WorldWideScience

Sample records for post-genomic era simple

  1. The potential of metabolomics for Leishmania research in the post-genomics era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltema, Richard A.; Decuypere, Saskia; T'Kindt, Ruben; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Coombs, Graham H.; Breitling, Rainer; T’Kindt, Ruben

    The post-genomics era has provided researchers with access to a new generation of tools for the global characterization and understanding of pathogen diversity. This review provides a critical summary of published Leishmania post-genomic research efforts to date, and discusses the potential impact

  2. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    in mediating cellular ion homeostasis and plant tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In summary, with recent progresses in biological and biotechnological areas, especially rapid development of advanced technologies in biological system modeling, functional genomics, computer-based analyzing tools, genetic engineering and molecular breeding, biological control and biotechnological applications in agriculture have brought about an extraordinary revolution and have been considered the most powerful approaches in maintaining or even increasing crop yield. Therefore, in this issue, we would like to introduce to the audience a collection of various strategies used for enhancing crop productivity, with the focus on advanced biological-biotechnological platforms in the post-genomics era.

  3. Aspergillus and Penicillium in the Post-genomic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and a whole genus genome sequencing project in progress for Aspergillus. This book highlights some of the changes in the studies into these fungi, since the availability of genome sequences. The contributions vary from insights in the taxonomy of these genera, use of genomics for forward genetics and genomic......Genome sequencing has affected studies into the biology of all classes of organisms and this is certainly true for filamentous fungi. The level with which biological systems can be studied since the availability of genomes and post-genomic technologies is beyond what most people could have imagined...... previously. The fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium contain some species that are amongst the most widely used industrial microorganisms and others that are serious pathogens of plants, animals and humans. These genera are also at the forefront of fungal genomics with many genome sequences available...

  4. [Research progress in neuropsychopharmacology updated for the post-genomic era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Toru

    2009-11-01

    Neuropsychopharmacological research in the post genomic (genomic sequence) era has been developing rapidly through the use of novel techniques including DNA chips. We have applied these techniques to investigate the anti-tumor effect of NSAIDs, isolate novel genes specifically expressed in rheumatoid arthritis, and analyze gene expression profiles in mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, we have developed a novel system of quantitative PCR for detection of BDNF mRNA isoforms. By using this system, we identified the exon-specific mode of expression in acute and chronic pain. In addition, we have made gene expression profiles of KO mice of beta2 subunits in acetylcholine receptors.

  5. Patient-physician alliance: from Hippocrates to Post-Genomic Era. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulciani, Simonetta; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    Patients need clinical competence, appropriate diagnosis and therapies in overcoming their disease. Yet this is insufficient. The illness experience tends to frighten people and the resulting emotional aspects could become relevant factors in coping with a sickness and disability. Hippocrates was the first to urge physicians to look beyond the physical features of diseases and to consider the patient as a unique psychosomatic entity. Additionally, the scientist spurred physicians to make the patient an active participant in combating the disease. According to Hippocrates, "the Medical Art has three actors: the physician, the patients and the disease. The physician and the patient must be allied against the disease in order to fight it". In the "Post-Genomic Era", an effective therapeutic approach merits a patient-physician participation, based on scientific understandings and human considerations. These recommendations are even more urgent for Rare Diseases.

  6. Clinical biochemistry and laboratory medicine in the post-genome era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Georgi D.

    2001-01-01

    The last decades of the 20th century were a period of outstanding scientific achievements. The most significant discovery was the decoding of the human genome (Venter, J. et al., 2001; Dennis, C. et al., 2001; Baltimore, D., 2001). In this article the present view of the post genomic era is presented. The new analytical methods, such as micro arrays, bio chips, and nano technology, the discovery of SNPs, and the analysis of the proteome will lead to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of inherited and acquired diseases. Their use in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, and the future of technological innovations are discussed. In the post genomic era the greatest interest will be devoted to the application of these scientific achievements in the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of human diseases. The advances in human genetics that have occurred during the past 20 years have revolutionized our knowledge of the role played by inheritance in health and disease. It is clear that our DNA determines not only single gene disorders but also interacts with environments to predispose individuals to cancer, allergy, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, psychiatric disorders and even to some infectious diseases. The study of longevity and the demonstration of genes favouring a long lifespan suggest that such protective systems exist. The study of genetic polymorphisms has made clear that some alleles have beneficial effects. These discoveries will be of great help in our understanding of the interactions between genetics and environment. Gene array analysis has become the method of choice for identifying genes expressed at different levels in different samples. The mRNA expression profiles of normal and tumor tissues, treated and untreated cell cultures, and developmental stages of an organism can be compared quickly and easily with an appropriate array analysis system. A major task after a genome has been fully sequenced is to understand the functions

  7. Back to the Future - Part 1. The medico-legal autopsy from ancient civilization to the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Bajanowski, Thomas; Cecchi, Rossana; Favretto, Donata; Grabherr, Silke; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kondo, Toshikazu; Montisci, Massimo; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; Shokry, Dina; Vennemann, Marielle; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2017-07-01

    Part 1 of the review "Back to the Future" examines the historical evolution of the medico-legal autopsy and microscopy techniques, from Ancient Civilization to the Post-Genomic Era. In the section focusing on "The Past", the study of historical sources concerning the origins and development of the medico-legal autopsy, from the Bronze Age until the Middle Ages, shows how, as early as 2000 BC, the performance of autopsies for medico-legal purposes was a known and widespread practice in some ancient civilizations in Egypt, the Far East and later in Europe. In the section focusing on "The Present", the improvement of autopsy techniques by Friedrich Albert Zenker and Rudolf Virchow and the contemporary development of optical microscopy techniques for forensic purposes during the 19th and 20th centuries are reported, emphasizing, the regulation of medico-legal autopsies in diverse nations around the world and the publication of international guidelines or best practices elaborated by International Scientific Societies. Finally, in "The Future" section, innovative robotized and advanced microscopy systems and techniques, including their possible use in the bio-medicolegal field, are reported, which should lead to the improvement and standardization of the autopsy methodology, thereby achieving a more precise identification of natural and traumatic pathologies.

  8. Data analysis in the post-genome-wide association study era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ling Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first report of a genome-wide association study (GWAS on human age-related macular degeneration, GWAS has successfully been used to discover genetic variants for a variety of complex human diseases and/or traits, and thousands of associated loci have been identified. However, the underlying mechanisms for these loci remain largely unknown. To make these GWAS findings more useful, it is necessary to perform in-depth data mining. The data analysis in the post-GWAS era will include the following aspects: fine-mapping of susceptibility regions to identify susceptibility genes for elucidating the biological mechanism of action; joint analysis of susceptibility genes in different diseases; integration of GWAS, transcriptome, and epigenetic data to analyze expression and methylation quantitative trait loci at the whole-genome level, and find single-nucleotide polymorphisms that influence gene expression and DNA methylation; genome-wide association analysis of disease-related DNA copy number variations. Applying these strategies and methods will serve to strengthen GWAS data to enhance the utility and significance of GWAS in improving understanding of the genetics of complex diseases or traits and translate these findings for clinical applications. Keywords: Genome-wide association study, Data mining, Integrative data analysis, Polymorphism, Copy number variation

  9. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Euling, Susan Y; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA)--i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on "augmentation" of weight of evidence--using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards "integration" of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for "expansion" of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual "reorientation" of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A., E-mail: chiu.weihsueh@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460 (United States); Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  11. Ocean acidification research in the 'post-genomic' era: Roadmaps from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler G; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Pespeni, Melissa H; Chan, Francis; Menge, Bruce A; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Russell, Ann D; Palumbi, Stephen R; Sanford, Eric; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2015-07-01

    Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology are removing obstacles that historically prevented use of genomics within ocean change biology. As one of the first marine calcifiers to have its genome sequenced, purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) have been the subject of early research exploring genomic responses to ocean acidification, work that points to future experiments and illustrates the value of expanding genomic resources to other marine organisms in this new 'post-genomic' era. This review presents case studies of S. purpuratus demonstrating the ability of genomic experiments to address major knowledge gaps within ocean acidification. Ocean acidification research has focused largely on species vulnerability, and studies exploring mechanistic bases of tolerance toward low pH seawater are comparatively few. Transcriptomic responses to high pCO₂ seawater in a population of urchins already encountering low pH conditions have cast light on traits required for success in future oceans. Secondly, there is relatively little information on whether marine organisms possess the capacity to adapt to oceans progressively decreasing in pH. Genomics offers powerful methods to investigate evolutionary responses to ocean acidification and recent work in S. purpuratus has identified genes under selection in acidified seawater. Finally, relatively few ocean acidification experiments investigate how shifts in seawater pH combine with other environmental factors to influence organism performance. In S. purpuratus, transcriptomics has provided insight into physiological responses of urchins exposed simultaneously to warmer and more acidic seawater. Collectively, these data support that similar breakthroughs will occur as genomic resources are developed for other marine species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes

  13. Isotope-based medical research in the post genome era: Gene-orchestrated life functions in medicine seen and affected by isotopes. Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a workshop on Isotope-Based Medical Research in the Post Genome Era at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, November 12--14, 1997. The workshop aimed at identifying the role of stable and radioisotopes for advanced diagnosis and therapy of a wide range of illnesses using the new information that comes from the human genome program. In this sense, the agenda addressed the challenge of functional genomics in humans. The workshop addressed: functional genomics in clinical medicine; new diagnostic potentials; new therapy potentials; challenge to tracer- and effector-pharmaceutical chemistry; and project plans for joint ventures

  14. Isotope-based medical research in the post genome era: Gene-orchestrated life functions in medicine seen and affected by isotopes. Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a workshop on Isotope-Based Medical Research in the Post Genome Era at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, November 12--14, 1997. The workshop aimed at identifying the role of stable and radioisotopes for advanced diagnosis and therapy of a wide range of illnesses using the new information that comes from the human genome program. In this sense, the agenda addressed the challenge of functional genomics in humans. The workshop addressed: functional genomics in clinical medicine; new diagnostic potentials; new therapy potentials; challenge to tracer- and effector-pharmaceutical chemistry; and project plans for joint ventures.

  15. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Sperança

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  16. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2007-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  17. Clinical Metabolomics: The New Metabolic Window for Inborn Errors of Metabolism Investigations in the Post-Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Abily-Donval, Lenaig; Afonso, Carlos; Marret, Stéphane; Bekri, Soumeya

    2016-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent a group of about 500 rare genetic diseases with an overall estimated incidence of 1/2500. The diversity of metabolic pathways involved explains the difficulties in establishing their diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is usually mandatory for successful treatment. Given the considerable clinical overlap between some inborn errors, biochemical and molecular tests are crucial in making a diagnosis. Conventional biological diagnosis procedures are based on a time-consuming series of sequential and segmented biochemical tests. The rise of “omic” technologies offers holistic views of the basic molecules that build a biological system at different levels. Metabolomics is the most recent “omic” technology based on biochemical characterization of metabolites and their changes related to genetic and environmental factors. This review addresses the principles underlying metabolomics technologies that allow them to comprehensively assess an individual biochemical profile and their reported applications for IEM investigations in the precision medicine era. PMID:27447622

  18. Global MLST of Salmonella Typhi Revisited in Post-Genomic Era: Genetic conservation, Population Structure and Comparative genomics of rare sequence types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien-Pong eYap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, remains an important public health burden in Southeast Asia and other endemic countries. Various genotyping methods have been applied to study the genetic variations of this human-restricted pathogen. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST is one of the widely accepted methods, and recently, there is a growing interest in the re-application of MLST in the post-genomic era. In this study, we provide the global MLST distribution of S. Typhi utilizing both publicly available 1,826 S. Typhi genome sequences in addition to performing conventional MLST on S. Typhi strains isolated from various endemic regions spanning over a century. Our global MLST analysis confirms the predominance of two sequence types (ST1 and ST2 co-existing in the endemic regions. Interestingly, S. Typhi strains with ST8 are currently confined within the African continent. Comparative genomic analyses of ST8 and other rare STs with genomes of ST1/ST2 revealed unique mutations in important virulence genes such as flhB, sipC and tviD that may explain the variations that differentiate between seemingly successful (widespread and unsuccessful (poor dissemination S. Typhi populations. Large scale whole-genome phylogeny demonstrated evidence of phylogeographical structuring and showed that ST8 may have diverged from the earlier ancestral population of ST1 and ST2, which later lost some of its fitness advantages, leading to poor worldwide dissemination. In response to the unprecedented increase in genomic data, this study demonstrates and highlights the utility of large-scale genome-based MLST as a quick and effective approach to narrow the scope of in-depth comparative genomic analysis and consequently provide new insights into the fine scale of pathogen evolution and population structure.

  19. Genome-wide resequencing of KRICE_CORE reveals their potential for future breeding, as well as functional and evolutionary studies in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Sung; He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu-Won; Yoon, Min-Young; Ra, Won-Hee; Li, Feng Peng; Tong, Wei; Yu, Jie; Oo, Win Htet; Choi, Buung; Heo, Eun-Beom; Yun, Byoung-Kook; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Cho, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Yong; Park, Beom-Seok; Park, Yong-Jin

    2016-05-26

    Rice germplasm collections continue to grow in number and size around the world. Since maintaining and screening such massive resources remains challenging, it is important to establish practical methods to manage them. A core collection, by definition, refers to a subset of the entire population that preserves the majority of genetic diversity, enhancing the efficiency of germplasm utilization. Here, we report whole-genome resequencing of the 137 rice mini core collection or Korean rice core set (KRICE_CORE) that represents 25,604 rice germplasms deposited in the Korean genebank of the Rural Development Administration (RDA). We implemented the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and 2500 platform to produce short reads and then assembled those with 9.8 depths using Nipponbare as a reference. Comparisons of the sequences with the reference genome yielded more than 15 million (M) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1.3 M INDELs. Phylogenetic and population analyses using 2,046,529 high-quality SNPs successfully assigned rice accessions to the relevant rice subgroups, suggesting that these SNPs capture evolutionary signatures that have accumulated in rice subpopulations. Furthermore, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for four exemplary agronomic traits in the KRIC_CORE manifest the utility of KRICE_CORE; that is, identifying previously defined genes or novel genetic factors that potentially regulate important phenotypes. This study provides strong evidence that the size of KRICE_CORE is small but contains high genetic and functional diversity across the genome. Thus, our resequencing results will be useful for future breeding, as well as functional and evolutionary studies, in the post-genomic era.

  20. Insect Immunity: The Post-Genomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Bangham, Jenny; Jiggins, Frank; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Insects have a complex and effective immune system, many components of which are conserved in mammals. But only in the last decade have the molecular mechanisms that regulate the insect immune response--and their relevance to general biology and human immunology--become fully appreciated. A meeting supported by the Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique (France) was held to bring together the whole spectrum of researchers working on insect immunity. The meeting addressed diverse aspects...

  1. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John; Wang, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine.

  2. Fungal biology in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzocchio, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this review I give a personal perspective of how fungal biology has changed since I started my Ph. D. in 1963. At that time we were working in the shadow of the birth of molecular biology as an autonomous and reductionistic discipline, embodied in Crick's central dogma. This first period was methodologically characterised by the fact that we knew what genes were, but we could not access them directly. This radically changed in the 70s-80s when gene cloning, reverse genetics and DNA sequencing become possible. The "next generation" sequencing techniques have produced a further qualitative revolutionary change. The ready access to genomes and transcriptomes of any microbial organism allows old questions to be asked in a radically different way and new questions to be approached. I provide examples chosen somewhat arbitrarily to illustrate some of these changes, from applied aspects to fundamental problems such as the origin of fungal specific genes, the evolutionary history of genes clusters and the realisation of the pervasiveness of horizontal transmission. Finally, I address how the ready availability of genomes and transcriptomes could change the status of model organisms.

  3. Evaluating Phylogenetic Congruence in the Post-Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica W.; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Congruence is a broadly applied notion in evolutionary biology used to justify multigene phylogeny or phylogenomics, as well as in studies of coevolution, lateral gene transfer, and as evidence for common descent. Existing methods for identifying incongruence or heterogeneity using character data were designed for data sets that are both small and expected to be rarely incongruent. At the same time, methods that assess incongruence using comparison of trees test a null hypothesis of uncorrelated tree structures, which may be inappropriate for phylogenomic studies. As such, they are ill-suited for the growing number of available genome sequences, most of which are from prokaryotes and viruses, either for phylogenomic analysis or for studies of the evolutionary forces and events that have shaped these genomes. Specifically, many existing methods scale poorly with large numbers of genes, cannot accommodate high levels of incongruence, and do not adequately model patterns of missing taxa for different markers. We propose the development of novel incongruence assessment methods suitable for the analysis of the molecular evolution of the vast majority of life and support the investigation of homogeneity of evolutionary process in cases where markers do not share identical tree structures. PMID:21712432

  4. Macromolecular structure determination in the post-genome era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, P.; Soltis, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in genetics, molecular biology and crystallographic instrumentation and methodology have led to a revolution in the field of Structural Molecular Biology (SMB). These combined advances have paved the way to a more complete and detailed understanding of the biological macromolecules that make up an organism, both in terms of their individual functions and also the interactions between them. In this paper we describe a large-scale, genomic approach to the three-dimensional structure determination of macromolecules and their complexes, using high-throughput methodology to streamline all aspects of the process. This task requires the development of automated high-intensity synchrotron beam lines for X-ray diffraction data collection from single crystal samples. Furthermore, these beam lines must be operated within a sophisticated software and hardware environment, which is capable of delivering a completely automated structure determination pipeline. The SMB resource at SSRL is developing a system for the structure determination steps of this process, starting with the initial characterization of the frozen sample, followed by data collection, data reduction, phase determination, and model building. This paper focuses on the data collection elements of this high-throughput system

  5. Macromolecular structure determination in the post-genome era

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, P

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in genetics, molecular biology and crystallographic instrumentation and methodology have led to a revolution in the field of Structural Molecular Biology (SMB). These combined advances have paved the way to a more complete and detailed understanding of the biological macromolecules that make up an organism, both in terms of their individual functions and also the interactions between them. In this paper we describe a large-scale, genomic approach to the three-dimensional structure determination of macromolecules and their complexes, using high-throughput methodology to streamline all aspects of the process. This task requires the development of automated high-intensity synchrotron beam lines for X-ray diffraction data collection from single crystal samples. Furthermore, these beam lines must be operated within a sophisticated software and hardware environment, which is capable of delivering a completely automated structure determination pipeline. The SMB resource at SSRL is developing a system...

  6. The impact of post-genomics approaches in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases: the case of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernandez, Lourdes; de la Fuente, Jose

    2018-03-14

    Why an autoimmune disease that is the main cause of the acute neuromuscular paralysis worldwide has not yet a well-characterized cause or an effective treatment? The existence of different clinical variants for the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) coupled with the fact that a high number of pathogens can cause an infection that sometimes, but not always, precedes the development of the syndrome, confers a high degree of uncertainty for both prognosis and treatment. In the post-genomic era, the development of omics technologies for the high-throughput analysis of biological molecules is allowing the characterization of biological systems in a degree of depth unimaginable before. In this context, this work summarize the application of post-genomics technologies to the study of GBS. We performed a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature to outline the state of the art with regard the application of post-genomics technologies to the study of GBS. The quality of retrieved papers was assessed using standard tools and thirty-four were included in the review. To date, transcriptomics and proteomics have been the unique post-genomics approaches applied to GBS study. Most of these studies have been performed on cerebrospinal fluid samples and only few studies have been conducted with other samples such as serum, Schwann cells and human peripheral nerve. In the post-genomics era, transcriptomics and proteomics have shown the possibilities that omics technologies can offer for a better understanding of the immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in GBS and the identification of potential biomarkers, but these results have only shown the tip of the iceberg and there is still a long way to exploit the full potential that post-genomics approaches could offer to the study of the GBS. The integration of different omics datasets through a systems biology approach could allow network-based analyses to describe the complexity and

  7. Visualizing information across multidimensional post-genomic structured and textual databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

    2005-04-15

    Visualizing relationships among biological information to facilitate understanding is crucial to biological research during the post-genomic era. Although different systems have been developed to view gene-phenotype relationships for specific databases, very few have been designed specifically as a general flexible tool for visualizing multidimensional genotypic and phenotypic information together. Our goal is to develop a method for visualizing multidimensional genotypic and phenotypic information and a model that unifies different biological databases in order to present the integrated knowledge using a uniform interface. We developed a novel, flexible and generalizable visualization tool, called PhenoGenesviewer (PGviewer), which in this paper was used to display gene-phenotype relationships from a human-curated database (OMIM) and from an automatic method using a Natural Language Processing tool called BioMedLEE. Data obtained from multiple databases were first integrated into a uniform structure and then organized by PGviewer. PGviewer provides a flexible query interface that allows dynamic selection and ordering of any desired dimension in the databases. Based on users' queries, results can be visualized using hierarchical expandable trees that present views specified by users according to their research interests. We believe that this method, which allows users to dynamically organize and visualize multiple dimensions, is a potentially powerful and promising tool that should substantially facilitate biological research. PhenogenesViewer as well as its support and tutorial are available at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/pgviewer/ Lussier@dbmi.columbia.edu.

  8. Microbial taxonomy in the post-genomic era: Rebuilding from scratch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cristiane C. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Amaral, Gilda R. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Campeão, Mariana [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Edwards, Robert A. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Polz, Martin F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dutilh, Bas E. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Radbould Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ussery, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sawabe, Tomoo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan); Swings, Jean [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Thompson, Fabiano L. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Advanced Systems Laboratory Production Management COPPE / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-12-23

    Microbial taxonomy should provide adequate descriptions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial diversity in ecological, clinical, and industrial environments. We re-evaluated the prokaryote species twice. It is time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy, its principles, and its practice, including its underlying pragmatic species concept. We will be able to realize an old dream of our predecessor taxonomists and build a genomic-based microbial taxonomy, using standardized and automated curation of high-quality complete genome sequences as the new gold standard.

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine research in the post-genomic era: good practice, priorities, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Halil; Bauer, Rudolf; Fan, Tai-Ping; Guo, De-An; Dias, Alberto; El-Nezami, Hani; Efferth, Thomas; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Heinrich, Michael; Robinson, Nicola; Hylands, Peter J; Hendry, Bruce M; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Xu, Qihe

    2012-04-10

    GP-TCM is the 1st EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. This paper aims to summarise the objectives, structure and activities of the consortium and introduces the position of the consortium regarding good practice, priorities, challenges and opportunities in TCM research. Serving as the introductory paper for the GP-TCM Journal of Ethnopharmacology special issue, this paper describes the roadmap of this special issue and reports how the main outputs of the ten GP-TCM work packages are integrated, and have led to consortium-wide conclusions. Literature studies, opinion polls and discussions among consortium members and stakeholders. By January 2012, through 3 years of team building, the GP-TCM consortium had grown into a large collaborative network involving ∼200 scientists from 24 countries and 107 institutions. Consortium members had worked closely to address good practice issues related to various aspects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and acupuncture research, the focus of this Journal of Ethnopharmacology special issue, leading to state-of-the-art reports, guidelines and consensus on the application of omics technologies in TCM research. In addition, through an online survey open to GP-TCM members and non-members, we polled opinions on grand priorities, challenges and opportunities in TCM research. Based on the poll, although consortium members and non-members had diverse opinions on the major challenges in the field, both groups agreed that high-quality efficacy/effectiveness and mechanistic studies are grand priorities and that the TCM legacy in general and its management of chronic diseases in particular represent grand opportunities. Consortium members cast their votes of confidence in omics and systems biology approaches to TCM research and believed that quality and pharmacovigilance of TCM products are not only grand priorities, but also grand challenges. Non-members, however, gave priority to integrative medicine, concerned on the impact of regulation of TCM practitioners and emphasised intersectoral collaborations in funding TCM research, especially clinical trials. The GP-TCM consortium made great efforts to address some fundamental issues in TCM research, including developing guidelines, as well as identifying priorities, challenges and opportunities. These consortium guidelines and consensus will need dissemination, validation and further development through continued interregional, interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaborations. To promote this, a new consortium, known as the GP-TCM Research Association, is being established to succeed the 3-year fixed term FP7 GP-TCM consortium and will be officially launched at the Final GP-TCM Congress in Leiden, the Netherlands, in April 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studying stress responses in the post-genomic era: its ecological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-03-26

    Mar 26, 2007 ... stress is regarded as an “environmental factor causing a change in a biological ... and evolutionary perspective and to investigate the role of stress ... and here more specifically, which genes affect acclimation and adaptation ...

  11. INVESTIGATIONS INTO MOLECULAR PATHWAYS IN THE POST GENOME ERA: CROSS SPECIES COMPARATIVE GENOMICS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome sequencing efforts in the past decade were aimed at generating draft sequences of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic model organisms. Successful completion of unicellular eukaryotes, worm, fly and human genome have opened up the new field of molecular biology and function...

  12. Germplasm Management in the Post-genomics Era-a case study with lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genotyping platforms and next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized our ways in germplasm characterization. In collaboration with UC Davis Genome Center, we completed a project of genotyping the entire cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) collection of 1,066 accessions ...

  13. The future of radiation therapy in the post-genomic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, W. H.; Iwamoto, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    The cloning of the human genome has generated a tremendous resource of information that will improve treatment of cancer, and other diseases. Allied to these discoveries are powerful new investigative tools that have been, and are being, developed. These are being used to give a comprehensive biological profile of individuals and their cancer that will allow better classification, as well as identification of pathways that might be targeted with therapeutic benefit. The hope is that these approaches will allow intervention that is tailored to the needs of the individual patient and that the targeted cancer therapies will be associated with less toxicity than those currently used. This raises questions as to how best to use the new biotechnologies to predict responses to conventional therapies and indeed will conventional therapies, like radiation therapy, have a role in cancer treatment as specific biologically targeted drugs become commonplace. Here, it is argued that even the molecular staging of cancer that is currently being performed, if exploited correctly, will greatly aid patient selection for radiation therapy and that this should be the starting point for further studies aimed at developing predictive profiles for improving treatment outcome. It is also argued that because the biological anti-cancer agents target molecular pathways that overlap with those responsible for radiosensitivity, and because on their own they have little cytotoxic power, radiation therapists should incorporate biological agents into combined modality regimens and that this is likely to be a standard form of treatment in the next decade. (author)

  14. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic study of microbial communities involved in bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Halden, Rolf U

    2008-08-01

    Microorganisms can produce renewable energy in large quantities and without damaging the environment or disrupting food supply. The microbial communities must be robust and self-stabilizing, and their essential syntrophies must be managed. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic tools can provide crucial information about the structure and function of these microbial communities. Applying these tools will help accelerate the rate at which microbial bioenergy processes move from intriguing science to real-world practice.

  15. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  16. Integrated, multi-scale, spatial-temporal cell biology--A next step in the post genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rick

    2016-03-01

    New microscopic approaches, high-throughput imaging, and gene editing promise major new insights into cellular behaviors. When coupled with genomic and other 'omic information and "mined" for correlations and associations, a new breed of powerful and useful cellular models should emerge. These top down, coarse-grained, and statistical models, in turn, can be used to form hypotheses merging with fine-grained, bottom up mechanistic studies and models that are the back bone of cell biology. The goal of the Allen Institute for Cell Science is to develop the top down approach by developing a high throughput microscopy pipeline that is integrated with modeling, using gene edited hiPS cell lines in various physiological and pathological contexts. The output of these experiments and models will be an "animated" cell, capable of integrating and analyzing image data generated from experiments and models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ‘There and back again’: revisiting the pathophysiological roles of human endogenous retroviruses in the post-genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Belshaw, Robert; Katzourakis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Almost 8% of the human genome comprises endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). While they have been shown to cause specific pathologies in animals, such as cancer, their association with disease in humans remains controversial. The limited evidence is partly due to the physical and bioethical restrictions surrounding the study of transposons in humans, coupled with the major experimental and bioinformatics challenges surrounding the association of ERVs with disease in general. Two biotechnological landmarks of the past decade provide us with unprecedented research artillery: (i) the ultra-fine sequencing of the human genome and (ii) the emergence of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Here, we critically assemble research about potential pathologies of ERVs in humans. We argue that the time is right to revisit the long-standing questions of human ERV pathogenesis within a robust and carefully structured framework that makes full use of genomic sequence data. We also pose two thought-provoking research questions on potential pathophysiological roles of ERVs with respect to immune escape and regulation. PMID:23938753

  18. Post-genomic approaches to understanding interactions between fungi and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald P; Benoit, Isabelle; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Magnuson, Jon K; Panisko, Ellen A; Baker, Scott E; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2011-06-01

    Fungi inhabit every natural and anthropogenic environment on Earth. They have highly varied life-styles including saprobes (using only dead biomass as a nutrient source), pathogens (feeding on living biomass), and symbionts (co-existing with other organisms). These distinctions are not absolute as many species employ several life styles (e.g. saprobe and opportunistic pathogen, saprobe and mycorrhiza). To efficiently survive in these different and often changing environments, fungi need to be able to modify their physiology and in some cases will even modify their local environment. Understanding the interaction between fungi and their environments has been a topic of study for many decades. However, recently these studies have reached a new dimension. The availability of fungal genomes and development of post-genomic technologies for fungi, such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have enabled more detailed studies into this topic resulting in new insights. Based on a Special Interest Group session held during IMC9, this paper provides examples of the recent advances in using (post-)genomic approaches to better understand fungal interactions with their environments.

  19. EchoBASE: an integrated post-genomic database for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Raju V; Horler, Richard S P; Reindl, Wolfgang; Goryanin, Igor I; Thomas, Gavin H

    2005-01-01

    EchoBASE (http://www.ecoli-york.org) is a relational database designed to contain and manipulate information from post-genomic experiments using the model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12. Its aim is to collate information from a wide range of sources to provide clues to the functions of the approximately 1500 gene products that have no confirmed cellular function. The database is built on an enhanced annotation of the updated genome sequence of strain MG1655 and the association of experimental data with the E.coli genes and their products. Experiments that can be held within EchoBASE include proteomics studies, microarray data, protein-protein interaction data, structural data and bioinformatics studies. EchoBASE also contains annotated information on 'orphan' enzyme activities from this microbe to aid characterization of the proteins that catalyse these elusive biochemical reactions.

  20. Designing a post-genomics knowledge ecosystem to translate pharmacogenomics into public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Faraj, Samer A; Kolker, Eugene; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-01-01

    Translation of pharmacogenomics to public health action is at the epicenter of the life sciences agenda. Post-genomics knowledge is simultaneously co-produced at multiple scales and locales by scientists, crowd-sourcing and biological citizens. The latter are entrepreneurial citizens who are autonomous, self-governing and increasingly conceptualizing themselves in biological terms, ostensibly taking responsibility for their own health, and engaging in patient advocacy and health activism. By studying these heterogeneous 'scientific cultures', we can locate innovative parameters of collective action to move pharmacogenomics to practice (personalized therapeutics). To this end, we reconceptualize knowledge-based innovation as a complex ecosystem comprising 'actors' and 'narrators'. For robust knowledge translation, we require a nested post-genomics technology governance system composed of first-order narrators (for example, social scientists, philosophers, bioethicists) situated at arm's length from innovation actors (for example, pharmacogenomics scientists). Yet, second-order narrators (for example, an independent and possibly crowd-funded think-tank of citizen scholars, marginalized groups and knowledge end-users) are crucial to prevent first-order narrators from gaining excessive power that can be misused in the course of steering innovations. To operate such 'self-calibrating' and nested innovation ecosystems, we introduce the concept of 'wiki-governance' to enable mutual and iterative learning among innovation actors and first- and second-order narrators. '[A] scientific expert is someone who knows more and more about less and less, until finally knowing (almost) everything about (almost) nothing.' [1] 'Ubuntu: I am because you are.' [2].

  1. ERA-40

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ERA-40 project was to produce and promote the use of a comprehensive set of global analysis describing the state of the atmosphere and land and ocean-wave conditions...

  2. Genetic Simulation Tools for Post-Genome Wide Association Studies of Complex Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Christopher I.; Bafna, Vineet; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Li, Chun; Liberles, David A.; McAllister, Kimberly; Moore, Jason H.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Peng, Bo; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rosenfeld, Gabriel; Witte, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic simulation programs are used to model data under specified assumptions to facilitate the understanding and study of complex genetic systems. Standardized data sets generated using genetic simulation are essential for the development and application of novel analytical tools in genetic epidemiology studies. With continuing advances in high-throughput genomic technologies and generation and analysis of larger, more complex data sets, there is a need for updating current approaches in genetic simulation modeling. To provide a forum to address current and emerging challenges in this area, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop, entitled “Genetic Simulation Tools for Post-Genome Wide Association Studies of Complex Diseases” at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland on March 11-12, 2014. The goals of the workshop were to: (i) identify opportunities, challenges and resource needs for the development and application of genetic simulation models; (ii) improve the integration of tools for modeling and analysis of simulated data; and (iii) foster collaborations to facilitate development and applications of genetic simulation. During the course of the meeting the group identified challenges and opportunities for the science of simulation, software and methods development, and collaboration. This paper summarizes key discussions at the meeting, and highlights important challenges and opportunities to advance the field of genetic simulation. PMID:25371374

  3. The renaissance of continuous culture in the post-genomics age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Alan T

    2010-10-01

    The development of continuous culture techniques 60 years ago and the subsequent formulation of theory and the diversification of experimental systems revolutionised microbiology and heralded a unique period of innovative research. Then, progressively, molecular biology and thence genomics and related high-information-density omics technologies took centre stage and microbial growth physiology in general faded from educational programmes and research funding priorities alike. However, there has been a gathering appreciation over the past decade that if the claims of systems biology are going to be realised, they will have to be based on rigorously controlled and reproducible microbial and cell growth platforms. This revival of continuous culture will be long lasting because its recognition as the growth system of choice is firmly established. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to remind microbiologists, particularly those new to continuous culture approaches, of the legacy of what I call the first age of continuous culture, and to explore a selection of researches that are using these techniques in this post-genomics age. The review looks at the impact of continuous culture across a comprehensive range of microbiological research and development. The ability to establish (quasi-) steady state conditions is a frequently stated advantage of continuous cultures thereby allowing environmental parameters to be manipulated without causing concomitant changes in the specific growth rate. However, the use of continuous cultures also enables the critical study of specified transition states and chemical, physical or biological perturbations. Such dynamic analyses enhance our understanding of microbial ecology and microbial pathology for example, and offer a wider scope for innovative drug discovery; they also can inform the optimization of batch and fed-batch operations that are characterized by sequential transitions states.

  4. Mechanical aspects of developmental biology: perspectives On Growth and Form in the (post)-genomic age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, M Shane; Ma Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Simple experiments demonstrate that the development of an organism is both a genetic and a physical process. This statement is so obvious that it is seldom stated explicitly, and yet, there has been little progress toward integrating what should be complementary viewpoints. This paper focuses on the mechanical aspects of morphogenesis—highlighting those areas where mechanics and molecular genetics are converging toward a much-needed synthesis

  5. MEETING REPORT ASSESSING HUMAN GERM-CELL MUTAGENESIS IN THE POST-GENOME ERA: A CELEBRATION OF THE LEGACY OF WILLIAM LAWSON (BILL) RUSSELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although numerous germ-cell mutagens have been identified in animal model systems, to date, no human germ-cell mutagens have been confirmed. Because the genomic integrity of our germ cells is essential for the continuation of the human species, a resolution of this enduring conu...

  6. Meeting Report. Assessing Human Germ-Cell Mutagenesis in thePost-Genome Era: A Celebration of the Legacy of William Lawson (Bill)Russell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Mulvihill, John J.; Wassom, John S.; Malling,Heinrich V.; Shelby, Michael D.; Lewis, Susan E.; Witt, Kristine L.; Preston, R. Julian; Perreault-Darney, Sally; Allen, James W.; DeMarini,David M.; Woychik, Richard P.; Bishop Jack B; Workshop Presenters

    2006-04-18

    Although numerous germ-cell mutagens have been identified inanimal model systems, to date, no human germ-cell mutagens have beenconfirmed. Because the genomic integrity of our germ cells is essentialfor the continuation of the human species, a resolution of this enduringconundrum is needed. To facilitate such a resolution, we organized aworkshop at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine on September28-30, 2004. This interactive workshop brought together scientists from awide range of disciplines to assess the applicability of emergingmolecular methods for genomic analysis to the field of human germ-cellmutagenesis. Participants recommended that focused, coordinated humangerm-cell mutation studies be conducted in relation to important societalexposures. Because cancer survivors represent a unique cohort withwell-defined exposures, there was a consensus that studies should bedesigned to assess the mutational impact on children born to parents whohad received certain types of mutagenic cancer chemotherapy prior toconceiving their children. Within this high-risk cohort, parents andchildren could be evaluated for inherited changes in (a) gene sequencesand chromosomal structure, (b) repeat sequences and minisatelliteregions, and (c) global gene expression and chromatin. Participants alsorecommended studies to examine trans-generational effects in humansinvolving mechanisms such as changes in imprinting and methylationpatterns, expansion of nucleotide repeats, or induction of mitochondrialDNA mutations. Workshop participants advocated establishment of abio-bank of human tissue samples that could be used to conduct amultiple-endpoint, comprehensive, and collaborative effort to detectexposure-induced heritable alterations in the human genome. Appropriateanimal models of human germ-cell mutagenes is should be used in parallelwith human studies to provide insights into the mechanisms of mammaliangerm-cell mutagenesis. Finally, participants recommended that scientificspecialty groups be convened to address specific questions regarding thepotential germ-cell mutagenicity of environmental, occupational, andlifestyle exposures. Strong support from relevant funding agencies andengagement of scientists outside the fields of genomics and germ-cellmutagenesis will be required to launch a full-scale assault on some ofthe most pressing and enduring questions in environmental mutagenesis: Dohuman germ-cell mutagens exist, what risk do they pose to futuregenerations, and are some parents at higher risk than others foracquiring and transmitting germ-cell mutations?

  7. Journey to discover the Italian Mediterranean Diet: from literary sources, archaeological and medical sciences from the IV sec. BC to the post genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino De LORENZO1,4

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet, a lifestyle universally regarded as the optimal scheme to promote health and, consequently, the duration and the quality of life, world-unique example of food, social and cultural practices, has been recognized as intangible heritage of UNESCO, in November 2010. Literary sources, but also the archaeological documentation and scientific, anthropological and paleobotanical analysis allow us to delineate an articulate Italian Mediterranean traditional food from the fourth century BC, from the territory of Calabria, called in the past Brutium. A diet high in grains and vegetables, an apparent consumption of olive oil, a substantial presence on the table, fish or pork, especially food high in fat like Omega3, with healthy benefits, and a consumption and marketing of wine, give the basis for recognizing a strong food culture, permeated by foreign influences but also characterized by important endogenous features, as marker of cultural identity of Italy.

  8. Post-genome physics

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The government has promised that the budget for particle physics and astronomy in the UK will keep pace with inflation for three years. However, the life and biomedical sciences will get an additional 400 million pounds over the next three years (1 page).

  9. ERA`s Ranger uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA`s preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the year to June 1997.

  10. Dakwah di Era Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Budiantoro, Wahyu

    2018-01-01

    These days dakwah is not only interpreted as transformation of a pure religious value, but also transformation of a more relevant value including many aspects in digital era. Digital era is when society succumbed into the flow of information causing cultural shock and difficulties on synthesizing meaning from those scattered information. Dakwah on Digital age must accommodate societal needs which tend to move into a mass society. It results in strategy and more humane and innovative dakwah me...

  11. Reappraisal of Pediatric Diastatic Skull Fractures in the 3-Dimensional CT Era: Clinical Characteristics and Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Simple Skull X-Ray, 2-Dimensional CT, and 3-Dimensional CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sook Young; Kim, Hyun Gi; Yoon, Soo Han; Choi, Jong Wook; Cho, Sung Min; Choi, Mi Sun

    2017-12-01

    Diastatic skull fractures (DSFs) in children are difficult to detect in skull radiographs before they develop into growing skull fractures; therefore, little information is available on this topic. However, recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging technology have enabled more accurate diagnoses of almost all forms of skull fracture. The present study was undertaken to document the clinical characteristics of DSFs in children and to determine whether 3D CT enhances diagnostic accuracy. Two hundred and ninety-two children younger than 12 years with skull fractures underwent simple skull radiography, 2-dimensional (2D) CT, and 3DCT. Results were compared with respect to fracture type, location, associated lesions, and accuracy of diagnosis. DSFs were diagnosed in 44 (15.7%) of children with skull fractures. Twenty-two patients had DSFs only, and the other 22 had DSFs combined with compound or mixed skull fractures. The most common fracture locations were the occipitomastoid (25%) and lambdoid (15.9%). Accompanying lesions consisted of subgaleal hemorrhages (42/44), epidural hemorrhages (32/44), pneumocephalus (17/44), and subdural hemorrhages (3/44). A total of 17 surgical procedures were performed on 15 of the 44 patients. Fourteen and 19 patients were confirmed to have DSFs by skull radiography and 2D CT, respectively, but 3D CT detected DSFs in 43 of the 44 children (P skull radiography or 2D CT for detecting DSFs. This finding indicates that 3D CT should be used routinely rather than 2D CT for the assessment of pediatric head trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  13. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  14. ERA: Adverse Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Excellence in Research for Australia has a number of limitations: inputs are counted as outputs, time is wasted, disciplinary research is favoured and public engagement is discouraged. Most importantly, by focusing on measurement and emphasising competition, ERA may actually undermine the cooperation and intrinsic motivation that underpin research…

  15. Energy: a new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Curtis.

    1995-01-01

    The world appears on the verge of a new era of advanced technologies and new fuels. Although such a transformation is unlikely to take place overnight, change is clearly coming. The question is how much and how fast: Will energy transition amount to a technological revolution, or merely an evolution? A detailed evaluation of the various aspects is given. (author). 23 refs

  16. ERA's Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.

    1997-01-01

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA's preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U 3 O 8 in the year to June 1997

  17. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  19. Dakwah di Era Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Budiantoro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available These days dakwah is not only interpreted as transformation of a pure religious value, but also transformation of a more relevant value including many aspects in digital era. Digital era is when society succumbed into the flow of information causing cultural shock and difficulties on synthesizing meaning from those scattered information. Dakwah on Digital age must accommodate societal needs which tend to move into a mass society. It results in strategy and more humane and innovative dakwah methods. One of innovative dakwah methods is conducted dakwah activities through digital media,with the consequences of this is that da’i must developed soft skill and technological capabilities. Another beneficial comes from this is that dakwah could become more modern and practical in terms of methods and material. On the other hand, citizen Journalism as a mass cultural product and the results of technological development, gives an opportunity for da’i to able to record the entire activities, including the dynamics of islamic life. In terms of learning curriculum, dakwah in digital format must be included, so then the intellectual and cultural spirit which flourished in pesantren could be adapted and competed in a global world.

  20. Second Nuclear Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  1. Rework of the ERA software system: ERA-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    The software system that has been powering many products of the IAA during decades has undergone a major rework. ERA has capabilities for: processing tables of observations of different kinds, fitting parameters to observations, integrating equations of motion of the Solar system bodies. ERA comprises a domain-specific language called SLON, tailored for astronomical tasks. SLON provides a convenient syntax for reductions of observations, choosing of IAU standards to use, applying rules for filtering observations or selecting parameters for fitting. Also, ERA includes a table editor and a graph plotter. ERA-8 has a number of improvements over previous versions such as: integration of the Solar system and TT xA1 TDB with arbitrary number of asteroids; option to use different ephemeris (including DE and INPOP); integrator with 80-bit floating point. The code of ERA-8 has been completely rewritten from Pascal to C (for numerical computations) and Racket (for running SLON programs and managing data). ERA-8 is portable across major operating systems. The format of tables in ERA-8 is based on SQLite. The SPICE format has been chosen as the main format for ephemeris in ERA-8.

  2. Epigenomic and transcriptomic approaches in the post-genomic era : Path to novel targets for diagnosis and therapy of the ischaemic heart? Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Barabási, Albert Laszló; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Davidson, Sean Michael; De Windt, Leon J.; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Engel, Felix Benedikt; Hausenloy, Derek John; Hill, Joseph Addison; Van Laake, Linda Wilhelmina; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mayr, Manuel; Prunier, Fabrice; Sluijter, Joost Petrus Geradus; Schulz, Rainer; Thum, Thomas; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in myocardial reperfusion therapies, acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and consequent ischaemic heart failure represent the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized societies. Although different therapeutic interventions have been shown beneficial in

  3. Nasionalisme di Era Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Widhyatmoko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism and nationality of a country life are moving into the new phase. Internet has become a new medium that opens up so many opportunities to create a sense of nationalism for the country. This paper contains a review of nationalism in the age of the Internet. This paper begins with understanding nationalism, the character of the Internet, social media and nationalism in the era of the Internet. Research method used in this paper is literature study, continued with reflective data analysis. With reflective analysis method, the authors analyzed data from the data collection has been carried out for comparison between the existing literature by circumstances or phenomena that occur, so that the conclusions of rational and scientific data can be obtained. 

  4. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    16 ..... stem from the pre-constitutional era, and the constitutional framework and its legitimate reform efforts. A decision on what is just ...... Carroll L Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Digital Scanning Scituate MA. 2007). Dagan 1999 Va L Rev.

  5. Three eras of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul; Toulmin, Camilla

    2006-10-15

    Climate change as a global challenge has evolved through a series of stages in the last few decades. We are now on the brink of a new era which will see the terms of the debate shift once again. The different eras are characterised by the scientific evidence, public perceptions, responses and engagement of different groups to address the problem. In the first era, from the late 1980s to 2000, climate change was seen as an “environmental” problem to do with prevention of future impacts on the planet's climate systems over the next fifty to hundred years, through reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, known as “mitigation”. The second era can be said to have started around the turn of the millennium, with the recognition that there will be some unavoidable impacts from climate change in the near term (over the next decade or two). These impacts must be coped with through “adaptation”, as well as mitigation, to prevent much more severe and possibly catastrophic impacts in the longer term. It has become clear that many of the impacts of climate change in the near term are likely to fall on the poorest countries and communities. The third era, which we are just about to enter, will see the issue change from tackling an environmental or development problem to a question of “global justice”. It will engage with a much wider array of citizens from around the world than previous eras.

  6. Era Transmídia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dias Arnaut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A abordagem transmídia se mostra cada vez mais atual e interessante por integrar todos os conceitos de produção de conteúdos em uma única metodologia e processo de criação e distribuição. Atualmente, e cada vez mais, as pessoas, o público em geral é um potencial produtor de conteúdo nas novas mídias, seja através de uma simples câmera fotográfica, um telefone celular, um PC ou mesmo do mais sofisticado tablet. Nesta nova dinâmica, o mercado (conjunto de: audiência, mídia, concorrência e demais agentes apresenta novas plataformas de comuni-cação que, devido a sua abertura e amplo acesso, trazem consigo uma grande perda de controle do que é publi-cado e do próprio contexto originalmente planejado, pois a mídia espontânea e a interpretação do público criam novos caminhos para a história principal do projeto.A necessidade do mercado em estreitar relacionamento com seus clientes ou públicos (cada segmento de mercado é considerado um público diferente passa por uma grande transformação, que se implementada de forma impul-siva e despreparada, no que diz respeito à análise do público-alvo, aos formatos de distribuição e à mensagem enviada, pode acarretar na perda de oportunidades e propostas de comunicação. O foco dos projetos transmídia é utilizar  metodologias e  processos mais completos e abrangentes, do ponto de vista das áreas de criação de con-teúdo, tecnologia, marketing e outras, utilizando as melhores plataformas de mídia para o sucesso do projeto. De forma resumida o grupo de estudos em transmídia, #EraTransmídia, irá apresentar seus conceitos com o objetivo de proporcionar o engajamento social multiplataforma para resultados positivos.

  7. METODE MUHADDITSIN DI ERA MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriansyah Adriansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available After the era of tadwin, almost all disciplines of knowledge in the Islamic world, including the study of hadith, was considered “running on the spot.” Yet, attention and maintenance of the hadith was still favored by intellectuals. Similarly, in the modern era, the hadith remains the object of criticism by not only Muslim intellectuals but also outsiders, such as the West. Western imperialism against the Islamic world in the past was now the beginning of the history of how Muslims are only able to “survive” rather than “attack.” The emergence of defensive and reactive works against trends of the West in criticizing and blasphemed the hadith, then, such works became trends and supporting methodologies among Muslim observers of the hadith in today’s modern era

  8. Survival of Er(a+) red cells in a patient with allo-anti-Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.W.; Skradski, K.J.; Thoreson, J.R.; Polesky, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    51 Chromium-labeled Er(a+) red cells survived nearly normally (T1/2 of 21 days) in a patient with allo-anti-Era. Transfusion of Er(a+) blood was without significant reaction and did not affect the anti-Era titer

  9. The Anthropocene era. The Earth, the history and us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneuil, Christophe; Fressoz, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    As some scientists state that the Earth entered the Anthropocene era which is an anthropogenic geological revolution: the traces of our urban, consumption, chemical and nuclear era will remain in the planet geological archives for thousands and even millions of years, and will result in huge difficulties for human societies. Between science and history, the authors give an overview of a development model which has become unsustainable: studies which highlighted the impossibility of an indefinite growth in the 1970's have been ignored, and instead of taking the three dimensions involved in sustainable development (economy, social, environment), into account, environment tends to become only a new item in firm accounting (markets of eco-systemic services, the biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere about to become simple subsystems of the financial and merchandising sphere)

  10. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  11. Modified enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Dai; Tagawa, Kyoko; Inada, Kentaro; Nasu, Keiichi; Seyama, Yasuji; Maeshiro, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Sachio; Inoue, Satoru; Umekita, Nobutaka

    2017-02-16

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are now well-known to be useful for elective colorectal surgery, as they result in shorter hospital stays without adversely affecting morbidity. However, the efficacy and safety of ERAS protocols for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer have yet to be clarified. We evaluated 122 consecutive resections for obstructive colorectal cancer performed between July 2008 and November 2012 at Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital. Patients with rupture or impending rupture and those who received simple colostomy were excluded. The first set of 42 patients was treated based on traditional protocols, and the latter 80 according to modified ERAS protocols. The main endpoints were length of postoperative hospital stay, postoperative short-term morbidity, rate of readmission within 30 days, and mortality. Differences in modified ERAS protocols relative to traditional care include intensive preoperative counseling (by both surgeons and anesthesiologists), perioperative fluid management (avoidance of sodium/fluid overload), shortening of postoperative fasting period and early provision of oral nutrition, intraoperative warm air body heating, enforced postoperative mobilization, stimulation of gut motility, early removal of urinary catheter, and a multidisciplinary team approach to care. Median (interquartile range) postoperative hospital stay was 10 (10-14.25) days in the traditional group, and seven (7-8.75) days in the ERAS group, showing a 3-day reduction in hospital stay (p < 0.01). According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, overall incidences of grade 2 or higher postoperative complications for the traditional and ERAS groups were 15 and 10% (p = 0.48), and 30-day readmission rates were 0 and 1.3% (p = 1.00), respectively. As for mortality, one patient in the traditional group died and none in the ERAS group (p = 0.34). Modified ERAS protocols for obstructive colorectal cancer reduced hospital stay

  12. A model for C-14 tracer evaporative rate analysis (ERA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Verghese, K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple model has been derived and tested for the C-14 tracer evaporative rate analysis (ERA) method. It allows the accurate determination of the evaporative rate coefficient of the C-14 tracer detector in the presence of variable evaporation rates of the detector solvent and variable background counting rates. The evaporation rate coefficient should be the most fundamental parameter available in this analysis method and, therefore, its measurements with the proposed model should allow the most direct correlations to be made with the system properties of interest such as surface cleanliness. (author)

  13. Tarbijalepingud rahvusvahelises eraõiguses / Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingisepp, Margus, 1969-

    1997-01-01

    Tarbijalepingute reguleerimisest erinevates riikides, 1955. a. Haagi konventsioonist ja 1980. a. Rooma konventsioonist, rahvusvahelisest jurisdiktsioonist tarbijalepingute puhul ning rahvusvahelise eraõiguse sätetest Eesti õiguses

  14. The New Era of Counterforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Keir

    Nuclear deterrence rests on the survivability of nuclear arsenals. For much of the nuclear age, counterforce disarming attacks those aimed at eliminating nuclear forces were nearly impossible because of the ability of potential victims to hide and protect their weapons. However, technological developments are eroding this foundation of nuclear deterrence. Advances rooted in the computer revolution have made nuclear forces around the world far more vulnerable than before. Specifically, two key approaches that countries have relied on to ensure arsenal survivability since the dawn of the nuclear age hardening and concealment have been undercut by leaps in weapons accuracy and a revolution in remote sensing. Various models, methods, and evidence demonstrate the emergence of new possibilities for counterforce disarming strikes. In short, the task of securing nuclear arsenals against attack is a far greater challenge than it was in the past. The new era of counterforce challenges the basis for confidence in contemporary deterrence stability, raises critical issues for national and international security policy, and sheds light on one of the enduring theoretical puzzles of the nuclear era: why international security competition has endured in the shadow of the nuclear revolution.

  15. Desafios na era pós genômica para o desenvolvimento de testes laboratoriais para o diagnóstico da hanseníase Challenges in the post genomic era for the development of tests for leprosy diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Martins de Araújo Stefani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico da hanseníase se baseia em manifestações clínicas e não existe teste laboratorial para diagnosticar casos assintomáticos ou para prever progressão da doença entre indivíduos expostos. Novas análises genômicas comparativas in silico e ferramentas de biologia molecular têm sido empregadas para revelar proteínas exclusivas do Mycobacterium leprae que apresentem potencial aplicação diagnóstica. A hanseníase tuberculóide paucibacilar (PB apresenta baixo nível de anticorpos e forte resposta imune celular (RIC tipo Th1/interferon gamma (IFN-γ. A doença lepromatosa multibacilar (MB apresenta sorologia positiva e fraca RIC. Portanto, testes laboratoriais para diagnosticar hanseníase PB e MB devem contemplar testes de RIC e sorologia. Proteínas recombinantes do Mycobacterium leprae sorologicamente reativas podem ser incorporadas ao antígeno PGLI para melhorar o diagnóstico sorológico de pacientes MB. Proteínas recombinantes e peptídeos sintéticos do Mycobacterium leprae têm sido testados em ensaios de RIC/IFN-γ para diagnosticar casos PB. Sorologia anti-PGLI modificada incorporando novos antígenos do Mycobacterium leprae e ensaios baseados na RIC/produção de IFN-γ devem permitir a detecção precoce de casos MB e PB em países endêmicos.Leprosy diagnosis is based mainly on clinical manifestations and no laboratory test is available to diagnose asymptomatic disease or to predict disease progression among exposed individuals. Novel comparative genomic in silico analyses and molecular biology tools have discovered unique Mycobacterium leprae proteins with potential diagnostic application. Tuberculoid paucibacillary leprosy (PB shows low antibodies titers and strong Th1 type/ IFN-γ specific cell mediated immunity (CMI, while lepromatous multibacillary patients (MB show high antibody titers and low CMI. Therefore, laboratory tests for PB and MB leprosy diagnosis will require CMI and antibody based assays. Serologically reactive recombinant Mycobacterium leprae proteins were identified and may be used in conjunction with PGL-I to improve MB patient diagnosis. Mycobacterium leprae recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides have been tested for CMI-interferon gamma based assays for PB diagnosis. Modified PGL-I serology incorporating new Mycobacterium leprae antigens and CMI tests based on IFN-γ γ production may permit the detection of leprosy PB and MB forms in endemic countries.

  16. Entrepreneurship in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know about the entrepreneurship as one of the key issues related to many aspects, including its relevance to the economic, business and employment. The researches on entrepreneurship are the references to identify the success factors which supported the entrepreneurial success. The internet development in the digital age indirectly influenced the entrepreneurial ethos. It is not only influenced by the market potential and product innovation, but also by the commitments to entrepreneurship education and training model. Therefore, the studies on entrepreneurship in the industrial and developing countries are attractive. It is relevant to the internet era which provided opportunities for the development of entrepreneurial ethos, especially for the younger generation.

  17. TANTANGAN DAKWAH DI ERA POSMODERNISME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elya Munfarida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a criticism to modemism, posmodemism has created new cultural realities different from the previous. Through its political acts and strategies, postmodernism has constructed cultural hypereality and complexity. This change becomes a chance and also threat that we need to be critical to anticipate the negative effects. One of its strategies is cultural deconstruction, which denies transcendental signs, meanings, and values, represents one of its negative effects. It will eliminate religious values which by contrast place transcendental values as its principle. For that reason, we need to contextualize Islamic teachings in order not to make postmodernism eliminate Muslims’ sense of religiousity. Da’wa, as a means of communication and transformation of Islamic values, plays a significantrole in this postmodernism era. Consequently, reconstruction of contextual da’wa strategy should be committed to balance the domination of postmodernism cultures.

  18. Crossing simple resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances

  19. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  20. Space Weather Drivers in the ACE Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Jordanova, V. K.; Smith, C. W.; Cohen, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft was launched Aug.~25, 1997 [Stone et al., 1998]. Beginning shortly after launch and continuing to the present day ACE has provided real-time data telemetry of solar wind conditions upstream of the Earth. The real-time data includes solar wind speed and density, magnetic field direction and magnitude, and a range of energetic particle intensities [Zwickl et al., 1999]. The real-time data product is provided within 5 minutes of observation and many partners from both industry and science use these data for a variety of purposes. The most common purpose of practical industrial application involves mitigation of lost services arising from magnetospheric storm activity. Many space weather efforts are directed at providing improved predictions of magnetospheric response that can be applied to real-time data in the hope of better predicting the vulnerability and required action of industry to approaching disturbances. It therefore seems prudent that following 6 years of activity including one solar maximum period we should evaluate the nature and strength of the largest disturbances observed with the hope of better assessing the industrial response. Simply put: ``Did ACE observe disturbances that were as large as those seen previously during the space age?'' If not, it may be the case that industry must evaluate its response to the real-time warnings and not become complacent by the simple act of survival. We compare the most intense space weather events of the ACE era with those recorded on the Omnitape data set spanning 40+ years of spacecraft measurements in the near-Earth environment. We compare both magnetospheric response parameters and solar wind drivers. In addition, we compare the large energetic particle events over the same time frame. Stone, E.~C., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 357-408, 1998. Zwickl, R.~D., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 633-648, 1998.

  1. Nuclear energy and the new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, F.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the utilization of nuclear energy is not only technical but also has important social, economic, political and ethical ramifications. Therefore, to discuss nuclear energy for the future, a vision of the new era needs to be identified. A model for the new era, as a natural consequence of growing interdependence among nations and the process of human evolution is described. The problems of inherent and passive safety, waste disposal, ecology, proliferation, economy and regulatory institutions in the new era are discussed. The particular role of small nuclear power reactors and their potential advantages are described. (author). 12 refs

  2. El lenguaje en la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    1998-02-01

    Con base en la interrelación entre lenguaje y pensamiento se plantea el papel fundamental que el lenguaje ocupa en el modelo económico, educativo y cultural generado por la aparición de la era digital o era del conocimiento. en este artículo se evidencian los retos que genera una era marcada por un esquema digital en el desarrollo y uso de habilidades comunicativas tanto en la docencia superior como en el ejercicio profesional eficiente.

  3. Periodistas para la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villalobos G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación de los periodistas del siglo XXI en la era digital se concibe como un reto y el mayor desafío. Los medios digitales demandan especialización y dominio de las nuevas tecnologías. Las universidades, principales gestores de este cambio, en la sociedad del conocimiento, requieren trabajar en la reformulación de nuevos pensum y en tres terrenos fundamentales: el perfil del egresado, el estilo pedagógico y el nuevo modo de relacionarse con el mundo exterior. Se necesita de una oferta académica referida al ciberperiodismo y a la cibercomunicación. La profesión periodística, y específicamente la formación de los comunicadores registra cambios importantes debido a las nuevas tecnologías, ahora el aula es el mundo globalizado e interconectado por la gran autopista de la información, por ello, la formación del comunicador social, demanda renovadas prácticas educativas. Las universidades deben repensar el papel que están obligadas a desempeñar, reformular los pensum académicos y ofertar la cibercomunicación y el ciberperiodismo para estar al día de las grandes transformaciones.

  4. A THIRD ERA OF MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMŢU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Management like any social activity through specific stages of development trends from general society. Following these historical trends, this study summarizes the evolution of management at four stages of a full cycle of development, from a informal management to one perfect formalized. These stages of development are found differential represented at the various economic development regions in the world. Evolution increasingly grouped patterns of management and generalization for schools of thought management determines the current global development of worldwide management. For the current stage of evolution may be called as "the third era of management" or "imperial period” in which management pressures on individuals, employers or subordinate, are enormous. Evolution of companies, of markets and national economies also the global economy is driven by the current trend in management, leading to very strong mutations in the relationship of forces. The world economy is in what is called "war of resources" and the alternative that we believe is necessary in this "human management" although speculative trends of concentration of capital are binding on any plans or state regulators global ethical management.

  5. The Performing Arts in a New Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    The Pew Charitable Trust commissioned The Performing Arts in a New Era from RAND in 1999 as part of a broad initiative aimed at increasing policy and financial support for nonprofit culture in the United States...

  6. MEMAKNAI SUMPAH PEMUDA DI ERA REFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutejo K. Widodo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The moment of Sumpah Pemuda (Young Man Oath took place 84 years ago, reflecting the spirit of nationalism that is still very important in this Reformation era. This paper endeavors to dig deeper meaning of Sumpah Pemuda in its pre-independence era and applying it to our contemporary situation. The method used here is historical research using literature resources, such as articles, books, and other readings in internet. It is then concluded that the spirit of Sumpah Pemuda should be our contemplative materials and valuable Iesson so that Reformation era may succeed in achieving national goals stated in the Constitution, a society that is fair, prosperous, and democratic. Keywords: Sumpah Pemuda, Reformation era, nationalism.

  7. Technology: A New Era in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.

    1977-01-01

    Teachers and technologists have lived apart, with much doubt on both sides. The author suggests that collaboration, mutual trust, and respect, will usher in a new era for effective education. (Editor)

  8. A new era of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theadore, Jason C

    2011-01-01

    Many of my family, friends, and colleagues would describe me as competitive and that at times I overuse this skill with a win-at-all-costs attitude. I would tend to agree. I love to win. Yet for me winning is not about me, it is as our coaches suggest, about others. I was recently asked by a new clinical leader if I missed taking care of patients. Without thinking, my response was that I take part in the care (add value) of every patient as a leader. Every decision we make as leaders (coaches) impacts many others regardless of the magnitude of our decision and, at times, our direct involvement. Operational excellence, in any field, is about winning. We all have different definitions of winning, defined by the strategic vision for our organizations. An organization's managers, supervisors, and employees all play an important role in the team to achieve the vision of the organization. As some elite coaches have suggested, winning starts with each of us being our best. Today's environment requires consistent change. Yet many in the radiology field change the wrong things for the wrong reasons. Many organizations and individuals look for instant gratification, specifically in this new era of competitiveness. Many evaluate what their competitors are doing in the market, what cars their neighbors are buying, or become jealous over a friend's success. Focusing on others and not improving yourself takes your focus away from what is important-you and the team you lead. Keeping your focus on your operations and what you can control may very well help you coach a winning team.

  9. Geography, Islands and Migration in an Era of Global Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing role of islands in the age of globalization and in an era of enhanced and diversified mobility. There are many types of islands, many metaphors of insularity, and many types of migration, so the interactions are far from simple. The ‘mobilities turn’ in migration studies recognizes the diversification in motivations and time-space regimes of human migration. After brief reviews of island studies and of migration studies, and the power of geography to capture and distil the interdisciplinarity and relationality of these two study domains, the paper explores various facets of the generally intense engagement that islands have with migration. Two particular scenarios are identified for islands and migration in the global era: the heuristic role of islands as ‘spatial laboratories’ for the study of diverse migration processes in microcosm; and the way in which, especially in the Mediterranean and near-Atlantic regions, islands have become critical locations in the geopolitics of irregular migration routes. The case of Malta is taken to illustrate some of these new insular migration dynamics.

  10. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Recent Reanalysis Activities at ECMWF: Results from ERA-20C and Plans for ERA5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragani, R.; Hersbach, H.; Poli, P.; Pebeuy, C.; Hirahara, S.; Simmons, A.; Dee, D.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the most recent reanalysis activities performed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). A pilot reanalysis of the 20th-century (ERA-20C) has recently been completed. Funded through the European FP7 collaborative project ERA-CLIM, ERA-20C is part of a suite of experiments that also includes a model-only integration (ERA-20CM) and a land-surface reanalysis (ERA-20CL). Its data assimilation system is constrained by only surface observations obtained from ISPD (3.2.6) and ICOADS (2.5.1). Surface boundary conditions are provided by the Hadley Centre (HadISST2.1.0.0) and radiative forcing follows CMIP5 recommended data sets. First-guess uncertainty estimates are based on a 10-member ensemble of Data Assimilations, ERA-20C ensemble, run prior to ERA-20C using ten SST and sea-ice realizations from the Hadley Centre. In November 2014, the European Commission entrusted ECMWF to run on its behalf the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) aiming at producing quality-assured information about the past, current and future states of the climate at both European and global scales. Reanalysis will be one of the main components of the C3S portfolio and the first one to be produced is a global modern era reanalysis (ERA5) covering the period from 1979 onwards. Based on a recent version of the ECMWF data assimilation system, ERA5 will replace the widely used ERA-Interim dataset. This new production will benefit from a much improved model, and better characterized and exploited observations compared to its predecessor. The first part of the presentation will focus on the ERA-20C production, provide an overview of its main characteristics and discuss some of the key results from its assessment. The second part of the talk will give an overview of ERA5, and briefly discuss some of its challenges.

  12. Communicating mathematics in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, Jonathan; Rodrigues, Jose Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The digital era has dramatically changed the ways that researchers search, produce, publish, and disseminate their scientific work. These processes are still rapidly evolving due to improvements in information science, new achievements in computer science technologies, and initiatives such as DML and open access journals, digitization projects, scientific reference catalogs, and digital repositories. These changes have prompted many mathematicians to play an active part in the developments of the digital era, and have led mathematicians to promote and discuss new ideas with colleagues from other fields, such as technology developers and publishers. This book is a collection of contributions by key leaders in the field, offering the paradigms and mechanisms for producing, searching, and exploiting scientific and technical scholarship in mathematics in the digital era.

  13. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  14. Chinese librarianship in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Conghui

    2013-01-01

    The library in China has been transformed by rapid socioeconomic development, and the proliferation of the Internet. The issues faced by Chinese libraries andlibrarians are those faced by library practitioners more globally, however, China also has its own unique set of issues in the digital era, including developmental imbalance between East and West, urban and rural areas, and availability of skilled practitioners. Chinese Librarianship in the Digital Era is the first book on Chinese libraries responding to these issues, and more.The first part of the book places discussion in historical con

  15. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  16. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  17. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  18. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  19. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  20. Association "Les Simples"

    OpenAIRE

    Thouzery, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fondée par les producteurs du Syndicat Inter-Massifs pour la Production et l’Économie des Simples (S.I.M.P.L.E.S), l’association base son action sur la recherche et le maintien d’une production de qualité (herboristerie et préparations à base de plantes) qui prend en compte le respect de l’environnement et la pérennité des petits producteurs en zone de montagne. Actions de formation Stages de découverte de la flore médicinale sauvage, Stages de culture et transformation des plantes médicinale...

  1. A simple electron multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L; Akjouj, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Al-Wahsh, H; Zielinski, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple multiplexing device made of two atomic chains coupled by two other transition metal atoms. We show that this simple atomic device can transfer electrons at a given energy from one wire to the other, leaving all other electron states unaffected. Closed-form relations between the transmission coefficients and the inter-atomic distances are given to optimize the desired directional electron ejection. Such devices can be adsorbed on insulating substrates and characterized by current surface technologies. (letter to the editor)

  2. Family Health in an Era of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes major findings of a national survey, "The General Mills American Family Report 1978/79: Family Health in an Era of Stress," conducted by Yankelovich, Skelly and White. Topics covered include attitudes toward medical costs, mental illness, and good health practices, as well as expressed interest in health information. (SJL)

  3. Biotechnology: An Era of Hopes and Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Fall 2016 23 Biotechnology An Era of Hopes and Fears LTC Douglas R. Lewis, PhD, US Army Abstract Biotechnology ......ignored. The idea of advances in biotechnology increasing the biological weapons threat is not new. In 2003 an analysis of gene sequencing and

  4. Time Management in the Digital Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Nan

    2013-01-01

    School business officials can strike a balance between setting a long-term strategy and responding to short-term situations by implementing time management strategies. This article presents tips for time management that could help boost productivity and save time in this digital era. Tips include decreasing meeting times via Skype or…

  5. Aplikasi Citizen Journalism di Era Konvergensi Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Edi Irawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Citizen journalism has now become one of the most developed television program concepts. If the concept was initially more widely used in radio and online media, this time with easier and cheaper technology coverage and delivery of images, it is a concept that provides a place for people to become amateur journalist that can also be easily applied in the medium of television. Research raised the issue on how the concept and implementation of citizen journalism on television in the era of media convergence. The purpose of this study is to explain concepts and demonstrate the implementation of citizen journalism on television in the era of media convergence. Research used qualitative method in which data were obtained using literature study. Results of the study showed that the implementation of citizen journalism on television is also increasingly facilitated by the entry of the television in the era of media convergence, or different media mingle, such as television with printed, radio, and Internet media. The era of media convergence makes the concept of citizen journalism can be more developed, because the platform or media distribution is also increasingly varied for amateur journalist. However, the system equipment that must be provided, human resources that must be owned, as well as huge capital to be owned make a few television stations open a lot of platforms to provide space for amateur journalist in citizen journalism. 

  6. Rethinking Education in an Era of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on the historic tensions of education under capitalism, arguing that they have been exacerbated in our era of neo-liberal globalisation. Government drives for greater "accountability" and "effectiveness" are a blinkered response to the threefold global crisis we face: poverty and debt; a collapse of the…

  7. Global Learning in a New Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaley, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Our nation's colleges and universities frequently adapt their approach to education in response to the reality of social, economic and environmental challenges. Today the reality is that we are increasingly interconnected on a global scale. This new era of globalization impacts every facet of society, and it offers both an exciting blend of…

  8. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway...

  9. Family Therapy in the Postmodern Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Steven D.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and clinical developments that have accompanied family therapy's entry into the postmodern era. Clinical trends, including use of reflecting teams, self-of-the-therapist issues, increased therapist self-disclosure, and postmodern supervision are examined. Feminist critiques, health-care reform, and increasing collaboration…

  10. Faculty Recruitment in an Era of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…

  11. Multiscale computing in the exascale era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alowayyed, S.; Groen, D.; Coveney, P.V.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    We expect that multiscale simulations will be one of the main high performance computing workloads in the exascale era. We propose multiscale computing patterns as a generic vehicle to realise load balanced, fault tolerant and energy aware high performance multiscale computing. Multiscale computing

  12. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  13. A Simple Tiltmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, M. G.; Harrison, D. R.; Edwards, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bubble vial with external aluminum-foil electrodes is sensing element for simple indicating tiltmeter. To measure bubble displacement, bridge circuit detects difference in capacitance between two sensing electrodes and reference electrode. Tiltmeter was developed for experiment on forecasting seismic events by changes in Earth's magnetic field.

  14. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  15. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  16. Simple mathematical fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, R; Faella, O

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical fireworks are reproduced in two dimensions by means of simple notions in kinematics and Newtonian mechanics. Extension of the analysis in three dimensions is proposed and the geometric figures the falling tiny particles make on the ground after explosion are determined. (paper)

  17. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  18. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  19. Hydro in the Kyoto era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, M.-C.

    2003-01-01

    producers because they can be built quickly. In addition, the rules for environmental processes for hydroelectric projects unfairly favour thermal projects. This paper also cautioned that the low price of energy does not help energy conservation programs. It was suggested that the only simple and efficient way to reduce GHG emissions and lower energy consumption is to charge a price that reflects the real cost of energy. It was suggested that coal and gas should be taxed as motivation to choose renewable forms of energy, and that electricity should not be subsidized for energy-intensive industries such as aluminium smelters. 5 figs

  20. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  1. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  2. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  3. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  4. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-02

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics.

  5. Electra en Piñera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Miranda Cancela

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo e uma análise da Electra Garrigó de Virgilio Piñera, teatrólogo cubano, e das suas vinculações com o teatro trágico grego, sobretudo com a Electra de Sófocles, acrescida ainda de aproximações com autores modernos que trataram do mesmo tema. Apesar da inspiração grega, Piñera permanece um típico teatrólogo nacional, marcado pelos momentos de grande tensão social da sua época (a tragédia em apreço data de 1941. O conflito produzido pela excessiva autoridade dos pais sobre os filhos, latente neste mito, interessa-o por seu significado dentro da família cubana.

  6. Menertawakan Fobia Komunis di Era Reproduksi Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono Lukmantoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In May-June 2016 issue of the rise of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI and the latent danger of communism appeared again. Excessive fear of PKI and communism continues propagated. That is what is referred to as a communist phobia. But, the issue is considered sensitive that it gave birth to criticism. The phenomenon is the presence of a number of memes comics whose contents laugh hammer and sickle symbol and three communist iconic figures, namely D.N. Aidit, Tan Malaka, and Mao Zedong. Meme comics containing parody to show incongruities that can only happen to the era of digital reproduction. The idea of meme comics can be traced to the thought Walter Benjamin about the works of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In that era, aura was declining. The crisis and the disappearance of aura increasingly occurs to the time of digital reproduction.

  7. Flavour physics in the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Tim

    2014-01-01

    These lectures give a topical review of heavy flavour physics, in particular \\CP violation and rare decays, from an experimental point of view. They describe the ongoing motivation to study heavy flavour physics in the LHC era, the current status of the field emphasising key results from previous experiments, some selected topics in which new results are expected in the near future, and a brief look at future projects.

  8. The Molecular Era of Surfactant Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the physiology, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology of the pulmonary surfactant system transformed the clinical care and outcome of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The molecular era of surfactant biology provided genetic insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders, previously termed “idiopathic” that affect newborn infants, children and adults. Knowledge related to the structure and function of the surfactant proteins and their roles in alveolar ...

  9. A New Era for Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R. D.; Montgomery, H. E.; Pennington, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    On a cool Saturday morning in late April a seemingly endless stream of cars turned off Jefferson Avenue in Newport News, Virginia, bringing 12,000 people ages 1 to 91 to the Open House to learn more about “the new era in science” at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Here, the visitors were dazzled by the complex equipment, the enthusiastic staff, and the advanced technology at the Laboratory.

  10. Creative clusters: a new era for SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Oxborrow, L

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The paper illustrates how the characteristics of industry clusters are revived in a new era for SME networks. It explores how a succession of industry shocks - increased global competition, recession and reduced policy support - have stimulated an innovative response in creative SMEs. The paper goes on to investigate the clustering experience of a small group of creative entrepreneurs in pursuing networked activities, with a view to identifying lessons that can be learnt to suppor...

  11. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  12. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  13. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  14. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  15. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  16. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  17. Simple stochastic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.

  18. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    We investigate “dual headquarters involvement”, i.e. corporate and divisional headquarters’ simultaneous involvement in subsidiaries’ innovation development projects. Analyses draw on 85 innovation projects in 23 multibusiness firms and reveal that cross-divisional innovation importance, i.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross......-divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple...

  19. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  20. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  1. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  2. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  3. Molecular genetics made simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh.; Girolami, Francesca; Sanoudou, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients. PMID:25610837

  4. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  5. Biobanks in the Era of Digital Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gunnar; Wolf, Andreas; Krawczak, Michael; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Digitalization is currently permeating virtually all sectors of modern societies, including biomedical research and medical care. At the same time, biobanks engaged in the long-term storage of biological samples that are fit for purpose have become key drivers in both fields. The present article highlights some of the challenges and opportunities that biobanking is facing in the current proverbial "era of digitalization." © 2017 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2001-11-29

    The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.

  7. Evolusi Saluran Interaksi di Era Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedictus Arnold Simangunsong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The development and advancement of technology affects how man interacts with others. The revolution of society interaction which was proposed by Straubhaar and LaRose, from pre-farming society to a farming society, into an industrial society, which was marked by the label of industrial revolution, to the information society, which is marked by the information revolution, shifted the way and man’s attitudes both in terms of economy and interaction. In the information society, the revolution also takes place in message delivery, where face-to-face was common at first, to textual and visual delivery, which is a change in the internet era.

  8. The Michelson Era in American Science, 1870--1930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.; Stuewer, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The articles in this volume relate, in one way or another, to a single experiment: the Michelson-Morley ether-drift experiment of 1887. About one-half of the articles in the collection are based on papers delivered at a two-day symposium ''The Michelson Era in American Science: 1870--1930,'' held a Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, 28--29 October 1987, commemorating the centennial of the experiment. The Michelson-Morley experiment was designed to detect the motion of the earth through the luminiferous ether. At the time, physicists did not question the existence of the ether. The experiment, like many physical probes of nature, was simple in conception, yet uncompromisingly demanding of the art of contemporary craftsmanship. The state of the mechanical arts and its relationship to the pursuit of physical science in late nineteenth- century America is well documented in Section I, which also addresses the more general question of the link between state-of-the-art shop practice and engineering theory

  9. Thiomers: A Blessing to Evaluating Era of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiomers are the polymers modified for the mucoadhesive properties and other additive properties by incorporating thiol moieties in the backbone of the unmodified polymeric chain by substitution reactions or simple oxidation reactions. Drugs that are less soluble and permeable can be complexed with thiomers for their increased absorption through the mucosal membranes by increase in contact time and prolonged stay in body due to mucoadhesion. Immobilization of thiol group therefore increases the mucoadhesive properties of the modified polymer by 2–140-folds. The prepared thiomers are characterized and made stable by different techniques. Thiomers also give the controlled delivery of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in the body. Different polymers that are modified by thiolation are chitosan, polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, guar gum, and so forth. Thiomeric formulations are a challenge to deliver drugs with low therapeutic compatibility. Micro- and nanopreparations containing thiomers can be prepared by different techniques such as covalent crosslinking, in situ gelation, radical emulsion polymerization, and emulsification. Nowadays thiomers have wide range of applications as a promising pharmaceutical excipient in the evaluating era of pharmaceutical technology.

  10. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  11. A simple scaler timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Kalavathy, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    In any nuclear reactor, the start-up channels monitor the neutron flux during the start-up operation and give the alarm signals for safety purposes. Normally, a fission chamber is used as a detector to detect the low level neutron fluxes. The output of the detector after amplification and discrimination is shaped in a pulse shaper to provide constant width, constant height pulses for further processing in rate meters. The shaped pulses also go to a scaler timer, where they are counted for fixed time intervals and the accumulated counts displayed. The scaler timer described in this paper uses LSIs to get at a simple, compact and reliable unit. The design is centered around two LSIs. MOS Counter Timebase LSI type MK 5009P (U1) is used to generate the gating pulses. A 1 MHz crystal is used to generate the system clock. A 4 bit address selects the desired gating intervals of 1 or 10 or 100 seconds. In fact, MK 5009 is a very versatile LSI in a 16 pin DIP package, consisting of a MOS oscillator and divider chain. It is binary encoded for frequency division selection ranging from 1 to 36 x 10. With an input frequency of 1 MHz, MK 5009 provides the time periods of 1 μs to 100 seconds, one minute, ten minute and one hour periods. (author)

  12. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R A; Islamy, M R F; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Latief, H; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM. (paper)

  13. 77 FR 40644 - ERA Systems, LLC, Formerly ERA Systems Corporation, a Subsidiary of Systems Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,047, TA-W-81,047A] ERA Systems..., 2011, resulted in a negative determination, issued on January 13, 2012. The determination was... partial separation from employment on the date of certification through two years from the date of...

  14. Mempertanyakan Privasi di Era Selebgram: Masih Adakah?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Krisnawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Instagram marks the importance of participatory culture in the era of new media. This paper aims to examine the complex notion of privacy in regards to children’s privacy that were made famous (by their parents through Instagram with the selebgram phenomenon. By examining the data gathered using #selebgram and underlining the self-presentation perspective in the study of the psychological communication, the results show that parents have their own motives and goal when uploading their child’s fotos on Instagram. Consequently, the childs have to lose their privacy in cyberspace and of course, the information is vulnerable to crime. Keywords: children’s privacy, Instagram, selebgram, self-presentation Abstrak: Instagram menandai gagasan pentingnya budaya partisipatif dalam era media baru. Tujuan dari paper ini adalah untuk menganalisa konsep Instagram sebagai forum dan sarana komunikasi dengan melihat fenomena selebgram. Paper ini meneliti gagasan kompleks privasi dalam hal privasi anak-anak yang dibuat terkenal (oleh orang tua mereka melalui Instagram dengan memeriksa data yang dikumpulkan menggunakan #selebgram dan menggarisbawahi perspektif presentasi diri dalam kajian psikologi komunikasi. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa ada motif dan tujuan orang tua memuat foto anaknya di akun Instagram. Sedangkan dampaknya, anak tidak mempunyai privasi di dunia maya dan tentunya informasi tersebut akan rentan disalahgunakan untuk kejahatan. Kata Kunci: Instagram, presentasi diri, privasi anak, selebgram

  15. Molecular anthropology in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Jobling, Mark A; Rocha, Jorge; Novembre, John; Richards, Martin B; Mulligan, Connie; Batini, Chiara; Manni, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Anthropology is a relatively young field of research. In fact, less than 50 years have passed since the symposium "Classification and Human Evolution" (1962, Burg Wartenstein, Austria), where the term was formally introduced by Emil Zuckerkandl. In this time, Molecular Anthropology has developed both methodologically and theoretically and extended its applications, so covering key aspects of human evolution such as the reconstruction of the history of human populations and peopling processes, the characterization of DNA in extinct humans and the role of adaptive processes in shaping the genetic diversity of our species. In the current scientific panorama, molecular anthropologists have to face a double challenge. As members of the anthropological community, we are strongly committed to the integration of biological findings and other lines of evidence (e.g. linguistic and archaeological), while keeping in line with methodological innovations which are moving the approach from the genetic to the genomic level. In this framework, the meeting "DNA Polymorphisms in Human Populations: Molecular Anthropology in the Genomic Era" (Rome, December 3-5, 2009) offered an opportunity for discussion among scholars from different disciplines, while paying attention to the impact of recent methodological innovations. Here we present an overview of the meeting and discuss perspectives and prospects of Molecular Anthropology in the genomic era.

  16. CENTRAL BANKING IN THE NEW ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bagis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of central banking, and in particular the American experience of central banking. It provides projections for the future of central banking in the new era of post 2008. The paper initially demonstrates recent improvements in the financial and banking sectors, regulations and different measures of monetary and financial rules both in the USA and the rest of the advanced economies. Then, it claims institutions, such as central banks, will gain new objectives and more significance in this new era and thus will be given new roles, over time and along with the improvements and deepening in the financial system. The paper argues centuries long central bank evolution is not complete yet and that more objectives should be expected to come forward. In that line, there is need for a shift in the conventional policy measures. New trends in central banking such as the helicopter money, popular nominal GDP targeting regime and the retro developmental central banking are all critically analyzed. The paper provides a breakdown of financial development and central banking activities in a historical context and provides a rationale and a new basis for possible future innovations.

  17. The end of a remarkable era

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    An important era in particle physics is coming to an end: the US Department of Energy announced on Monday that it will not fund an extension to Tevatron running beyond 2011. It is a poignant moment for particle physics as we prepare to bid farewell to a machine that has changed our view of the Universe, and played a significant role in paving the way for the new era that is opening up with the LHC.   The Tevatron has been at the high-energy frontier of particle physics for over a quarter of a century. That’s a remarkable achievement by any account, and the physics results are there to prove it. As well as bringing us the discovery of the top quark in 1995, the Tevatron’s experiments have provided vitally important precision measurements covering the full spectrum of Standard Model physics, not to mention hints of what may lie beyond. With several months of running still to come, it would be a foolish gambler who bet against further new physics emerging before the Teva...

  18. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  19. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  20. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  1. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in penetrating abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes employed in elective surgery have provided strong evidence for decreased lengths of hospital stay without increase in postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the role and benefits of ERAS implemented in patients undergoing ...

  2. Pengelolaan Kepegawaian pada Era Otonomi Daerah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlanda Juliansyah Putra

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACTPersonnel management in the era of regional autonomy in essence , has experienced rapid growth , especially in the case of the preparation of the needs of employees , along with the procurement process and the appointment of civil servants. In developing the needs of employees , management personnel requirements determination is based on job analysis and workload that is based on the priority needs of the region . Besides the procurement process and the appointment of civil servants has also contains a provision that puts the professionalism system based on the ability of each candidate civil servants as well as some of the qualification requirements to enable the civil servants to be able to compete boost development in the region , accompanied by the management salary and allowances are based on the management of the budget needs of each region.

  3. Laplace and the era of differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Between about 1790 and 1850 French mathematicians dominated not only mathematics, but also all other sciences. The belief that a particular physical phenomenon has to correspond to a single differential equation originates from the enormous influence Laplace and his contemporary compatriots had in all European learned circles. It will be shown that at the beginning of the nineteenth century Newton's "fluxionary calculus" finally gave way to a French-type notation of handling differential equations. A heated dispute in the Philosophical Magazine between Challis, Airy and Stokes, all three of them famous Cambridge professors of mathematics, then serves to illustrate the era of differential equations. A remark about Schrödinger and his equation for the hydrogen atom finally will lead back to present times.

  4. Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana; Molnar, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    After a period of extensive growth in the 2000's, the Russian gas industry is now facing numerous challenges. Mounting competition by independent producers and the development of new production by Gazprom, combined with stagnating domestic demand and weakening export markets, have created a situation of overproduction, made worse by western sanctions and low oil and gas prices. Expansion to the East thanks to the recent China deal is not expected to provide much relief before 2024. The coming decade will be critical for the industry and its outcome will largely depend on the government's pricing and institutional policies but the role of the state should remain essential. This document presents the key findings of the New CEDIGAZ report 'Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era'. The report analyses the ongoing changes in the Russian industry and the challenges to be met

  5. Engineering Education for a New Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    Engineering education is composed of five components, the idea what engineering education ought to be, the knowledge in engineering fields, those who learn engineering, those who teach engineering and the stakeholders in engineering issues. The characteristics of all these five components are changing with the times. When we consider the engineering education for the next era, we should analyze the changes of all five components. Especially the knowledge and tools in engineering fields has been expanding, and advanced science and technology is casting partly a dark shadow on the modern convenient life. Moral rules or ethics for developing new products and engineering systems are now regarded as most important in engineering fields. All those who take the responsibility for engineering education should understand the change of all components in engineering education and have a clear grasp of the essence of engineering for sustainable society.

  6. The Rejuvenation of Cartography in ICT Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Renzhong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the impetus of ICT, cartography faces the unprecedented challenges. The paper discusses the problems and changes of cartography facing the digital technology, analyzes the constraints of traditional cartography that are mainly delimited by 2D physical paper map. Diverseness of modern cartography shows various map products, and the paper illustrates the digital freedom in information space of modern cartography from eight aspects, including physical reality VS virtual reality, paper map VS digital map, superficial visualization VS inner visualization and so on. Modern cartography encounters the new development opportunities and fresh demands in digital era, and it's necessary to extend the framework of cartography and to assimilate newly sprouted things to promote the rejuvenation of cartography.

  7. The forthcoming era of precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamulin, Stjepan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients' groups). Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism ("big data"), development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care. In the present and future era of precision medicine, the collaboration of all participants in health care is necessary for its realization, resulting in improvement of diagnosis, prevention and therapy, based on a holistic, individually tailored approach. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. Astronomy in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fields of Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics are vital for dealing with the big data issues now faced by astronomy. Like other disciplines in the big data era, astronomy has many V characteristics. In this paper, we list the different data mining algorithms used in astronomy, along with data mining software and tools related to astronomical applications. We present SDSS, a project often referred to by other astronomical projects, as the most successful sky survey in the history of astronomy and describe the factors influencing its success. We also discuss the success of Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics organizations and the conferences and summer schools on these issues that are held annually. All the above indicates that astronomers and scientists from other areas are ready to face the challenges and opportunities provided by massive data volume.

  9. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-07-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway) were resistance fighters, tortured by the Gestapo: Thygesen was imprisoned in concentration camps and Sæthre executed. Jan Jansen (Norway), another neuroscientist resistor, escaped to Sweden, returning under disguise to continue fighting. Fritz Buchthal (Denmark) was one of almost 8000 Jews escaping deportation by fleeing from Copenhagen to Sweden. In contrast, Carl Værnet (Denmark) became a collaborator, conducting inhuman experiments in Buchenwald concentration camp, and Herman Lundborg (Sweden) and Thorleif Østrem (Norway) advanced racial hygiene in order to maintain the "superior genetic pool of the Nordic race." Compared to other Nazi-occupied countries, there was a high ratio of resistance fighters to collaborators and victims among the neuroscientists in Scandinavia.

  10. The forthcoming era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gamulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients’ groups. Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism (“big data”, development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care. Conclusion. In the present and future era of precision medicine, the collaboration of all participants in health care is necessary for its realization, resulting in improvement of diagnosis, prevention and therapy, based on a holistic, individually tailored approach.

  11. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P. Retief

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  12. Long-memory exchange rate dynamics in the euro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkoulas, John T.; Barilla, Anthony G.; Wells, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-run dynamics of a system of eight major exchange rates in the euro era using both integer and fractional cointegration methodologies. Contrary to the fragile evidence in the pre-euro era, robust evidence of linear cointegratedness is obtained in the foreign exchange market during the euro era. Upon closer examination, deviations from the cointegrating relationship exhibit nonstationary, long-memory dynamic behavior (Joseph effect). We find the long-memory evidence to be temporally stable in the most recent era. Finally, the foreign exchange system dynamics appears to be characterized by less persistence (smaller fractional exponent) in the euro era (as compared to pre-euro time periods), potentially indicating increased policy coordination by central banks in the recent period.

  13. Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. R. Alves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ocean Modeling System ocean model is used to simulate the decadal evolution of the regional waters in offshore Iberia in response to atmospheric fields given by ECMWF ERA-40 (1961–2001 and ERA-Interim (1989–2008 reanalyses. The simulated sea surface temperature (SST fields are verified against satellite AVHRR SST, and they are analysed to characterise the variability and trends of coastal upwelling in the region. Opposing trends in upwelling frequency are found at the northern limit, where upwelling has been decreasing in recent decades, and at its southern edge, where there is some evidence of increased upwelling. These results confirm previous observational studies and, more importantly, indicate that observed SST trends are not only due to changes in radiative or atmospheric heat fluxes alone but also due to changes in upwelling dynamics, suggesting that such a process may be relevant in climate change scenarios.

  14. a simple a simple excitation control excitation control excitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    field voltages determined follow a simple quadratic relationship that offer a very simple control scheme, dependent on only the stator current. Keywords: saturated reactances, no-load field voltage, excitation control, synchronous generators. 1. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. The commonest generator in use today is ...

  15. Is simple nephrectomy truly simple? Comparison with the radical alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S S; O'Brien, M Frank; Kunni, I M; Phelan, E; Conroy, R; Thornhill, J A; Grainger, R

    2011-03-01

    The Oxford English dictionary defines the term "simple" as "easily done" and "uncomplicated". We tested the validity of this terminology in relation to open nephrectomy surgery. Retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing open, simple (n = 89) or radical (n = 126) nephrectomy in a single university-affiliated institution between 1998 and 2002. Operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), operative complications (OC) and length of stay in hospital (LOS) were analysed. Statistical analysis employed Fisher's exact test and Stata Release 8.2. Simple nephrectomy was associated with shorter OT (mean 126 vs. 144 min; p = 0.002), reduced EBL (mean 729 vs. 859 cc; p = 0.472), lower OC (9 vs. 17%; 0.087), and more brief LOS (mean 6 vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). All parameters suggest favourable outcome for the simple nephrectomy group, supporting the use of this terminology. This implies "simple" nephrectomies are truly easier to perform with less complication than their radical counterpart.

  16. The ERA-EDTA today and tomorrow: a progress document by the ERA-EDTA Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Arici, Mustafa; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bruchfeld, Annette; Capasso, Giovambattista; Fliser, Danilo; Fouque, Denis; Goumenos, Dimitrios; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Rychlík, Ivan; Spasovski, Goce

    2018-05-23

    Scientific societies are increasingly seen as central to the advancement of information sharing and collaboration among scientists and clinical investigators for the progress of medical research and the promotion of education, professional competence, integrity and quality studies. To more effectively serve the practicing nephrologists and investigators dedicated to renal science, the Council of the European Renal Association and European Dialysis and Transplantation Association (ERA-EDTA) reorganized and integrated the various activities of the society into two branches, the Clinical Nephrology Governance branch and the Renal Science branch. New affordable initiatives to promote research, education and professional development and to advocate for the recognition of chronic kidney disease as a major public health issue at the European level will be put in place and/or potentiated in the new organizational frame. Educational initiatives will be espoused to Continuous Professional Development and, starting from 2019, 14 Education & Continuous Professional Development courses will be held covering the full range of knowledge areas of modern nephrology. Consolidation and development is the short- and medium-term mantra of the ERA-EDTA. The society has a rich portfolio of successful activities and brilliant, creative scientists among its members. Integrating the various activities of the ERA-EDTA and treasuring the expertise and wisdom of its most accomplished members will facilitate collaborative research, education and its public impact at large.

  17. Recommended Capacities for Educational Leadership: Pre-Reform Era Scholars versus Reform-Era Scholars versus National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Taylor-Backor, Karen; Croteau, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed the scholarship on capacities for educational leadership for the past decade of the pre-reform era (1976-1985), as well as a recent decade of the reform era (2005-2015), and compared scholarship from both decades with the current Professional Standards for Educational Leaders. We found that scholars in the past decade of the pre-reform…

  18. Implementation of the Spanish ERAS program in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Muñoz, José Luis; Royo, Pablo; Duran, Manuel; Redondo, Elisabeth; Ramirez, Jose Manuel

    2018-03-08

    The essence of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs is the multimodal approach, and many authors have demonstrated safety and feasibility in fast track bariatric surgery. According to this concept, a multidisciplinary ERAS program for bariatric surgery has been developed by the Spanish Fast Track Group (ERAS Spain). The aim of this study was to analyze the initial implementation of this Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery, comparing it with a historical cohort receiving standard care. A multi-centric prospective study was performed, including 233 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery during 2015 and following ERAS protocol. It was compared with a historical cohort of 286 patients, who underwent bariatric surgery at the same institutions between 2013 and 2014 and following standard care. Compliance with the protocol, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay and readmission were evaluated. Bariatric techniques performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. There were no significant differences in complications, mortality and readmission. Postoperative pain and hospital stay were significantly lower in the ERAS group. The total compliance to protocol was 80%. The Spanish National ERAS protocol is a safe issue, obtaining similar results to standard care in terms of complications, reoperations, mortality and readmissions. It is associated with less postoperative pain and earlier hospital discharge.

  19. Figuring Control in the Algorithmic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette; Bossen, Claus

    Drawing on actor network theory, we follow how algorithms, information, selfhood and identity-for-others tangle in interesting and unexpected ways. Starting with simple moments in everyday life that might be described as having implications for ‘control,’ we focus attention on the ways in which t...

  20. Astrometric surveys in the Gaia era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    The Gaia first data release (DR1) already provides an almost error free optical reference frame on the milli-arcsecond (mas) level allowing significantly better calibration of ground-based astrometric data than ever before. Gaia DR1 provides positions, proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes for just over 2 million stars in the Tycho-2 catalog. For over 1.1 billion additional stars DR1 gives positions. Proper motions for these, mainly fainter stars (G >= 11.5) are currently provided by several new projects which combine earlier epoch ground-based observations with Gaia DR1 positions. These data are very helpful in the interim period but will become obsolete with the second Gaia data release (DR2) expected in April 2018. The era of traditional, ground-based, wide-field astrometry with the goal to provide accurate reference stars has come to an end. Future ground-based astrometry will fill in some gaps (very bright stars, observations needed at many or specific epochs) and mainly will go fainter than the Gaia limit, like the PanSTARRS and the upcoming LSST surveys.

  1. ETIKA DRIYARKARA DAN RELEVANSINYA DI ERA POSTMODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banin Diar Sukmono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driyarkara is an Indonesian philosopher who has original way of thinking. This paper aims to explore and analyze his ideas of moral and decency. According to Driyarkara, moral is a human need. Without moral, humanity will be in chaos. Based on Driyarkara's point of view, moral is a consequence of consciousness; therefore, having high moral standard is a human nature. Furthermore, conscience can be a moral standard for determining right or wrong as long as the conscience itself has not been “raped”. When conducting a moral consideration, every human has to use his own reason which is reflected in Driyarkara's Purity of Reason Dialectic. For him, all moral efforts show that human always want to achieve the perfection which is considered as God. The Driyarkara ethics could be classified as the deontological ethics. But it is the deontological ethics which has theological, humanist-naturalist, and axiological dimensions so that it can be defined as teleological as well. If we correlate the Driyarkara ethics and the Postmodern Era where morality has already been blurring, we can place the Driyarkara ethics which is considered teleological and deontological as a solid alternative of morality.

  2. CERN moves into the LHC era

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Dr Hans Eschelbacher (on the left), President of the CERN Council for the last three years, hands over to his successor Maurice Bourquin.  The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 20 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 116th session on 15 December under the chairmanship of Dr. Hans C. Eschelbacher (DE). 'Le Roi est mort. Vive le Roi !' The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) era has ended and CERN's future is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), stated Director General, Prof. Luciano Maiani. He opened his report to Council with a 'homage to LEP', which reached the end of its career during 2000 and is now being dismantled to make way for CERN's next major machine, the LHC collider, in the same 27-kilometre tunnel. The strong indications of a Higgs boson at 115 GeV found during the year were the culmination of LEP's long and distinguished physics career, during which the machine opened up new regimes of precision physics, involvi...

  3. Global Learning in a New Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ramaley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our nation’s colleges and universities have frequently adapted their educational approaches and their relationships with society to respond to new social, economic and environmental challenges. The increasingly interconnected patterns that link together our lives on a global scale have created a new reality. Globalization offers an especially exciting and challenging blend of generational change combined with the emergence of a set of complex, multi-faceted problems created by the global context in which we all now live and work. How shall we educate our students for life in this new era? What can we expect of our graduates in a global world? The answer to these questions is straightforward but will require our institutions to make significant changes in their approach to educating their students and in their interactions with the broader communities that they serve. The approach is shaped by a clear sense of what a globally prepared graduate knows and can do, guided by clear learning outcomes exercised along a sequential pathway of experiences extending from the first year of college through to graduation. These experiences are supported by the use of engaged learning practices that draw students into work that is both personally and socially meaningful cross-disciplinary inquiry that focuses on Big Questions with the goal of finding ways to address those questions in ethical and responsible and effective ways.

  4. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC' workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays' and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  5. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC'workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays'and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  6. Storm-Tracks in ERA-40 and ERA-Interim Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones, their dominant paths, frequency and intensity have long been the object of climatological studies. The analysis of cyclone characteristics for the Euro-Atlantic sector (85°W-70°E; 20°N-75°N) presented here is based on the cyclone detecting and tracking algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region (Trigo et al., 1999, 2002) and recently extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region (Trigo, 2006). The objective methodology, which identifies and follows individual lows (Trigo et al. 1999), is applied to 6-hourly geopotential data at 1000-hPa from two reanalyses datasets provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF): ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses. Two storm-track databases are built over the Northern Atlantic European area, spanning the common available extended winter seasons from October 1989 to March 2002. Although relatively short, this common period allows a comparison of systems represented in reanalyses datasets with distinct horizontal resolutions (T106 and T255, respectively). This exercise is mostly focused on the key areas of cyclone formation and dissipation and main cyclone characteristics for the Euro-Atlantic sector. Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg, 1999: Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. J. Climate, 12, 1685-1696. Trigo I. F., G. R. Bigg and T. D. Davies, 2002: Climatology of Cyclogenesis Mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Weather Rev. 130, 549-569. Trigo, I. F. 2006: Climatology and Interannual Variability of Storm-Tracks in the Euro-Atlantic sector: a comparison between ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR Reanalyses. Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-005-0065-9.

  7. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  8. Simple Tidal Prism Models Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Simple tidal prism models for well-mixed estuaries have been in use for some time and are discussed in most text books on estuaries. The appeal of this model is its simplicity. However, there are several flaws in the logic behind the model. These flaws are pointed out and a more theoretically correct simple tidal prism model is derived. In doing so, it is made clear which effects can, in theory, be neglected and which can not.

  9. "Life-bearing molecules" versus "life-embodying systems": Two contrasting views on the what-is-life (WIL) problem persisting from the early days of molecular biology to the post-genomic cell- and organism-level biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki

    2018-05-01

    "What is life?" is an ultimate biological quest for the principle that makes organisms alive. This 'WIL problem' is not, however, a simple one that we have a straightforward strategy to attack. From the beginning, molecular biology tried to identify molecules that bear the essence of life: the double helical DNA represented replication, and enzymes were micro-actuators of biological activities. A dominating idea behind these mainstream biological studies relies on the identification of life-bearing molecules, which themselves are models of life. Another, prevalent idea emphasizes that life resides in the whole system of an organism, but not in some particular molecules. The behavior of a complex system may be considered to embody the essence of life. The thermodynamic view of life system in the early 20th century was remodeled as physics of complex systems and systems biology. The two views contrast with each other, but they are no longer heritage of the historical dualism in biology, such as mechanism/materialism versus vitalism, or reductionism versus holism. These two views are both materialistic and mechanistic, and act as driving forces of modern biology. In reality, molecules function in a context of systems, whereas systems presuppose functional molecules. A key notion to reconcile this conflict is that subjects of biological studies are given before we start to study them. Cell- or organism-level biology is destined to the dialectic of molecules and systems, but this antagonism can be resolved by dynamic thinking involving biological evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The new survivors and a new era for trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohi, Karim; Schreiber, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Karim Brohi and Martin Schreiber, Guest Editors of the Special Issue on Trauma, describe a new era in exploration of the biology of injury response and translation of new opportunities into clinical practice.

  11. The new survivors and a new era for trauma research

    OpenAIRE

    Brohi, Karim; Schreiber, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Karim Brohi and Martin Schreiber, Guest Editors of the Special Issue on Trauma, describe a new era in exploration of the biology of injury response and translation of new opportunities into clinical practice.

  12. CENET: Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, Jan E.; Lund, Bjoernar; Bos, Christian F.M.; Stokka, Sigmund

    1997-12-31

    This report relates to the CENET (Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology) project the oil and gas in Europe. Key objectives of the CENET project are to determine the role of RTD (Research and Technology Development) in European oil and gas industry towards improved value and cost reduction with a particular focus on the means of developing offshore European marginal fields commercially, to identify RTD areas with the largest potential for improved value and cost reduction and technological developments and advances which are likely to increase European competitiveness internationally, and to provide guidance to European governments when deciding RTD priorities. A new era with new technology concerns increased oil and gas potential during the next century, a new era with clean, safe and cost efficient energy production, a new era with a new business structure, and globalization of the industry. 44 tabs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Eraõigusliku juriidilise isiku organi liikmete õigussuhted / Kalev Saare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saare, Kalev, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eraõiguslike juriidiliste isikute organi mõistest aktsiaseltsi ja osaühingu näitel, organiliikmete sisesuhte tekkimisest ja tsiviilseadustiku üldosa seaduse poolt määratud sisesuhte sisusse kuuluvatest peamistest kohustustest

  14. Evaluation of ERA-Interim precipitation data in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation controls a large variety of environmental processes, which is an essential input parameter for land surface models e.g. in hydrology, ecology and climatology. However, rain gauge networks provides the necessary information, are commonly sparse in complex terrains, especially in high mountainous regions. Reanalysis products (e.g. ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR) as surrogate data are increasing applied in the past years. Although they are improving forward, previous studies showed that these products should be objectively evaluated due to their various uncertainties. In this study, we evaluated the precipitation data from ERA-Interim, which is a latest reanalysis product developed by ECMWF. ERA-Interim daily total precipitation are compared with high resolution gridded observation dataset (E-OBS) at 0.25°×0.25° grids for the period 1979-2010 over central Alps (45.5-48°N, 6.25-11.5°E). Wet or dry day is defined using different threshold values (0.5mm, 1mm, 5mm, 10mm and 20mm). The correspondence ratio (CR) is applied for frequency comparison, which is the ratio of days when precipitation occurs in both ERA-Interim and E-OBS dataset. The result shows that ERA-Interim captures precipitation occurrence very well with a range of CR from 0.80 to 0.97 for 0.5mm to 20mm thresholds. However, the bias of intensity increases with rising thresholds. Mean absolute error (MAE) varies between 4.5 mm day-1 and 9.5 mm day-1 in wet days for whole area. In term of mean annual cycle, ERA-Interim almost has the same standard deviation of the interannual variability of daily precipitation with E-OBS, 1.0 mm day-1. Significant wet biases happened in ERA-Interim throughout warm season (May to August) and dry biases in cold season (November to February). The spatial distribution of mean annual daily precipitation shows that ERA-Interim significant underestimates precipitation intensity in high mountains and northern flank of Alpine chain from November to March while pronounced

  15. THE APPEARANCE OF GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY IN QUANTUM ERA

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Gau

    2015-01-01

    This study will answer three main questions: 1) how is the reduction of Weber???s theory in the bureaucracy appearance?; 2) How is the model of government bureaucracy in rationalistic and quantum era?; and 3) how is the reality of government bureaucracy reformation model in rationalistic and quantum era? This study was employed empirically by using qualitative method and content analysis techniques with the focus on the bureaucracy reformation as a result of rational thinking application in q...

  16. Era of superheavy-particle dominance and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polnarev, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The observed primordial He/sup 4/ abundance imposes astrophysical constraints on the possible departures from radiation dominance in the big bang universe during the neutron hardening era (at epoch t roughly-equal1 sec). Limits are obtained which, along with the data on the spectrum of the cosmic background radiation, practically rule out any stages of superheavy stable-particle dominance in the era 1< or approx. =t<10/sup 10/ sec, thereby setting restrictions on current elementary-particle theories.

  17. War and peace in the Internet era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Porta Fabregat

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to find the ideological causes that lead human beings to war or peace nowadays, in the Internet era. This proposal is worthy of study as war is not a need in terms of human nature or history: we are capable of war and peace simultaneously. However, why does war survive if we are able to live in peace? In our opinion, the actual cause of conflict is fanaticism. This phenomenon comes from the perversion of the two bases of our civilisation: liberty and rationality. This twofold perversion leads us to believe that we are the Absolute, or at least its instrument.Since the fall of the Berlin wall, this kind of fanaticism has come from the generalised conviction that we are at the "end of history"; in this light, one can conclude that this irrationality is definitive and, thus, that any efforts to achieve world peace are useless. However, we believe that the formula for peace can only be derived from reflection and the effective extension around the world of a technical medium that makes communication between all men possible. This would be able to resolve all the perversions of liberty and rationality and make people aware of the infinite distance between us and the Absolute. However, this reflection is not enough. For this awareness to triumph, the technical and ideological situation represented by the Internet has to spread over the whole planet: liberty for those taking part, rationality to allow for communication among all those connected and universal access. This is the moral trend for the Internet, which in itself encourages progress towards world peace.

  18. A new Era in Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve

    2007-03-15

    It is 20 years since the World Commission on Environment and Development — the Brundtland Commission — released its influential report on sustainable development. This is now the declared intention of most governments, many international organisations, and an increasing number of businesses and civil society groups. High profile 'intentions' have given rise to a bewildering array of sustainable development plans, tools and business models. But these have not yet triggered the pace, scale, scope and depth of change that is needed to make development sustainable. They leave the underlying causes of unsustainable development largely undisturbed. They include few means for anticipating non-linear changes – from climate change to economic cycles – and for building resilience to them. Consequently, most environmental and welfare measures continue to decline in almost all countries. Much energy has been spent crafting the sustainable development 'toolkit'. But that energy has been channelled largely through a narrow set of international processes and 'elite' national actors. The results are not yet integral to the machinery of government or business, or people's daily lives. This paper calls for energies to be directed in new ways, constructing a truly global endeavour informed by diverse local actors' evidence of 'what works', and focusing more keenly on long-term futures. The key drivers and challenges of a 'new era in sustainable development' are suggested, to elicit ideas and leadership from a richer vein of experience than has been embraced by the formal international endeavours to date. This paper is the first in a series on the sustainable development futures that face key sectors and stakeholder groups.

  19. Politisasi Birokrasi Pemerintahan Desa Pada Era Reformasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Widodo Triputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public bureaucracy holds a strategic position in government implementation as well as to effort of democratization and autonomy in local and village government scope. Professional bureaucracy apparatus intensely support the increase of public service quality, particular yfor social empowerment as the realization of local and village autonomy essence. The concept of bureaucracy neutrality needs to be bought into reality in order to urge a bureaucracy that more oriented to its main function, namely as public service apparatus. Long history oflndonesian bureaucracy reflects the occuring bureaucracy politization by government regime, with the result that all bureaucracy's line become an administration tool in performing is authority centralization. As the consequence, service tends to be addressed to government (patron by neglecting public service function. It includes in village government scope, in which bureaucracy becomes a political machine, meanwlile serves as an effective controlling tool that limits social access to public arena. The outcome of case study conducted in one village of Bantul Regency with data resource was gained from government official and prominent figures both in regency or village government area, reveals that bureaucracy politization in village government nowdays is much stronger than under new orde era. On the pretext of democratization and social empowerment, government (red : regent and his political party performs a set of bureaucracy politization in village government. With limited village resource condition, politic euphoria, and conflict as the result of election proces of village government bureaucracy apparatus, government intervences village government and its community. The patron-client relation is between the government with village government and its community. It is evidenced that bureaucracy politization of villlage government is re-carried out, among others is the estabilish of "Paguyuban Pamong" with its

  20. Prolactinoma treatment status in the cabergoline era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Takano, Shingo; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Sato, Hiroshige; Matsumura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study is to report the most adequate therapy for prolactinoma in the cabergoline era. From 2003 to 2009, 27 patients with prolactinoma were treated at our hospital. Patients are categorized into 2 groups. The Cabergoline Group: Cabergoline was administered for 5 years and discontinued. Using this protocol, the case with normal prolactin level in addition to having no visible tumor more than 24 months after the discontinuation of cabergoline was judged as cured. The Operation Group: Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was performed first. In the Cabergoline group, 12 cases were cured with 5 years cabergoline treatment (Cure) and 6 cases were not cured (Not cure). We compared the pretreatment prolactin level, the normalization of the serum level of prolactin, the degree of invasiveness on MRI, regression of the tumor during treatment on MRI, max dose of cabergoline, degree of pituitary hormone replacement, frequency of pregnancy, and follow up periods between the Cabergoline-cure group, the Cabergoline-not-cure group, and the Operation group. Normalization rate in serum level of prolactin and cure rate were 91% and 63% in the Cabergoline group. Pretreatment prolactine level and the frequency of tumor invasiveness on initial MRI were significantly higher in the Cabergoline-not-cure group compared to the Cabergoline-cure group. All of the five woman accompanied with pregnancy after the treatment belonged to the Cabergoline-cure group. In the Operation group, all 4 cases achieved normalization of serum prolactin level without visible tumor and with normal pituitary function. Cabergoline for prolactinoma is effective, but the cure rate by continuous usage of cabergoline for 5 years was 67%. The factors that cabergoline and/or TSS can cure prolactinoma are non-invasive tumor and prolactin level under 200 ng/mL at pretreatment. (author)

  1. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) zone 66 1995-era and 2000-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0042136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1995-era and 2000-era classifications of US Coast zone 66 and can be used to analyze change. This imagery was collected as part of the...

  2. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyesang; Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

    2017-12-01

    Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low-compared to high-math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less-a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Monetary Policy in the Greenspan Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Møller; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between the Federal funds rate, unemployment, inflation and the long-term bond rate are investigated with cointegration techniques. We find a stable long-term relationship between the Federal funds rate, unemployment and the bond rate. This relationship is interpretable as a policy...... Taylor-type target, where inflation appears instead of the bond rate, does not seem congruent with the data....... target because deviations are corrected via the Federal funds rate. Deviations of the actual Federal funds rate from the estimated target give simple indications of discretionary monetary policy, and the larger deviations relate to special episodes outside the current information set. A more traditional...

  4. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Lunar geodesy and cartography: a new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Smith, David; Robinson, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory; Danton, Jacob; Oberst, Juergen; Archinal, Brent; Glaeser, Philipp

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) ushers in a new era in precision lunar geodesy and cartography. LRO was launched in June, 2009, completed its Commissioning Phase in Septem-ber 2009 and is now in its Primary Mission Phase on its way to collecting high precision, global topographic and imaging data. Aboard LRO are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA -Smith, et al., 2009) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC -Robinson, et al., ). LOLA is a derivative of the successful MOLA at Mars that produced the global reference surface being used for all precision cartographic products. LOLA produces 5 altimetry spots having footprints of 5 m at a frequency of 28 Hz, significantly bettering MOLA that produced 1 spot having a footprint of 150 m at a frequency of 10 Hz. LROC has twin narrow angle cameras having pixel resolutions of 0.5 meters from a 50 km orbit and a wide-angle camera having a pixel resolution of 75 m and in up to 7 color bands. One of the two NACs looks to the right of nadir and the other looks to the left with a few hundred pixel overlap in the nadir direction. LOLA is mounted on the LRO spacecraft to look nadir, in the overlap region of the NACs. The LRO spacecraft has the ability to look nadir and build up global coverage as well as looking off-nadir to provide stereo coverage and fill in data gaps. The LROC wide-angle camera builds up global stereo coverage naturally from its large field-of-view overlap from orbit to orbit during nadir viewing. To date, the LROC WAC has already produced global stereo coverage of the lunar surface. This report focuses on the registration of LOLA altimetry to the LROC NAC images. LOLA has a dynamic range of tens of km while producing elevation data at sub-meter precision. LOLA also has good return in off-nadir attitudes. Over the LRO mission, multiple LOLA tracks will be in each of the NAC images at the lunar equator and even more tracks in the NAC images nearer the poles. The registration of LOLA

  6. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  7. On framed simple Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    MINAMI, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    For a compact simple Lie group $G$, we show that the element $[G, \\mathcal{L}] \\in \\pi^S_*(S^0)$ represented by the pair $(G, \\mathcal{L})$ is zero, where $\\mathcal{L}$ denotes the left invariant framing of $G$. The proof relies on the method of E. Ossa [Topology, 21 (1982), 315–323].

  8. The simple ethers of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Karimov, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    From glycerin derivatives the considerable interest is present simple ethers because many of them are biological active and found wide practical using as an effect drugs, inters for thin organic synthesis, vehicle for injections, regulators of plants growth, reagents, components for perfumery-cosmetic goods and etc

  9. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  10. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  11. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.

    Anvisningen gennemgår dimensioneringen og bringer detaljerede konstruktionstegninger til simple stålrammebygninger, dvs. lukkede, fritliggende bygninger i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen sker ved at udfylde et di...

  12. Simple models with ALICE fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two simple models which feature an Alice electrodynamics phase. In a well defined sense the Alice flux solutions we obtain in these models obey first order equations similar to those of the Nielsen-Olesen fluxtube in the abelian higgs model in the Bogomol'nyi limit. Some numerical solutions are presented as well.

  13. Bremsstrahlung: an experimentalists personal perspective on the post modern era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this brief review I will discuss the recent experimental work on the doubly differential cross section, i.e. the photon energy and angular distribution, for electron Bremsstrahlung from thin solid film and gas targets. Since the beginning of the modern era in the study of Bremsstrahlung with the publication of the 1971 paper by Ts eng and Pratt, Professor Pratt has been the dominant influence in Bremsstrahlung research. Most, if not all, experimental research during the modern era has been motivated by the interest in comparing data with the theory of Pratt and his coworkers. As Bremsstrahlung research has moved into its post modern era, new experiments with increasing precision are concentrating on determining under what conditions ordinary Bremsstrahlung theory needs to be supplemented by a contribution from polarization Bremsstrahlung. Efforts to improve the comparison of thin-target experiment with theory have also led to new experimental and modeling work on Bremsstrahlung from thick solid targets. Thick-target Bremsstrahlung is interesting in its own right, but we also want to understand it better since it is the ever-present background in the thin-target experiments and the limiting factor in the effort to distinguish the polarization contribution to the total Bremsstrahlung spectrum. Professor Pratt ushered in the modern era in Bremsstrahlung research and has recently guided the transition into the post modern era. It can be expected that he will continue to have a formative influence on the developments of Bremsstrahlung research into the foreseeable future.

  14. Structure of simple liquids; Structure des liquides simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, J F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [French] On presente d'une part les resultats obtenus par application a l'argon et au sodium des deux principales methodes d'etude de la structure des liquides: la diffusion des rayons X et la diffusion des neutrons; d'autre part, les principaux modeles employes pour reconstituer la structure des liquides simples sont exposes: modeles mathematiques, modeles des reseaux et modeles derives, modeles experimentaux. (auteur)

  15. EN LA ERA DEL CADUCEO DE MERCURIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Urbina Joiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En un momento extraño el bastón de Asclepio, dios de la medicina, fue cambiado por el caduceo de Mercurio, dios del comercio y también de los ladrones.

    Distintas tradiciones griegas dicen que Asclepio se servía de un bastón y de la serpiente para sanar enfermos, enseñar y resucitar difuntos1,2 y que cuando volvió a la vida a Hipólito, hijo de Teseo, le había restado tantos muertos a Hades, rey de los infiernos, que el propio Hades fue a querellarse ante Zeus, quien convencido de la amenaza que representaría Asclepio para mantener el orden establecido, lo hirió con un rayo3,4. La vara de Asclepio —Esculapio para los romanos— con una serpiente enrollada simbolizó la sanación mediada por el médico5.

    De Hermes —Mercurio para los romanos—, dios griego del comercio, las comunicaciones, la astucia y los ladrones6, la tradición afirma que su caduceo consistía en un bastón de oro con alas y dos serpientes enrolladas, y que le fue regalado por Apolo a cambio de la flauta del dios Pan7. Una práctica anglosajona del siglo XVI, iniciada por el doctor William Butts, médico del rey Enrique VIII, introdujo el caduceo de Mercurio —en lugar de lavara de Asclepio— como símbolo entre médicos británicos8 y de allí pasó a galenos del cuerpo médico del ejército de los Estados Unidos y de diversas otras comunidades médicas. Por cierto, Mrs. Butts aparece en Enrique VIII, de William Shakespeare, como «El doctor Butts, médico del Rey»9.

    Sin embargo, de acuerdo con Michel Foucault, sólo en el siglo XVIII se expresaría en pleno la era de la «economía política»10 como el eje del arte de gobernar y en donde la medicina jugaría un papel central para vigilar a los pueblos, perseguir amenazas como la locura, los descarríos sexuales, las infecciones e incluso a la propia delincuencia11. En La vida de los hombres infames12, Foucault sostiene que fue en la Alemania de finales del siglo XVIII donde surgi

  16. CERN: End of LEP's Z era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-11-15

    Full text: Achapter of history at CERN's LEP electron-positron collider closed in October when the four big experiments, Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, logged their final data at the Z energy, just over six years after LEP's first Z was detected. The LEP Z era has been one of great success, both in terms of physics results and the advances which have been made with the machine itself. LEP now takes a step towards becoming LEP2, when the energy is wound up from around 45 GeV to about 70 GeV per beam (September, page 6). By the end of LEP's 1995 run, each of the four LEP experiments had seen almost five million Zs. Now the spotlight at LEP shifts to producing pairs of W particles, the electrically charged counterparts of the Z. LEP's first Zs were recorded in August 1989, one month after the machine's first circulating beam. The 30,000 Z decays recorded by each experiment in 1989 confirmed that matter comes in just three distinct families of quarks and leptons. The values of the Z mass and width quoted in 1990 were 91.161 ± 0.031 GeV and 2.534 ± 0.027 GeV. By the beginning of 1995, these had been fine-tuned to the extraordinary accuracy of 91.1884 ± 0.0022 GeV and 2.4963 ± 0.0032 GeV, and when data from this year's run is included, will be even better. These results, combined with precision data from neutrino experiments and from Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, have put the Standard Model of quarks and leptons through its most gruelling test yet. Right from the start, collaboration between LEP experiments and the accelerator team has been close, with frequent scheduling meetings determining how the machine is run. For the first few years, LEP ran on a diet of four bunches of electrons and four of positrons, but by the end of 1992, a way had been found to increase the luminosity by squeezing in more bunches. In 1993, the 'pretzel' scheme (October 1992, page 17), so called because of the shape traced out by the circulating beams, was running with eight

  17. TeX in the eBook era: a simple –yet fully working– approach

    OpenAIRE

    Merciadri, Luca

    2012-01-01

    There are many advantages to reading eBooks, and their usage is ever increasing. There are those who prefer traditional printed books, but there is also a growing audience whose lifestyle and taste is suited to eBooks. We discuss some advantages of using eBooks, and creating them with LaTeX. We continue by explaining technical aspects that might improve and help you with your LaTeX eBook. We end with a short discussion about the PDF file format and its use with eBook documents.

  18. Why we should stop inferring simple correlations between antioxidants and plant stress resistance: towards the antioxidomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, F Vanessa; De Tullio, Mario C

    2012-04-01

    A large number of studies have investigated the relationship between different forms of abiotic stress and antioxidants. However, misconceptions and technical flaws often affect studies on this important topic. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated under stress conditions should not be considered just as potential threats, because they are essential components of the signaling mechanism inducing plant defenses. Similarly, the complexity of the antioxidant system should be considered, to avoid misleading oversimplifications. Recent literature is discussed, highlighting the importance of accurate experimental setups for obtaining reliable results in this delicate field of research. A tentative "troubleshooting guide" is provided to help researchers interested in improving the quality of their work on the role of antioxidants in plant stress resistance. Significant advancements in the field could be reached with the development of antioxidomics, defined here as a new branch of research at the crossroads of other disciplines including metabolomics and proteomics, studying the complex relationship among antioxidants and their functions.

  19. System and software safety analysis for the ERA control computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerthuizen, P.G.; Kruidhof, W.

    2001-01-01

    The European Robotic Arm (ERA) is a seven degrees of freedom relocatable anthropomorphic robotic manipulator system, to be used in manned space operation on the International Space Station, supporting the assembly and external servicing of the Russian segment. The safety design concept and implementation of the ERA is described, in particular with respect to the central computer's software design. A top-down analysis and specification process is used to down flow the safety aspects of the ERA system towards the subsystems, which are produced by a consortium of companies in many countries. The user requirements documents and the critical function list are the key documents in this process. Bottom-up analysis (FMECA) and test, on both subsystem and system level, are the basis for safety verification. A number of examples show the use of the approach and methods used

  20. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  1. Participatory Design in an Era of Participation, Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue on participatory design in an era of participation presents emerging topics and discussions from the thirteenth Participatory Design conference (PDC), held at Aarhus University in August 2016. The PDC 2016 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Participatory Design conference...... series, which began in 1990 with the first biannual conference in Seattle. Since then, the PDC conferences have continued to bring together a multidisciplinary, international community of researchers and practitioners around issues of cooperative design. The theme for the 2016 PDC conference...... was ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation.’ Critical and constructive discussions were invited on the values, characteristics, politics and future practices of participatory design in an era in which participation has now become pervasive (Bossen, Smith, Kanstrup, McDonnell, et al. 2016, Bossen, Smith...

  2. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  3. Complexity-aware simple modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Schiavon, Mariana; El-Samad, Hana

    2018-02-26

    Mathematical models continue to be essential for deepening our understanding of biology. On one extreme, simple or small-scale models help delineate general biological principles. However, the parsimony of detail in these models as well as their assumption of modularity and insulation make them inaccurate for describing quantitative features. On the other extreme, large-scale and detailed models can quantitatively recapitulate a phenotype of interest, but have to rely on many unknown parameters, making them often difficult to parse mechanistically and to use for extracting general principles. We discuss some examples of a new approach-complexity-aware simple modeling-that can bridge the gap between the small-scale and large-scale approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-01

    This document is a guide for users of the Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool. The Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool has been developed by Amphos 21 to determine the solubility limits of some radionuclides and it has been especially designed for Performance Assessment exercises. The development of this tool has been promoted by the necessity expressed by SKB of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits in an agile and relatively fast manner. Its development started in 2005 and since then, it has been improved until the current version. This document describes the accurate and preliminary study following expert criteria that has been used to select the simplified aqueous speciation and solid phase system included in the tool. This report also gives the basic instructions to use this tool and to interpret its results. Finally, this document also reports the different validation tests and sensitivity analyses that have been done during the verification process

  5. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  6. Licensing of simple digital devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to guarantee error-free software gave rise to the potential for common-cause failure of digital safety systems in nuclear power plants. To address this vulnerability, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required a quality software development process and a defense-in-depth and diversity analysis for digital safety systems. As a result of recent interim [NRC] staff guidance in the digital instrumentation and control (I and C) area, licensing of simple digital devices decreases some regulatory burden with respect to demonstrating a quality software development process and defense-in-depth and diversity analysis. This paper defines simple digital devices and addresses the interim staff guidance that applies to such devices. The paper also highlights the technical aspects that affect the licensing of such devices and incorporates licensing experience in the U.S. to date. (authors)

  7. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  8. A Simple Probabilistic Combat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. This page intentionally left blank. ABSTRACT The Lanchester ...page intentionally left blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Abstract iii List of Illustrations vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETERMINISTIC LANCHESTER MODEL...This page intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION The Lanchester combat model1 is a simple way to assess the effects of quantity and quality

  9. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  10. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  11. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  12. Instant simple botting with PHP

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Shay Michael

    2013-01-01

    do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a hands-on Starter guide that takes the reader from initialization to the coding and implementation of bot apps.Instant Simple Botting with PHP targets programmers of all levels who are familiar with common PHP functions and syntax, and who want to learn about bots and how to design and develop bots using objects.

  13. [Embracing medical innovation in the era of big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Suning

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advent of big data era worldwide, medical field has to place itself in it inevitably. The current article thoroughly introduces the basic knowledge of big data, and points out the coexistence of its advantages and disadvantages. Although the innovations in medical field are struggling, the current medical pattern will be changed fundamentally by big data. The article also shows quick change of relevant analysis in big data era, depicts a good intention of digital medical, and proposes some wise advices to surgeons.

  14. Governments, contractors seen headed for era of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHaffie, E.R.; Jarvis, M.G.; Barber, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry is on the threshold of a new era in international oil and gas investments. It will be an era of increasing flexibility and cooperation among investors, oil companies, and host governments. And it will develop as a necessary response to flat oil prices and the growing mobility of capital. This article will cover three essential elements of this topic: the effect of fiscal terms on the economics of a project investment; how recent changes in global economies have impacted the economics of the projects the authors evaluated at Amoco; some potential trends that fiscal provisions, and the pattern of investment in the upstream petroleum industry, may take

  15. La era de la información

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Calderón, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    La revolución de la información basada en la información tiene como límite las fronteras del conocimiento. La información a diferencia de un bien material es inalienable, acumulativa y no produce los tipos de deterioro ambiental creados por la industria; por lo anterior, algunos especialistas, a la era de la información la denominan era Post-industrial. Si es necio pretender entender los procesos producidos por la revolución industrial, con una mentalidad pastoril, mucho más necio será tratar...

  16. E-Polmas: Paradigma Baru Pemolisian Masyarakat Era Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Suseno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memberikan perpekstif baru tentang polmas di era digital dengan menggunakan studi kasus kejahatan cyber crime di Polrestabes Semarang. Berdasarkan tingginya angka kejahatan berbasis teknologi yang ditangani kepolisian maka ada kebutuhan mendesak untuk melakukan kajian ulang terhadap pendekatan polmas yang selama ini ada. Penulis memberikan sebuah pandangan baru konsep polmas era digital atau E-Polmas. E-Polmas merupakan pengembangan dari konsep Polmas yang sudah ada, akan tetapi menitikberatkan kepada media yang digunakan untuk menyampaikan pesan kamtibmas kepada masyarakat. Yang semula dilaksanakan secara manual konvensional, dirubah menjadi cara online dengan memanfaatkan media sosial yang sudah ada.

  17. Identitas Moral: Rekonstruksi Identitas Keindonesiaan pada Era Globalisasi Budaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardus Pandu Hapsoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini membahas mengenai proses rekonstruksi identitas keindonesiaan para aktor dalam komunitas Kultura Indonesia Star Society (KISS pada era globalisasi budaya. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dan kerangka pemikiran Zygmunt Bauman antara modernitas cair dan agensi moral, tulisan ini menunjukkan bagaimana proses rekonstruksi identitas moral berawal dari keresahan aktor terhadap kondisi budaya tradisional pada era globalisasi. Penulis berpendapat bahwa ekspresi dari identitas aktor melalui gerakan sosial ini akan berperan menciptakan keberagaman budaya pada era globalisasi dan modernitas cair. Penulis ingin bergerak menjauh dari pandangan agentless dalam proses globalisasi dengan melihat dinamika agensi. Melalui agen dan bentuk agensi moral, penulis berpendapat bahwa di dalam proses dan dampak globalisasi, manusia tidak tertahan pada kondisi "adalah" atau tekanan struktural, melainkan terdapat optimisme untuk melihat suatu harapan atas kondisi yang "seharusnya" atau lebih baik melalui kesadaran identitas dan moral.This study discusses about the process of identity construction of actor  in the KISS community in an era of cultural globalization. This study will explain how the construction process of moral identity actor is formed in the era of cultural globalization. Moral identity construction of the actor in the era of globalization will be the anchor for agents to act and preserve the traditional culture with motivation, passion, and hope. This study used a qualitative approach by using the framework of Zygmunt Bauman concept of liquid modernity and moral agency. Through the framework of moral agency, this study shows how the construction of moral identity process begins with the actor disquite over the state of traditional culture in globalization era. Moral identity of the actor is capable of forming social practices agent in a daily life. First, by forming a community KISS. Second, as the cornerstone of actors to act

  18. Post-Genomics and Vaccine Improvement for Leishmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed, Negar; Taheri, Tahereh; Rafati, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that primarily affects Asia, Africa, South America, and the Mediterranean basin. Despite extensive efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine, no promising vaccine is available yet. However, recent advancements in computational vaccinology on the one hand and genome sequencing approaches on the other have generated new hopes in vaccine development. Computational genome mining for new vaccine candidates is known as reverse vaccinology and is believed to further extend the current list of Leishmania vaccine candidates. Reverse vaccinology can also reduce the intrinsic risks associated with live attenuated vaccines. Individual epitopes arranged in tandem as polytopes are also a possible outcome of reverse genome mining. Here, we will briefly compare reverse vaccinology with conventional vaccinology in respect to Leishmania vaccine, and we will discuss how it influences the aforementioned topics. We will also introduce new in vivo models that will bridge the gap between human and laboratory animal models in future studies. PMID:27092123

  19. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond S. Ingebrigtsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS. This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r^{-n} pair potentials with n=18,6,4, Lennard-Jones (LJ models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture, the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be

  20. Formalities in the digital era: an obstacle or opportunity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gompel, S.; Bently, L.; Suthersanen, U.; Torremans, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the 2009 ALAI conference in London, examines the possible reintroduction of copyright formalities against the background of the challenges that copyright law faces in the digital era. It does so by contrasting the current calls for reintroducing formalities with

  1. First results from stellar occultations in the "GAIA era"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Sicardy, B.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar occultation is a powerful technique to study distant solar system bodies. It allows high angular resolution of the occulting body from the analysis of a light curve acquired with high temporal resolution with uncertainties comparable as probes. In the "GAIA era", stellar occultations is now able to obtain even more impressive results such as the presence of atmosphere, rings and topographic features.

  2. NASA EOSDIS Evolution in the BigData Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    NASA's EOSDIS system faces several challenges in the Big Data Era. Although volumes are large (but not unmanageably so), the variety of different data collections is daunting. That variety also brings with it a large and diverse user community. One key evolution EOSDIS is working toward is to enable more science analysis to be performed close to the data.

  3. Culturally Responsive: Art Education in a Global Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Facing the era of globalization, culturally responsive art teachers must recognize that students' home culture, including local artistic expression, is inevitably influenced by global forces. They should strive to engage with students systems and issues of globalization and its impact on their community culture and art. In this article, the author…

  4. THE UNECIC: INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN THE DIGITAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    THE UNECIC: INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN THE DIGITAL ERA. S Eiselen. *. 1. Introduction. The use of electronic means of communication such as e-mail, SMS and the internet in the last decade has outstripped and replaced other more traditional forms of communications such as post, telex and telegram. The only other ...

  5. Gender prejudice in the Victorian Era: an elucidation of Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The more intriguing character of the Victorian society was that women bore the brunt of the society's inequality, injustice and unfairness. This paper examines British history with the intent of exposing the variables that shaped and defined the Victorian era consciousness, especially the collective perspective about gender ...

  6. systemic chemical education reform [scer] in the global era

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    growing the systemic way of thinking of our students that is one of the most important characteristics of Global Era. Here is the systemic education reform which means the change of our educational system from linearity to systemic in which we design the curriculum and write content systemically, which presented by SATL ...

  7. Professional Boundaries in the Era of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O.; Kassaw, Kristin A.; Perez-Garcia, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The era of the Internet presents new dilemmas in educating psychiatrists about professional boundaries. The objective of this overview is to clarify those dilemmas and offer recommendations for dealing with them. Method: The characteristics of social networking sites, blogs, and search engines are reviewed with a specific focus on their…

  8. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrande, van de V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D

  9. Customer to Consumer: The New Consumption in the Progressive Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the transformation of the U.S. consumption habits and the creation of the consumer during the Progressive Era. Describes the relationships among the production of goods, advertising, and progress. Focuses on the role advertising played in altering U.S. cultural beliefs and the continued attachment to the past. (CMK)

  10. Health Education Films of the Silent Era: A Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofalvi, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Films have been used to present health messages throughout the history of the medium. The purpose of this article is to describe pictures from the silent film era that were designed to educate people about health issues. Films still available in at least one format were reviewed. Published reviews were also used to obtain information about these…

  11. La era de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Florez Calderón

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available La revolución de la información basada en la información tiene como límite las fronteras del conocimiento. La información a diferencia de un bien material es inalienable, acumulativa y no produce los tipos de deterioro ambiental creados por la industria; por lo anterior, algunos especialistas, a la era de la información la denominan era Post-industrial. Si es necio pretender entender los procesos producidos por la revolución industrial, con una mentalidad pastoril, mucho más necio será tratar de comprender la era informacional con una concepción industrial. La nueva era implica formas y estructuras del pensamiento radicalmente diferentes, pues las profundas transformaciones sociales, técnicas, políticas, económicas que conlleva, no conducirán necesariamente por si mismos a un mayor bienestar para la humanidad. En el presente artículo pretendo dar una visión general sobre este apasionante y delicado tema.

  12. ERA-pankurid võivad pattu kahetseda / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Tartu maakohtu kohtunik andis ERA Grupi üheksa eksjuhi suurprotsessil riiklikule süüdistajale ja kohtualustele kaks nädalat aega protsessi lahendamiseks lihtmenetluse teel, kuid selleks peavad endised pankurid end süüdi tunnistama

  13. Radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    with preservation of health-related quality of life can be achieved in many patients. Two major strategies, acting synergistically, will enable further widening of the therapeutic window of radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine: technology-driven improvement of treatment conformity, including advanced...

  14. Op pad na 'n omvattende woordeboekkultuur in die digitale era ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many potential dictionary users within the digital era belong to Generation Z. Some features of this generation are briefly discussed. The need is indicated for an adaptation in lexicography that could motivate this generation to use dictionaries. It is argued that dictionary didactics should play an important role in establishing ...

  15. Attractions to radiation-like eras in superstring cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Partouche, Herve

    2010-01-01

    We review the cosmology induced by finite temperature and quantum effects on non-supersymmetric string models. We show the evolution is attracted to radiation-like solutions after the Hagedorn era and before the electroweak phase transition. This mechanism generates a hierarchy between the Planck mass and the supersymmetry breaking scale. A dynamical change of space-time dimension can take place.

  16. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  17. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Antill, Lyn

    1980-01-01

    Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

  18. Computer electronics made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdillon, J F B

    1975-01-01

    Computer Electronics: Made Simple Computerbooks presents the basics of computer electronics and explains how a microprocessor works. Various types of PROMs, static RAMs, dynamic RAMs, floppy disks, and hard disks are considered, along with microprocessor support devices made by Intel, Motorola and Zilog. Bit slice logic and some AMD bit slice products are also described. Comprised of 14 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of hardware design, followed by a discussion on the basic building blocks of hardware (NAND, NOR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR); tools and equipment that

  19. Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem

  20. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  1. Wrist arthrography: a simple method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel; Alonso, Jose [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar (Murcia) (Spain); Martinez, Francisco; Domenech-Ratto, Gines [University of Murcia, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Murcia (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    A technique of wrist arthrography is presented using an adhesive marker-plate with radiopaque coordinates to identify precisely sites for puncture arthrography of the wrist and to obviate the need for fluoroscopic guidance. Radiocarpal joint arthrography was performed successfully in all 24 cases, 14 in the cadaveric wrists and 10 in the live patients. The arthrographic procedure described in this study is simple, safe, and rapid, and has the advantage of precise localisation of the site for puncture without need for fluoroscopic guidance. (orig.)

  2. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  3. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  4. Results of ERAS protocol in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rasulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: explore the use of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, evaluate its efficacy and safety.Materials and methods. Prospective, single-site, randomized study for the implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery in patients with colorectal cancer has been conducted from October 2014 till the present time. All patients after laparoscopic surgeries undergo treatment according to ERAS protocol, patients after open surgeries are randomized (1:1 in groups of the standard treatment or treatment according to ERAS protocol. The study included patients with localized and locally disseminated colorectal cancer aged from 18 to 75 years, ECOG score ≤ 2. The primary evaluated parameters were the following: the number of postoperative complications (according to Clavien– Dindo classification, postoperative hospital days, incidence of complications and mortality in the 30-day period, timing of activation.Results. Up to date, the study includes 105 patients: laparoscopic group – 51 patients, open-surgery group of patients treated by ERAS protocol – 27 patients, open-surgery group of patients with the standard post-op treatment – 26 patients. Complications requiring emergency surgery for anastomotic leak (p = 0.159 developed in 3.7 % of patients with the standard post-op treatment and in 3.9 % of patients after laparoscopic surgery, while 1 patient required repeat hospitalization. The total number of complications was significantly lower in opensurgery group of patients treated by ERAS protocol compared with the standard post-op treatment (p = 0.021. However, there were no differences between laparoscopic and open-surgery group with the standard post-op treatment (p = 0.159. An average hospitalization stay in patients with the standard post-op treatment was equal to 10 days compared to 7 days in patients treated by ERAS protocol (p = 0.067 and 6 days after laparoscopic

  5. ERA Panga pankrotiprotsess on lõppenud / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Viis ja pool aastat kestnud ERA Panga pankrotimenetlus on lõppenud ning mõlemad pankrotihaldurid said 3,53 miljonit krooni. Vt. samas: Järgmisena saab joone alla EVEA Panga pankrot. Lisa: ERA Panga pankrotil joon all

  6. Energy revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caineng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to predict the future situation of global energy development. In view of this, we reviewed the history of energy use and understood that new energy sources will usher in a new era following oil & gas, coal and wood one after another in the past time. Although the fossil energy sources are still plenty in the world, great breakthroughs made in some key technologies and the increasing demand for ecological environmental protection both impel the third time of transformation from oil & gas to new energy sources. Sooner or later, oil, gas, coal and new energy sources will each account for a quarter of global energy consumption in the new era, specifically speaking, accounting for 32.6%, 23.7%, 30.0% and 13.7% respectively. As one of the largest coal consumer, China will inevitably face up to the situation of tripartite confrontation of the coal, oil & gas and new energy. The following forecasting results were achieved. First, the oil will be in a stable period and its annual production peak will be around 2040, reaching up to 45 × 108 t. Second, the natural gas will enter the heyday period and its annual production peak will be around 2060, reaching up to 4.5 × 1012 m3, which will play a pivotal role in the future energy sustainable development. Third, the coal has entered a high-to-low-carbon transition period, and its direct use and the discharged pollutants will be significantly reduced. In 2050, the coal will be dropped to 25% of the primary energy mix. Last, the development and utilization of new energy sources has been getting into the golden age and its proportion in the primary energy mix will be substantially enhanced. On this basis, we presented some proposals for the future energy development in China. At first, we should understand well that China's energy production and consumption has its own characteristics. Under the present situation, we should strengthen the clean and efficient use of coal resources, which

  7. iPad Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin; Learning, MSL Made Simple

    2010-01-01

    The new iPad is sleek, powerful, and most importantly, it's much more than just a big iPhone. Your iPad is can be used for reading, surfing the web, emailing, watching TV/Movies, getting work done, and much more. And with the upcoming wave of iPad apps, the possibilities are endless. iPad X Made Simple clarifies all of the key features on the iPad, introduces what's new, and also reveals dozens of time-saving shortcuts and techniques. The book has over 1,000 screen shots that are carefully annotated with step-by-step instructions. * Clear instructions on how to set up and use the iPad * Illust

  8. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available [1- 3 H](-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and α-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml -1 for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml -1 for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label. (author)

  9. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-01

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  10. Semantic markup of sensor capabilities: how simple it too simple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.; Janowicz, K.; Fredericks, J.

    2016-12-01

    Semantics plays a key role for the publication, retrieval, integration, and reuse of observational data across the geosciences. In most cases, one can safely assume that the providers of such data, e.g., individual scientists, understand the observation context in which their data are collected,e.g., the used observation procedure, the sampling strategy, the feature of interest being studied, and so forth. However, can we expect that the same is true for the technical details of the used sensors and especially the nuanced changes that can impact observations in often unpredictable ways? Should the burden of annotating the sensor capabilities, firmware, operation ranges, and so forth be really part of a scientist's responsibility? Ideally, semantic annotations should be provided by the parties that understand these details and have a vested interest in maintaining these data. With manufactures providing semantically-enabled metadata for their sensors and instruments, observations could more easily be annotated and thereby enriched using this information. Unfortunately, today's sensor ontologies and tool chains developed for the Semantic Web community require expertise beyond the knowledge and interest of most manufacturers. Consequently, knowledge engineers need to better understand the sweet spot between simple ontologies/vocabularies and sufficient expressivity as well as the tools required to enable manufacturers to share data about their sensors. Here, we report on the current results of EarthCube's X-Domes project that aims to address the questions outlined above.

  11. Islamism and Democratization in Indonesia Post-Reformation Era:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAHRIR KARIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, this paper will explore features and patterns of Islamism in Indonesia after the downfall of Suharto’s regime in which people called it as reformation era. In Indonesian context, the Islamism at least have four characteristics; (i promoting Islam as a sole basis in transforming society, (ii acknowledging Islam as an ideology, (iii among at the establishment of Islamic state, (iv which is characterised by implementing Shari`ah laws in daily lives. These four attributes may be used in capturing the growth of Muslim’s perception on state and democracy in the era of Islamic revival. The above views spread in the various streams or any schools existed in Indonesia, both Islamic movements and other form that is very influential in the process of democracy in Indonesia.

  12. Role of Imaging in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Angela; Gupta, Supriya; Olson, Emmi; Sepulveda, Karla; Lenchik, Leon; Ivanidze, Jana; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Patel, Midhir J; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy

    2017-05-01

    Precision medicine is an emerging approach for treating medical disorders, which takes into account individual variability in genetic and environmental factors. Preventive or therapeutic interventions can then be directed to those who will benefit most from targeted interventions, thereby maximizing benefits and minimizing costs and complications. Precision medicine is gaining increasing recognition by clinicians, healthcare systems, pharmaceutical companies, patients, and the government. Imaging plays a critical role in precision medicine including screening, early diagnosis, guiding treatment, evaluating response to therapy, and assessing likelihood of disease recurrence. The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Precision Imaging Task Force convened to explore the current and future role of imaging in the era of precision medicine and summarized its finding in this article. We review the increasingly important role of imaging in various oncological and non-oncological disorders. We also highlight the challenges for radiology in the era of precision medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Will ALICE run in the HL-LHC era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    We will present the perspectives for ion running in the HL-LHC era. In particular, ALICE is preparing a significant upgrade of its rate capabilities and is further extending its particle identification potential. This paves the way for heavy ion physics at unprecedented luminosities, which are expected in the HL-LHC era with the heaviest ions. Here, we outline a scenario, in which ALICE will be taking data at a luminosity of L > 6*10 27 cm -2 *s -1 for Pb-Pb with the aim of collecting at least 10 nb -1 . The potential interest of data-taking during high luminosity proton runs for ATLAS and CMS will also be commented. (author)

  14. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866......, although the internet platforms and CAD files repositories will play a major role in the development and spreading of the 3DP technology, they will likely to be at the center of major law disputes unless they carefully consider the scope of their activities (host and/or customize and/or print) in light...

  15. Carbon tetrachloride ERA soil-gas baseline monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancher, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    From December 1991 through December 1993, Westinghouse Hanford Company performed routine baseline monitoring of selected wells ad soil-gas points twice weekly in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This work supported the carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action (ERA) and provided a solid baseline of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in wells and in the subsurface at the ERA site. As site remediation continues, comparisons to this baseline can be one means of measuring the success of carbon tetrachloride vapor extraction. This report contains observations of the patterns and trends associated with data obtained during soil-gas monitoring at the 200 West Area: Monitoring performed since late 1991 includes monitoring soil-gas probes ad wellheads for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report reflects monitoring data collected from December 1991 through December 1993

  16. G×E Interaction and Pluralism in the Postgenomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Perbal, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral genetics is in a postgenomic era, and this paper illustrates this epistemological evolution using the debate between developmental criticism and traditional biometric genetics about gene x environment interaction. Quantitative geneticists are blamed for failing to respect the complexity of development; as a response, they claim a defensive position, called isolationist pluralism, which supports the idea that studying development is not their problem. But postgenomics seems to have ...

  17. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.

  18. SYNESTHETIC ARTISTIC PERCEPTION IN THE ERA OF POST LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita, Gudova; Irina, Lisovetc

    2017-01-01

    In the era of post-literacy, the development ofinformation technology and the technological basis of art as well as the mechanismsof not only artistic creativity, but also its perception, change. Thetransformation peculiarities of artistic perception of the new polymorphic andmultimedia art require their scientific and theoretical comprehension in theconditions of post-literacy that have developed in the last 50 years.In this case, we are interested in the nuancescharacterizing the changes in...

  19. A New Era for Command and Control of Aerospace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    PRISM]) and force ap- plication (Theater Battle Management Core Systems [ TBMCS ]). How- ever, we are now operating in an era when the platforms that...PRISM and TBMCS were designed to manage can now perform either mis- July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 13 Senior Leader Perspective sion—or...through TBMCS . However, evolv- ing technologies now afford us the opportunity to ensure that most of the aircraft in the Air Force’s inventory can

  20. [Overall digitalization: leading innovation of endodontics in big data era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J Q

    2016-04-09

    In big data era, digital technologies bring great challenges and opportunities to modern stomatology. The applications of digital technologies, such as cone-beam CT(CBCT), computer aided design,(CAD)and computer aided manufacture(CAM), 3D printing and digital approaches for education , provide new concepts and patterns to the treatment and study of endodontic diseases. This review provides an overview of the application and prospect of commonly used digital technologies in the development of endodontics.

  1. Assisted diversification for an era of habitat extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Cannon

    2017-01-01

    How do we conserve tree diversity in a rapidly changing world, dominated by intensive human impact on the landscape? The Anthropocene is a useful term to describe a new era in Earth’s history, where we dominate the globe’s resources so completely that our activities alter basic nutrient, water, climate, and energy cycles. These rapid environmental changes and the...

  2. Publishing in open access era: focus on respiratory journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ni; Xu, Dingyao; Zhong, Xiyao; Li, Li; Ling, Qibo; Bu, Zhaode

    2014-05-01

    We have entered an open access publishing era. The impact and significance of open access is still under debate after two decades of evolution. Open access journals benefit researchers and the general public by promoting visibility, sharing and communicating. Non-mainstream journals should turn the challenge of open access into opportunity of presenting best research articles to the global readership. Open access journals need to optimize their business models to promote the healthy and continuous development.

  3. Wireless Communications in the Era of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Suzhi; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Zhi; Cui, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    © 1979-2012 IEEE. The rapidly growing wave of wireless data service is pushing against the boundary of our communication network's processing power. The pervasive and exponentially increasing data traffic present imminent challenges to all aspects of wireless system design, such as spectrum efficiency, computing capabilities, and fronthaul/backhaul link capacity. In this article, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the design of scalable wireless systems to embrace the big data era...

  4. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANA BĂLAN; COSMIN OLTEANU

    2017-01-01

    Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics sho...

  5. Not invented here : managing corporate innovation in a new era

    OpenAIRE

    Vrande, van de, V.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Not Invented here: Managing Corporate Innovation in a New Era External technology sourcing as a means to develop new businesses is taking a more central role in established companies. Acquiring new technologies from outside the firm which speeds up the innovation process and complements internal R&D is an important aspect of new business development within the paradigm of open innovation. It is becoming a requirement to create and sustain competitive advantage in different product markets, an...

  6. Gravitational Physics: the birth of a new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2017-11-01

    We live the golden age of cosmology, while the era of gravitational astronomy has finally begun. Still, fundamental puzzles remain. Standard cosmology is formulated within the framework of Einstein's General theory of Relativity. Notwithstanding, General Relativity is not adequate to explain the earliest stages of cosmic existence, and cannot provide an explanation for the Big Bang itself. Modern early universe cosmology is in need of a rigorous underpinning in Quantum Gravity.

  7. Towards Geo-spatial Information Science in Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Deren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, with the advent of worldwide information revolution and the development of internet, geospatial information science have also come of age, which pushed forward the building of digital Earth and cyber city. As we entered the 21st century, with the development and integration of global information technology and industrialization, internet of things and cloud computing came into being, human society enters into the big data era. This article covers the key features (ubiquitous, multi-dimension and dynamics, internet+networking, full automation and real-time, from sensing to recognition, crowdsourcing and VGI, and service-oriented of geospatial information science in the big data era and addresses the key technical issues (non-linear four dimensional Earth reference frame system, space based enhanced GNSS, space-air and land unified network communication techniques, on board processing techniques for multi-sources image data, smart interface service techniques for space-borne information, space based resource scheduling and network security, design and developing of a payloads based multi-functional satellite platform. That needs to be resolved to provide a new definition of geospatial information science in big data era. Based on the discussion in this paper, the author finally proposes a new definition of geospatial information science (geomatics, i.e. Geomatics is a multiple discipline science and technology which, using a systematic approach, integrates all the means for spatio-temporal data acquisition, information extraction, networked management, knowledge discovering, spatial sensing and recognition, as well as intelligent location based services of any physical objects and human activities around the earth and its environment. Starting from this new definition, geospatial information science will get much more chances and find much more tasks in big data era for generation of smart earth and smart city . Our profession

  8. Challenges of the Audit Profession in the Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Cornelia Berechet (Dragnea)

    2016-01-01

    Massive unprecedented changes, that best describe this era, are affecting the accountant and auditor profession, as well as the global business environment. The traditional role of the financial auditor will change, but if it will adapt and provide new services, may become a trusted councillor for its clients. The way financial auditors approach future tendencies will shape the destiny of the accountant and auditor profession. Financial auditors must understand innovation, to be open towar...

  9. Water nanoelectrolysis: A simple model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Juan; Hammadi, Zoubida; Morin, Roger; Lapena, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A simple model of water nanoelectrolysis—defined as the nanolocalization at a single point of any electrolysis phenomenon—is presented. It is based on the electron tunneling assisted by the electric field through the thin film of water molecules (˜0.3 nm thick) at the surface of a tip-shaped nanoelectrode (micrometric to nanometric curvature radius at the apex). By applying, e.g., an electric potential V1 during a finite time t1, and then the potential -V1 during the same time t1, we show that there are three distinct regions in the plane (t1, V1): one for the nanolocalization (at the apex of the nanoelectrode) of the electrolysis oxidation reaction, the second one for the nanolocalization of the reduction reaction, and the third one for the nanolocalization of the production of bubbles. These parameters t1 and V1 completely control the time at which the electrolysis reaction (of oxidation or reduction) begins, the duration of this reaction, the electrolysis current intensity (i.e., the tunneling current), the number of produced O2 or H2 molecules, and the radius of the nanolocalized bubbles. The model is in good agreement with our experiments.

  10. Simple substrates for complex cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits.

  11. Plunger with simple retention valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a positive displacement retention valve apparatus in which the actual flow equals the theoretical maximum flow through the retention valve. The apparatus includes, in combination, a confined fluid flow conduit, a piston adapted for reciprocal movement within the fluid flow conduit between upstream and downstream limit positions, piston reciprocating means, and pressure responsive check valve means located upstream with respect to the piston in the fluid flow conduit. The pressure responsive check valve means operable to permit fluid flow therethrough in a downstream direction toward the piston, and to preclude fluid flow therethrough in an opposite direction. The piston is composed of parts which are relatively movable with respect to one another. The piston includes a simple retention valve consisting of a plug means, a cylinder having a minimum and a maximum internal cross section flow area therein and being reciprocal within the confined fluid flow conduit, and a seat on the cylinder for the plug means. The piston reciprocating means are operatively connected to the plug means

  12. MEMILIH PEMIMPIN DALAM PRAKTIK KEPEMIMPINAN ORGANISASI SEKOLAH DI ERA GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarta sunarta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The leader and leadership courses have produced many hypotheses which haven’t been solved from time to time. With regard to the demands of the globalization era recently, the successful organizations are those which are ruled by figures who have comparative and competitiveness strengths in many fields. In educational context, a leadership can be seen from the practice of school management starting from the basic educational level to the higher one. Educational leadership in the practice of school management expects that the one who plays roles and mandated as a leader must have specific requirements of a leader. Social life in the globalization era has changed the mindsets and views of the people in the world at any level. This influences the awareness of striking for their personal and social rights in the organization. A leader is someone or subject that leads as leadership manifestation such as authority, responsibility, commands, and delegation to the subordinates in an organization. Meanwhile a leadership is an art of persuading, directing people through obedience, belief, respect, and cooperation based on enthusiasm to meet the goals, A Dale Timpe, (1987. In order to give influence to the development of the organization, there are four leadership aspects that should be developed, such as (1 follower, (2 situation (3 communication and (4 leader.   Key words: leader, leadership, school organization, globalization era.

  13. PENGELOLAAN SANGGAR KEGIATAN BELAJAR (SKB PADA ERA OTONOMI DAERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Widodo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the management implementation of Learning Activities Gallery (LAG in the autonomy era. Description of Non-formal Education program management, Human Resources management, and financial management. Its purpose is able to create (1 facilities and able to bridge regions to the center, (2 the emergence of creativity in the construc-tion area, (3 political stability and regional centers, (4 the assurance of business continuity, and (5 open communication. But in fact the management of LAG was facing problems regarding the amount of funding that was not sufficient, human resources was not professional, and the prog-ram did not develop. Research used qualitative case studies approach of various problems in some LAG. Then dialogic analyzed by Milles and Huberman included; data collection, data reduc-tion, data display and conclusions. The study found that LAG management in the autonomy era, there was already successful and the support of the local government, but most of the LAG was not growing even threatened dissolved or merged. LAG institutional management were not well developed caused by the lack of professional Human Resources, the lack of funding support. So from some of these problems were concluded that LAG management in the era of regional auto-nomy had a tendency to decrease or even unprofessional. Regional autonomy must consider LAG as a unit organizer non-formal and informal education programs with the full support of the government both funds and human resources professionals.

  14. Research on intact marine ecosystems: a lost era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowitsch, Michael

    2003-07-01

    It is proposed that a new, fifth era should be added to the four historical phases of marine research identified by Rupert Riedl, specifically an era devoted to studying and ameliorating disturbed marine ecosystems. In an age of global environmental deterioration, many marine ecosystems and organisms are high on the list of threatened entities. This poor status prompts research that would otherwise have been unnecessary and hinders research that would normally have been conducted. I argue that research into intact marine ecosystems is becoming increasingly difficult, and that most of our future insights into marine habitats will stem from knowledge gained by examining various disfunctions of those systems rather than their functions. The new era will therefore differ from past research in its underlying aim, the range of topics studied, the selection and funding of those topics, the validity of its conclusions, and in its urgency. Sea turtles and cetaceans are cited as case studies at the organismic level, shallow-water benthic communities, including coral reefs, at the ecosystem level.

  15. Are we ready for the ERAS protocol in colorectal surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielewski, Michał; Rubinkiewicz, Mateusz; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Pisarska, Magdalena; Migaczewski, Marcin; Dembiński, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Rembiasz, Kazimierz; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Modern perioperative care principles in elective colorectal surgery have already been established by international surgical authorities. Nevertheless, barriers to the introduction of routine evidence-based clinical care and changing dogmas still exist. One of the factors is the surgeon. To assess perioperative care trends in elective colorectal surgery among general surgery consultants in surgical departments in Malopolska Voivodeship, Poland. An anonymous standardized 20-question questionnaire was developed based on ERAS principles and sent out to Malopolska Voivodeship general surgery departments. Answers of general surgery consultants showed the level of acceptance of elements of perioperative care. The overall response rate was 66%. Several elements (antibiotic and antithrombotic prophylaxis, postoperative oxygen therapy, no nasogastric tubes) had quite a high acceptance rate. On the other hand, most crucial surgical perioperative elements (lack of mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative oral carbohydrate loading, use of laparoscopy and lack of drains, early fluid and oral diet intake, early mobilization) were not followed according to evidence-based ERAS protocol recommendations. Surgeons were not willing to change their practice, but were supportive of changes in anesthesiologist-dependent elements of perioperative care, such as restrictive fluid therapy, use of transversus abdominis plane blocks, etc. Many elements of perioperative care in elective colorectal surgery in Malopolska Voivodeship are still dictated by dogma and are not evidence-based. The level of acceptance of many important ERAS protocol elements is low. Surgeons are ready to accept only changes that do not interfere with their practice.

  16. MOOCs 2.0: THE SOCIAL ERA OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda SOYLEV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The improvements in the Internet technology led an evolution in education. Some students’ lives have changed since 2012 when the MOOCs gained popularity among the academia. The students now take courses from the top universities all around the world without time limitations and they even earn credits for their courses. They are able to discuss lecture topics not only with their instructors in the class but also with thousands of other online students and can get just-in-time help regarding to their questions from teaching assistants. These are some of the practices from the new era of MOOCs called “social MOOCs” or MOOC 2.0. The concepts of collaboration, blended learning and TAs are the new consequences. In this paper, we review the problems and the current solutions associated with MOOC 1.0 era. In the light of these, we analyze the MOOC 2.0 era and discuss its present and possible future affects to our lives.

  17. SSL - THE SIMPLE SOCKETS LIBRARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Sockets Library (SSL) allows C programmers to develop systems of cooperating programs using Berkeley streaming Sockets running under the TCP/IP protocol over Ethernet. The SSL provides a simple way to move information between programs running on the same or different machines and does so with little overhead. The SSL can create three types of Sockets: namely a server, a client, and an accept Socket. The SSL's Sockets are designed to be used in a fashion reminiscent of the use of FILE pointers so that a C programmer who is familiar with reading and writing files will immediately feel comfortable with reading and writing with Sockets. The SSL consists of three parts: the library, PortMaster, and utilities. The user of the SSL accesses it by linking programs to the SSL library. The PortMaster initializes connections between clients and servers. The PortMaster also supports a "firewall" facility to keep out socket requests from unapproved machines. The "firewall" is a file which contains Internet addresses for all approved machines. There are three utilities provided with the SSL. SKTDBG can be used to debug programs that make use of the SSL. SPMTABLE lists the servers and port numbers on requested machine(s). SRMSRVR tells the PortMaster to forcibly remove a server name from its list. The package also includes two example programs: multiskt.c, which makes multiple accepts on one server, and sktpoll.c, which repeatedly attempts to connect a client to some server at one second intervals. SSL is a machine independent library written in the C-language for computers connected via Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on a variety of platforms, including Sun series computers running SunOS, DEC VAX series computers running VMS, SGI computers running IRIX, DECstations running ULTRIX, DEC alpha AXPs running OSF/1, IBM RS/6000 computers running AIX, IBM PC and compatibles running BSD/386 UNIX and HP Apollo 3000

  18. Reconstructing Nearly Simple Polytopes from their Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We present a partial description of which polytopes are reconstructible from their graphs. This is an extension of work by Blind and Mani (1987) and Kalai (1988), which showed that simple polytopes can be reconstructed from their graphs. In particular, we introduce a notion of $h$-nearly simple and prove that 1-nearly simple and 2-nearly simple polytopes are reconstructible from their graphs. We also give an example of a 3-nearly simple polytope which is not reconstructible from its graph. Fu...

  19. O desafio da malária: o caso brasileiro e o que se pode esperar dos progressos da era genômica The malaria challenge: the Brazilian case and what can be expected from progress in genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A área endêmica de malária no Brasil se estende atualmente à totalidade da região amazônica, com cerca de 500 mil casos anuais, em geral com situações de baixa e média endemicidade mas ainda apresentando focos de alto risco. Fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos são dominantes nos desafios que enfrentam os Serviços de Saúde Pública no controle da malária. No presente artigo são discutidos fatores determinantes da instabilidade da situação endêmica bem como a necessidade de ações permanentes de vigilância e de intervenção dos Serviços de Saúde para que se evitem surtos epidêmicos e alastramento das áreas endêmicas. No artigo, em seguida, apresenta-se uma síntese de progressos recentes nos estudos da era genômica e pós-genômica sobre o parasita, o vetor e o hospedeiro humano que podem favorecer, no futuro, o desenvolvimento e a melhoria dos métodos de controle da malária.Malaria endemic areas in Brazil are restricted to the Amazon Region, with an average of 500 thousand new cases every year. The situation can be defined as unstable hipoendemic with, however, foci of high endemicity. Demographic and socio economic factors are main determinants in the malaria challenge for the Public Health System. In the present paper, biological and social factors responsible for the unstable endemic situation are discussed. The need for a permanent surveillance and intervention of Public Health Services are stressed to avoid the occurrence of local epidemics and spreading of endemic areas. In the paper, are also summarised recent lines of research developed in the post genomic era in the studies of parasite, vector and human molecular genetics that would favour the development, in the future, of new tools and procedures for malaria control

  20. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  1. UPAYA PENINGKATAN EXPORT DRIVE INDUSTRI FASHION DI ERA GLOBALISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idah Hadijah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Efforts to Increase Export Drives of Fashion Industy in the Globali­sation Era. The fashion industry is inseparable from the development of fashion, cultural element/national culture, and the influence of fashion in many aspects of human life. Thus, fashion industry is a positive business opportunities in globalization era. Fashion industry involves various parties such as the resource of fabric thread, fabric manufacturers, designer, producers to distributors, starts from small business to large business, and also involves a lot of workers with various skills and talents. In order to support fashion industry producers having positive export drives, it is necessary to to pay attention to many components, such as production, supplier, and the final products that are distributed to the retailers. These components are also related to the quality of human resources, material resources, fashion forecasting, and the multimedia of fashion industry. : Industri fashion, tidak terlepas dari perkembangan busana, unsur budaya/ kultur suatu bangsa, serta pengaruh busana dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Dengan demikian industri fashion merupakan peluang bisnis yang positif di era globalisasi. Industri fashion melibatkan berbagai pihak mulai dari asal serat, pem­buatan kain, desainer, produsen sampai distributor, mulai dari bisnis kecil sampai bisnis besar, juga melibatkan banyak pekerja dengan berbagai keahlian dan bakat. Upaya produsen industri fashion agar memiliki export drive yang positif, perlu memperhatikan komponen produksi, komponen supplier, produk akhir yang didistri­busikan pada retailer. Komponen-komponen tersebut terkait dengan kualitas: sumber daya manusia, sumber daya material, fashion forecasting, dan multimedia industri fashion.

  2. Cecal intubation rates in different eras of endoscopic technological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyja, Maciej; Pasternak, Artur; Szura, Mirosław; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01

    Colonoscopy plays a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and has been widely regarded as the gold standard. Cecal intubation rate (CIR) is one of the well-defined quality indicators used to assess colonoscopy. To assess the impact of new technologies on the quality of colonoscopy by assessing completion rates. This was a dual-center study at the 2 nd Department of Surgery at Jagiellonian University Medical College and at the Specialist Center "Medicina" in Krakow, Poland. The CIR and cecal intubation time (CIT) in three different eras of technological advancement were determined. The study enrolled 27 463 patients who underwent colonoscopy as part of a national CRC screening program. The patients were divided into three groups: group I - 3408 patients examined between 2000 and 2003 (optical endoscopes); group II - 10 405 patients examined between 2004 and 2008 (standard electronic endoscopes); and group III - 13 650 patients examined between 2009 and 2014 (modern endoscopes). There were statistically significant differences in the CIR between successive eras. The CIR in group I (2000-2003) was 69.75%, in group II (2004-2008) was 92.32%, and in group III (2009-2014) was 95.17%. The mean CIT was significantly reduced in group III. Our study shows that the technological innovation of novel endoscopy devices has a great influence on the effectiveness of the CRC screening program. The new era of endoscopic technological development has the potential to reduce examination-related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation and increase diagnostic yields.

  3. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Цокова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have  been analyzed;  and , basing on the  dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the  capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers  range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment  of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55

  4. Nusantara dalam era niaga sebelum abad ke-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Iskandar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Trading activities in the Nusantara archipelago had developed into an international trade. According to Ricklef, Europe was not the most developed region in the world. The developing world at the time was in fact the Islamic world, stretching from the Middle East to the Nusantara. If we trace it further back into the past, to the pre-Islamic age, trade in the Nusantara region had developed, espcially during the golden eras of Sriwijaya and Majapahit. This paper describes the economic and trade development in the Nusantara before the 19th century.

  5. L’immaginario collettivo nell’era biomediatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Valerii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazie alla diffusione delle tecnologie digitali, nel giro di un decennio la grande trasformazione dei media ha determinato una rivoluzione copernicana, che ha posto l’io-utente al centro del sistema. Questo lavoro prende spunto dal 14° Rapporto sulla comunicazione del Censis per analizzare i processi in corso. In particolare, ci si focalizza sull’ingresso nella cosiddetta era biomediatica, caratterizzata dalla trascrizione virtuale e dalla condivisione telematica in tempo reale delle biografie personali attraverso i social network, che sanciscono il primato dell’io-utente, produttore esso stesso – oltre che fruitore – di contenuti.

  6. Designing network on-chip architectures in the nanoscale era

    CERN Document Server

    Flich, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Going beyond isolated research ideas and design experiences, Designing Network On-Chip Architectures in the Nanoscale Era covers the foundations and design methods of network on-chip (NoC) technology. The contributors draw on their own lessons learned to provide strong practical guidance on various design issues.Exploring the design process of the network, the first part of the book focuses on basic aspects of switch architecture and design, topology selection, and routing implementation. In the second part, contributors discuss their experiences in the industry, offering a roadmap to recent p

  7. AN URBAN TYPOLOGY WITH THE DIMENSIONS OF KNOWLEDGE ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Numata Junior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from geographical issues to globalization of the economy, cities have come to play multiple roles as the center of life for most people. The paper aims to propose an urban typology with the main features of development strategies for innovation and internationalization. The research literature is essentially exploratory in nature and qualitative approach. The literature review shows the cities in different dimensions and its relationship to the knowledge era. Shows an urban prospective design, the Project Curitiba 2030, which is used for analysis with the relevant literature. At the end of the research we propose a urban typology with potential to experience the competitive dynamics of cities.

  8. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  9. Banking marketing mix trends in a digital era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ioana Chirica

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We live in a dynamic world, with everything changing more rapidly than perhaps ever before. Changes are simultaneously a cause and an effect in this world, triggered and affecting both companies (inclusing banks and consumers. Pro-activity and reactivity are key words. Adaptation of strategies, focused consumer targeting, extended usage of new technologies, rapid growth of online environment, breakthrough of social networks and smartphones, all represent factors that converge to one direction: a digital era, when companies/banks should focus on their clients' fidelity and have an in-depth understanding of their market in order to create a real competitive advantage.

  10. New era of neutron scattering research on advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    The projects of the next generation of pulsed spallation neutron source are planed in USA, Europe and Japan. They are one order of magnitude more powerful than the most powerful existing neutron source, ISIS in UK. They offer the exciting prospects for the future, and will open the new era of neutron scattering research on advanced materials. The Japanese project is named as the 'Joint project' between JAERI and KEK on high-intensity proton accelerators. The details of the neutron science facility in the 'Joint project' and the sciences to be developed are summarized. (author)

  11. Advancing STI priorities in the SDG era: priorities for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersich, Matthew F; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Martin, Greg; Rees, Helen

    2018-01-16

    The Sustainable Development Goals present an opportunity to reimagine and then reconfigure the approach to controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The predilection of STIs for women and for vulnerable populations means that services that ameliorate STIs, by their nature, enhance equity, a key focus of the goals. Given the considerable breadth and depth of the goals, it is important to locate points of convergence between the SDGs and STIs, further craft synergies with HIV and select a few population groups and settings to prioritise. There are many opportunities for STI aficionados in this era to advance the field and global control of these infections.

  12. Challenges of the Audit Profession in the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Munteanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive unprecedented changes, that best describe this era, are affecting the accountant and auditor profession, as well as the global business environment. The traditional role of the financial auditor will change, but if it will adapt and provide new services, may become a trusted councillor for its clients. The way financial auditors approach future tendencies will shape the destiny of the accountant and auditor profession. Financial auditors must understand innovation, to be open towards globalization, to be prepared as human resources that are competing not only nationally but also globally.

  13. Research on information security in big data era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linqi; Gu, Weihong; Huang, Cheng; Huang, Aijun; Bai, Yongbin

    2018-05-01

    Big data is becoming another hotspot in the field of information technology after the cloud computing and the Internet of Things. However, the existing information security methods can no longer meet the information security requirements in the era of big data. This paper analyzes the challenges and a cause of data security brought by big data, discusses the development trend of network attacks under the background of big data, and puts forward my own opinions on the development of security defense in technology, strategy and product.

  14. Reinforcing user data analysis with Ganga in the LHC era: scalability, monitoring and user-support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Ebke, Johannes; Brochu, Frederic; Dzhunov, Ivan; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Maier, Andrew; Mościcki, Jakub; Tuckett, David; Vanderster, Daniel; Egede, Ulrik; Reece, Will; Williams, Michael; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Lee, Hurng-Chun; München, Tim; Samset, Bjorn; Slater, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Ganga is a grid job submission and management system widely used in the ATLAS and LHCb experiments and several other communities in the context of the EGEE project. The particle physics communities have entered the LHC operation era which brings new challenges for user data analysis: a strong growth in the number of users and jobs is already noticeable. Current work in the Ganga project is focusing on dealing with these challenges. In recent Ganga releases the support for the pilot job based grid systems Panda and Dirac of the ATLAS and LHCb experiment respectively have been strengthened. A more scalable job repository architecture, which allows efficient storage of many thousands of jobs in XML or several database formats, was recently introduced. A better integration with monitoring systems, including the Dashboard and job execution monitor systems is underway. These will provide comprehensive and easy job monitoring. A simple to use error reporting tool integrated at the Ganga command-line will help to improve user support and debugging user problems. Ganga is a mature, stable and widely-used tool with long-term support from the HEP community. We report on how it is being constantly improved following the user needs for faster and easier distributed data analysis on the grid.

  15. Pengembangan Media Destinasi Pariwisata: Memanfaatkan Potensi dan Sumber Daya Lokal di Era Otonomi dan Pemekaran Daerah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosafati Hulu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerning about: (1 an increase in regional demand (government and community in developing tourism destinations in the era of autonomy and separation, (2 the needs of tourists to choose the right attraction in accordance with their respective criteria, and (3 the needs of employers to offer sights of interest in accordance with the needs of potential tourists, a media is needed to be developed that can facilitate those needs. It is a web-based software system that can store and show tourist destinations of Indonesia in a comprehensive, systematic, and structured way. Besides, it can classify the various attractions based on attributes, such as: location (name of the island, province, district, tourism type/product, how to go to those objects, cost, and also another variety of informal information, such as: the ins and outs of the attraction area posted by the local community or travel experiences posted by tourists. The first phase will focus on a database system that enables local governments and local communities retain information attractions and products systematically and structurally so that potential tourists can find them easily through a simple search method. The database system is then a basis og other information that will be built on further research needs such as: Data Warehouse System, Decision Support System, and Expert System for Indonesia's tourism industry.

  16. Paediatric laparoscopic hernia repair: Ex vivo skills in the reduced training era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Parsons

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes to surgical working hours have resulted in shorter training times and fewer learning opportunities. Tools that develop surgical skills ex-vivo are of particular interest in this era. Laparoscopic skills are regarded as essential by many for modern paediatric surgery practice. Several generic skills models have been reported and validated. However, there is limited evidence regarding the role of procedure specific models. Here, a laparoscopic paediatric hernia repair model is trialled with surgical trainees and their competence compared with consultant colleagues. Patients and Methods: An ex-vivo paediatric inguinal hernia repair model was devised. Surgical trainees from 5 specialist centres were recruited and performed multiple standardised repairs. Results: 23 trainees performed 192 repairs. Experts performed 10 repairs for comparison. Trainees were timed performing the repair and their accuracy measured. With repeated attempts trainee′s timings and accuracy improved until by the 10 th repair they were no different from benchmark consultant scores. Conclusion: A simple, procedure specific ex-vivo training model has been evaluated for laparoscopic hernia training in paediatric surgery. The results suggest improvements in competence with repetition. Trainee and benchmark consultant scores are no different by the 10 th trainee attempt. We conclude that this model may have a valuable role in the training and assessment of future paediatric surgeons.

  17. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Penner, Orion; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional b...

  18. [Historical study of a moth repellent "Fujisawa Camphor" (4) - newspaper advertisements for "Fujisawa Camphor" in the Meiji Era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Newspaper advertisements were frequently available as one way of communicating news about new products to the general public during the middle of the Meiji Era. The first newspaper advertisement of "Fujisawa Camphor"' appeared in the Osaka Asahi on June 1, 1989. At that time, the newspaper advertisements of OTC were brilliant and the space taken by them was large, in some cases covering a full page. They appeared daily. However, the ad for Fujisawa Camphors was small and simple. The appeal points of the Fujisawa Camphor advertisement were as follows: 1. Fujisawa Camphor, crystals of refined camphor, are hard and colorless.2. It is effective for insecticide and prevents moisture.3. It is widely used by governments and the military.4. It removes bad smell to protect against infectious diseases.

  19. Innovacion en servicios en la era del conocimiento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Now a day the world economy is based in knowledge, we are living and making business in an entirely new era with new rules, where services sector is taking a more important place and a more relevant roll than previously were, and the innovation becomes the way this kind of firms can compete, access to new markets and gain long term growing. Usually, innovation research, definitions and typologies developed were done for tangible products, a legacy from an earlier economic age (based on manufacturing industry, however, Services has they own particularities and distinctive characteristics from products. The understanding of this issue is very important to service providers companies, because they could adjust their innovation process more according to a service development model than an adapted product development one. This article points out the characteristics of the new knowledge era, the importance of innovation in services sector in this new economy and the typologies available for services with the purpose to help in the evaluation or adjustment of the firm’s innovation process that fall in this segment.

  20. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  1. Pemberantasan korupsi anggota DPRD di era otonomi daerah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Murdiono

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of decentralization, the drastic changes of politic and governmental system has been occurred in Indonesia. One of those changes is the growing significant of legislature role. In autonomy of district era, legislature was growing to be powerful marked by the function of its role, as aspiration channel and executive controller. The empowerment of legislature role in autonomy era brings some problems, not only connected with legislature themselves but also with executive. The problem connected with legislature can be cited such as bad behaviors (manipulation of graduation, money politics, corruption, etc.. Those bad behaviors have been caused the degradation of DPRD image and decadency moral. Therefore, it is necessary to rebuild politic morality and to change the image of legislative members. In order to change the image of DPRD the things can be done are reformation and radical change of DPRD by all element of society. Besides that, it is necessary to review the relationship between DPRD and people. The members of DPRD should compromise their views as well as their own needs with the people's aspirations and needs.

  2. Film piracy in the era of digital technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vukašin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of films in the era of analog technology has been connected with a number of difficulties, involving, inter alia, technically complex process of reproduction, as well as high cash expenditures. In that sense, the very analog technology presented a barrier to reproduction of films by unauthorized persons. By switching to digital technology, the reproduction of mentioned copyright works became much easier, in terms of enabling individuals to, with easily available and relatively cheap technical means, in a fast and high quality way, make a large number of film copies. Since the digital era reflects progress of technology in the field of reproduction and distribution of films, as well as copyright works in general, the introduction of new exclusive rights in copyright law is very significant, as well as narrowing the existing limitations of copyright law rights and extension of duration of the protection. Effective enforcement of copyright protection in the new conditions opened a range of numerous issues, out of which the question of piracy in the field of film production is one of the most important, which presented the motivation for the author to cover this issue.

  3. Emerging interdisciplinary fields in the coming intelligence/convergence era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2012-09-01

    Dramatic advances are in the horizon resulting from rapid pace of development of several technologies, including, computing, communication, mobile, robotic, and interactive technologies. These advances, along with the trend towards convergence of traditional engineering disciplines with physical, life and other science disciplines will result in the development of new interdisciplinary fields, as well as in new paradigms for engineering practice in the coming intelligence/convergence era (post-information age). The interdisciplinary fields include Cyber Engineering, Living Systems Engineering, Biomechatronics/Robotics Engineering, Knowledge Engineering, Emergent/Complexity Engineering, and Multiscale Systems engineering. The paper identifies some of the characteristics of the intelligence/convergence era, gives broad definition of convergence, describes some of the emerging interdisciplinary fields, and lists some of the academic and other organizations working in these disciplines. The need is described for establishing a Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Ecosystem for facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations, and accelerating development of skilled workforce in the new fields. The major components of the ecosystem are listed. The new interdisciplinary fields will yield critical advances in engineering practice, and help in addressing future challenges in broad array of sectors, from manufacturing to energy, transportation, climate, and healthcare. They will also enable building large future complex adaptive systems-of-systems, such as intelligent multimodal transportation systems, optimized multi-energy systems, intelligent disaster prevention systems, and smart cities.

  4. ERA Ranger tailings corridor review. Supervising Scientist report 154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) were commissioned by the Office of the Supervising Scientist on 25 May 2000 to undertake a review and complete a report on the tailings corridor at the ERA Ranger Mine. The objective of the study was to undertake an 'as is' and to some extent historic and look ahead, review of the corridor system sufficient to: assess the current suitability of key aspects of the design; assess the suitability of current operating, maintenance and system development regimes and responsibilities; and record any recommended actions or further investigations arising out of the review; in order to ensure the adequacy of the design, operation and maintenance. The scope of the study report was limited to the corridor itself, its associated sump and sump contents discharge and the branch corridors carrying pipelines to Pit 1. A representative report contents was discussed and agreed with the Office of the Supervising Scientist prior to commencement of the study and this is included as appendix A to this report. The originally agreed content is, with only minor amendment, reflected in this report. The study methodology comprised a review and assessment by SKM of the design of the existing system and current operations documentation and information obtained from investigations on site and discussions with ERA site personnel. Whilst, a number of modifications affecting the corridor are recommended for further consideration, the main findings of the report relate to operating and maintenance practices which should be adopted for the remainder of the mine/mill life

  5. Synergetic Paradigm of Geopolitical Confrontation in the Postmodern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Teplyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current state and mechanisms of geopolitical struggle in postmodern information age that has come. The author judges from assumption that entirely new postmodern society appeared with expansion of information technology, accompanied by cardinal changes in mechanisms of political power. Information technologies have become one of the most important factors contributing to the transformation of modern society from industrial to informational (post-industrial. In modern conditions, ensuring national and global security is a comprehensive process that includes not only measures to ensure information and economic security individually, but also such an integrated component as providing both information and economic security. The author suggests that modem geopolitical confrontation is carried out based on the synergetic paradigm. The main tool is information and energy influence on enemy system weaknesses using information space control, organizing negative information campaigns and applying economic sanctions. If the main focus of geopolitical struggle in modern era was forced expansion of the territory, in information postmodern age control over economic and information space has become priority among forms of geopolitical struggle. Military expansion of modern era becomes substituted by information and economic expansionism of postmodern using synergetic paradigm of geopolitical confrontation in order to control and capture the opponent's political space.

  6. How to Perform an Ethical Risk Analysis (eRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2018-02-26

    Ethical analysis is often needed in the preparation of policy decisions on risk. A three-step method is proposed for performing an ethical risk analysis (eRA). In the first step, the people concerned are identified and categorized in terms of the distinct but compatible roles of being risk-exposed, a beneficiary, or a decisionmaker. In the second step, a more detailed classification of roles and role combinations is performed, and ethically problematic role combinations are identified. In the third step, further ethical deliberation takes place, with an emphasis on individual risk-benefit weighing, distributional analysis, rights analysis, and power analysis. Ethical issues pertaining to subsidiary risk roles, such as those of experts and journalists, are also treated in this phase. An eRA should supplement, not replace, a traditional risk analysis that puts emphasis on the probabilities and severities of undesirable events but does not cover ethical issues such as agency, interpersonal relationships, and justice. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics show that in the last decade the number of migrants with tertiary education increased by about 70%. Brain drain is also a well-known phenomenon. Highly educated individuals and scientists have travelled the world in all centuries in search of better study and research, and working conditions, and of new opportunities. Nowadays, in the era of globalisation and, implicitly, of swifter development of international markets, the emigration rate of high-skilled experts exceeds the total emigration rate, which shows the selectiveness of migration at educational level. The paper presents a brief analysis of the interdependencies between migration and globalisation and of the effects of globalisation on the migration of high-skilled individuals. The trends, structure, and volume of high-skilled labour force from Romania are analysed along with the effects generated by them.

  8. Safety in the nuclear era. Politics - strategy - arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, G.

    1988-01-01

    Details are given on safety and the factors specifying safety in Europe; the history of the NATO and development of an alliance of sovereign states; nuclear deterrence - the politico-strategic standard of the nuclear era; the East/West struggle for military power; co-operative arms control - theory and practice of stability in the nuclear era; alternative schemes and models; SDI and EURECA - present and future chances and risks. The world is at the beginning of a fascinating development likely to be culminating in the control over and utilization of space, and the mastering of various technical problems be they of a civil or military nature. It remains to be seen whether man will be able to handle the new additional technical capacities in an ethically and politically responsible way. Be that as it may, political scepticism and negative reactions will not succeed in blocking the dynamic forces inherent in the development described. This is especially true for SDI and EURECA. Both schemes are full of both chances and risks. While chances ought to be made the most of risks must be controlled through policies guided by reason. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lucas, P.; Malensek, A.; Murphy, C.T.; Yang, M.-J.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

  10. Simple sorting algorithm test based on CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Hongyu; Guo, Fangjin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computing technology, CUDA has become a very important tool. In computer programming, sorting algorithm is widely used. There are many simple sorting algorithms such as enumeration sort, bubble sort and merge sort. In this paper, we test some simple sorting algorithm based on CUDA and draw some useful conclusions.

  11. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  12. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  13. Falling balls and simple shearing strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L; Pacheco, A F

    2006-01-01

    The problem of particles falling under gravity allows us to relate Hamiltonian mechanics to such different subjects as elasticity and fluid mechanics. It is with this in mind that mechanics gives us the opportunity of introducing, in a rather simple and unusual form, some concepts such as vorticity, the incompressibility condition or simple shear strain to physics students at the undergraduate level

  14. Simple clamped connection for bamboo truss systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.

    2016-01-01

    “How to make fast and simple tension connections for truss systems?” The Solution: The innovation is a connection that uses only widely available base components (boltsand threaded steel bars) and simple hand tools to install it. With a handsaw and aspanner, the bamboo stems can be combined into to

  15. NVU perspective on simple liquids’ quasiuniversality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The last half-century of research into the structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics of simple liquids has revealed a number of approximate universalities. This paper argues that simple liquids' reduced-coordinate constant-potential-energy hypersurfaces constitute a quasiuniversal family of compact...

  16. A simple approach to nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhongfu; He Jihuan

    2009-01-01

    A very simple and effective approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. Anyone with basic knowledge of advanced calculus can apply the method to finding approximately the amplitude-frequency relationship of a nonlinear oscillator. Some examples are given to illustrate its extremely simple solution procedure and an acceptable accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  17. Sporadic simple groups and quotient singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, I A; Shramov, C A

    2013-01-01

    We show that if a faithful irreducible representation of a central extension of a sporadic simple group with centre contained in the commutator subgroup gives rise to an exceptional (resp. weakly exceptional but not exceptional) quotient singularity, then that simple group is the Hall-Janko group (resp. the Suzuki group)

  18. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Simple reaction time (SRT, the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally-precise SRT paradigm to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs. Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231 ms, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year, but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT was estimated by subtracting movement-initiation time, measured in a speeded finger-tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms. SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies did not. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in those from the Victorian era and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output.

  19. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Yund, E. William; Herron, Timothy J.; Reed, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century, who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by the computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally precise SRT test to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays) and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year), but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT) was estimated by subtracting movement initiation time, measured in a speeded finger tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms). SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies remained stable. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in the Victorian era, and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output. PMID:25859198

  20. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Reed, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century, who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by the computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally precise SRT test to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays) and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year), but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT) was estimated by subtracting movement initiation time, measured in a speeded finger tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms). SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies remained stable. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in the Victorian era, and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output.

  1. GPM Ground Validation: Pre to Post-Launch Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, accumulation, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous (e.g., Level II orbit) and merged (e.g., IMERG) GPM products. Toward assessing precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of both ground and satellite-based estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation

  2. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  3. Variability in clinical diagnoses during the ICD-8 and ICD-10 era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie E Nordgaard; Jessen, Kasper; Sæbye, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    university-affiliated departments of psychiatry in Denmark in two time periods: 1980-1985 (ICD-8) and 2001-2010 (ICD-10). RESULTS: The synchronic inter-departmental diagnostic differences did not decrease in the ICD-10 era compared with ICD-8 era. Nor did the diachronic stability within each department...

  4. Interdisciplinarity in an Era of New Public Management: A Case Study of Graduate Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Neumann, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    In an era of rapid knowledge transmission and creation spurred on by advances in technology and globalisation, calls for interdisciplinarity to solve "wicked" problems are common. In the same era, universities are increasingly adopting new public management practices. The extent to which these practices affect knowledge production is an…

  5. The Struggles of Women Industrial Workers To Improve Work Conditions in the Progressive Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a lesson plan that addresses the working conditions endured by women in the Progressive Era and their struggles for womens rights in the workplace. Strives to demonstrate the similarities between the plights of the Progressive Era women to those of women workers in the 1990s. (CMK)

  6. 75 FR 13319 - NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-443; NRC-2010-0108] NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC, et al.,* Seabrook Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact * NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC is authorized to act as agent for the Hudson Light & Power Department...

  7. Aare Sosaar nõuab sisse ERA Panga halbu laene / Tiit Elner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elner, Tiit

    2000-01-01

    Ekspankur Aare Sosaare juhitav teadmata omanikega ERA Liising ostis pankrotis ERA Pangalt probleemseid laene, suurem nõuete ostja oli ka Krediidipank. Kokku on müüdud laenude lepingujärgne väärtus kuni 100 mln. kr.

  8. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    single era of natural product chemistry research in South Africa but rather three ... The Specialization Era (ca. 1960–1990) ... South African Natural Products in the International Drug. Discovery .... subsequently proposed that 24 was formed through an initial ... complete elimination of M. grisea infestation by the commercial.

  9. Heliospheric Modulation Strength During The Neutron Monitor Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Alanko, K.; Mursula, K.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

    Using a stochastic simulation of a one-dimensional heliosphere we calculate galactic cosmic ray spectra at the Earth's orbit for different values of the heliospheric mod- ulation strength. Convoluting these spectra with the specific yield function of a neu- tron monitor, we obtain the expected neutron monitor count rates for different values of the modulation strength. Finally, inverting this relation, we calculate the modula- tion strength using the actually recorded neutron monitor count rates. We present the reconstructed annual heliospheric modulation strengths for the neutron monitor era (1953­2000) using several neutron monitors from different latitudes, covering a large range of geomagnetic rigidity cutoffs from polar to equatorial regions. The estimated modulation strengths are shown to be in good agreement with the corresponding esti- mates reported earlier for some years.

  10. KASTRASI FREKUENSI PUBLIK: MEDIA LITERACY ERA BUDAYA POPULER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YULIANA RAHMAWATI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civilization change is a necessity. Culture as one formers also experienced dynamic civilization. Changes in form and content (content takes place not in a vacuum but in a variety of contextual quadrants. The era of modernity with the development of industry and capitalism climate has led to one part in cultural homogenization. Public spaces which in essence is a classless into an entity that has a value of commodities. Shift function of public spaces including public frequency in packs of popular culture has been a challenge for the creation of the public who have media literacy skills. With media literacy, public to understand what has been done for the public media and to the public .Keywords : public frequency , media literacy, cultural homogeneity, Castration

  11. Will LHCb run in the HL-LHC era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent to the LHCC in March 2011 for upgrading the detector during LS2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50 fb -1 in the LHC and HL-LHC eras. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger. In the following part machine related issues for the LHCb upgrade are discussed, in particular issues in relation to the Target Absorber for Secondaries (TAS), Radiation to Electronics (R2E), β* and crossing angle in IP8. (author)

  12. ITER: Fusion research at the dawn of a new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Shimomura, Y.; Huguet, M.

    2003-01-01

    Given the expected success of on-going negotiations on the Joint Implementing Agreement for ITER construction and operation, a new era is opening for experimentation with reactor-relevant physics integrated with key reactor technologies in a licensed nuclear environment. The ITER design, cost estimate and safety analysis are supported by a large body of validating physics and technology R and D. The main features of the design, and analysis of its performance, give confidence that it will fulfil its technical objectives and demonstrate the environmental attractiveness of fusion. This paper gives illustrative confirmation of these expectations and an update on the technical preparations for construction, as well as the status of negotiations. (author)

  13. POLITIK DAKWAH DAN DAKWAH POLITIK DI ERA REFORMASI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Penelitian ini berusaha untuk mengurai kegiatan Majelis Dzikir Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY “Nurussalam” yang memiliki peran strategis di era reformasi. Statusnya sebagai organisasi masyarakat (Ormas diposisikan secara maksimal oleh kelompok kepentingan, bahkan menjadi wadah lembaga politik. Dengan mengganalisis data yang diperoleh melalui wawancara dan dokumentasi, hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa majelis ini menjadikan ayat al-Qur’an yang berkaitan dengan konsep al-‘ummah, al-ukhuwwah al-islāmiyyah, dan al-ta’āwun sebagai landasan dalam menafsirkan ayat sosial integratif yang kemudian dijadikan sebagai sebuah entitas dakwah. Dakwah sebagai komunikasi massa, sejalan dengan komunikasi politik yang lebih cenderung memanfaatkan komunikasi sebagai cara massif untuk menggalang massa. Bahkan kegiatannya telah mampu melaksanakan fungsi politik dakwah sebagai bagian dari sistem interest-group.

  14. Pengaruh Tipografi pada Era Massimo Vignelli terhadap Tipografi Michael Bierut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Harnoko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Vignelli is a senior graphic designer lived in New York, as a vocal modernism against post-modernism. His statement firmly opposing post-modernism in several occasions: interview in Helvetica the movie, typeradio, talkshow, and some articles in Looking Closer or AIGA Journal. Graphic design works of Massimo Vignelli reflected his characteristic, which is firmly choosing typeface. Typefaces of Vignelly are around 5 typefaces: Bodoni, Helvetica, Times Roman, Century, and Futura. The article uses formal analysis method. The writers collected materials about Michael Bierut, Massimo VIgnelli and Tibor Kalman from books and websites. The writers compare the typeface opinion of Massimo Vignelli (modernism designer, Michael Bierut designer (transition era designer from modernism to post-modernism, and Tibor Kalman (a designer in A Century of Graphic Design, as the influencer of Bierut’s betrayal over Vignelli. 

  15. Black out - The post-petroleum era has started

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The predictable shortage of petroleum resources raises up some worrying questions: how can we get rid of petroleum? What will be our life without petroleum? Will we have enough energy tomorrow to keep the same way of life as today? With what new energy sources tomorrow's world will turn? The author has travelled the world from the Americas to Asia and from Europe to the Persian Gulf to find the leads of the after-petroleum era. From the Chinese coal to the US ethanol, from the nuclear comeback to the Scandinavian innovations, this inquiry makes the world tour of projects, ideas and solutions. First world energy consumer and squanderer, the US hold a prominent place in the energy revolution that Barack Obama election will speed up. In Europe, Germany, Spain and Denmark have taken a serious lead in the green energies race, while China has become recently the first world power of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  16. Slow journalism in the “infoxication” era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Benaissa Pedriza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Slow journalism appears as a response to the information overload generated by the acceleration of the news production cycle in a digital era marked by the emergence of new operators (social networks, news aggregators. Both the study of cases practiced and the reflection on the function that the so-called “slow journalism” must exert today indicate that this type of journalism is still useful to improve the quality of information products. On the other hand, the existence of an increasing demand of multimedia contents that analyze the facts in depth is confirmed. That need is being covered by companies that are independent of the mainstream media, which are more interested in developing other mass demand markets such as latest news.

  17. Private Islamic Higher Education in Asean Economic Community (AEC Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyawan Safwandy Nugraha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the challenge faced by Indonesia in ASEAN Economic Community (AEC era. It is also revealed the Private Islamic Religion Institution (PTKIS strategic to play its role and function in generating human resource. The method used is qualitative in the form of literature study. The result shows that PTKIS are required to adapt and see the AEC as an opportunity to change. A private status should be used as an institutional capital to create and innovate freely, by maximally utilizing the available resources. The management of a reputable institution is seen to be a significant factor for reinforcement. Aspects of visionary leadership, qualified lecturers, a curriculum that is responsive to a change, and an adequate infrastructure become a strengthening point toward the management accountability of universities in creating graduates who are competitive, skillful and qualified.

  18. ITER: Fusion research at the dawn of a new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2002-01-01

    Given the expected success of on-going negotiations on the Joint Implementing Agreement for ITER construction and operation, a new era is opening in which fusion laboratories will have more dependable external support where they follow programmes supporting fusion as an energy source. The ITER design, cost estimate and safety analysis are supported by a large body of validating physics and technology R and D. The main features of the design, and analysis of its performance, give confidence that it will fulfil its technical objectives and demonstrate the environmental attractiveness of fusion. This paper gives illustrative confirmation of these expectations and an update on the technical preparations for construction, as well as the status of negotiations. These show that ITER is the right next step, integrating the appropriate physics and technology, making the proper technical and financial compromise and being conducted within an international framework, to advance fusion towards the objective of becoming an energy source in the foreseeable future. (author)

  19. Bordetella pertussis evolution in the (functional) genomics era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Thomas; Preston, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in many developed countries has risen dramatically in recent years. This has been linked to the use of an acellular pertussis vaccine. In addition, it is thought that B. pertussis is adapting under acellular vaccine mediated immune selection pressure, towards vaccine escape. Genomics-based approaches have revolutionized the ability to resolve the fine structure of the global B. pertussis population and its evolution during the era of vaccination. Here, we discuss the current picture of B. pertussis evolution and diversity in the light of the current resurgence, highlight import questions raised by recent studies in this area and discuss the role that functional genomics can play in addressing current knowledge gaps. PMID:26297914

  20. Pediatric bipolar disorder in an era of "mindless psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Peter I; Levin, Edmund C

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) reflects shifts in conceptualizing bipolar disorder among children and adolescents since the mid-1990s. Since then, PBD diagnoses, predominantly in the United States, have increased dramatically, and the diagnosis has attracted significant controversy. During the same period, psychiatric theory and practice has become increasingly biological. The aim of this paper is to examine the rise of PBD in terms of wider systemic influences. In the context of literature referring to paradigm shifts in psychiatry, we reviewed the psychiatric literature, media cases, and information made available by investigative committees and journalists. Social historians and prominent psychiatrists describe a paradigm shift in psychiatry over recent decades: from an era of "brainless psychiatry," when an emphasis on psychodynamic and family factors predominated to the exclusion of biological factors, to a current era of "mindless psychiatry" that emphasizes neurobiological explanations for emotional and behavioral problems with limited regard for contextual meaning. Associated with this has been a tendency within psychiatry and society to neglect trauma and attachment insecurity as etiological factors; the "atheoretical" (but by default biomedical) premise of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd and 4th eds.); the influence of the pharmaceutical industry in research, continuing medical education, and direct-to-consumer advertising; and inequality in the U.S. health system that favors "diagnostic upcoding." Harm from overmedicating children is now a cause of public concern. It can be argued that PBD as a widespread diagnosis, particularly in the United States, reflects multiple factors associated with a paradigm shift within psychiatry rather than recognition of a previously overlooked common disorder.

  1. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  2. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2006-03-14

    The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans.A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi era proved destructive to many humans. Their widespread

  3. Manual stapedotomy still holds good in the era of laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sivaraman; Anuprasad, S; Patra, Sisir Kumar; Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Gopalakrishnan, Suria; Verma, Nishikanta

    2010-03-01

    In the present era of stapedotomy, there is an inevitable role for laser. But the conventional technique with manual burr still has its own merits in various settings such as usage in resource poor setting in developing countries and avoidance of laser hazards. To evaluate the audiometric outcomes after manual stapedotomy. The present study was retrospective record-based study. Patients who have been diagnosed otosclerosis and those who were not willing for surgery with laser, but gave consent for manual stapedotomy were included for the study. Preoperatively, and at each subsequent post-operative follow-up visits, patients were required to undergo a pure-tone audiogram. The air-bone gaps at the end of 6 months were used for final analysis. Data was analyzed with using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12 (Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive frequency distributions, mean, standard deviation of audiometric data were calculated. The paired t test was done to see the improvement in the air bone gap post-operatively. The mean age of presentation is 32.2 years. Overall, the male:female ratio was found to be 1:1.2. Post-operative air bone closure to 15 decibels was obtained in 80% of patients. There was no significant correlation between the pre-operative hearing loss and post-operative gain, age, and gender of distribution of focus. The post-operative hearing after stapedotomy has been remarkable in all the patients even with manual burr. There were no major vestibular complications in any of these patients. The study has shown that the significant post-operative hearing results can be still achieved with meticulous surgery by an experienced surgeon with manual burr in the present laser era.

  4. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) - The Evidence in Geriatric Emergency Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paduraru, Mihai; Ponchietti, Luca; Casas, Isidro Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Background: Geriatric surgery is rising and projected to continue at a greater rate. There is already concern about the poor outcomes for the emergency surgery in elderly. How to manage the available resources to improve outcomes in this group of patients is an important object of debate...... to conventional care. Emergency surgical patients also had fewer postoperative complications with ERAS compared to conventional care. Hospital stay was reduced in 2 out of 3 studies for emergency surgery.Conclusions:ERAS can be safely applied to elderly and emergency patients with a reduction in postoperative....... OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the feasibility and safety of applying ERAS pathways to emergency elderly surgical patients. METHOD: Two searches were undertaken for ERAS protocols in elderly patients and emergency surgery, in order to gather evidence in relation to ERAS in geriatric emergency patients...

  5. Dynamics of unwinding of a simple entaglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegel, F.W.; Michels, J.P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of unwinding of a simple entanglement is studied in two ways, firstly using an optimal path approximation in the Rouse model and secondly by simulating the movement of a more realistic model using Brownian molecular dynamics

  6. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  7. simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of levocetirizine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Simple, rapid, selective and fairly sensitive method is described for the ... Determination of small amounts of LCTZ in pharmaceutical preparations is important for .... sodium hydroxide and extraction of HCl-free-amine into chloroform followed ...

  8. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  9. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  10. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  11. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    quite simple intrauterine insemination technique which may be performed in developing countries, without the need of sophisticated ... Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), are quite ... were administered only once by intramuscular injection ...

  12. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  13. Simple versus complex degenerative mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadikasgari, Hoda; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Suri, Rakesh M; Svensson, Lars G; Navia, Jose L; Wang, Robert Z; Tappuni, Bassman; Lowry, Ashley M; McCurry, Kenneth R; Blackstone, Eugene H; Desai, Milind Y; Mick, Stephanie L; Gillinov, A Marc

    2018-07-01

    At a center where surgeons favor mitral valve (MV) repair for all subsets of leaflet prolapse, we compared results of patients undergoing repair for simple versus complex degenerative MV disease. From January 1985 to January 2016, 6153 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for degenerative disease, 3101 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for simple disease (posterior prolapse), and 3052 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for complex disease (anterior or bileaflet prolapse), based on preoperative echocardiographic images. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate propensity scores for risk-adjusted comparisons (n = 2065 matched pairs). Durability was assessed by longitudinal recurrence of mitral regurgitation and reoperation. Compared with patients with simple disease, those undergoing repair of complex pathology were more likely to be younger and female (both P values < .0001) but with similar symptoms (P = .3). The most common repair technique was ring/band annuloplasty (3055/99% simple vs 3000/98% complex; P = .5), followed by leaflet resection (2802/90% simple vs 2249/74% complex; P < .0001). Among propensity-matched patients, recurrence of severe mitral regurgitation 10 years after repair was 6.2% for simple pathology versus 11% for complex pathology (P = .007), reoperation at 18 years was 6.3% for simple pathology versus 11% for complex pathology, and 20-year survival was 62% for simple pathology versus 61% for complex pathology (P = .6). Early surgical intervention has become more common in patients with degenerative MV disease, regardless of valve prolapse complexity or symptom status. Valve repair was associated with similarly low operative risk and time-related survival but less durability in complex disease. Lifelong annual echocardiographic surveillance after MV repair is recommended, particularly in patients with complex disease. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  14. Infinitivo simple y compuesto con predicados declarativos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Espiñeira, María José

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en las diferencias semánticas y sintácticas que presentan las construcciones de infinitivo simple y compuesto que actúan como objeto directo de predicados declarativos. El tema despierta interés por varios motivos: (1) Se trata de un subconjunto de verbos que subordinan infinitivos simples de un elenco restringido, pero que admiten regularmente infinitivos compuestos.

  15. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  16. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  17. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) zone 60 1996-2001-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0042028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1996-era and 2001-era classifications of US East Coast, zone 60and can be used to analyze change. This imagery was collected as part of...

  18. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1946-era and 2005-era classifications of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This data...

  19. The Nomadic Existence of the Eternal Improviser and Diasporic Co-Poiesis in the Era of Mega-Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurze'ev, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    The history of transcendence and nomadism in face of the call for "home-returning" is marked figuratively by four milestones: (1) the "era" of immanence and dwelling in total harmony as a manifestation of self-sustained holiness; (2) the "era" of relating to holiness by mediation of God, especially in the monotheistic religions; (3) the "era" of…

  20. Erasüüdistus. Kas vajalik täiendus Eesti kriminaalmenetlusõigusele? / Kevin Siivelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siivelt, Kevin, 1987-

    2014-01-01

    Erasüüdistuse olemusest, lühiülevaade (Ungari, Hispaania, Kanada, USA, Poola ja Soome) erasüüdistuse süsteemidest ning erasüüdistuse kehtestamise poolt- ja vastuargumentidest Eestis. Artikkel põhineb autori magistritööl

  1. The Design of SimpleITK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Christopher Lowekamp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SimpleITK is a new interface to the Insight Segmentation andRegistration Toolkit (ITK designed to facilitate rapid prototyping, educationand scientific activities, via high level programminglanguages. ITK is a templated C++ library of image processingalgorithms and frameworks for biomedical and other applications, andit was designed to be generic, flexible and extensible. Initially, ITKprovided a direct wrapping interface to languages such as Python andTcl through the WrapITK system. Unlike WrapITK, which exposed ITK'scomplex templated interface, SimpleITK was designed to provide an easyto use and simplified interface to ITK's algorithms. It includesprocedural methods, hides ITK's demand driven pipeline, and provides atemplate-less layer. Also SimpleITK provides practical conveniencessuch as binary distribution packages and overloaded operators. Ouruser-friendly design goals dictated a departure from the directinterface wrapping approach of WrapITK, towards a new facadeclass structure that only exposes the required functionality, hidingITK's extensive template use. Internally SimpleITK utilizes a manualdescription of each filter with code-generation and advanced C++meta-programming to provide the higher-level interface, bringing thecapabilities of ITK to a wider audience. SimpleITK is licensed asopen source software under the Apache License Version 2.0 and more informationabout downloading it can be found at http://www.simpleitk.org.

  2. Odds of death after glioblastoma diagnosis in the United States by chemotherapeutic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Yang, Shengping

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BZM) and temozolomide (TMZ) have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. We sought evidence for the benefit of BZM in the general patient population at large. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between 2000 and 2009, divided into a pre-TMZ era (January 2000–June 2003), a transitional era (July 2003–March 2005), a TMZ era (April 2005–October 2007), and a BZM-TMZ era (November 2007–December 2009). Binomial logit regression analyzed odds of death, taking into account age at diagnosis, tumor size, gender, race, marital status, radiotherapy, and extensive surgery. Compared with the pre-TMZ era, odds of death were decreased in the TMZ era by 12% (97.5% CI [confidence interval] 3–20%) 6 months after diagnosis and 36% (30–42%) a year after diagnosis; corresponding values for BZM-TMZ were 31% (24–37%) and 50% (45–55%). For era comparisons, decreases in odds of death were larger at 12 than 6 months; the opposite was true for extensive surgery and radiotherapy (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). For both 6 and 12 month comparisons, odds of death in the BZM-TMZ era were lower than in the TMZ era (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). The results provide evidence that TMZ positively impacted survival of glioblastoma patients and that the addition of BZM further improved survival, this lends support to the addition of BZM to the chemotherapeutic armamentarium. Evaluation of odds of death is an attractive alternative to Cox regression when proportional hazards assumptions are violated and follow-up is good

  3. Patient Privacy in the Era of Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2018-01-20

    Privacy was defined as a fundamental human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the 1948 United Nations General Assembly. However, there is still no consensus on what constitutes privacy. In this review, we look at the evolution of privacy as a concept from the era of Hippocrates to the era of social media and big data. To appreciate the modern measures of patient privacy protection and correctly interpret the current regulatory framework in the United States, we need to analyze and understand the concepts of individually identifiable information, individually identifiable health information, protected health information, and de-identification. The Privacy Rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act defines the regulatory framework and casts a balance between protective measures and access to health information for secondary (scientific) use. The rule defines the conditions when health information is protected by law and how protected health information can be de-identified for secondary use. With the advents of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics, computational text de-identification algorithms produce de-identified results nearly as well as those produced by human experts, but much faster, more consistently and basically for free. Modern clinical text de-identification systems now pave the road to big data and enable scientists to access de-identified clinical information while firmly protecting patient privacy. However, clinical text de-identification is not a perfect process. In order to maximize the protection of patient privacy and to free clinical and scientific information from the confines of electronic healthcare systems, all stakeholders, including patients, health institutions and institutional review boards, scientists and the scientific communities, as well as regulatory and law enforcement agencies must collaborate closely. On the one hand, public health laws and privacy regulations define rules

  4. The climate of the Common Era off the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rufino, Marta; Salgueiro, Emília; Oliveira, Dulce; Gomes, Sandra; Oliveira, Paulo; Costa, Ana; Mil-Homens, Mário; Drago, Teresa; Naughton, Filipa

    2017-12-01

    The Mediterranean region is a climate hot spot, sensitive not only to global warming but also to water availability. In this work we document major temperature and precipitation changes in the Iberian Peninsula and margin during the last 2000 years and propose an interplay of the North Atlantic internal variability with the three atmospheric circulation modes (ACMs), (North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), east atlantic (EA) and Scandinavia (SCAND)) to explain the detected climate variability. We present reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST derived from alkenones) and on-land precipitation (estimated from higher plant n-alkanes and pollen data) in sedimentary sequences recovered along the Iberian Margin between the south of Portugal (Algarve) and the northwest of Spain (Galiza) (36 to 42° N). A clear long-term cooling trend, from 0 CE to the beginning of the 20th century, emerges in all SST records and is considered to be a reflection of the decrease in the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation that began after the Holocene optimum. Multi-decadal/centennial SST variability follows other records from Spain, Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. Warm SSTs throughout the first 1300 years encompass the Roman period (RP), the Dark Ages (DA) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). A cooling initiated at 1300 CE leads to 4 centuries of colder SSTs contemporary with the Little Ice Age (LIA), while a climate warming at 1800 CE marks the beginning of the modern/Industrial Era. Novel results include two distinct phases in the MCA: an early period (900-1100 years) characterized by intense precipitation/flooding and warm winters but a cooler spring-fall season attributed to the interplay of internal oceanic variability with a positive phase in the three modes of atmospheric circulation (NAO, EA and SCAND). The late MCA is marked by cooler and relatively drier winters and a warmer spring-fall season consistent with a shift to a negative mode of the SCAND. The Industrial Era

  5. Jalan Terjal Kebijakan Desentralisasi di Indonesia di Era Reformasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudiyati Rahmatunnisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Indonesia memasuki era baru sejak berakhirnya rezim Orde Baru pada pertengahan tahun 1998. Salah satu aspek yang mengalami perubahan adalah hubungan antara pemerintah pusat dan daerah. Momentum tersebut dimulai dengan diluncurkannya Paket Undang-Undang Tahun 1999 tentang Pemerintah Daerah yang berimplikasi pada perubahan signifikan hubungan pusat-daerah, sehingga kabupaten/kota memperoleh limpahan hampir semua urusan pemerintahan yang sebelumnya berada di tangan pusat atau provinsi. Secara normatif, perubahan ini dipandang radikal dan revolusioner sehingga pemberlakuan Paket Undang-Undang Tahun 1999 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah ini dianggap sebagai awal perubahan sistem pemerintahan yang sentralisk ke desentralisk. Saat ini, proses reformasi yang telah bergulir lebih dari satu dekade ternyata menunjukkan kebijakan desentralisasi di Indonesia dibuat dan dilaksanakan dengan tidak terbebas dari pengaruh politik. Kontroversi dan proses revisi serta lahirnya berbagai peraturan yang berimplikasi pada pasang surut derajat otonomi yang dimiliki daerah, merupakan salah satu indikator kuatnya pengaruh politik terhadap keberadaan kebijakan desentralisasi di Indonesia. Tulisan ini berupaya untuk membahas secara kritis permasalahan yang muncul dari kelahiran Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah terkait perubahan normatif dalam undang-undang, dampak terhadap tatanan pemerintahan daerah, serta potensi untuk membuat proses-proses politik dan pemerintahan daerah menjadi lebih otonom. Abstract Indonesia has entered a new era since the collapse of the New Order in the mid-1998. Iniated by the implementaon of Legislaon Package of 1999, relationship between central and regional governments has significantly changed. Per the change, regional governments especially on district/municipality levels are given extensive authority that previously only belonged to either central or provincial governments. Normatively, such change is

  6. Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.

  7. A simple climatology of westerly jet streams in global reanalysis datasets part 1: mid-latitude upper tropospheric jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikus, Lawrie

    2018-04-01

    A simple closed contour object identification scheme has been applied to the zonal mean monthly mean zonal wind fields from nine global reanalysis data sets for 31 years of the satellite era (1979-2009) to identify objects corresponding to westerly jet streams. The results cluster naturally into six individual jet streams but only the mid-latitude upper-tropospheric jets are considered here. The time series of the jet properties from all reanalyses are decomposed into seasonal means and anomalies, and correlations between variables are evaluated, with the aim of identifying robust features which can form the basis of evaluation metrics for climate model simulations of the twentieth century. There is substantial agreement between all the reanalyses for all jet properties although there are some systematic differences with particular data sets. Some of the results from the object identification applied to the reanalyses are used in a simple example of a model evaluation score for the zonal mean jet seasonal cycle.

  8. RAZLIKE U UPRAVLJANJU VREMENOM HRVATSKIH MENADŽERA S OBZIROM NA SPOL I HIJERARHIJSKU RAZINU

    OpenAIRE

    Pološki Vokić, Nina; Mrđenović, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Na temelju anketnog upitnika za samo-evaluaciju aktivnosti upravljanja i aktivnosti gubljenja vremena, na uzorku od 151 menadžera, istraživano je upravljanje vremenom hrvatskih menadžera te utjecaj dvije individualne karakteristike (spola i hijerarhijske razine) na njihovu uspješnost pri tome. Istraživanje je pokazalo da: (1) su hrvatski menadžeri prosječno dobri u upravljanju vremenom, (2) da ne postoje značajne razlike u upravljanju vremenom menadžera s obzirom na njihov spol, te (3) da pos...

  9. TRSkit: A Simple Digital Library Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Esler, Sandra L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces TRSkit, a simple and effective toolkit for building digital libraries on the World Wide Web. The toolkit was developed for the creation of the Langley Technical Report Server and the NASA Technical Report Server, but is applicable to most simple distribution paradigms. TRSkit contains a handful of freely available software components designed to be run under the UNIX operating system and served via the World Wide Web. The intended customer is the person that must continuously and synchronously distribute anywhere from 100 - 100,000's of information units and does not have extensive resources to devote to the problem.

  10. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... in daylighting conditions for a number of lighting parameters. The results gave clear indications of, for instance, which room would be the brightest, under which conditions might glare be a problem and which type of window would yield the greatest luminous variation (or visual interest), etc....

  11. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  12. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

    2009-04-03

    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDfurfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet.

  13. A simple technique for laparoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C; Rosemurgy, A S; Albrink, M H; Carey, L C

    1992-05-01

    While endoscopically placed gastrostomy tubes are routinely simple, they are not always feasible. Endoscopic technique also does not uniformly secure the tube to the abdominal wall, which presents possible complications, including leakage, accidental early tube removal, intraperitoneal catheter migration and necrosis of the stomach or abdominal wall because of excessive traction. Presented herein is a technique that is rapid, simple and eliminates some of these potential complications. The technique is easily combined with other operative procedures, such as tracheostomy, is done under direct vision, can be performed quickly with intravenous sedation and local anesthetic and is a safe method of tube placement for enteral feeding or gastric decompression.

  14. Simple 2-representations and Classification of Categorifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Troels

    We consider selfadjoint functors defined on categories of modules over finite dimensional algebras and classify those that satisfy some simple relations. In particular we classify self- adjoint idempotents and selfadjoint squareroots of a multiple of the identity functor. This is related to the t......We consider selfadjoint functors defined on categories of modules over finite dimensional algebras and classify those that satisfy some simple relations. In particular we classify self- adjoint idempotents and selfadjoint squareroots of a multiple of the identity functor. This is related...

  15. Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud

    2009-10-01

    Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.

  16. LEMON - LHC Era Monitoring for Large-Scale Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babik, Marian; Hook, Nicholas; Lansdale, Thomas Hector; Lenkes, Daniel; Siket, Miroslav; Waldron, Denis; Fedorko, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    At the present time computer centres are facing a massive rise in virtualization and cloud computing as these solutions bring advantages to service providers and consolidate the computer centre resources. However, as a result the monitoring complexity is increasing. Computer centre management requires not only to monitor servers, network equipment and associated software but also to collect additional environment and facilities data (e.g. temperature, power consumption, cooling efficiency, etc.) to have also a good overview of the infrastructure performance. The LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system is addressing these requirements for a very large scale infrastructure. The Lemon agent that collects data on every client and forwards the samples to the central measurement repository provides a flexible interface that allows rapid development of new sensors. The system allows also to report on behalf of remote devices such as switches and power supplies. Online and historical data can be visualized via a web-based interface or retrieved via command-line tools. The Lemon Alarm System component can be used for notifying the operator about error situations. In this article, an overview of the Lemon monitoring is provided together with a description of the CERN LEMON production instance. No direct comparison is made with other monitoring tool.

  17. Syphilis in the AIDS era: diagnostic dilemma and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scythes, John B; Jones, Colman M

    2013-06-01

    This review argues that syphilis has been underdiagnosed and undertreated, a problem that goes back to the beginning of the Wassermann era, and indeed long before. Non-treponemal tests do not detect the larger pool of persons with latent syphilis, the immunological consequences of which have not been systematically investigated in the context of HIV infection and progression to AIDS. Recent efforts to confirm the prevalence of syphilis in high-risk patients by reverse sequence screening, i.e. using a treponemal test first, as the screening test, have revealed untreated syphilis at higher rates than expected. Further testing using PCR discovered even more previously undetected cases. We suggest that latent syphilis is a chronic active immunological condition that drives the AIDS process and cannot be managed with the older Wassermann-based algorithm, and that non-treponemal tests have failed to associate syphilis with immune suppression since this screening concept was developed in 1906. In light of the overwhelming association between a past history of syphilis and HIV seroconversion, more sensitive tools, including recombinant antigen-based immunological tests and direct detection (PCR) technology, are needed to adequately assess the role of latent syphilis in persons with HIV/AIDS. Repeating older syphilis reinoculation studies may help establish a successful animal model for AIDS, and resolve many paradoxes in HIV science.

  18. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  19. Economics and econophysics in the era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Ann

    2016-12-01

    There is an undeniable disconnect between theory-heavy economics and the real world, and some cross polination of ideas with econophysics, which is more balanced between data and models, might help economics along the way to become a truly scientific enterprise. With the coming of the era of Big Data, this transformation of economics into a data-driven science is becoming more urgent. In this article, I use the story of Kepler's discovery of his three laws of planetary motion to enlarge the framework of the scientific approach, from one that focuses on experimental sciences, to one that accommodates observational sciences, and further to one that embraces data mining and machine learning. I distinguish between the ontological values of Kepler's Laws vis-a-vis Newton's Laws, and argue that the latter is more fundamental because it is able to explain the former. I then argue that the fundamental laws of economics lie not in mathematical equations, but in models of adaptive economic agents. With this shift in mind set, it becomes possible to think about how interactions between agents can lead to the emergence of multiple stable states and critical transitions, and complex adaptive policies and regulations that might actually work in the real world. Finally, I discuss how Big Data, exploratory agent-based modeling, and predictive agent-based modeling can come together in a unified framework to make economics a true science.

  20. The 'second nuclear era': A perspective from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Orlov, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    As are many other countries, Russia is working on the development of new nuclear power plants that incorporate enhanced safety features. At the same time, it is realized that over the next 20 years the expansion of nuclear power can hardly be expected in a country suffering a deep crisis, with a low standard of living yet with per capita energy production higher than in Germany or France. Even doubling the nuclear capacity would influence less than 3% of Russia's fuel balance, making it incommensurate with the extent of problems now facing the country and its fuel and energy economy. The main goals of nuclear power and arguments in favour of its development in Russia as in most other countries with nuclear programmes - are lying ahead in the century to come. The objectives of the next stage - the 'second nuclear era' should be to provide a radical solution to the looming problems of environment, resources, and transportation, as well as social and international problems associated with the inevitable growth of energy demands

  1. The evolution of media communications through historical and civilisation eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results of the media communications development, one of the most important activities of marketing and public relations, as a means for achieving objectives by different social subjects. This paper aims to ascertain the particularities, similarities and differences in the use of media by institutions such as government bodies, economic agencies and nonprofit sector by applying the contrastive analysis of media communications throughout civilization history. The methodology of this approach involves the identification of the media communications and media, the determination of their specific characteristics, then, the observation of the ways of their application in different historical periods (prehistoric times, Mesopotamia, Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome, the Middle Ages, the modern era and areas (politics, economics, nonprofit sector and, finally, the identification of the mutual similarities and differences. One of the conclusions of this research is that media communications throughout civilization history have not significantly changed in its objectives, strategies and message contents, with the perceived differences referring mainly to the form, that is, the technological aspect of the media.

  2. Evs. in Green Grid Era and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. -H. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set up foundations for vehicle dynamics and apply them to possible future EVs-wireless in-wheel motor elctric vehicles (wirelsee IWMEVs-in the coming green grid (GG era. GG is the most advanced form of the coming smart gird in which electricity is to be generated only through harmless resources, mainly solar energy. All the cars are to be EVs which are wirelessly connected to the GG through a regional aggregator which survey the area and in case of need, the emergency signal is to be sent to the vehicle to make a necessary action for collision avoiding. We also discuss the climate change in general and global warming in particular and state why global warming is a grave issue for the human being through archeo-climatology. We state a plausible waether-cycle conjecture of 1470 years as a combination of conjectures of H. Noshioka and the latest ones based on the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO cycles.

  3. Arctic Sea Level During the Satellite Altimetry Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carret, A.; Johannessen, J. A.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    Results of the sea-level budget in the high latitudes (up to 80°N) and the Arctic Ocean during the satellite altimetry era. We investigate the closure of the sea-level budget since 2002 using two altimetry sea-level datasets based on the Envisat waveform retracking: temperature and salinity data....... However, in terms of regional average over the region ranging from 66°N to 80°N, the steric component contributes little to the observed sea-level trend, suggesting a dominant mass contribution in the Arctic region. This is confirmed by GRACE-based ocean mass time series that agree well with the altimetry......-based sea-level time series. Direct estimate of the mass component is not possible prior to GRACE. Thus, we estimated the mass contribution from the difference between the altimetry-based sea level and the steric component. We also investigate the coastal sea level with tide gauge records. Twenty coupled...

  4. Revitalisasi Kinerja Guru PAI Dalam Bidang Ekstrakurikuler Di Era Globalisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Makhmudah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The teaching profession is still much discussed and questioned the whole circle. Seeing the reality demands of modern times, that in an increasingly complex world of education requires improvement in the arrangement and to organize the necessary personal intelegent capable and responsive. Teacher performance is always in the spotlight because of the challenges facing increasingly complex. With the background of this problem, researchers interested in assessing and dig deeper into how the figure of a teacher, especially PAI teacher performance. The teaching profession is still much discussed and questioned the whole circle. Due to the problems experienced by the Islamic religious education teachers or educational institutions today increasingly converging. The problems that are studied include: a the process of teaching and learning in class b Extracurricular activities c Creation of a religious atmosphere in the school environment. The problem is interesting to study the researcher perspective, as any good instituted in school/madrasah. A teacher in the eyes of the public in the code of ethics of teachers, or in view of religion is a complicated problem that is not discussed much less exhausted in this globalization era.

  5. Extend Course for Product Designer in Digital Mobile Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIU, Tzu-Heng; HUANG, Xian-Chun

    2017-12-01

    Product design refers to a system of processes from confirming a product’s specifications to product’s structure. Form, technology, and needs must be considered simultaneously to ensure qualities. In recent years, with the advancement of smartphone technology, many products are connected with apps. Designers cannot exclude themselves from this new wave of the trend. In this article, household hydroponic products design is used as an example, to show the close relationship between digital mobile technology and product design in the contemporary world. Regularly measure the amount of liquid to be added is difficult for a consumer who has no professional experience. To facilitate the introduction of small-scale aquaculture systems into the home, we proposed sensor hardware combined with App software, measured EC and pH value and transmitted to the phone. The app can calculate and display the amount of added and control the amount of inserted through a Bluetooth connection. The physical design needs to take into account the connection between the electronic parts and the circuit board, and interface operation. Thus, not only the model of the product but also the user interface has to be integrated to show the product's quality completely. Besides, authors made reflection upon the necessity for adjustments for interdisciplinary courses under the changing digital mobile era. Also, under the current curriculum structure, possible teaching approach is expressed for extending student’s feasibility.

  6. REVITALISASI KINERJA GURU PAI DALAM BIDANG EKSTRAKURIKULER DI ERA GLOBALISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mahkmudah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching profession is still much discussed and questioned  the whole circle. Seeing the reality demands of modern times, that in an increasingly complex world of education requires improvement in the arrangement and to organize the necessary personal intelegent capable and responsive.Teacher performance is always in the spotlight because of the challenges facing increasingly complex. With the background of this problem, researchers interested in assessing and dig deeper into how the figure of a teacher, especially PAI teacher performance. The teaching profession is still much discussed and questioned the whole circle. Due to the problems experienced by the Islamic religious education teachers or educational institutions today increasinglyconverging.The problems that are studied include: a the process of teaching and learning in class b Extracurricular activities c Creation of a religious atmosphere in the school environment. The problem is interesting to study the researcher perspective, as any good instituted in school / madrasah. A teacher in the eyes of the public in the code of ethics of teachers, or in view of religion is a complicated problem that is not discussed much less exhausted in this globalization era.   Key Words  : Revitalisation, Performance, Religion Teacher, Globalization.

  7. Laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy in the era of minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to a nation-wide population-based study in Taiwan, along with the expanding concepts and surgical techniques of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic supracervical/subtotal hysterectomy (LSH has been blooming. Despite this, the role of LSH in the era of minimally invasive surgery remains uncertain. In this review, we tried to evaluate the perioperative and postoperative outcomes of LSH compared to other types of hysterectomy, including total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH. From the literature, LSH has a better perioperative outcome than TAH, and comparable perioperative complications compared with laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. LSH had less bladder injury, vaginal cuff bleeding, hematoma, infection, and dehiscence requiring re-operation compared with TLH. Despite this, LSH has more postoperative cyclic menstrual bleeding and re-operations with extirpations of the cervical stump. LSH does, however, have a shorter recovery time than TAH due to the minimally invasive approach; and there is quicker resumption of coitus than TLH, due to cervical preservation and the avoidance of vaginal cuff dehiscence. LSH is therefore an alternative option when the removal of the cervix is not strictly necessary or desired. Nevertheless, the risk of further cervical malignancy, postoperative cyclic menstrual bleeding, and re-operations with extirpations of the cervical stump is a concern when discussing the advantages and disadvantages of LSH with patients.

  8. Household size and urban spatial change: end of an era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sinclair

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A dominant demographic trend of the last few decades has been the declining size of householdsin Western industrialized countries. Following closely upon the Baby Boom, thedevelopment became a major topic of discussion for almost two decades. The basis for, andconsequences of, these changes have been well covered in the demographic literature, buttheir spatial implications have received less attention. Yet the, phenomenon has had a profoundspatial impact at every level of the urban system. Recent statistics indicate that householdsize continues to decline, but does so at a rapidly decreasing rate. The present paperconsiders the spatial repercussions of this trend. More specifically, the paper has three aims.(1 The paper summarizes and puts into present-day perspective, a volume of research conducteda decade ago upon the spatial impact of declining household size upon the U.S.urban system (Sinclair, 1991. (2 Considers more recent demographic developments, askingwhether the impact of declining household size upon the urban system is declining orcoming to a close, (3 Considers other demographic developments which might he takingthe place of declining household size in driving the urban system. In sum, the paper attemptsto answer the question. Is an era, which has signifycantly impacted the U.S. urbansystem, coming to a close?

  9. Caring for the carer in the era of HIV diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempye J. Sempane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The care of terminally ill patients can be physically, emotionally as well as psychologically exhausting. In the era where everyone is busy with his or her hectic daily schedule, caring for someone diagnosed with HIV on her or his deathbed can be a daunting challenge. Caring for someone dying of AIDS does not only challenge the physical being but rather leaves the carer emotionally drained. What was of concern to the author was to see the struggle that the caregiver goes through whilst caring for the sufferer. More often than not, pastoral care and counselling concentrate mainly on the pain and the suffering of the sick person. In the process, pastoral care loses sight of the agony, the emotional strain and, above all, the trauma of the caregivers in their search for answers as they care for the infected. This scenario has prompted the author to look into the theology of caring with an emphasis on pastoral care of the carers with a view of alleviating their emotional burden in caring for the HIV patients.

  10. New data visualization of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, Fedorko; Veronique, Lefebure; Daniel, Lenkes; Omar, Pera Mira

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, new requirements have been received for visualization of monitoring data: advanced graphics, flexibility in configuration and decoupling of the presentation layer from the monitoring repository. Lemonweb is the data visualization component of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system. Lemonweb consists of two subcomponents: a data collector and a web visualization interface. The data collector is a daemon, implemented in Python, responsible for data gathering from the central monitoring repository and storing into time series data structures. Data is stored on disk in Round Robin Database (RRD) files: one file per monitored entity, with set of entity related metrics. Entities may be grouped into a hierarchical structure, called “clusters” and supporting mathematical operations over entities and clusters (e.g. cluster A + cluster B /clusters C – entity XY). Using the configuration information, a cluster definition is evaluated in the collector engine and, at runtime, a sequence of data selects is built, to optimize access to the central monitoring repository. In this article, an overview of the design and architecture as well as highlights of some implemented features will be presented.

  11. Mobile health clinics in the era of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caterina F; Powers, Brian W; Jain, Sachin H; Bennet, Jennifer; Vavasis, Anthony; Oriol, Nancy E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the role of mobile clinics in delivering care to the full spectrum of at-risk populations, the collective impact of mobile clinics has never been assessed. This study characterizes the scope of the mobile clinic sector and its impact on access, costs, and quality. It explores the role of mobile clinics in the era of delivery reform and expanded insurance coverage. A synthesis of observational data collected through Mobile Health Map and published literature related to mobile clinics. Analysis of data from the Mobile Health Map Project, an online platform that aggregates data on mobile health clinics in the United States, supplemented by a comprehensive literature review. Mobile clinics represent an integral component of the healthcare system that serves vulnerable populations and promotes high-quality care at low cost. There are an estimated 1500 mobile clinics receiving 5 million visits nationwide per year. Mobile clinics improve access for vulnerable populations, bolster prevention and chronic disease management, and reduce costs. Expanded coverage and delivery reform increase opportunities for mobile clinics to partner with hospitals, health systems, and insurers to improve care and lower costs. Mobile clinics have a critical role to play in providing high-quality, low-cost care to vulnerable populations. The postreform environment, with increasing accountability for population health management and expanded access among historically underserved populations, should strengthen the ability for mobile clinics to partner with hospitals, health systems, and payers to improve care and lower costs.

  12. A antropologia numa era de confusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybury-Lewis David

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Antropologia sempre procurou entender a natureza humana e as variedades da cultura humana. Esta tarefa ambiciosa enfrentou constantemente dificuldades teóricas e metodológicas. A teoria da evolução social foi apresentada como sendo preconceituosa e baseada em poucas evidências, inclusive com uma inferência racista em uma época de dominação européia. Os antídotos - rigoroso trabalho de campo inspirado no funcionalismo, estruturalismo ou culturalismo - eram também vistos como contaminados por hierarquias de uma ordem mundial colonialista. A atenção pós-moderna a este "orientalismo" em um mundo pós-colonial produziu textos no sentido de atentar os antropólogos para estas questões, o que acarretou um declínio na produção e no entendimento antropológico. Esta conferência considera estes dilemas, os correntes debates sobre "cultura" e "sobrevivência cultural" e como antropólogos deveriam proceder nesta nova era de confusão, produzida pela globalização e pelo aparecimento do Estado-nação.

  13. Kajian Pengelolaan Keuangan Daerah Kabupaten Jayapura Pada Era Otonomi Khusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halomoan Hutajulu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ineffectiveness of regional financial management will certainly lead to the implementation of regional development are not optimal. Depart from the concept in mind, it is interesting to examine and analyze the issue of how to measure the effectiveness of financial management in the Jayapura District on the Special Autonomy Era. The analysis result showed that generally, area of financial management in Jayapura District running less effective. Other than that the amount of contributions of the fund balance at the regional income shows high dependency of revenue sharing. The expenditure side tends to minimize the increase in regular budget expenditure for development (public, hence the macro does not much affect the acceleration of economic development. The budget deficit system will optimize development in three ways. First, the government's efforts to optimize the internal resources possessed to reduce dependency on fund balance by mapping and restructuring local revenue. Second, the government must set clear priorities of regional development budget allocation according to the concept of value for money. Third, the budget deficit or surplus principle for the government is an innovative way for any action to encourage productive economic activity.

  14. Nuclear Research and Development in the AEC Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2015, South East Asian Countris are entering into the social, economic and security partnership. Nuclear Research and Development undoubtedly has important roles in all three pillars. Nuclear applications that are being realised in the region ranges from energy, mrdical to agricultural application.In this new era of cooperation, we are seeking for technologies that lead to solution to improve our ways of living. As all other research and development nuclear research has been carried out in all countries in the region. However, it does have its critiques on safety issues based on people capability in the region. In order to make progress in research and development, human resource development is the key fundamental to its sucess. An experience of regional collaboration in developing pulsed neutron souurce is presented as an example. The research had been revived though collaoration of different research laboratories within ASEAN countries with support of Asian African Assosiation for Plasma Training (AAAPT). The 'low cost research theme' has fundamentally set up a platform for more future advanced research for fusion and for local industrial applications. It also increases experimental and theoretical research awareness among new generations that could be carried out in local laboratories. A device such as UNU-ICPT Plasma Focus has been explored, and it has been built, studied; both theoretical and experimental; and used for many different kind of applications.

  15. Wealth, health and frailty in industrial-era London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Hughes-Morey, Gail; Bekvalac, Jelena; Karsten, Jordan

    2016-05-01

    Socioeconomic status is a powerful predictor of mortality in living populations, as status affects exposure or access to a variety of factors that impact health and survival, such as diet, healthcare, infectious disease and pollution. This study examines the effect of socioeconomic status on mortality and survival in London during a period spanning the early 18th through mid-19th centuries. During this period, London experienced rapid industrialization and heightened class distinctions. This study examines whether low-socioeconomic status was associated with reduced survival at a time when the distinctions between social strata were peaking. The samples for this study are drawn from three skeletal assemblages in London that represent lower and higher social strata. The upper socioeconomic status sample (n = 394) is from Chelsea Old Church and St Bride's Fleet Street (crypt assemblage). The low socioeconomic status sample (n = 474) is from St. Bride's Lower Churchyard (also known as St Bride's Farringdon Street). The effect of status on mortality and survival is assessed using hazard analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results reveal elevated mortality and reduced survival for lower socioeconomic status children, but no strong effect of status on adult mortality or survival. These results might indicate strong selective mortality operating during childhood or the effects of migration in the industrial-era population of London.

  16. Holistic Nursing in the Genetic/Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoff, Leighsa

    2016-06-01

    Holistic nursing practice is an ever-evolving transformative process with core values that require continued growth, professional leadership, and advocacy. Holistic nurses are required to stay current with all new required competencies, such as the Core Competencies in Genetics for Health Professional, and, as such, be adept at translating scientific evidence relating to genetics/genomics in the clinical setting. Knowledge of genetics/genomics in relation to nursing practice, policy, utilization, and research influence nurses' responsibilities. In addition to holistic nursing competencies, the holistic nurse must have basic knowledge and skills to integrate genetics/genomics aspects. It is important for holistic nurses to enhance their overall knowledge foundation, skills, and attitudes about genetics to prepare for the transformation in health care that is already underway. Holistic nurses can provide an important perspective to the application of genetics and genomics, focusing on health promotion, caring, and understanding the relationship between caring and families, community, and society. Yet there may be a lack of genetic and genomic knowledge to fully participate in the current genomic era. This article will explore the required core competencies for all health care professionals, share linkage of holistic nurses in practice with genetic/genomic conditions, and provide resources to further one's knowledge base. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Nuclear Issues in the Post-September 11 era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Lewis; Wheeler, Michael; May, Michael; Pikayev, Alexander; Wolfstahl, Jon; Roberts, Brad; Tertrais, Bruno; Umbach, Frank

    2003-03-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Foundation for Strategic Research convened a small group of high-level experts on nuclear policy issues to discuss the consequences of September 11 and of the 'war on terrorism' for nuclear debates. Participants met in Paris on September 26-27, 2002, and later provided papers which are reproduced here. This project was sponsored by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Contents: 1 - Nuclear Issues in the Post-September 11 era: emerging Trends (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - Nuclear energy Issues: Global Dimensions and Security Challenges (Frank Umbach); 3 - Proliferation and Non-Proliferation: What's Changed-What Hasn't? (Jon B. Wolfstahl); 4 - Non-Proliferation: Possible New Trends after September 11 (Alexander A. Pikayev); 5 - Nuclear Deterrence Issues in the Post-September 11 World: An American Perspective (Michael O. Wheeler); 6 - The Nuclear Balance of Terror and September 11 (Brad Roberts); 7 - Nuclear Weapons after September 11 (Lewis A. Dunn); 8 - September 11 and the Need for International Nuclear Agreements (Michael May)

  18. Pola Komunikasi Adat Berasan Suku Serawai di Era Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vethy Octaviani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to get a comprehensive picture of the pattern of communication on Berasan local customary in Bengkulu City in experiencing a cultural shift. This study uses phenomenological method by describing the phenomenon of Berasan traditions in modern era. Cultural communication pattern is social perception caused by cultural differences that affects the process of perception and including component of communication process. The result shows communication pattern of Berasan local customary of Serawai tribe with communities in Bengkulu city and the migrants has been seen form who will deal first with her parents. Communication pattern of Berasan local customary with urban community of Bengkulu, a man who came first to her house to meet directly with their parents, while communication pattern of Berasan local customary with migrants:  his deputy has to come first to the house of the women. This paper concludes that communication patterns of Berasan local customary between Serawai tribe with Bengkulu community and migrants has changed.

  19. A North American Hydroclimate Synthesis (NAHS) of the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodysill, Jessica R.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Cronin, Thomas M.; Jones, Miriam C.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wahl, David B.; Willard, Debra A.; Addison, Jason A.; Alder, Jay R.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Anderson, Lysanna; Barron, John A.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Khan, Nicole S.; Richey, Julie N.; Starratt, Scott W.; Strickland, Laura E.; Toomey, Michael R.; Treat, Claire C.; Wingard, G. Lynn

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a synthesis of century-scale hydroclimate variations in North America for the Common Era (last 2000 years) using new age models of previously published multiple proxy-based paleoclimate data. This North American Hydroclimate Synthesis (NAHS) examines regional hydroclimate patterns and related environmental indicators, including vegetation, lake water elevation, stream flow and runoff, cave drip rates, biological productivity, assemblages of living organisms, and salinity. Centennial-scale hydroclimate anomalies are obtained by iteratively sampling the proxy data on each of thousands of age model realizations and determining the fractions of possible time series indicating that the century-smoothed data was anomalously wet or dry relative to the 100 BCE to 1900 CE mean. Results suggest regionally asynchronous wet and dry periods over multidecadal to centennial timescales and frequent periods of extended regional drought. Most sites indicate drying during previously documented multicentennial periods of warmer Northern Hemisphere temperatures, particularly in the western U.S., central U.S., and Canada. Two widespread droughts were documented by the NAHS: from 50 BCE to 450 CE and from 800 to 1100 CE. Major hydroclimate reorganizations occurred out of sync with Northern Hemisphere temperature variations and widespread wet and dry anomalies occurred during both warm and cool periods. We present a broad assessment of paleoclimate relationships that highlights the potential influences of internal variability and external forcing and supports a prominent role for Pacific and Atlantic Ocean dynamics on century-scale continental hydroclimate.

  20. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrao, John

    2009-01-01

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  1. PEDAGOGI USUL AL FIQH BERBASIS PENDIDIKAN PERDAMAIAN DI ERA MULTIKULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Rusli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of usul al fiqh in constructing humanist values ​​and principles to build ‘peace education’ in the current multicultural era. Usul al fiqh is considered as the source of value and change, and has played a significant role to start reforms in legal and social institutions because of the pressures of context and religious integrity. The values ​​contained in the sources of Islamic law, such as al Quran, Sunnah, ijma', qiyas, istislah, istihsan, sadd al dhara'i, and also maqasid al shari'ah, are translated into the community and are wholly implemented in the educational institutions. These values ​​are transmitted to the learners through methods such as dialogue, cooperation, problem solving and the democratic limit creation. In transferring knowledge and values​​, an educator must be grounded on two important approaches: first, encouraging respect to the diversity based on the concept that education as a mirror, window, and conversation; second, doing class activity which is more cooperative based on the principle of justice and equality.

  2. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklis, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals

  3. Analysis of ERA40-driven CLM simulations for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E.B.; Luethi, D.; Schaer, C.; Seneviratne, S.I. [Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Anders, I.; Rockel, B. [Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The Climate Local Model (CLM) is a community Regional Climate Model (RCM) based on the COSMO weather forecast model. We present a validation of long-term ERA40-driven CLM simulations performed with different model versions. In particular we analyse three simulations with differences in boundary nudging and horizontal resolution performed for the EU-project ENSEMBLES with the model version 2.4.6, and one with the latest version 4.0. Moreover, we include for comparison a long-term simulation with the RCM CHRM previously used at ETH Zurich. We provide a thorough validation of temperature, precipitation, net radiation, cloud cover, circulation, evaporation and terrestrial water storage for winter and summer. For temperature and precipitation the interannual variability is additionally assessed. While simulations with CLM version 2.4.6 are generally too warm and dry in summer but still within the typical error of PRUDENCE simulations, version 4.0 has an anomalous cold and wet bias. This is partly due to a strong underestimation of the net radiation associated with cloud cover overestimation. Two similar CLM 2.4.6 simulations with different spatial resolutions (0.44 and 0.22 ) reveal for the analysed fields no clear benefit of the higher resolution except for better resolved fine-scale structures. While the large-scale circulation is represented more realistically with spectral nudging, temperature and precipitation are not. Overall, CLM performs comparatively to other state-of-the-art RCMs over Europe. (orig.)

  4. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.

  5. Household size and urban spatial change: end of an era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sinclair

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dominant demographic trend of the last few decades has been the declining size of house-holds in Western industrialized countries. Following closely upon the Baby Boom, the development became a major topic of discussion for almost two decades. The basis for, and consequences of, these changes have been well covered in the demographic literature, but their spatial implications have received less attention. Yet the, phenomenon has had a pro-found spatial impact at every level of the urban system. Recent statistics indicate that house-hold size continues to decline, but does so at a rapidly decreasing rate. The present paper considers the spatial repercussions of this trend. More specifically, the paper has three aims. (1 The paper summarizes and puts into present-day perspective, a volume of research con-ducted a decade ago upon the spatial impact of declining household size upon the U.S. urban system (Sinclair, 1991. (2 Considers more recent demographic developments, ask-ing whether the impact of declining household size upon the urban system is declining or coming to a close, (3 Considers other demographic developments which might he taking the place of declining household size in driving the urban system. In sum, the paper at-tempts to answer the question. Is an era, which has signifycantly impacted the U.S. urban system, coming to a close?

  6. KEMAMPANAN SEKURITI MAKANAN DALAM ERA PERINDUSTRIAN: PENGAJARAN DARIPADA MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahrul Akmal Damin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the development of agriculture for food security is emphasized to ensure a stable supply in balancing the domestic demand. In order to achieve this goal, the government has emphasized the agricultural development policy despite the challenges of rapid industrial sector. Since 1984, the challenge of agricultural development for food security is critical when Malaysia experienced a phase of active industrial development. Thus in the context of the framework, this study is to see agricultural development efforts being undertaken by government leaders to ensure food security in the industrial era is guaranteed. Based on the five-year development plan of Malaysia, the government's strategies to provide sustainable food production are examined in details. By using the qualitative analysis, this paper analyzes the policies of the government leaders regarding the development of agriculture for food security which includes (i the administration phase of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, (ii the administration phase of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, and (iii the administration phase of Dato 'Seri Mohd. Najib Abdul Razak. It is hoped that the findings will help the policymakers in formulating the agricultural development for food security in order to optimize the food production and at the same time can protect the country from threats that could disrupt the stability of the country due to the lack of supply.

  7. Simple Approach to Superamphiphobic Overhanging Silicon Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with contact angles up to 152 degrees and roll-off angle down to 8 degrees. Such nonlithographic nanoscale overhanging Structures can also be added to silicon nanograss by deposition of a thin SiO2 layer, which equips the silicon rods with 100-300 nm sized overhanging Structures. This is a simple, fast...

  8. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  9. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  11. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  12. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements

  13. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  14. Bayesian decision theory : A simple toy problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, H.R.N.; Linger, R.O.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We give here a comparison of the expected outcome theory, the expected utility theory, and the Bayesian decision theory, by way of a simple numerical toy problem in which we look at the investment willingness to avert a high impact low probability event. It will be found that for this toy problem

  15. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  16. A rewriting view of simple typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stump, A.; Zantema, H.; Kimmell, G.; El Haj Omar, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way,

  17. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  18. Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En

  19. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  20. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  1. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  2. Variations on a Simple Dice Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Joe

    2018-01-01

    I begin my introductory astronomy course with a unit on critical thinking that focuses on, among other things, the differences between the "scientific method" as frequently presented in textbooks and actual scientific practice. One particular classroom activity uses a simple dice game to simulate observation of a natural phenomenon and…

  3. Tour of a Simple Trigonometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a simple trigonometric problem that generates a strange phenomenon when different methods are applied to tackling it. A series of problem-solving activities are discussed, so that students can be alerted that the precision of diagrams is important when solving geometric problems. In addition, the problem-solving plan was…

  4. A rewriting view of simple typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stump, A.; Zantema, H.; Kimmell, G.; El Haj Omar, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way,

  5. A simple model for indentation creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginder, Ryan S.; Nix, William D.; Pharr, George M.

    2018-03-01

    A simple model for indentation creep is developed that allows one to directly convert creep parameters measured in indentation tests to those observed in uniaxial tests through simple closed-form relationships. The model is based on the expansion of a spherical cavity in a power law creeping material modified to account for indentation loading in a manner similar to that developed by Johnson for elastic-plastic indentation (Johnson, 1970). Although only approximate in nature, the simple mathematical form of the new model makes it useful for general estimation purposes or in the development of other deformation models in which a simple closed-form expression for the indentation creep rate is desirable. Comparison to a more rigorous analysis which uses finite element simulation for numerical evaluation shows that the new model predicts uniaxial creep rates within a factor of 2.5, and usually much better than this, for materials creeping with stress exponents in the range 1 ≤ n ≤ 7. The predictive capabilities of the model are evaluated by comparing it to the more rigorous analysis and several sets of experimental data in which both the indentation and uniaxial creep behavior have been measured independently.

  6. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  7. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zane, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  8. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  9. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  10. Simulated Holograms: A Simple Introduction to Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, H.; Schneider, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a project that uses a computer and a dot matrix printer to simulate the holographic recording process of simple object structures. The process' four steps are (1) superposition of waves; (2) representing the superposition of a plane reference wave on the monitor screen; (3) photographic reduction of the images; and (4) reconstruction of…

  11. A Simple Model of Self-Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a simple model that describes individuals' self-assessments of their abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisals of others and experience. Our model predicts that if communication is imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too

  12. A simple model of self-assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.; Swank, O.H.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a simple model that describes individuals' self-assessments of their abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisals of others and experience. Our model predicts that if communication is imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too positive and

  13. Simple relation among the charged lepton masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi; Yasue, Masaki.

    1992-10-01

    It is suggested that the first and second generations of quarks and leptons can be taken as almost and quasi Nambu-Goldstone fermions, respectively. As a result, derived are simple relations such as m τ ≅(m μ 3 /m e ) 1/2 , which are well satisfied experimentally. (author)

  14. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  15. TMAP: Stata module for simple thematic mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pisati

    2005-01-01

    This is a revised version of the package published in The Stata Journal 4(4):361-378 (2004) for carrying out simple thematic mapping. This new release should be considered as a beta version: comments and problem reports to the author are welcome. After the final revision, the resulting version will be submitted for publication to The Stata Journal.

  16. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  17. A Simple ELISA Exercise for Undergraduate Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy R.

    Understanding of immunological techniques such as the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) is an important part of instructional units in human health, developmental biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. This paper describes a simple ELISA exercise for undergraduate biology that effectively simulates the technique using a paper model.…

  18. Testing theory in practice: a simple experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, R.; Brezocnik, Z.; Kapus, T.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Heerink, A.W.; Tretmans, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the experiences gained in conducting a simple testing experiment. The goal of this experiment is to apply the abstract, formal testing framework [8] in a practical setting, and to indicate the critical aspects in its application to realistic testing situations. For that

  19. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  20. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm

  1. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  2. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  3. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  4. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  5. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour among young people in the era ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    people's practicing risky sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS. Data used in ... pregnancies, unsafe induced abortion and HIV .... additional selection criteria. ...... India. International. Family. Planning. Perspectives 1999; 25(3): 139-146. 18.

  6. Reforming Teacher Education: A First Year Progress Report on Teachers for a New Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirby, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    In a bold attempt to reform the way teachers are prepared in the United States, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, with the Annenberg Foundation and the Ford Foundation, launched Teachers for a New Era (TNE...

  7. Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | Timothy R. Rebbeck, PhD will present "Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era" on March 20, 2018, from 11:00 am - 12:00 pm at the NCI Shady Grove Campus. Learn more about this lecture.

  8. NOVEL CANDHIKALA KAPURANTA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENYELESAIAN DEHUMANISASI PADA ERA INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna Pebryawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to describe the cultural value in Candhikala Kapuranta novel as an alternative to dehumanization settlement in IoT era. The research method used is qualitative descriptive. The data source used is Candhikala Kapuranta's novel by Sugiarto Sriwibawa. Data collection techniques used is the technique of referring note, while the technique of data analysis using interactive analysis techniques. Based on the research that has been done, the results of his research as follows. First, the cultural values in Candhikala Kapuranta's novel include religious values and social values. Second, dehumanization in the IoT era is individualism, pornography, and intolerance. Thirdly, the cultural values contained in Candhikala Kapuranta's novel as an alternative to dehumanization settlement in the IoT era.Keywords: Cultural Values, Dehumanization, Era IoT, Novel

  9. India Labour and Employment Report 2014: Workers in the era of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    Jun 7, 2016 ... India's rapid economic growth has reduced extreme poverty among ... India Labour and Employment Report 2014: Workers in the era of globalization ... The impact of demographic change on economic growth in Kenya and ...

  10. Kidney transplantation: A new era of laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Marcelino

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomies had been performed successfully with improvement of surgical parameter in due time. Thus, laparoscopic approach has entered a new era for kidney procurement in Indonesia.

  11. OER in the Mobile Era: Content Repositories’ Features for Mobile Devices and Future Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Drachsler, Hendrik; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Tabuenca, B., Drachsler, H., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2012, December). OER in the Mobile Era: Content Repositories’ Features for Mobile Devices and Future Trends. Europe eleaning papers, [Special issue] Mobile learning 2012.

  12. Transmedia storytelling and the new era of media convergence in higher education, by Stavroula Kalogeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Morrissey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stavroula Kalogeras. Transmedia Storytelling and the New Era of Media Convergence in Higher Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, hardcover, $100 (276p ISBN 978-1137388360.

  13. Bergmann eitab kurikuulsa ERA Panga üldkoosoleku võltsitust / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2002-01-01

    ERA Panga eksjuht Andres Bergmann kinnitas kohtus, et protokoll panga aktsionäride üldkoosoleku kohta, mis vabastas kohustustest panga ees kuus äriühingut ja Tarmo Rubeni, polnud tagantjärele vormistatud

  14. Parathyroid carcinoma survival: improvements in the era of intact parathyroid hormone monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R. Martinez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH assay is a critical test in the diagnosis and management of PTH-mediated hypercalcemia, including parathyroid carcinoma (PCa. We hypothesized that the survival of patients diagnosed with PCa has improved since adoption of the iPTH assay into clinical practice. We identified all confirmed cases of PCa within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database from 1973 to 2006. Patients were categorized into two eras based upon introduction of the iPTH assay: 1973 to 1997 (era I and 1997 to 2006 (era II, when the iPTH assay was in standard use. We estimated overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences among survival curves assessed via log rank. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models compared the survival rates between treatment eras while controlling for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, nodal status, extent of disease, and type of surgery. Multivariate models included patients undergoing potentially curative surgery and excluded those with dis- tant metastases. Risks of overall and disease-specific mortality were reported as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Study criteria were met by 370 patients. Median survival was 15.6 years. Five-year rates of OS and DSS were 78% and 88% for era I and 82% and 96% for era II. On multivariate analysis, age, black race, and unknown extent of disease predicted an increased risk of death from any cause. Treatment era did not predict OS. No factor predicted PCa-specific mortality. In multivariate analysis, neither OS nor DSS have improved in the current era that utilizes iPTH for the detection and management of PCa.

  15. Book Review: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7......Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7...

  16. SEAS-ERA: An overarching effort to coordinate marine research policies across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Albaigés Riera, Joan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The aim of the SEAS-ERA initiative (2010-2014), developed within the European Union Framework Programme (EU FPVII) (contract 249552), was to coordinate the structure of national and regional marine and maritime research programs to empower and strengthen marine research all across Europe. A major goal was the development and implementation of common research strategies and programs related to European seas basins. To achieve this goal, SEAS-ERA was applied at two differen...

  17. The Analysis of RDF Semantic Data Storage Optimization in Large Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Can

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of information technology and network technology in China, the Internet has also ushered in the era of large data. In order to obtain the effective acquisition of information in the era of large data, it is necessary to optimize the existing RDF semantic data storage and realize the effective query of various data. This paper discusses the storage optimization of RDF semantic data under large data.

  18. Characterization of ERAS, a putative novel human oncogene, in skin and breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña Avalos, B.L. de la

    2014-07-01

    Most human tumors have mutations in genes of the RAS small GTPase protein family. RAS works as a molecular switch for signaling pathways that modulate many aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, differentiation, motility and death. Oncogenic mutations in RAS prevent GTP hydrolysis, locking RAS in a permanently active state, being the most common mutations in HRAS, KRAS and NRAS. The human RAS family consists of at least 36 different genes, many of which have been scarcely studied. One of these relatively unknown genes is ERAS (ES cell-expressed RAS), which is a constitutively active RAS protein, localized in chromosome X and expressed only in embryonic cells, being undetectable in adult tissues. New high throughput technologies have made it possible to screen complete cancer genomes for identification of mutations associated to cancer. Using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system, ERAS was identified as a putative novel oncogene in non-melanoma skin and breast cancers. The major aim of this project is to determine the general characteristics of ERAS as a putative novel human oncogene in skin and breast cells. Forced expression of ERAS results in drastic changes in cell shape, proliferation and motility. When ERAS is overexpressed in skin and breast human cells it is mainly localized in the cytoplasmic membrane. ERAS activates the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERAS-expressing cells suffer spontaneous morphologic and phenotypic EMT-like changes, including cytoskeleton reorganization, vimentin and N-cadherin up-regulation and down-regulation of E-cadherin, which can be associated with increased malignancy, and invasive and metastatic potential. Our results suggest that inappropriate expression of ERAS lead to transformation of human cells. (Author)

  19. Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.

  20. The climate of the Common Era off the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abrantes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is a climate hot spot, sensitive not only to global warming but also to water availability. In this work we document major temperature and precipitation changes in the Iberian Peninsula and margin during the last 2000 years and propose an interplay of the North Atlantic internal variability with the three atmospheric circulation modes (ACMs, (North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, east atlantic (EA and Scandinavia (SCAND to explain the detected climate variability. We present reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST derived from alkenones and on-land precipitation (estimated from higher plant n-alkanes and pollen data in sedimentary sequences recovered along the Iberian Margin between the south of Portugal (Algarve and the northwest of Spain (Galiza (36 to 42° N. A clear long-term cooling trend, from 0 CE to the beginning of the 20th century, emerges in all SST records and is considered to be a reflection of the decrease in the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation that began after the Holocene optimum. Multi-decadal/centennial SST variability follows other records from Spain, Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. Warm SSTs throughout the first 1300 years encompass the Roman period (RP, the Dark Ages (DA and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA. A cooling initiated at 1300 CE leads to 4 centuries of colder SSTs contemporary with the Little Ice Age (LIA, while a climate warming at 1800 CE marks the beginning of the modern/Industrial Era. Novel results include two distinct phases in the MCA: an early period (900–1100 years characterized by intense precipitation/flooding and warm winters but a cooler spring–fall season attributed to the interplay of internal oceanic variability with a positive phase in the three modes of atmospheric circulation (NAO, EA and SCAND. The late MCA is marked by cooler and relatively drier winters and a warmer spring–fall season consistent with a shift to a negative mode of the

  1. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  2. New-Materialism and Reification in the Infoproduction Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A. Duarte

    2013-09-01

    the role played by technology, mainly the technology of visual media, in the alienation of reality through the production of simulacra. I will deal in particular with the transformation of the understanding of the concept of reification. I will analyze how during the second half of the last century, mass media, in order to defend the established reality, accentuated their focus on the creation of illusion, that in a successive stage, due to technological improvements, mainly the digital technology, became a media reification. This analysis will be developed by means of the study of some fundamental works such as Horkheimer’s Zur Kritik der instrumentellen Vernunft, Horkheimer-Adorno’s Dialektik der Aufklärung and Marcuse’s One Dimensional Man, among others, in order to go into Baudrillar’s theories of illusion in depth aiming at analyzing the production of social illusion in our digital era. Having this analysis as framework, it will be possible to develop a new understanding of the concept of reification able to recognize some phenomena that characterize our infoproduction era – (e.g. the immateriality. In addition, through this concept of media reification it can be possible to re-elaborate and adapt some Deleuze’s thoughts about the construction of space, narratives spaces, rhizomatic structures and the state of becoming of both object and subject.

  3. Children's Privacy in the Big Data Era: Research Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff; Milosevic, Tijana

    2017-11-01

    This article focuses on the privacy implications of advertising on social media, mobile apps, and games directed at children. Academic research on children's privacy has primarily focused on the safety risks involved in sharing personal information on the Internet, leaving market forces (such as commercial data collection) as a less discussed aspect of children's privacy. Yet, children's privacy in the digital era cannot be fully understood without examining marketing practices, especially in the context of "big data." As children increasingly consume content on an ever-expanding variety of digital devices, media and advertising industries are creating new ways to track their behaviors and target them with personalized content and marketing messages based on individual profiles. The advent of the so-called Internet of Things, with its ubiquitous sensors, is expanding these data collection and profiling practices. These trends raise serious concerns about digital dossiers that could follow young people into adulthood, affecting their access to education, employment, health care, and financial services. Although US privacy law provides some safeguards for children younger than 13 years old online, adolescents are afforded no such protections. Moreover, scholarship on children and privacy continues to lag behind the changes taking place in global media, advertising, and technology. This article proposes collaboration among researchers from a range of fields that will enable cross-disciplinary studies addressing not only the developmental issues related to different age groups but also the design of digital media platforms and the strategies used to influence young people. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Scientific Education in the Post-Corporate University Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhor, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    The emergence of electronic journals, online databases and online educational tools has provided our civilization with a plethora of opportunities to expand the impact of our educational system. Nonetheless, structures that were borne out of the post-World War II era remain firmly entrenched and, though they have undergone some transformation, continue to underperform the potential that is now attainable via a full- fledged incorporation of information technology into pedagogy even in the earliest stages of learning. The induction of talented, self-motivated individuals, irrespective of their financial background, should be at the forefront of any new approach to pedagogy as many of our talented youth with the potential for success have underappreciated capacities for independent learning. A more liberal system, which we call the "Open University," may encourage many such individuals to pursue a scientific career, save them the often prohibitive cost of attending prestigious universities, reduce the costs of operating universities and pave a fast-track to intellectual development for the most talented high-school students. This system may be implemented in tandem without detriment to our current system provided that educators take it upon themselves to reach out and collaborate with high-school teachers, and university bureaucracies begin to allow degree certification on the basis of standardized competency examinations and panel reviews of published work as opposed to the completion of a rigid set of cost-bearing requirements. In addition to the history and concepts outlined above, this work presents a model for a School for Rapid Intellectual Development (SFRID) which may be implemented at a minimal cost in developing countries and, thereby, can maximize the scope and extent of the Open University approach. Hopefully, this model will be tested in practice in the near future and, if successful, can be cloned both overseas and in North America.

  5. Las arquitecturas pintadas, cuando Málaga no era blanca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Asenjo Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se atribuye a Confucio la cita, Todo tiene belleza, pero no todos la ven, y Rosario Camacho Martínez hace justicia a ese memento filosófico, pues con su magisterio ejercido desde el Departamento de Historia del Arte de la Universidad de Málaga, y su amplio conocimiento sobre las arquitecturas pintadas, hizo que muchas personas e instituciones que no veían más allá de la imperfección e incorrección técnica de este legado cultural comenzaran a valorarlo de forma positiva. Precisamente, el artículo «Cuando Málaga no era blanca: La arquitectura pintada del siglo XVIII», publicado en la revista Boletín de Arte en el año 1993 fue el inicio de muchas cosas positivas que Rosario Camacho ha aportado, no solo al conocimiento científico, sino también a la propia ciudad de Málaga. Desde esa tribuna literaria que tanta satisfacciones personales y académicas le ha dado durante toda su vida explicó su característica forma de abordar este singular patrimonio: rigor científico, análisis del dato, metodología clara y comunicación del conocimiento de forma asequible y comprensible, características ampliamente elogiadas por el desaparecido y añorado maestro Juan Antonio Ramírez, a quien le unía una estrecha amistad y un profundo reconocimiento.

  6. Newborn Screening in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Chen, Jiajia; Shen, Bairong

    2017-01-01

    As newborn screening success stories gained general confirmation during the past 50 years, scientists quickly discovered diagnostic tests for a host of genetic disorders that could be treated at birth. Outstanding progress in sequencing technologies over the last two decades has made it possible to comprehensively profile newborn screening (NBS) and identify clinically relevant genomic alterations. With the rapid developments in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) recently, we can detect newborns at the genomic level and be able to direct the appropriate diagnosis to the different individuals at the appropriate time, which is also encompassed in the concept of precision medicine. Besides, we can develop novel interventions directed at the molecular characteristics of genetic diseases in newborns. The implementation of genomics in NBS programs would provide an effective premise for the identification of the majority of genetic aberrations and primarily help in accurate guidance in treatment and better prediction. However, there are some debate correlated with the widespread application of genome sequencing in NBS due to some major concerns such as clinical analysis, result interpretation, storage of sequencing data, and communication of clinically relevant mutations to pediatricians and parents, along with the ethical, legal, and social implications (so-called ELSI). This review is focused on these critical issues and concerns about the expanding role of genomics in NBS for precision medicine. If WGS or WES is to be incorporated into NBS practice, considerations about these challenges should be carefully regarded and tackled properly to adapt the requirement of genome sequencing in the era of precision medicine.

  7. O RACIOCÍNIO ESPACIAL NA ERA DAS TECNOLOGIAS INFORMACIONAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenildo Pedro da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No mundo contemporâneo, ou, mais precisamente, nesta era da informação instantânea e simultânea, o raciocínio geográfico tem se destacado e, simultaneamente, se alterado por meio de novos aspectos sociais e tecnológicos. O presente estudo foi realizado com dezenove docentes atuantes em vários cursos de formação de professor de geografia de instituições públicas e privadas de diversas regiões do Brasil. Esses docentes têm utilizado as novas tecnologias e/ou pesquisado e produzido trabalhos a respeito delas no ensino de geografia. Diante disso, perseguimos o estudo na busca de se responder a seguinte indagação: novas tecnologias e raciocínio espacial: mas o que isso tem a ver? As tecnologias atuais, como veículos de informações, não têm a finalidade de desenvolver o “saber pensar o espaço” ou de realizar o “raciocínio espacial”, mas mesmo sem essa finalidade as pessoas aprendem geografia, pensam com a mediação dessas tecnologias. O ensino de geografia contribuiu para a formação de diversas pessoas por meio do desenvolvimento do raciocínio espacial realizado em duas diferentes escalas, do local ao global, mostrando articulações entre os diversos níveis de abstração, desde o espaço do trabalho até sua inserção em uma sociedade que se internacionaliza de maneira acelerada.

  8. Pediatric Acute Otitis Media in the Era of Pneumococcal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Ishman, Stacey L; Altaye, Mekibib; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Choo, Daniel I

    2017-05-01

    Objectives (1) Describe longitudinal trends in annual prevalence of hospital admission for pediatric acute otitis media (AOM) and complications of AOM (CAOM) since introduction of pneumococcal vaccination in 2000 and (2) describe the longitudinal trend of prevalence of hospital admission for pneumococcal meningitis in children with AOM-related diagnoses in the postvaccination era. Study Design Retrospective analysis of Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. Setting Community, nonrehabilitation hospitals. Subjects and Methods To determine annual prevalence of admission for AOM/CAOM, nationally weighted frequencies of children aged otitis media, acute mastoiditis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and/or acute petrositis were collected. The frequency of coexisting pneumococcal meningitis diagnoses among these patients was also collected. Trend analysis of prevalences of admission for AOM/CAOM and for pneumococcal meningitis occurring in the setting of AOM/CAOM from 2000 to 2012 was performed. Results Between 2000 and 2012, annual prevalence of admission for AOM/CAOM decreased from 3.956 to 2.618 per 100,000 persons ( P < .0001) (relative risk reduction 34%). Declines in admission prevalence were most pronounced in children <1 year of age (from 22.647 to 8.715 per 100,000 persons between 2000 and 2012, P < .0001) and 1 to 2 years of age (from 13.652 to 5.554 per 100,000 persons between 2000 and 2012, P < .0001). For all ages, the admission prevalence for pneumococcal meningitis and concomitant AOM/CAOM decreased (from 1.760 to 0.717 per 1,000,000 persons, P < .0001) over the study period. Conclusions The prevalence of hospital admission for pediatric AOM/CAOM has declined since the advent of pneumococcal vaccination. Admission rates for pneumococcal meningitis with AOM/CAOM have similarly declined.

  9. Outcome of oligodendroglioma treatment in the era of modern neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Silverman, Edward; Brem, Henry; Wharam, Moody D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The benefit of routine postoperative radiotherapy for low grade oligodendroglioma remains controversial. Most published series include many patients treated before the availability of CT or MRI scans which allow early diagnosis, guide surgery, detect residual disease, improve radiotherapy, and detect asymptomatic recurrences. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether observation rather than radiation continues to be an appropriate option for selected patients with the availability of modern neuroimaging. Materials and Methods: 58 patients (age 2-67 years, 6 pts. =2 poor prognostic factor (p=.04). Results: Two and five year actuarial freedom from local progression was 93 +/- 4% and 75% +/- 8% whereas 2 and 5 year overall survival was 94% +/- 3% and 80% +/- 7%. Despite the imbalance of prognostic factors, there was no significant difference whether or not postoperative RT was given. With RT, 2 and 4 year actuarial freedom from progression was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8%, whereas without RT it was 94% +/- 6% at 2 and 4 years. Similarly, 2 and 4 year actuarial survival was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8% with RT and was 91% +/- 8% without RT. (5(10)) recurrences were detected radiologically without new or progressive clinical symptoms. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that, in the era of modern neuroimaging, the initial observation of good risk patients and immediate irradiation of poor risk patients is an appropriate treatment approach which results in good medium term control and survival for low grade oligodendroglioma patients. A policy of treatment vs. observation based on selected prognostic factors will be tested prospectively in an intergroup trial for low grade glioma histologies

  10. PENGEMBANGAN SDM KESEHATAN DI ERA DESENTRALISASI DAN MEKANISME PASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo J Pudjirahardjo

    2013-03-01

    Kabupaten atau Kota cukup besar dalam melakukan penataan SDM Kesehatan, sebagai upaya mengantisipasi dampak dari kebijakan desentralisasi. Selain itu, SDM Kesehatan juga harus mampu memanfaatkan peluang di era desentralisasi dan pasar bebas sehingga dapat menyediakan program dan pelayanan kesehatan yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan tuntutan masyarakat. Kata kunci: SDM kesehatan, kebijakan, kepemimpinan, desentralisasi

  11. The treatment for asymptomatic meningiomas in the era of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Morikawa, Toshie; Ishiguro, Tomoya; Honda, Yuji; Matsusaka, Yasuhiro; Komiyama, Masaki; Yasui, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the treatment results in asymptomatic meningiomas in the era of radiosurgery. We encountered 56 patients with asymptomatic meningiomas from January, 1994 to December, 2001. There were 16 male patients and 40 female patients. The most common location was the cerebral convexity. We performed gamma knife radiosurgery for three patients after diagnosis of cavernous sinus meningiomas. The other patients were followed-up after diagnosis for a mean follow-up period of 30.8 months (5 months to 8 years). Tumor growth was verified in 25 patients (43%) and two patients (3.7%) suffered neurological deficits. Among the tumor growth patients, operative resection was performed in six patients (11%) and gamma knife radiosurgery was performed in four patients (7.5%). The other patients were placed under observation. We decided the treatment strategy paying attention to the tumor location, tumor growth speed, tumor size and operative difficulty. The tumor growth rate was 0.1 cm/year among the patients with tumor growth. It was 0.72 cm/year (0.02 to 1.54 cm/year) in the operative group, 0.3 cm/year (0.04 to 0.76 cm/year) in the gamma knife radiosurgery group and 0.08 cm/year (0.01 to 0.76 cm/year) in the observed group. One patient suffered procedure-related deterioration of paresis after operation. The treatment of asymptomatic meningiomas must be decided depending on their natural history and locations. We recommend early radiosurgery for cavernous sinus meningiomas. (author)

  12. A Spectroscopic Search for AGN Activity in the Reionization Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Nicolas; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ellis, Richard S.; Zitrin, Adi; Stark, Daniel P.; Mainali, Ramesh; Roberts-Borsani, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The ubiquity of Lyman alpha (Lyα) emission in a sample of four bright [O III]-strong star-forming galaxies with redshifts above seven has led to the suggestion that such luminous sources represent a distinct population compared with their fainter, more numerous counterparts. The presence of Lyα emission within the reionization era could indicate that these sources created early ionized bubbles due to their unusually strong radiation, possibly because of the presence of active galactic nuclei. To test this hypothesis, we secured long integration spectra with XSHOOTER on the VLT for three z≃ 7 sources selected to have similar luminosities and prominent excess fluxes in the IRAC 3.6 or 4.5 μm band, usually attributed to strong [O III] emission. We secured additional spectroscopy for one of these galaxies at z = 7.15 using MOSFIRE at the Keck telescope. For the most well-studied source in our sample with the strongest IRAC excess, we detect significant nebular emission from He II and N V indicative of a non-thermal source. For the other two sources at z = 6.81 and z = 6.85, for which no previous optical/near-infrared spectroscopy was available, Lyα is seen in one and C III] emission in the other. Although based on a modest sample, our results further support the hypothesis that the phenomenon of intense [O III] emission is associated preferentially with sources lying in early ionized bubbles. However, even though one of our sources at z = 7.15 suggests the presence of non-thermal radiation, such ionized bubbles may not uniquely arise in this manner. We discuss the unique advantages of extending such challenging diagnostic studies with JWST.

  13. Breast Cancer Screening in an Era of Personalized Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Barlow, William E.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L.; Conant, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women’s health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for “overdiagnosis,” and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a “1-size-fits-all” guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women’s risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. PMID:24830599

  14. Probabilistic Photometric Redshifts in the Era of Petascale Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    to enable the development of precision cosmology in the era of petascale astronomical surveys.

  15. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  16. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.J.; Steele, J.T.; Larsen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling

  17. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter.

  18. A Simple Technique of Supine Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Anusheel; Jalali, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple procedure of craniospinal irradiation in supine position. The procedure was carried out with a 100-cm isocenter linear accelerator and compatible simulator. Treatment was with a 1 or 2 posteroanterior (PA)-directed spinal fields abutting lateral-directed cranial fields. Abutment of the fields was established by placement of markers on the neck of the patient, which provided a measure of the divergence of the spinal field. The precision and reproducibility of this technique, including the placement of junctions, appeared to be as good as for treatment in the prone position. The same could be verified with port films. We conclude that this new technique of supine craniospinal treatment is a simple and convenient alternative to traditional treatment in the prone position

  19. A computational description of simple mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron, Pier-Olivier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple mediation analysis is an increasingly popular statistical analysis in psychology and in other social sciences. However, there is very few detailed account of the computations within the model. Articles are more often focusing on explaining mediation analysis conceptually rather than mathematically. Thus, the purpose of the current paper is to introduce the computational modelling within simple mediation analysis accompanied with examples with R. Firstly, mediation analysis will be described. Then, the method to simulate data in R (with standardized coefficients will be presented. Finally, the bootstrap method, the Sobel test and the Baron and Kenny test all used to evaluate mediation (i.e., indirect effect will be developed. The R code to implement the computation presented is offered as well as a script to carry a power analysis and a complete example.

  20. Is the world simple or complicated

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1998-01-01

    Stop some particle physicists in the street and they will soon be trying to persuade you that the world is altogether simple and symmetrical. But stop a biologist, an economist, or a social scientist and they will tell you quite the opposite: the world is a higgledy-piggledy collection of complexities that owes little to symmetry and displays precious little simplicity. So who is right : is the world really complicated or is it simple ? We shall look at the reasoning that leads to these different conclusions, show why we got different answers to our question, and look at some of the recent developments that have taken place in the study of systems from sand-piles to music on the border between order and chaos. We shall also look at some of the connections between our aesthetic sensibilities and the structure of scientific theories.