landmarks, we can present gene expression profiles of one to two markers defining the mentioned progress in development.

  9. Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS? A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients.

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    Christian Burkhardt

    Full Text Available Non-invasive ventilation (NIV and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown.To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients.Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015. Forty-two of these patients consented for genetic testing. Effects of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death were analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression.Six patients, who requested assisted suicide causing drug-induced hypoxia, were excluded from final analysis. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death in 72 out of 74 patients. Fifteen out of 74 died of aspiration pneumonia 23/74 of bronchopneumonia and 8/74 of a combination of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. Twenty died of hypoxia without concomitant infection, and six patients had pulmonary embolism alone or in combination with pneumonia. NIV (p = 0.01 and PEG (p<0.01 had a significant impact on survival. In patients using NIV bronchopneumonia was significantly more frequent (p <0.04 compared to non-NIV patients. This effect was even more pronounced in limb onset patients (p<0.002. Patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions showed faster disease progression and shorter survival (p = 0.01.The use of NIV and PEG prolongs survival in ALS. This study supports current AAN and EFNS guidelines which recommend NIV and PEG as a treatment option in ALS. The risk of bronchopneumonia as cause of death may be increased by NIV.

  10. Cerebellar oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism and similarities with human post mortem cerebellum.

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    Svitlana Shpyleva

    Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG, 5-methylcytosine (5mC, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1 and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1 and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism.

  11. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Machado Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  12. Interpretive conundrum on the exclusion criterion of "transplantation with xenografts" for tissue and cell donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michael A; Brubaker, Scott A

    2012-06-01

    In the context of the EU Directives for human tissues and cells (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC) further interest has arisen on the practical application of a few clauses. One such aspect, for the evaluation phase of a potential donor, is the interpretation of the exclusion criterion "transplantation with xenografts." This article outlines the consensus viewpoints regarding the earlier evaluation of the risks related to xenotransplantation and describes the current status of the terminology and recommendations/laws in several healthcare sectors. The application of uniform terminology is encouraged within the healthcare sectors at the international level.

  13. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...

  14. Neurofibrillary tangle pathology and Braak staging in chronic epilepsy in relation to traumatic brain injury and hippocampal sclerosis: a post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Liu, Joan Y W; Thompson, Pam; Phadke, Rahul; Narkiewicz, Marta; Martinian, Lillian; Marsdon, Derek; Koepp, Matthias; Caboclo, Luis; Catarino, Claudia B; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2011-10-01

    The long-term pathological effects of chronic epilepsy on normal brain ageing are unknown. Previous clinical and epidemiological studies show progressive cognitive decline in subsets of patients and an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in epilepsy. In a post-mortem series of 138 patients with long-term, mainly drug-resistant epilepsy, we carried out Braak staging for Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary pathology using tau protein immunohistochemistry. The stages were compared with clinicopathological factors, including seizure history and presence of old traumatic brain injury. Overall, 31% of cases were Braak Stage 0, 36% Stage I/II, 31% Stage III/IV and 2% Stage V/VI. The mean age at death was 56.5 years and correlated with Braak stage (P < 0.001). Analysis of Braak stages within age groups showed a significant increase in mid-Braak stages (III/IV), in middle age (40-65 years) compared with data from an ageing non-epilepsy series (P < 0.01). There was no clear relationship between seizure type (generalized or complex partial), seizure frequency, age of onset and duration of epilepsy with Braak stage although higher Braak stages were noted with focal more than with generalized epilepsy syndromes (P < 0.01). In 30% of patients, there was pathological evidence of traumatic brain injury that was significantly associated with higher Braak stages (P < 0.001). Cerebrovascular disease present in 40.3% and cortical malformations in 11.3% were not significantly associated with Braak stage. Astrocytic-tau protein correlated with the presence of both traumatic brain injury (P < 0.01) and high Braak stage (P < 0.001). Hippocampal sclerosis, identified in 40% (bilateral in 48%), was not associated with higher Braak stages, but asymmetrical patterns of tau protein accumulation within the sclerotic hippocampus were noted. In over half of patients with cognitive decline, the Braak stage was low indicating causes other than Alzheimer's disease pathology. In summary

  15. Analysis of death in major trauma: value of prompt post mortem computed tomography (pmCT) in comparison to office hour autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Markus; Kurz, Stefanie; Reiser, Maximilian; Kanz, Karl Georg; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Peschel, Oliver; Kirchhoff, Sonja

    2016-03-29

    To analyze diagnostic accuracy of prompt post mortem Computed Tomography (pmCT) in determining causes of death in patients who died during trauma room management and to compare the results to gold standard autopsy during office hours. Multiple injured patients who died during trauma room care were enrolled. PmCT was performed immediately followed by autopsy during office hours. PmCT and autopsy were analyzed primarily regarding pmCT ability to find causes of death and secondarily to define exact causes of death including accurate anatomic localizations. For the secondary analysis data was divided in group-I with equal results of pmCT and autopsy, group-II with autopsy providing superior results and group-III with pmCT providing superior information contributing to but not majorly causing death. Seventeen multiple trauma patients were enrolled. Since multiple trauma patients were enrolled more injuries than patients are provided. Eight patients sustained deadly head injuries (47.1%), 11 chest (64.7%), 4 skeletal system (23.5%) injuries and one patient drowned (5.8%). Primary analysis revealed in 16/17 patients (94.1%) causes of death in accordance with autopsy. Secondary analysis revealed in 9/17 cases (group-I) good agreement of autopsy and pmCT. In seven cases autopsy provided superior results (group-II) whereas in 1 case pmCT found more information (group-III). The presented work studied the diagnostic value of pmCT in defining causes of death in comparison to standard autopsy. Primary analysis revealed that in 94.1% of cases pmCT was able to define causes of death even if only indirect signs were present. Secondary analysis showed that pmCT and autopsy showed equal results regarding causes of death in 52.9%. PmCT is useful in traumatic death allowing for an immediate identification of causes of death and providing detailed information on bony lesions, brain injuries and gas formations. It is advisable to conduct pmCT especially in cases without consent to

  16. Regional correlations between [11C]PIB PET and post-mortem burden of amyloid-beta pathology in a diverse neuropathological cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging-pathological correlation studies show that in vivo amyloid-β (Aβ positron emission tomography (PET strongly predicts the presence of significant Aβ pathology at autopsy. We sought to determine whether regional PiB-PET uptake would improve sensitivity for amyloid detection in comparison with global measures (experiment 1, and to estimate the relative contributions of different Aβ aggregates to in vivo PET signal (experiment 2. In experiment 1, 54 subjects with [11C] PiB-PET during life and postmortem neuropathologic examination (85.2% with dementia, interval from PET to autopsy 3.1 ± 1.9 years were included. We assessed Thal amyloid phase (N = 36 and CERAD score (N = 54 versus both global and regional PiB SUVRs. In experiment 2 (N = 42, PiB SUVR and post-mortem amyloid β burden was analyzed in five customized regions of interest matching regions sampled at autopsy. We assessed the relative contribution of neuritic plaques (NPs, diffuse plaques (DPs and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA to regional PIB SUVR using multi-linear regression. In experiment 1, there were no differences in Area Under the Curve for amyloid phase ≥ A2 and CERAD score ≥ C2 between global and highest regional PiB SUVR (p = 0.186 and 0.230. In experiment 2, when NPs, DPs, and/or CAA were included in the same model, moderate to severe NPs were independently correlated with PiB SUVR in all regions except for the inferior temporal and calcarine ROI (β = 0.414–0.804, p < 0.05, whereas DPs were independently correlated with PiB SUVR in the angular gyrus ROI (β = 0.446, p = 0.010. CAA was also associated with PiB SUVR in the inferior temporal and calcarine ROI (β = 0.222–0.355, p < 0.05. In conclusion, global PiB-PET SUVR performed as well as regional values for amyloid detection in our cohort. The substrate-specific binding of PiB might differ among the brain specific regions.

  17. Paper-based microfluidic devices on the crime scene: A simple tool for rapid estimation of post-mortem interval using vitreous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Paulo T; Gabriel, Ellen F M; Pessôa, Gustavo S; Santos Júnior, Júlio C; Mollo Filho, Pedro C; Guidugli, Ruggero B F; Höehr, Nelci F; Arruda, Marco A Z; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2017-06-29

    This paper describes for the first time the use of paper-based analytical devices at crime scenes to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI), based on the colorimetric determination of Fe 2+ in vitreous humour (VH) samples. Experimental parameters such as the paper substrate, the microzone diameter, the sample volume and the 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) concentration were optimised in order to ensure the best analytical performance. Grade 1 CHR paper, microzone with diameter of 5 mm, a sample volume of 4 μL and an o-phen concentration of 0.05 mol/L were chosen as the optimum experimental conditions. A good linear response was observed for a concentration range of Fe 2+ between 2 and 10 mg/L and the calculated values for the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.3 and 0.9 mg/L, respectively. The specificity of the Fe 2+ colorimetric response was tested in the presence of the main interfering agents and no significant differences were found. After selecting the ideal experimental conditions, four HV samples were investigated on paper-based devices. The concentration levels of Fe 2+ achieved for samples #1, #2, #3 and #4 were 0.5 ± 0.1, 0.7 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.1 and 15.1 ± 0.1 mg/L, respectively. These values are in good agreement with those calculated by ICP-MS. It important to note that the concentration levels measured using both techniques are proportional to the PMI. The limitation of the proposed analytical device is that it is restricted to a PMI greater than 1 day. The capability of providing an immediate answer about the PMI on the crime scene without any sophisticated instrumentation is a great achievement in modern instrumentation for forensic chemistry. The strategy proposed in this study could be helpful in many criminal investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Os conflitos do consentimento acerca da doação de órgãos post mortem no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYNARD, Lorena Oliveira Dantas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o refinamento das técnicas de cirurgias e imunogenética pela medicina nas últimas décadas e com os avanços na farmacoterapia, o transplante de órgãos e tecidos tornou-se uma possibilidade real e uma alternativa essencial ao prolongamento e à qualidade da vida humana. Este estudo objetivou analisar o consentimento para remoção de órgãos e tecidos post mortem na legislação brasileira, na perspectiva da autorização da família. Adotou-se, para tanto, estratégia metodológica qualitativa através de revisão de literatura e revisão legislativa, que permitem um aprofundamento no universo dos significados, dos motivos, das aspirações, das crenças, dos valores e das atitudes em relação ao tema. Os resultados apontam que, na atual Lei de Transplantes, os direitos da personalidade e o princípio da autonomia da vontade são institutos pouco homenageados em função da predominância do monopólio da decisão familiar na hipótese de um confronto entre a vontade do doador e a vontade da família. Frente ao problema da escassez de órgãos no país, a solução mais consentânea com a justiça seria uma adequação entre os dispositivos de lei do Código Civil e a Lei de Transplantes. Oportuno partir do texto já existente do artigo 4º da Lei n. 9.434/1997, para incluir a manifestação da vontade do doador em vida, devidamente documentada. É igualmente importante a informação e a conscientização popular sobre a natureza humanitária da doação de órgãos como medidas direcionadas à discussão do princípio da solidariedade para uma política de doação de órgãos.

  19. Post-mortem analysis of suicide victims shows ABCB1 haplotype 1236T-2677T-3435T as a candidate predisposing factor behind adverse drug reactions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; Haukka, Jari; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-04-01

    Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users. Also, the effect of sex and suicide method used (violent vs. non-violent) was evaluated. All cases included in the study population, 349 completed suicide victims and 284 controls, were shown to be positive for antidepressant citalopram in a post-mortem toxicological drug screen. ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays. Haplotypes were constructed from genotype data using the PHASE software. The association between the manner of death and the ABCB1 haplotype was tested with logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ABCB1 allele or genotype frequencies between the suicide and control groups. However, the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype was associated with completed suicides of female citalopram users (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.07; P=0.009). After stratification by the method used for suicide, the association emerged in fatal intoxications (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-4.87; P=0.007). In other groups, no statistically significant associations were observed. Our results suggest that female citalopram users with ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the drugs as this haplotype was enriched in non-violent suicides of female citalopram users. Even though the biological mechanism behind this observation is unknown, the results provide another example of the importance

  20. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M

    2017-01-01

    The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence...... and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant...... medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample...

  2. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  3. Magnetic resonance temporal diffusion tensor spectroscopy of disordered anisotropic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonathan Scharff; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Lundell, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    of the oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) experiment, giving a basic contrast mechanism closely linked to both the temporal diffusion spectrum and the compartment anisotropy. We demonstrate our new method on post mortem brain tissue and show that we retrieve the correct temporal diffusion tensor spectrum...

  4. Estudio post-mortem de un hormigón refractario colocado en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A high alumina concrete with synthetic spinel (MgAl2O4 addition, conformed as a brick, has been tested in the slag line of a secondary steel ladle. A post-mortem study allowed to establish the elements diffusion profile inside the refractory as well as its microstructural evolution. This study was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, reflected optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. From the analysis of the obtained results, making use of the Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2 quaternary system, it has been possible to establish the mechanism of corrosion, justifying, at the same time, the role that spinel and calcium hexaluminate (CaAl12O19 play. The spinel, that is the only stable solid phase in the slag - refractory interface, admits in its structure large amount of bivalent and trivalent elements (e.g. Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cr3+.... Therefore, the slag becomes silica-rich and highly viscous, as CaAl12O19 is precipitated, decreasing the corrosion. The calcium hexaluminate grows from coarse and medium-sized grains of alumina to form a network of interlocked crystals that act as unions among the alumina grains. This microstructure together with that the CaAl12O19 also admits in solid solution large quantities of Fe2+ and Fe3+, provide a smaller, slower and more uniform wear of the refractory material.

    Se ha diseñado y preparado un hormigón de alta alúmina con espinela, el cual ha sido ensayado, en forma de piezas preconformadas, en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería secundaria. El estudio post-morten del material ha permitido establecer las reacciones químicas que tienen lugar durante el proceso de corrosión y determinar el mecanismo imperante durante este proceso haciendo uso del diagrama de equilibrio Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2. Dicho estudio se ha llevado a cabo mediante difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica de luz reflejada y microscopía electrónica de barrido con

  5. Effect of pre-rigor stretch and various constant temperatures on the rate of post-mortem pH fall, rigor mortis and some quality traits of excised porcine biceps femoris muscle strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vada-Kovács, M

    1996-01-01

    Porcine biceps femoris strips of 10 cm original length were stretched by 50% and fixed within 1 hr post mortem then subjected to temperatures of 4 °, 15 ° or 36 °C until they attained their ultimate pH. Unrestrained control muscle strips, which were left to shorten freely, were similarly treated. Post-mortem metabolism (pH, R-value) and shortening were recorded; thereafter ultimate meat quality traits (pH, lightness, extraction and swelling of myofibrils) were determined. The rate of pH fall at 36 °C, as well as ATP breakdown at 36 and 4 °C, were significantly reduced by pre-rigor stretch. The relationship between R-value and pH indicated cold shortening at 4 °C. Myofibrils isolated from pre-rigor stretched muscle strips kept at 36 °C showed the most severe reduction of hydration capacity, while paleness remained below extreme values. However, pre-rigor stretched myofibrils - when stored at 4 °C - proved to be superior to shortened ones in their extractability and swelling.

  6. Decision solution, data manipulation and trust: The (un-)willingness to donate organs in Germany in critical times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwettmann, Lars

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 and 2012 a change of rules and a data-manipulation scandal focused German public attention on organ donation. This increased citizens' background knowledge as well as their willingness to respond to surveys. The present study is an effort to seize this research opportunity and to create evidence on which policy recommendations can be conceivably based. It uses data from two major representative surveys from 2011 to 2012 to address four central questions: Which characteristics, experiences and attitudes correlate with the written or unwritten willingness of individuals to donate (WTD) their own organs post-mortem? How has the WTD changed over time? To what extent does the WTD depend on normative trust? Which factors correlate with trust? The data is analyzed through summary statistics and regression models. Several hypotheses regarding factors connected with the WTD are confirmed in the survey results. Altruistic motives, relevant knowledge and trust are decisive. The special role of trust is corroborated by the data. As current German politics prevents the introduction of post-mortem donation incentives, potential policy making proposals are restricted to institutional changes to regain trust including the implementation of an organ donor registry and the advancement of counselling talks with general practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between clinical and postmortem evaluation in repeat breeder beef cows Relação entre características clínicas e post-mortem em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the causes of the repeat breeder syndrome comparing clinical signs and postmortem findings in beef cows. The identification of factors affecting the reproductive tract can support decisions as to whether treatment of repeat breeder cows is justifiable than culling. Since all animals were submitted to clinical examination before being slaughtered, this study has a differential approach when compared with others, where genital tracts from abattoir were examined. In this study, 130 crossbred cows and heifers that have failed to conceive after three or more services were identified, submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection for karyotyping and sent to an abattoir. postmortem examinations included macroscopic evaluation of the genital tracts, bacteriology and histopathology of the uterus. Uterine alterations were predominant followed by oviduct and ovarian pathologies. Histopathological examination was more sensitive as a diagnostic tool than clinical examination. Repeat breeder cows had a predominance of uterine abnormalities (95%, such as inflammatory (42.9% and degenerative (59.7% conditions. Oviduct abnormalities were found in 29.8 % of animals. Furthermore, 1 out 10 karyotyped cows showed aneuploidy. Thus, this study stressed the importance of laboratory exams in the diagnosis of the causes of infertility of repeat breeder cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as causas de infertilidade em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço, relacionando sinais clínicos com características laboratoriais post-mortem. A identificação dos fatores que afetam o desempenho reprodutivo pode fornecer uma fundamentação científica para auxiliar na decisão quanto ao destino de vacas repetidoras de serviço; tratamento ou descarte. Este estudo tem abordagem diferencial dos trabalhos que contemplam somente a ocorrência de alterações post-mortem do trato genital. A correlação das altera

  8. Presence of D4 dopamine receptors in human prefrontal cortex: a postmortem study Presença de receptores dopaminérgicos D4 em córtex cerebral humano: um estudo post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to explore the presence and the distribution of D4 dopamine receptors in postmortem human prefrontal cortex, by means of the binding of [³H]YM-09151-2, an antagonist that has equal affinity for D2, D3 and D4 receptors. It was therefore necessary to devise a unique assay method in order to distinguish and detect the D4 component. METHOD: Frontal cortex samples were harvested postmortem, during autopsy sessions, from 5 subjects. In the first assay, tissue homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations of [³H]YM-09151-2, whereas L-745870, which has a high affinity for D4 and a low affinity for D2/D3 receptors, was used as the displacer. In the second assay, raclopride, which has a high affinity for D2/D3 receptors and a low affinity for D4 receptors, was used to block D2/D3. The L-745870 (500 nM was added to both assays in order to determine the nonspecific binding. RESULTS: Our experiments revealed the presence of specific and saturable binding of [³H]YM-09151-2. The blockade of D2 and D3 receptors with raclopride ensured that the D4 receptors were labeled. The mean maximum binding capacity was 88 ± 25 fmol/mg protein, and the dissociation constant was 0.8 ± 0.4 nM. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, although not conclusive, suggest that the density of D4 receptors is low in the human prefrontal cortex.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença e a distribuição de receptores dopaminérgicos do tipo 4 (D4 no córtex cerebral humano em amostras post-mortem através do bloqueio com ³H-YM-09151-2 - um antagonista com afinidade equivalente pelos receptores D2, D3 e D4 - e do desenvolvimento de um método para a detecção específica do componente D4. MÉTODO: Foram obtidas amostras de córtex cerebral de cinco cadáveres. Em um primeiro ensaio, os homogeneizados de tecido cerebral foram incubados em concentrações crescentes de ³H-YM-09151-2, enquanto que o L-745

  9. Simulation-Based Communication Skills Training for Experienced Clinicians to Improve Family Conversations About Organ and Tissue Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julie Elizabeth; Gatward, Jonathan J; Kelly, Michelle A; McKay, Leigh; McCann, Ellie; Elliott, Rosalind M; Perry, Lin

    2017-12-01

    The approach, communication skills, and confidence of clinicians responsible for raising deceased organ donation may influence families' donation decisions. The aim of this study was to increase the preparedness and confidence of intensive care clinicians allocated to work in a "designated requester" role. We conducted a posttest evaluation of an innovative simulation-based training program. Simulation-based training enabled clinicians to rehearse the "balanced approach" to family donation conversations (FDCs) in the designated requester role. Professional actors played family members in simulated clinical settings using authentic scenarios, with video-assisted reflective debriefing. Participants completed an evaluation after the workshop. Simple descriptive statistical analysis and content analysis were performed. Between January 2013 and July 2015, 25 workshops were undertaken with 86 participants; 82 (95.3%) returned evaluations. Respondents were registered practicing clinicians; over half (44/82; 53.7%) were intensivists. Most attended a single workshop. Evaluations were overwhelmingly positive with the majority rating workshops as outstanding (64/80; 80%). Scenario fidelity, competence of the actors, opportunity to practice and receive feedback on performance, and feedback from actors, both in and out of character, were particularly valued. Most (76/78; 97.4%) reported feeling more confident about their designated requester role. Simulation-based communication training for the designated requester role in FDCs increased the knowledge and confidence of clinicians to raise the topic of donation.

  10. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  11. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...

  12. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly; Ou, Kevin; Jackson, John K.; Letchford, Kevin; Cui, Jing; Wolf, Ki Tae; Graber, Florian; Zhao, Tom; Matsubara, Joanne A.; Burt, Helen; Chiao, Mu; Lin, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved

  13. Topographic distribution of brain iron deposition and small cerebrovascular lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reuck, Jacques; Devos, David; Moreau, Caroline; Auger, Florent; Durieux, Nicolas; Deramecourt, Vincent; Pasquier, Florence; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Leys, Didier; Bordet, Regis

    2017-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in 15% of the cases. A neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD-TDP is suspected. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study compares the topographic distribution of iron (Fe) deposition and the incidence of small cerebrovascular lesions in ALS and in FTLD brains. Seventy-eight post-mortem brains underwent 7.0-tesla MRI. The patients consisted of 12 with ALS, 38 with FTLD, and 28 controls. Three ALS brains had minor FTLD features. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere were submitted to T2 and T2* MRI sequences. The amount of Fe deposition in the deep brain structures and the number of small cerebrovascular lesions was determined in ALS and the subtypes of FTLD compared to control brains, with neuropathological correlates. A significant increase of Fe deposition was observed in the claustrum, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus of the FTLD-FUS and FTLD-TDP groups, while in the ALS one, the Fe increase was only observed in the caudate and the subthalamic nuclei. White matter changes were only significantly more severe in the FTLD compared to those in ALS and in controls brains. Cortical micro-bleeds were increased in the frontal and temporal lobes of FTLD as well as of ALS brains compared to controls. Cortical micro-infarcts were, on the other hand, more frequent in the control compared to the ALS and FTLD groups. The present study supports the assumption of a neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD and illustrates the favourable vascular risk profile in these diseases.

  14. 75 FR 17843 - National Donate Life Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... need for donors and to find resources on how to donate. Together, we can save lives and give hope to... Donate Life Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we..., tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life Month, we honor donors who provide...

  15. Promoting deceased organ and tissue donation registration in family physician waiting rooms (RegisterNow-1 trial): study protocol for a pragmatic, stepped-wedge, cluster randomized controlled registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alvin H; Garg, Amit X; Prakash, Versha; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Taljaard, Monica; Mitchell, Joanna; Matti, Danny; Linklater, Stefanie; Naylor, Kyla L; Dixon, Stephanie; Faulds, Cathy; Bevan, Rachel; Getchell, Leah; Knoll, Greg; Kim, S Joseph; Sontrop, Jessica; Bjerre, Lise M; Tong, Allison; Presseau, Justin

    2017-12-21

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs available for transplant, leading to preventable mortality associated with end-stage organ disease. While most citizens in many countries with an intent-to-donate "opt-in" system support organ donation, registration rates remain low. In Canada, most Canadians support organ donation but less than 25% in most provinces have registered their desire to donate their organs when they die. The family physician office is a promising yet underused setting in which to promote organ donor registration and address known barriers and enablers to registering for deceased organ and tissue donation. We developed a protocol to evaluate an intervention to promote registration for organ and tissue donation in family physician waiting rooms. This protocol describes a planned, stepped-wedge, cluster randomized registry trial in six family physician offices in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the effectiveness of reception staff providing patients with a pamphlet that addresses barriers and enablers to registration including a description of how to register for organ donation. An Internet-enabled tablet will also be provided in waiting rooms so that interested patients can register while waiting for their appointments. Family physicians and reception staff will be provided with training and/or materials to support any conversations about organ donation with their patients. Following a 2-week control period, the six offices will cross sequentially into the intervention arm in randomized sequence at 2-week intervals until all offices deliver the intervention. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients visiting the office who are registered organ donors 7 days following their office visit. We will evaluate this outcome using routinely collected registry data from provincial administrative databases. A post-trial qualitative evaluation process will assess the experiences of reception staff and family physicians with the intervention and the

  16. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Mello, Rafael; Regis Silva, Maria Regina; Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Evison, Martin; Guimarães, Marco Aurélio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaça; Dias Astolphi, Rafael; Miazato Iwamura, Edna Sadayo

    2017-01-01

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens....

  17. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  18. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  19. Dissecting the pathobiology of altered MRI signal in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A post mortem whole brain sampling strategy for the integration of ultra-high-field MRI and quantitative neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallebage-Gamarallage, Menuka; Foxley, Sean; Menke, Ricarda A L; Huszar, Istvan N; Jenkinson, Mark; Tendler, Benjamin C; Wang, Chaoyue; Jbabdi, Saad; Turner, Martin R; Miller, Karla L; Ansorge, Olaf

    2018-03-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, in which therapy is hindered by the rapid progression of disease and lack of biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its potential for detecting the pathological signature and tracking disease progression in ALS. However, the microstructural and molecular pathological substrate is poorly understood and generally defined histologically. One route to understanding and validating the pathophysiological correlates of MRI signal changes in ALS is to directly compare MRI to histology in post mortem human brains. The article delineates a universal whole brain sampling strategy of pathologically relevant grey matter (cortical and subcortical) and white matter tracts of interest suitable for histological evaluation and direct correlation with MRI. A standardised systematic sampling strategy that was compatible with co-registration of images across modalities was established for regions representing phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43) patterns that were topographically recognisable with defined neuroanatomical landmarks. Moreover, tractography-guided sampling facilitated accurate delineation of white matter tracts of interest. A digital photography pipeline at various stages of sampling and histological processing was established to account for structural deformations that might impact alignment and registration of histological images to MRI volumes. Combined with quantitative digital histology image analysis, the proposed sampling strategy is suitable for routine implementation in a high-throughput manner for acquisition of large-scale histology datasets. Proof of concept was determined in the spinal cord of an ALS patient where multiple MRI modalities (T1, T2, FA and MD) demonstrated sensitivity to axonal degeneration and associated heightened inflammatory changes in the lateral corticospinal tract. Furthermore

  20. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  1. Team-building through sailing: effects on health status, job satisfaction and work performance of health care professionals involved in organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be

  2. In vitro study of the biological activity of RNAs after incubation of hog liver, heart and brain tissue at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, G H; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    The biological activity of RNA, isolated from tissue which was incubated for 1, 3, or 6 hours at room temperature (simulation of post-mortem conditions), was preserved. However, the different organs used differ from each other. When liver is used, qualitative differences in the in vitro translati...... RNase inhibitors during thawing to reduce the loss of biological activity....

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethics, organ donation and tax: a reply to Quigley and Taylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2012-08-01

    A national opt-out system of post-mortem donation of scarce organs is preferable to an opt-in system. Unfortunately, the former system is not always feasible, and so in a recent JME article we canvassed the possibility of offering people a tax break for opting-in as a way of increasing the number of organs available for donation under an opt-in regime. Muireann Quigley and James Stacey Taylor criticize our proposal. Roughly, Quigley argues that our proposal is costly and, hence, is unlikely to be implemented, while Taylor contests our response to a Titmuss-style objection to our scheme. In response to Quigley, we note that our proposal's main attraction lies in gains not reflected in the figures presented by Quigley and that the mere fact that it is costly does not imply that it is unfeasible. In response to Taylor, we offer some textual evidence in support of our interpretation of Taylor and responds to his favoured interpretation of the Titmuss-style objection that many people seem to want to donate to charities even if they can deduct their donations from their income tax. Finally, we show why our views do not commit us to endorsing a free organ-market.

  5. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering: a European focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Berg, P.P. van den; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  6. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering : a European focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.P.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Oerlemans, A.J.

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  7. The donor management algorithm in transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft.. First experience in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Uyba

    2016-01-01

    multidisciplinary approach. Establishing of facial VCA transplantation Program is a complicated process for transplant centers and can hardly be implemented without a properly organized post-mortem organ donation system at a national level. Today these criteria are met only by the Coordination Center for Organ Donation at FMBA of Russia.

  8. GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON ESTABLISHMENT A UNIFIED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION OF ORGANS, TISSUES AND CELLS OF HUMAN ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From from February 7th to 9th 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Italian National Transplant Cen- tre and the EU-funded Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin» joined forces to organise a major global consultation that took place in Bologna, Italy. The scope of the project included organs, tissues and cells for transplantation and for assisted reproduction. The participants represented regulatory and non-regulatory government agencies, professional societies and scientific and clinical specialities from all WHO regions. The meeting explored the work already carried out on-line and agreed on priorities for the future deve- lopment of the Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin». 

  9. Comparación de la técnica de Dennis con los hallazgos hepáticos post - mortem para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Alvarez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio hace una comparación entre los resultados de la técnica de Dennis para diagnóstico de Fasciolosis bovina, frente a hallazgos post mortem, en hígados de bovinos faenados en la empresa Matadero de Tunja. Es un estudio experimental descriptivo, por cuanto expone los hallazgos en matadero frente a los arrojados por el método de Dennis. La población total de bovinos adultos fue de 2800, de los cuales se tomó una muestra de 139 animales. El muestreo se llevó a cabo durante el mes de febrero del año 2009. Los resultados indican que la técnica de Dennis no es lo suficientemente sensible para el diagnóstico de Fasciola hepática, por lo que se debe evaluar su uso rutinario.La técnica coprológica se fundamenta en el principio de sedimentación delos huevos, por lo tanto depende la salida de éstos en la materia fecal, lo que la hace poco efectiva para la detección del parásito. La razón de este estudiose sustenta en que la enfermedad se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la región y en el país. Su diagnóstico se realiza rutinariamente mediante técnicas coprológicas aplicadas a los animales en los que se sospecha la enfermedad.

  10. Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses: review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Harold; Voermans, Margreet; Veraa, Stefanie; van den Belt, Antoon J M; van der Toorn, Annette; Ploeg, Margreet; Gröne, Andrea; Back, Willem

    2014-11-19

    Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament has been described in Friesian horses as well as in other breeds. The objectives of this study were to review the outcome of clinical cases of this disease in Friesian horses and analyse the pathology of the bone-ligament interface. Case records of Friesian horses diagnosed with axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the period 2002-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Post-mortem examination was performed on horses that were euthanized (n = 3) and included macroscopic necropsy (n = 3), high-field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (n = 1) and histopathology (n = 2). Twelve horses were included, aged 6.8 ± 2.7 years. The hindlimb was involved in all cases. Lameness was acute in onset and severe, with a mean duration of 1.9 ± 1.0 months. Three horses were euthanized after diagnosis; 9 horses underwent treatment. Two horses (22%) became sound for light riding purposes, 2 horses (22%) became pasture sound (comfortable at pasture, but not suitable for riding), 5 horses (56%) remained lame. In addition to bone resorption at the proximo-axial margin of the proximal sesamoid bones, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology showed osteoporosis of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones and chronic inflammation of the intersesamoidean ligament. Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses carries a poor prognosis. Pathological characterization (inflammation, proximo-axial bone resorption and remodelling of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones) may help in unravelling the aetiology of this disease.

  11. Collagen degradation as a possibility to determine the post-mortem interval (PMI) of animal bones: a validation study referring to an original study of Boaks et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinghaus, Katharina; Hachmann, Carolin; Hoeland, Katharina; Bohnert, Michael; Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula

    2018-05-01

    Estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of unknown skeletal remains is a common forensic task. Boaks and colleagues demonstrated a new method for PMI estimation in showing a reduction of the collagen to non-collagen content (Co/NCo ratio) in porcine bones after a PMI of 12 months using the Sirius Red/Fast Green Collagen Staining Kit from Chondrex in 2014 (Boaks et al. Forensic Sci Int 240: 104-110, 2014). The aim of our study was to reproduce this method and to investigate if the method could be used for forensic issues. Sixteen fresh porcine bones were placed in prepared boxes where they were treated regularly with distilled water or with water from hay infusions. For determining the Co/NCo ratio, we used the Sirius Red/Fast Green Collagen Staining Kit from Chondrex, which stains collagenous (Co) proteins red and non-collagenous (NCo) proteins green Chondrex Inc. (2008). After a PMI of 1-3 months, an analysis of porcine bone thin sections was performed on the one hand with spectrophotometry, on the other hand with stereomicroscopy. Using spectrophotometry, we go low and partially negative Co/NCo ratios which were up to 100-fold lower than the results we expected to get. The data we got by stereomicroscopy and calculating the Co/NCo ratio from extracting the red and green content with the software MATLAB and so calculating the Co/NCo ratio showed a correlation between PMI and the Co/NCo ratio in the porcine bone samples. Regular addition of distilled water or water from a hay infusion did not produce any significant differences so that an increased presence of microorganisms had obviously no influence on collagen degradation.

  12. Stock options, tax credits or employment contracts please! The value of deliberative public disagreement about human tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Heather L

    2011-07-01

    'Deliberative democracy' is increasingly popular globally, as a means of securing public engagement with emerging health technologies and democratizing their governance. Architects of deliberative 'mini-publics' have tended, however, to privilege consensus within deliberation and the generation of 'action commitments' within a 'decisional context', despite widespread critique. Less attention has been paid to the phenomenon of persistent disagreement within constructed deliberative fora. This paper addresses this lacuna, performing a narrative analysis of four days of deliberation within one small group of demographically diverse public participants at the BC Biobank Deliberation (Vancouver, Canada, 2007). It reveals the value of listening to persistent deliberative disagreements. First, this paper argues that disagreements enable identification of deliberation and evaluation of its quality. Second, they generate insight into the deliberative process and the discursive means through which consensus can be achieved. Third, persistent deliberative disagreements can be creative of innovative governance solutions. In the case of the BC Biobank Deliberation, disagreements about compensation for biobank donors generated a range of suggestions for mediating between donor rights, corporate interests and societal needs--from tissue sample rentals to donor tax credits--suggestions that are unique to the existing academic and policy literature. Finally, this paper argues that practitioners should present persistent disagreements to public and policy audiences as an 'output' of deliberative democracy events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Juridical aspects of post mortem adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The legislature, with the enactment of the Statute of Children and Adolescents, now provides the named posthumous adoption, allowing the death of the adopter, in the course of the procedure does not generate the extinction pleaded adoption. Has the purpose to show that, notwithstanding the absence of such law, the construction of new adopters and adopted by families are recognized, since permeated the socially demonstrated affection, even in passing the death of the person occurs before you have to start legal formalization of the adoption petition, thus characterizing the figure of posthumous adoption without prior judicial manifestation.

  14. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  15. Organ donation in Switzerland--an analysis of factors associated with consent rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased's next of kin (NOK for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values <0.2 were selected for a multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 266 NOK approached for consent, consent was given in 137 (51.5% cases. In multivariable analysis, we found associations of consent rates with Swiss nationality (OR 3.09, 95% CI: 1.46-6.54 and German language area (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.73. Consent rates tended to be higher if a parent was present during the request (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 0.93-3.33 and if the request was done before brain death was formally declared (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 0.90-3.87. CONCLUSION: Establishing an atmosphere of trust between the medical staff putting forward a request and the NOK, allowing sufficient time for the NOK to consider donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions.

  16. Placas de refratários aluminosos do sistema de válvula gaveta de panelas de aciaria: análise post mortem da degradação química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. de Sousa

    Full Text Available Resumo Em uma aciaria, os recipientes que comportam o aço líquido, tais como o forno e a panela de aciaria, são revestidos com materiais refratários especiais para alta temperatura e elevada resistência ao desgaste. O custo desses materiais é alto e, portanto, almeja-se aumentar sua vida útil sem afetar seu desempenho. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de investigar as transformações que ocorrem no material refratário aluminoso de placas de válvula gaveta de panela de aciaria. Para tanto, a região das placas post mortem que entraram em contato com o material líquido a alta temperatura foi caracterizada por meio de análise visual e análises de composição e estrutura através das técnicas de fluorescência de raios X, difração de raios X e análise de microestrutura por microscopia eletrônica de varredura com espectroscopia por dispersão em energia. Como resultado, têm-se contribuições sobre o processo de corrosão química proporcionada pelo contato de escórias residuais com o canal das placas da válvula gaveta. Constatou-se a presença de materiais com alto teor de Ca e compostos por fases como mervinita e guelenita, características de escória, aderidos às placas. Ao mesmo tempo, foi possível estabelecer que a espessura de interação entre o material aderido e a superfície da placa variou entre 0,4 e 1,2 mm. Assim, quando associada à erosão pelo fluxo de aço, a corrosão química decorrente do contato com a escória tem o potencial de intensificar o desgaste da placa refratária.

  17. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  18. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  19. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  20. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safely and comfortably returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...

  1. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...

  2. A novel non-rapid-eye movement and rapid-eye-movement parasomnia with sleep breathing disorder associated with antibodies to IgLON5: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Lidia; Gaig, Carles; Gelpi, Ellen; Bataller, Luis; Lewerenz, Jan; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Contreras, Angeles; Giometto, Bruno; Compta, Yaroslau; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain, for abnormal sleep behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea. These patients had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen, which were also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been assessed with polysomnography, which was done in our sleep unit in one patient and the recording reviewed in a second patient. Two patients underwent post-mortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterise the antigen and develop an assay for antibody testing. Serum or CSF from 298 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as control samples. All eight patients (five women; median age at disease onset 59 years [range 52-76]) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea, as confirmed by polysomnography. Six patients had chronic progression with a median duration from symptom onset to death or last visit of 5 years (range 2-12); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid progression with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died 2 months and 6 months, respectively, after symptom onset. In five of five patients, video polysomnography showed features of obstructive sleep apnoea, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture (undifferentiated non-rapid-eye-movement [non-REM] sleep or poorly structured

  3. Attitudes of the medical profession to whole body and organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Connor; Bowden, Dermot; Molony, Diarmuid; Burke, Neil; Felle, Patrick; Dudeney, Sean

    2014-04-01

    Cadaveric dissection remains an important part of undergraduate medical education in anatomy. In a concerted effort to rise the number of doctors in practice in Ireland the amount of medical school placements has been increased steadily since 1995. This poses a problem as the number of cadavers has remained unchanged despite an overall increase in the population Ireland over the last twenty years. The medical profession plays a central part in raising public awareness of living and post-mortem organ donation. Previous studies have examined the attitudes of medical students to whole body donation, however to our knowledge this is the first study that evaluates the attitudes of medical professionals. We assess the opinions of junior and senior doctors at the time of their dissection experience and in their current practice. We show that their attitudes have changed as their clinical experience grows. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.

  5. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  6. A literature-based cost analysis of tissue plasminogen activator for prevention of biliary stricture in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M; Bhutiani, N; Wei, D; Goldstein, L; Jones, C M; Cannon, R M

    2018-04-17

    This study sought to approximate the cost-effectiveness of tPA utilization for prevention of biliary strictures (PTBS) in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation (DCD-LT). Previously-reported PTBS rates in DCD-LT with and without tPA were used to calculate the number needed to treat (NNT) for prevention of one PTBS. The incremental cost of PTBS was then used to determine the cost effectiveness of tPA for prevention of PTBS. The incidence of PTBS in the setting of tPA administration was 20%, while incidence in patients without tPA use was 43% (p PTBS management, use of tPA in DCD-LT protocols was estimated to save $31,528 per PTBS prevented. Utilization of tPA in DCD-LT protocols represents one possible cost-effective strategy for prevention of PTBS in DCD-LT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Corporate Donations and Shareholder Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, H.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Do corporate donations enhance shareholder wealth or reflect agency problems? We address this question for a global sample of firms whereby we distinguish between charitable and political donations, as well as between donations in cash and in kind. We find that charitable donations are positively

  8. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2017-01-04

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered.

  9. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  10. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  11. [Organ donation after death in Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass

    2015-07-01

    Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [HTLV and "donating" milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F

    2011-08-01

    In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.

  13. Nem tudo que parece ser, é lesão: aspectos anatômicos, não lesões, artefatos, lesões sem significado clínico e alterações post mortem encontrados na necropsia de suínos domésticos e selvagens (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Rech

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A interpretação das alterações encontradas na necropsia é uma etapa importante para o sucesso do diagnóstico final. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever e ilustrar os aspectos anatômicos, não lesões, artefatos, lesões sem significado clínico e alterações post mortem encontradas em suínos domésticos e selvagens. Além disso, também se recomenda técnicas de colheita de tecidos para o diagnóstico de doenças que acometem essa espécie. Os principais aspectos anatômicos e não lesões descritos são fímbrias linguais, quadrilátero esofágico, toro pilórico e demarcação do padrão lobular do fígado (sistema gastrintestinal; tonsilas do palato mole, tecido linfoide associado ao estômago, placas de Peyer do intestino delgado e dobras da margem do baço (sistema hematopoiético; mediastino proeminente do testículo e aréolas da placenta (sistema reprodutor; atelectasia pulmonar e apêndice decidual (feto; e glândulas carpais (sistema tegumentar. Os artefatos de eutanásia abordados são petéquias na superfície do pulmão e rim, falsa anemia por sangria, hemorragia subdural por concussão cerebral, pseudo-infartos do baço e aspecto cerebriforme do intestino delgado. As lesões de pouco significado clínico descritas são cistos renais, linfonodos com pigmento de ferro, papilomas e hemangiomas no escroto, ossos no mesentério e hiperemia da mucosa gástrica. As alterações post mortem comumente encontradas são livor mortis, músculos pálidos, pseudomelanose e líquido serosanguinolento nas cavidades torácica e abdominal em fetos.

  14. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  15. Literature overview highlights lack of paediatric donation protocols but identifies common themes that could guide their development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vileito, A; Siebelink, M J; Verhagen, A A E

    Aim: Paediatric donation is a unique and extremely sensitive process that requires specific knowledge and competencies. Most countries use protocols for organ and tissue donation to ensure optimal care for the donor and family, but these mainly focus on adults. However, the donation process for

  16. Motivations for Deceased Organ Donation Among Volunteers in China: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia

    2016-06-09

    BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.

  17. Defaults and Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul

    We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...

  18. Recusa de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciais doadores Negación de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciales donadores Reasons for the family members' refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção de familiares de potenciais doadores sobre os motivos de recusa para doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, na vertente fenomenológica, modalidade "estrutura do fenômeno situado". Participaram do estudo oito familiares que recusaram a doação dos órgãos e tecidos. RESULTADOS: Após análise das entrevistas, foram revelados dez motivos de recusa, considerados pelos familiares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As proposições que emergiram revelaram que os motivos de recusa familiar para doação de órgãos e tecidos estão relacionados à crença, valores e inadequações no processo de doação e transplante.OBJETIVO: Conocer la percepción de familiares de potenciales donadores sobre los motivos de su negación para la donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, en la vertiente fenomenológica, modalidad "estructura del fenómeno situado". Participaron del estudio ocho familiares que se negaron a la donación de órganos y tejidos. RESULTADOS: Después del análisis de las entrevistas se revelaron diez motivos de negación expuestos por los familiares. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que los motivos de la negativa familiar para la donación de órganos y tejidos están relacionados a la creencia, valores e inadecuaciones en el proceso de donación y transplante.OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of family members of potential donors in regard to their reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to conduct this study. A sample of eight family members who refused to donate organ and tissue for transplant participated in the study. RESULTS: Participants reported ten reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Reasons for the family members

  19. Donation return time at fixed and mobile donation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Patricia M.; High, Patrick M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Johnson, Bryce R.; Mast, Alan E.; Rios, Jorge A.; Simon, Toby L.; Wilkinson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of blood donation environment, fixed or mobile with differing sponsor types, on donation return time. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 2006 through 2009 at six US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) were used for analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by whole blood (WB), plateletpheresis (PP), and double red blood cell (R2) donations were obtained for fixed and mobile locations, including median number of donations and median interdonation interval. A survival analysis estimated median return time at fixed and mobile sites, while controlling for censored return times, demographics, blood center, and mandatory recovery times. RESULTS Two-thirds (67.9%) of WB donations were made at mobile sites, 97.4% of PP donations were made at fixed sites, and R2 donations were equally distributed between fixed and mobile locations. For donations at fixed sites only or alternating between fixed and mobile sites, the highest median numbers of donations were nine and eight, respectively, and the shortest model-adjusted median return times (controlling for mandatory eligibility times of 56 and 112 days) were 36 and 30 days for WB and R2 donations, respectively. For PP donations, the shortest model-adjusted median return time was 23 days at a fixed location and the longest was 693 days at community locations. CONCLUSION WB, PP, and R2 donors with the shortest time between donations were associated with fixed locations and those alternating between fixed and mobile locations, even after controlling for differing mandatory recovery times for the different blood donation procedures. PMID:21745215

  20. Crowdfunding as 'Donations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...

  1. Eye Care Professionals' Perspectives on Eye Donation and an Eye Donation Registry for Research: A Single-Institution, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-06-01

    A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.

  2. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Vascularized Composite Allograft Donation and Transplantation: A Survey of Public Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K

    2017-10-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visualizations of three-dimensional fibre bundles. One class of these algorithms is probabilistic...... the possibility of using high-field experimental MR scanners and long scanning times, thereby significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and anatomical resolution. Moreover, many of the degrading effects observed in vivo, such as physiological noise, are no longer present. However, the post mortem...

  5. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  6. Religious perspectives on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, J

    1999-11-01

    A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.

  7. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  8. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...

  9. Post-mortem findings in Irish culled hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, H; Callanan, J J; McElroy, M C; Sammin, D J; Bassett, H F

    2011-07-01

    Little is known of the common diseases of hunting dogs or of the reasons why they are culled. To address these questions, necropsy examinations were conducted on 52 hounds aged 1.5-12 years (mean 6.5 ± 2.5 years) and culled from 10 Irish hunting kennels over a 3-year period. Progressive systemic disease was seen in six dogs only and encompassed individual cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis, bronchioalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, renal amyloidosis, suppurative pneumonia, extramedullary plasmacytoma in the atrial wall of the heart and foreign body-induced hepatitis with focal peritonitis. Single or multiple localized tumours were identified in five dogs and, apart from the aforementioned, included two cutaneous haemangiomas, a trichoepithelioma, a lipoma and a mammary ductal adenoma. Three dogs were culled for lameness; one of these dogs had torn musculature, another had cellulitis and the third had a healed fracture of the tibia and fibula. Chronic renal changes were present in 48% of the dogs and included focal proliferative, exudative or crescentic glomerulonephritis (33%) or low-grade interstitial inflammatory changes (50%). The most frequently diagnosed skin lesions reported in this study were mild healed decubitus ulcers (33%), scars (33%) and stereotypic dermatitis (13%). These findings indicate that hounds are likely to be culled for reasons other than the presence of disease in most cases. In addition, this survey highlights different disease patterns in hounds than are typically observed in pet dogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Post mortem analysis of a JET quartz microbalance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, H.G. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: h.g.esser@fz-juelich.de; Philipps, V. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Wienhold, P. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Sugiyama, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kreter, A. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich, IPP, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Coad, J.P. [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Tanabe, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    In the year 2001, a quartz microbalance system (QMB) was installed in the remote area of the inner JET divertor to investigate in situ material erosion and redeposition processes. When removed in 2004, the system was found to be coated all over with carbon deposits. The deposit on the quartz oscillator and the outer and inner housing was analysed by various methods, as SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy), stylus depth profilometry, EPMA (electron probe microanalysis), TIPT (Tritium imaging plate technique) and colorimetry and compared to the frequency change of the quartz. The layer thickness was determined to 1.85 {+-} 0.1 {mu}m in average on an area of 0.95 cm{sup 2} which has to be related to the equivalent of 1.77 x 10{sup -4} g measured from the frequency change of 23 640 Hz. This corresponds to a carbon areal density of 9.3 x 10{sup 18} C atoms/cm{sup 2}. Significant deposition was found also on the surfaces inside the QMB housing which can only be understood if reflection and low sticking is assumed for a high fraction of particles.

  11. FEBEX Project Post-mortem Analysis: Corrosion Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madina, V.; Azkarate, I.

    2004-01-01

    The partial dismantling of the FEBEX in situ test was carried out during de summer of 2002, following 5 years of continuous heating. The operation included the demolition of the concrete plug and the removal of the section of the test corresponding to the first heater. A large number of samples from all types of materials have been taken during the dismantling for subsequent analysis. Part of the samples collected were devoted to the analysis of the corrosion processes occurred during the first operational phase of the test. These samples comprised corrosion coupons from different metals installed for that purpose, sensors retrieved during the dismantling that were found severely corroded and bentonite in contact with those sensors. In addition, a corrosion study was performed on the heater extracted and on one section of liner surrounding it. All the analyses were carried out by the Fundacion INASMET (Spain). This report describes, in detail the studies carried out the different materials and the obtained results, as well as the drawn conclusions. (Author)

  12. FEBEX II Project Post-mortem analysis EDZ assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazargan Sabet, B.; Shao, H.; Autio, J.; Elorza, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the FEBEX II project a multidisciplinary team studied the mechanisms of creation of the potential damaged zone around the test drift. The research program includes laboratory and in situ investigations as well as the numerical modelling of the observed phenomena. Where laboratory investigations are concerned, the 14C-PMMA technique was applied to study the spatial distribution of porosity in the samples taken from the test drift wall. In addition complementary microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed to make qualitative investigations on the pore apertures and minerals in porous regions. The results obtained with the PMMA method have not shown any clear increased porosity zone adjacent to the tunnel wall. The total porosity of the samples varied between 0.6-1.2%. The samples of unplugged region did not differ from the samples of plugged region. A clear increase in porosity to depths of 10-15 mm from the tunnel wall was detected in lamprophyre samples. According to the SEM/EDX analyses the excavation-disturbed zone in the granite matrix extended to depths of 1-3 mm from the wall surface. A few quartz grains were crushed and some micro fractures were found. Gas permeability tests were carried out on two hollow cylinder samples of about 1m long each taken on the granite wall perpendicular to the drift axis. The first sample was cored in the service area far from the heated zone and the second one at the level of the heater. The tests were performed at constant gas pressure by setting a steady state radial flow through a section of 1cm wide isolated by means of four mini-packers. The profile of the gas permeability according to the core length has been established. The results obtained for both considered samples have shown permeability ranging between 3.5 10-18 and 8.4 10-19m2, pointing out the absence of a marked damage. Acoustic investigations have been carried out with the objective of quantifying the variations in the propagation velocities of acoustic waves. A cylindrical block of granite 38.8 cm in diameter and 40 cm high has been analysed along 2D transversal sections in six radial directions. Different inverse tomographic strategies have been used to analyse the measured data, which shown no evidences of the existence of an EDZ in FEBEX gallery. However, a preferential direction in the wave propagation similar to the maximum compression direction of the stress tensor has appeared. As for in situ investigations, the hydraulic connectivity of the drift has been assessed at eleven locations in heated area, including granite matrix and lamprophyre dykes and at six locations in undisturbed zones. In the granite matrix area, pulse test using pressurised air with stepwise pressure increasing was conducted to determine gas entry pressure. In the fractured area, a gas constant flow rate injection test was conducted. Only two locations with higher permeability were detected; one in a natural fracture in the lamprophyre dyke and the other in the interface between lamprophyre and granite. Where numerical investigations are concerned, several analyses of the FEBEX in situ experiment were carried out to determine whether if the generation of a potential EDZ in the surrounding rock was possible or not. Stresses have been calculated by 1D full-coupled thermo-hydromechanical model and by 2D and 3D thermo-mechanical models. Results compared with the available data on compressive strength of the Grimsel granite show that in the worst-case studied, the state of stresses induced by the excavation and the heating phases remains far below the critical curve. (Author)

  13. Drowning investigated by post mortem computed tomography and autopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Madsen, Betina Hauge

    2017-01-01

    equal in drowning cases compared to controls, illustrating the phenomenon knows as “emphysema aquosum”. The physiological explanation could be washing out of surfactant by the drowning media, resulting in atelectasis and trapping of air in the peripheral lung regions. It was not possible to separate...

  14. FEBEX Project Post-mortem Analysis: Corrosion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madina, V.; Azkarate, I.

    2004-07-01

    The partial dismantling of the FEBEX in situ test was carried out during de summer of 2002, following 5 years of continuous heating. The operation included the demolition of the concrete plug and the removal of the section of the test corresponding to the first heater. A large number of samples from all types of materials have been taken during the dismantling for subsequent analysis. Part of the samples collected were devoted to the analysis of the corrosion processes occurred during the first operational phase of the test. These samples comprised corrosion coupons from different metals installed for that purpose, sensors retrieved during the dismantling that were found severely corroded and bentonite in contact with those sensors. In addition, a corrosion study was performed on the heater extracted and on one section of liner surrounding it. All the analyses were carried out by the Fundacion INASMET (Spain). This report describes, in detail the studies carried out the different materials and the obtained results, as well as the drawn conclusions. (Author)

  15. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Senior Specialist: Forensic Pathologist. Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pretoria. E-mail: ryan.blumenthal@up.ac.za. Abstract. An adult giraffe was struck dead by ... meticulous and scientific observations in future case studies. Case History. An adult giraffe was found dead in the South African lowveld (broad-.

  16. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached by focusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kind of substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time. The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “ever-living present.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductory matter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is a treatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations in the n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have done away with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives as eternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of the nature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notion of holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory. I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence of actual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in his reflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentially more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in the last section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin, as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’s inspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretation leads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of its reconciliation with the once-only view of life and its corresponding version of immortality—along with the idea of a holonic scale of selves leading from individual personality as we normally experience it, through a kind of angelic self (a reinterpreted “Jivatma”, and ultimately to the Godhead as the Absolute Self. Of greater moment than such a speculative ontology, however, is the integral or complex-holistic way of thinking and imagining that is called for by this kind of inquiry.

  17. Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar B Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind′s understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification.

  18. FEBEX II Project Post-mortem analysis EDZ assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazargan Sabet, B.; Shao, H.; Autio, J.; Elorza, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the FEBEX II project a multidisciplinary team studied the mechanisms of creation of the potential damaged zone around the test drift. The research program includes laboratory and in situ investigations as well as the numerical modelling of the observed phenomena. Where laboratory investigations are concerned, the 14C-PMMA technique was applied to study the spatial distribution of porosity in the samples taken from the test drift wall. In addition complementary microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed to make qualitative investigations on the pore apertures and minerals in porous regions. The results obtained with the PMMA method have not shown any clear increased porosity zone adjacent to the tunnel wall. The total porosity of the samples varied between 0.6-1.2%. The samples of unplugged region did not differ from the samples of plugged region. A clear increase in porosity to depths of 10-15 mm from the tunnel wall was detected in lamprophyre samples. According to the SEM/EDX analyses the excavation-disturbed zone in the granite matrix extended to depths of 1-3 mm from the wall surface. A few quartz grains were crushed and some micro fractures were found. Gas permeability tests were carried out on two hollow cylinder samples of about 1m long each taken on the granite wall perpendicular to the drift axis. The first sample was cored in the service area far from the heated zone and the second one at the level of the heater. The tests were performed at constant gas pressure by setting a steady state radial flow through a section of 1cm wide isolated by means of four mini-packers. The profile of the gas permeability according to the core length has been established. The results obtained for both considered samples have shown permeability ranging between 3.5 10-18 and 8.4 10-19m2, pointing out the absence of a marked damage. Acoustic investigations have been carried out with the objective of quantifying the variations in the propagation velocities of acoustic waves. A cylindrical block of granite 38.8 cm in diameter and 40 cm high has been analysed along 2D transversal sections in six radial directions. Different inverse tomographic strategies have been used to analyse the measured data, which shown no evidences of the existence of an EDZ in FEBEX gallery. However, a preferential direction in the wave propagation similar to the maximum compression direction of the stress tensor has appeared. As for in situ investigations, the hydraulic connectivity of the drift has been assessed at eleven locations in heated area, including granite matrix and lamprophyre dykes and at six locations in undisturbed zones. In the granite matrix area, pulse test using pressurised air with stepwise pressure increasing was conducted to determine gas entry pressure. In the fractured area, a gas constant flow rate injection test was conducted. Only two locations with higher permeability were detected; one in a natural fracture in the lamprophyre dyke and the other in the interface between lamprophyre and granite. Where numerical investigations are concerned, several analyses of the FEBEX in situ experiment were carried out to determine whether if the generation of a potential EDZ in the surrounding rock was possible or not. Stresses have been calculated by 1D full-coupled thermo-hydromechanical model and by 2D and 3D thermo-mechanical models. Results compared with the available data on compressive strength of the Grimsel granite show that in the worst-case studied, the state of stresses induced by the excavation and the heating phases remains far below the critical curve. (Author)

  19. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached byfocusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kindof substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time.The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “everlivingpresent.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complexholistic”theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductorymatter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternalrecurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is atreatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations inthe n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have doneaway with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives aseternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of thenature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notionof holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory.I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence ofactual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in hisreflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentiallymore integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in thelast section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin,as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’sinspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretationleads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of itsreconciliation with the once-only view of life and its corresponding version ofimmortality—along with the idea of a holonic scale of selves leading from individualpersonality as we normally experience it, through a kind of angelic self (a reinterpreted“Jivatma”, and ultimately to the Godhead as the Absolute Self. Of greater moment thansuch a speculative ontology, however, is the integral or complex-holistic way of thinkingand imagining that is called for by this kind of inquiry.

  20. An Overview of the Roles and Responsibilities of Chinese Medical Colleges in Body Donation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low…

  1. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  2. [Guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van

    2017-01-01

    - The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks

  3. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  4. The PIERDUB project: International Project on Education and Research in Donation at University of Barcelona: training university students about donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Paredes, D; Ballesté, C; Menjívar, A

    2010-01-01

    Donation and transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option when organ failure or tissue replacements are needed to save or improve the quality of life. However, in most medical schools there is no specific training for it, thus disregarding the key role of university students for the future success of the process. Knowledge diffusion about the donation procedure to clarify doubts and stimulate positive attitudes toward donation. Training university students in the donation and transplantation process. Research about the previous donation knowledge and the impact in donation indexes. Three different phases have been designed: (1) Training the University of Barcelona Health Sciences School students; (2) Training the Health Sciences School students in other faculties of Catalonia, Spain, and International; and (3) research. Since 2005, we have offered yearly an Optional Credits Course to medical students with duration of 45 hours, and two Donation days opened to health sciences students. Since 2007, promotional campaigns have been carried out in medicine and other health sciences faculties. Until now, 818 answered surveys have been collected to evaluate previous knowledge among university students. Training medical and other health sciences students in the donation process will improve quality of medical education and develop a trainer role for future professionals to help improve donation rates.

  5. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharambe Vaishaly K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world people on organ transplant waiting lists die due to shortage of donor organs. The success of organ donation program needs education of the population regarding organ donation for which healthcare professionals are most suitable. The present study was taken up to assess the knowledge and attitude of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students about organ donation. Methods. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst all willing 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students at our Medical College and later analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 157, 145 and 92 students from each year of medical education respectively gave their consent for participation in the study. Awareness regarding organ donation was found to be 98.7-100%, 69.4% claimed television as their source of information regarding organ donation and 46.7% stated that it is possible for patient to recover from brain death. The awareness regarding eye, liver, heart and kidney donations was found to be 92.4%, 87%, 87% and 97.8%, respectively. 87% of medical students were aware of need for legal supervision, and awareness regarding the existing laws was found to be 57.6%. Conclusion. Medical students had a high level of awareness and a positive attitude towards organ donation. However, knowledge regarding “brain-death”, organs and tissues donated, legislation and ethical issues was poor. A teaching intervention designed to specifically address these issues could help increase the confidence of the health-care professionals and may result finally in increased organ procurement rates.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging in both soft and hard biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Dewhurst, R J

    2010-01-01

    To date, most Photoacoustic (PA) imaging results have been from soft biotissues. In this study, a PA imaging system with a near-infrared pulsed laser source has been applied to obtain 2-D and 3-D images from both soft tissue and post-mortem dental samples. Imaging results showed that the PA technique has the potential to image human oral disease, such as early-stage teeth decay. For non-invasive photoacoustic imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. Several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict initial temperature and pressure fields within a tooth sample. Predicted initial temperature and pressure rises are below corresponding safety limits.

  7. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  8. Perception Of The Nurse In The Process Of Donation Of Organs And Fabrics For Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the nurses' perception in the process of organ and tissue donation for transplants. Methods: qualitative research with data collection performed through a semistructured interview with 16 nurses from a hospital. The data were submitted to Bardin content analysis. Results: categories emerged after content analysis were as follows: Organ donation process: nurses' experience; Nursing care for potential donors; Family approach; Main difficulties in the donation process. Conclusion: the research demonstrated the real difficulties of the professionals during the donation process, such as lack of human resources, extensive protocols, and lack of awareness of the society to understand the donation process and the family approach. Keywords: Transplantation of Organs; Obtaining Tissues and Organs; Nursing care.

  9. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by the...

  10. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... database. Most whole blood donations are spun in centrifuges to separate it into transfusable components: red cells, ... 2, your test tubes arrive at a testing laboratory. A dozen tests are performed, to establish the ...

  11. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...

  12. Attitudes Concerning Postmortem Organ Donation: A Multicenter Survey in Various German Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Constantin E; Böhringer, Daniel; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Seitz, Berthold; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2015-10-13

    The aim of this study was to characterize postmortem organ donation attitudes in various German cohorts. Employees of 2 German cities and 2 German university hospitals, employees of a German automobile enterprise, and members of a German Medical Society were administered a questionnaire about postmortem organ and tissue donation attitudes. Demographic data and general attitudes were questioned and focused on: I) willingness to donate organs, II) holding a donor card, and III) having discussed the topic with the family. Of 5291 participants, 65.2% reported favoring postmortem organ donation. Missing negative experiences, the idea that donation is helpful, a non-medical professional environment, excellent general health, gender, agreement with the brain-death paradigm, and age significantly influenced the participants' attitudes. Participants were more likely to possess donor cards and had discussed more often with family members if they agreed with the brain-death paradigm and considered donation to be helpful. Males and older participants were the most likely to neglect donor cards, and Catholics, Protestants, and participants with poor health were the least likely to donate organs. Interest in receiving more information was expressed by 38.1% and 50.6% of participants refusing donation of all or of specific organs, respectively, and suggested the internet (60.0%) and family doctors (35.0%) as preferred sources of information. Public campaigns in Germany should focus on males and older people as regards donor cards, and females, younger, and religiously affiliated persons as regards the general willingness to donate organs postmortem.

  13. Illumina MiSeq 16S amplicon sequence analysis of bovine respiratory disease associated bacteria in lung and mediastinal lymph node tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dayle; Earley, Bernadette; Cormican, Paul; Murray, Gerard; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinead Mary; McGee, Mark; Kelly, Alan Kieran; McCabe, Matthew Sean

    2017-05-02

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. Next generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR amplicons (NGS 16S amplicon analysis) is a powerful culture-independent open reference method that has recently been used to increase understanding of BRD-associated bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of BRD cattle. However, it has not yet been used to examine the microbiome of the bovine lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to use NGS 16S amplicon analysis to identify bacteria in post-mortem lung and lymph node tissue samples harvested from fatal BRD cases and clinically healthy animals. Cranial lobe and corresponding mediastinal lymph node post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves diagnosed as BRD cases by veterinary laboratory pathologists and from clinically healthy calves. NGS 16S amplicon libraries, targeting the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. Quantitative insights into microbial ecology (QIIME) was used to determine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which corresponded to the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma, Pasteurellaceae, and Fusobacterium were the most abundant OTUs identified in the lungs and lymph nodes of the calves which died from BRD. Leptotrichiaceae, Fusobacterium, Mycoplasma, Trueperella and Bacteroides had greater relative abundances in post-mortem lung samples collected from fatal cases of BRD in dairy calves, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma and Pasteurellaceae showed higher relative abundances in post-mortem lymph node samples collected from fatal cases of BRD in dairy calves, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Two Leptotrichiaceae sequence contigs were subsequently assembled from bacterial DNA-enriched shotgun sequences

  14. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Traag

    Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  15. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  16. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail.

  17. Evaluation of an optical fiber probe for in vivo measurement of the photoacoustic response of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Paul C.; Mills, Timothy N.

    1995-05-01

    A miniature (1 mm diameter) all-optical photoacoustic probe for generating and detecting ultrasonic thermoelastic waves in biological media at the tip of an optical fiber has been developed. The probe provides a compact and convenient means of performing pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for the characterization of biological tissue. The device is based upon a transparent Fabry Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor mounted directly over the end of a multimode optical fiber. The optical fiber is used to deliver nanosecond laser pulses to the tissue producing thermoelastic waves which are then detected by the sensor. Detection sensitivities of 53 mv/MPa and a 10 kPa acoustic noise floor have been demonstrated giving excellent signal to noise ratios in a strong liquid absorber. Lower, but clearly detectable, signals in post mortem human aorta have also been observed. The performance and small physical size of the device suggest that it has the potential to perform remote in situ photoacoustic measurements in tissue.

  18. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Proposal for the Donation of Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN has been requested by the Japanese High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to donate the UA1 Magnet for use within the T2K Experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve this donation.

  20. Cadaveric organ donation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702

  1. Development of a Canadian deceased donation education program for health professionals: a needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jennifer; Shemie, Sam D; Lotherington, Ken; Appleby, Amber; Hall, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine how Canadian healthcare professionals perceive their deficiencies and educational requirements related to organ and tissue donation. We surveyed 641 intensive care unit (ICU) physicians, 1,349 ICU nurses, 1,561 emergency room (ER) physicians, and 1,873 ER nurses. The survey was distributed by the national organization for each profession (the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the National Emergency Nurses Association). Canadian Blood Services developed the critical care physician list in collaboration with the Canadian Critical Care Society. Survey development included questions related to comfort with, and knowledge of, key competencies in organ and tissue donation. Eight hundred thirty-one (15.3%) of a possible 5,424 respondents participated in the survey. Over 50% of respondents rated the following topics as highly important: knowledge of general organ and tissue donation, neurological determination of death, donation after cardiac death, and medical-legal donation issues. High competency comfort levels ranged from 14.7-50.9% for ICU nurses and 8.0-34.6% for ER nurses. Competency comfort levels were higher for ICU physicians (67.5-85.6%) than for ER physicians who rated all competencies lower. Respondents identified a need for a curriculum on national organ donation and preferred e-learning as the method of education. Both ICU nurses and ER practitioners expressed low comfort levels with their competencies regarding organ donation. Intensive care unit physicians had a much higher level of comfort; however, the majority of these respondents were specialty trained and working in academic centres with active donation and transplant programs. A national organ donation curriculum is needed.

  2. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  3. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or charitable...

  4. 78 FR 57539 - Charitable Donation Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 703 and 721 RIN 3133-AE17 Charitable Donation... authorized to fund a charitable donation account (CDA), a hybrid charitable and investment vehicle described... making charitable contributions and donations is among an FCU's incidental powers.\\2\\ \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. 1757...

  5. 48 CFR 245.609 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 245.609 Section 245.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.609 Donations. Agencies may donate, with GSA approval and without expense to the United States...

  6. 17 CFR 256.426.1 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes. ...

  7. Morphometric assessment of periodontal tissues in relation to periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllar, Michal; Doskarova, Barbora; Paral, Vaclav

    2013-01-01

    Dimensions of periodontal tissues are thought to predispose to the development of periodontal disease in man and dogs. Several studies have suggested that thin gingiva correlates with an increased incidence of periodontal disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the dimensions of periodontal tissues will vary in different breeds of dogs and could possibly correlate with the incidence of periodontal disease. Forty-two jaws of dogs aged up to 5-years were examined post-mortem and gingival and alveolar bone thickness were measured using methods of transgingival probing and digital calipers, respectively. Dogs were divided into three groups based on their body weight. Group I (dogs compared with small and medium-sized breed dogs. Both gingival and alveolar bone dimensions may be predictors for severity of periodontal disease and influence clinical outcome in certain periodontal surgical procedures.

  8. Doação de órgãos e tecidos: relação com o corpo em nossa sociedade Donación de órganos y tejidos: relación con el cuerpo en nuestra sociedad Organ and tissues donation: relation with the body in our society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira De Aguiar Roza

    2010-06-01

    rito funerario en la cultura de nuestra sociedad. Las acciones que aseguren una secuencia ética-legal definida por la legislación de trasplantes, presuponen un compromiso con la calidad y seguridad del proceso de la donación de órganos y tejidos, que debe ser rigurosamente seguida por los profesionales que trabajan en esta área. Así, se espera que esas actitudes puedan construir una cultura positiva en materia de donaciones, en el país, contribuyendo en el largo plazo al aumento de las tasas de donación.This is a study of literature review aimed to develop theoretical considerations on the donation of organs and tissues and on its relationship with the human body, in our society. Increasing donation rates depends on a perspective that goes beyond the technical issues of the process of donating organs and tissues. Several countries, with large time frame experience, working systematically in this process with an approach that incorporates social and ethical aspects, based on volunteers, and respecting the families right to autonomy of potential donors. Accompanying the body, after donation, usually requested by the family, represents the beginning of mourning for the death of a relative, which is part of the funeral ritual in the culture of our society. The actions to ensure an ethical-legal sequence, defined by the law of transplants, imply a commitment to quality and safety of the process of organ and tissue donation, which must be strictly followed by professionals working in this area. Thus, it is hoped that these attitudes can build a positive culture on the donation in the country, contributing in the long run to increase donation rates.

  9. Understanding bereavement, grief, and mourning: implications for donation and transplant professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Charles A; Coolican, Margaret B

    2010-06-01

    This article surveys recent literature on bereavement, grief, and mourning. It offers a review of the state of the art of current understandings of those topics to assist professionals who work in the field of organ and tissue donation and transplantation. The article's goal is to provide well-developed and up-to-date education and knowledge about bereavement, grief, and mourning to supplement the natural skills and experience of donation and transplant professionals in their work with bereaved persons.

  10. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D.

    2007-01-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  11. The national DBS brain tissue network pilot study: need for more tissue and more standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam-Mai, V; Krock, N; Ullman, M; Foote, K D; Shain, W; Smith, K; Yachnis, A T; Steindler, D; Reynolds, B; Merritt, S; Pagan, F; Marjama-Lyons, J; Hogarth, P; Resnick, A S; Zeilman, P; Okun, M S

    2011-08-01

    Over 70,000 DBS devices have been implanted worldwide; however, there remains a paucity of well-characterized post-mortem DBS brains available to researchers. We propose that the overall understanding of DBS can be improved through the establishment of a Deep Brain Stimulation-Brain Tissue Network (DBS-BTN), which will further our understanding of DBS and brain function. The objectives of the tissue bank are twofold: (a) to provide a complete (clinical, imaging and pathological) database for DBS brain tissue samples, and (b) to make available DBS tissue samples to researchers, which will help our understanding of disease and underlying brain circuitry. Standard operating procedures for processing DBS brains were developed as part of the pilot project. Complete data files were created for individual patients and included demographic information, clinical information, imaging data, pathology, and DBS lead locations/settings. 19 DBS brains were collected from 11 geographically dispersed centers from across the U.S. The average age at the time of death was 69.3 years (51-92, with a standard deviation or SD of 10.13). The male:female ratio was almost 3:1. Average post-mortem interval from death to brain collection was 10.6 h (SD of 7.17). The DBS targets included: subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus interna, and ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. In 16.7% of cases the clinical diagnosis failed to match the pathological diagnosis. We provide neuropathological findings from the cohort, and perilead responses to DBS. One of the most important observations made in this pilot study was the missing data, which was approximately 25% of all available data fields. Preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and utility of creating a National DBS-BTN resource for the scientific community. We plan to improve our techniques to remedy omitted clinical/research data, and expand the Network to include a larger donor pool. We will enhance sample preparation to

  12. Shortage of donation despite an adequate number of donors : A professional attitude?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K

    2003-01-01

    Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is

  13. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  14. Literature overview highlights lack of paediatric donation protocols but identifies common themes that could guide their development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vileito, A; Siebelink, M J; Verhagen, Aae

    2018-05-01

    Paediatric donation is a unique and extremely sensitive process that requires specific knowledge and competencies. Most countries use protocols for organ and tissue donation to ensure optimal care for the donor and family, but these mainly focus on adults. However, the donation process for children differs from adults in many ways. An overview of the literature was performed to identify protocols for the paediatric population. PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Internet were searched up to March 2016 for papers or other sources in English related to specific organ and tissue donation protocols for children and neonates. This comprised title, abstract and then full-text screening of relevant data. We included 12 papers and two electronic sources that were mainly from North America and Europe. Most discussed donations after cardiac death. The recurring themes included identifying potential donors, approaching parents, palliative care and collaboration with organ procurement organisations. Most papers called for paediatric donation policies to be standardised. Scientific publications in English on paediatric donation protocols are very scarce. No comprehensive paediatric donation protocol was found. We identified several recurring themes in the literature that could be used to develop such protocols. ©2018 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Lipaemic donations: truth and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    The problem of using material of unsuitable quality, including "nontransparent turbid milky plasma" or more simply "turbid plasma", for producing blood components is not trivial for several epidemiological, technical, analytical, clinical and economical reasons. With some exception, most national and international guidelines mandate that blood components should preferably not be produced from lipaemic donations. The origin of lipaemic blood is variegated, and includes physiological or paraphysiological causes and metabolic disorders, whereas a broad range of common diseases and drugs can also be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Overall, the frequency of lipaemic donations ranges between 0.31% and 0.35%, although sporadic reports have highlighted that the frequency might be much higher, up to 13%. Lipaemic donations pose two leading problems in transfusion medicine, that are interference during laboratory testing, and safety of producing blood components from hypertriglyceridaemic materials. While the former issue can be overcome by using chemical or mechanical methods, the clinical use of lipaemic blood for producing components remains an unresolved question. Transfusion medicine should thereby embark on a landmark effort to find a universal agreement of behaviours and harmonization of policies worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corneal donations in South Africa: A 15-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher

    2017-07-28

    Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.

  17. Metabolomics studies in brain tissue: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riano, Carolina; Garcia, Antonia; Barbas, Coral

    2016-10-25

    Brain is still an organ with a composition to be discovered but beyond that, mental disorders and especially all diseases that curse with dementia are devastating for the patient, the family and the society. Metabolomics can offer an alternative tool for unveiling new insights in the discovery of new treatments and biomarkers of mental disorders. Until now, most of metabolomic studies have been based on biofluids: serum/plasma or urine, because brain tissue accessibility is limited to animal models or post mortem studies, but even so it is crucial for understanding the pathological processes. Metabolomics studies of brain tissue imply several challenges due to sample extraction, along with brain heterogeneity, sample storage, and sample treatment for a wide coverage of metabolites with a wide range of concentrations of many lipophilic and some polar compounds. In this review, the current analytical practices for target and non-targeted metabolomics are described and discussed with emphasis on critical aspects: sample treatment (quenching, homogenization, filtration, centrifugation and extraction), analytical methods, as well as findings considering the used strategies. Besides that, the altered analytes in the different brain regions have been associated with their corresponding pathways to obtain a global overview of their dysregulation, trying to establish the link between altered biological pathways and pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff

    2009-01-01

    July 30, 2008, the Government brought in a few new amendments as a Gazette with the purpose of putting a stop to organ commerce. The ethics of commerce in organ donation and transplant tourism has been widely criticized by international bodies. The legal and ethical principles that we follow universally with organ donation and transplantation are also important for the future as these may be used to resolve our conflicts related to emerging sciences such as cloning, tissue engineering, and stem cells.

  19. Drivers of Discretionary Firm Donations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.

  20. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L

    2014-09-01

    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  2. Outcome of pancreas transplantation from donation after circulatory death compared to donation after brain death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Ellen S.; Krikke, Christina; Hofker, Hendrik S.; Berger, Stefan P.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Pol, Robert A.

    Introduction: To overcome the gap of organ shortage grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be used. This review evaluates the outcomes after DCD pancreas donation compared to donation after brain death (DBD). Materials and methods: A literature search was performed using Medline,

  3. Evaluation of the Motivation to Consent to and to Refuse Organ Donation Among Participants of Educational Meetings Concerning Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J; Kapelak, B; Przybyłowski, P

    2016-06-01

    Improvement of the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies applied in many countries aiming to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Research shows that the outlook on organ donation and the degree of the willingness to become an organ donor are associated with a wide range of variables. The main objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the willingness to donate organs and the reasons for refusing consent. The study included 191 participants (135 female and 56 male) aged 16 to 61 years (mean age 26.86 ± 12.88). A cross-sectional study was conducted during educational meetings concerning organ donation that was addressed to students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of attitudes toward transplantation, consisting of 26 closed questions (with the consent of the Statistical Office in Krakow). In all, 97.4% of the respondents accepted transplantation from living donors, and 95.8% accepted deceased donations. Of the respondents, 78.5% agreed to posthumous life-saving organ donation. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex, age, social group, place of living, and the reasons for their willingness to donate organs both posthumously and during their lifetime, as well as reasons for refusal. Our findings showed that the study group in general had favorable views on treatment involving transplantation and declared willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These views vary depending on demographic variables. The education on the subject of organ and tissue donation has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  5. 49 CFR 24.108 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 24.108 Section 24.108 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.108 Donations. An owner whose real...

  6. Current status of in-hospital donation coordinators in Japan: nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2013-05-01

    , 93% wanted more professional education. However, it was difficult for them to attend these activities, to manage a rare and sudden donation case, and to find time to learn about organ donation because they had another post. The topics that they wanted to learn were donor family care (72%), overall organ/tissue donation procedures (65%), the role of In-Hp PTC (67%), simulations of donation (65%), legislation and social system of organ donation (61%), medical indications for donation (61%), current status of donation and transplantation in Japan (57%), donor management (56%), and case studies (49%). There were significant variations in the topics of interest among the occupations. As they had another post, they could find only a short period (1 or 2 days) to take professional education, such as lectures. Therefore, it was difficult for them to attend practical on-the-job training. To establish an organ procurement system and increase organ donation, In-Hp PTC have important roles in Japan. However, none is a full-time In-Hp PTC. Most In-Hp PTC require more professional education. A systematic education program for each occupation must be established soon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonaltruistic kidney donations in contemporary Jewish law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2003-01-27

    In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.

  8. Family refusal to donate organs and tissue for transplantation El rechazo familiar al pedido de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante A recusa familiar para a doaçao de órgãos e tecidos para transplante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discover how potential eligible donor families perceive the decision-making process to refuse organ and tissue donation for transplantation. A qualitative research was performed in order to understand the families' perception, based on the situated-phenomenon structure. Eight family members were interviewed, with four themes and fourteen subthemes emerging from the analysis of the statements. The propositions that emerged from the study indicated that the essence of the phenomenon was manifested as a shocking or despairing situation, experienced through the hospitalization of the family member; distrust regarding organ donation; denial of brain death; grief and weariness due to the loss of the loved one, family conflicts for making the decision and the multiple causes for refusing donation. Therefore, the knowledge of this phenomenon can provide information to guide professional action involving the families of potential donors.La investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción que tienen los familiares de potenciales donadores sobre el proceso de toma de decisión para rechazar la donación de los órganos y tejidos para transplantes. Para comprender la percepción de los familiares fue utilizada la investigación cualitativa, según la modalidad estructura del fenómeno situado. Fueron entrevistados ocho familiares, de los que después de analizar los discursos, se obtuvieron cuatro temas y catorce subtemas. Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que la esencia del fenómeno fue revelada como vivenciar una situación de choque y desesperación con la internación del familiar, de desconfianza con la solicitud de la donación de los órganos, de negación de la muerte encefálica, de sufrimiento y desgaste ante la pérdida del ser querido, de conflictos familiares para la toma de decisión y de múltiples causas para rechazar la donación. Sendo así, el conocimiento de este fenómeno puede ofrecer elementos que

  9. Analysing of 228Th, 232Th, 228Ra in human bone tissues for the purpose of determining the post mortal interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandlbinder, R.; Geissler, V.; Schupfner, R.; Wolfbeis, O.; Zinka, B.

    2009-01-01

    Bone tissues of thirteen deceased persons were analyzed to determine the activity concentration of the radionuclides 228 Ra, 228 Th, 232 Th and 2 30 Th. The activity ratios enable to assess the post-mortem-interval PMI). The samples were prepared for analysis by incinerating and pulverizing. 228 Ra was directly detected by γ-spectrometry. 2 28 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th were detected by α-spectrometry after radiochemical purification and electrodeposition. It is shown that the method s principally suited to determine the PMI. A minimum of 300 g (wet weight) f human bone tissue is required for the analysis. Counting times are in the range of one to two weeks. (author)

  10. Non-donors' attitudes towards sperm donation and their willingness to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provoost, Veerle; Van Rompuy, Florence; Pennings, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study attitudes about sperm donation and willingness to donate sperm in students who have never shown an interest in sperm donation. The method used in this study is an electronic survey of 1012 male students. Only one third of the respondents (34.3%) would consider donating sperm. Overall, 85.7% indicated a positive attitude towards sperm donation while 14.3% indicated a neutral or negative attitude. The highest scored barriers to donating were the lack of practical information and the fear that the partner would not agree. Almost 40% of the respondents feared that the donation might have a negative impact on their current or future relationship. The majority (83.6%) of those who considered donating thought donors should receive a financial compensation. Money was also one of the main motivators. About 85% of the students thought positively about sperm donation but several factors such as perceived negative views by the social environment, especially the partner, may deter students from donating. This study indicates that the effect of strong incentives, for instance in monetary terms, on a donor pool consisting of students could be limited and that relational factors and donor's perceptions of the views of the wider social network should be taken into account when recruiting donors.

  11. Achievements and barriers in the organ donation process: a critical analysis of donation coordinators' discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.

  12. Entrevista familiar no processo de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante Entrevista familiar en el proceso de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante Family interview in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    entrevistado y al local de la entrevista, además de preguntas éticas y legales. También evidencian la necesidad de capacitación profesional para conocer, identificar y lidiar con factores que facilitan o dificultan el diálogo con los familiares.OBJECTIVE: To understand the meaning attributed to the family interview by professionals working in Services Procurement of Organs and Tissues, to the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation. METHODS: Qualitative research from the phenomenological angle, according to the modality "structure of the situated phenomenon." Study participants were 12 professionals. RESULTS: After analysis of the interviews, the meaning attributed by the professionals was unveiled at a meeting. CONCLUSIONS: The statements that emerged revealed that the family interview is an important step, because it addresses the possibility of donating organs and tissues to save and / or improve the quality of life of people needing a transplant. This procedure is complex, since it involves aspects related to interviewer, the interviewee and the interview location, as well as ethical and legal questions. It also highlights the need for professional training to know, identify and cope with factors that facilitate or hinder the dialogue with the family members.

  13. Just love in live organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-08-01

    Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or, in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit of the concept of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The concept of just love is helpful in the analysis of these live organ donations even if no statistical gender-imbalance prevails. It is particularly helpful, however, in the analysis of the gender-imbalance in live kidney donations if these donations are seen as a specific kind of care-work, if care-work is experienced as a labour one should perform out of love and if women still experience stronger pressures to engage in care-work than do men. The aim of the article is to present arguments for the need of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The aim is also to elaborate two criteria that need to be met in order for love to qualify as just and to highlight certain clinical implications.

  14. Breast milk donation: women's donor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2009-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.

  15. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years