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Sample records for post-acquisition cortisol correlated

  1. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  3. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.

  4. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  6. Correlations of hair level with salivary level in cortisol and cortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Shenghuo; Yu, Tian; Wang, Juxia; Wang, Weiwen; Deng, Huihua

    2018-01-15

    Contrary findings exist on the consistency between hair cortisol and salivary cortisol in assessing the basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The mismatches in temporal characteristic and the indices of hair and salivary cortisol might be potential reasons for the inconsistency. The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency between hair and salivary levels in cortisol and cortisone by directly examining the correlation between hair level and salivary level with different temporal characteristics (acute, short-term and long-term levels) and reflecting different HPA functions (basal level and reactivity level) in the well-matched time span. A longitudinal design within a five-week period was conducted in a sample of 44 healthy female college students (mean age: 18.8yrs.; age range: 18-22yrs) of Han nationality with the exclusion criteria, such as use of oral contraceptives or glucocorticoids and bleached hairs, etc. Four saliva samples (awakening, awakening+30min, awakening+4h and awakening+9h) were collected from an identical participant on three separate days with an interval of one week and 1-cm hair segment nearest to the scalp was collected two weeks later after completing saliva collection. Cortisol and cortisone in saliva and hair were simultaneously measured with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. There were significantly moderate correlations in cortisol and cortisone between hair level and three-day average of single-day salivary level, but low to moderate correlations between hair level and single-point and single-day salivary level. Hair cortisol and cortisone were unrelated to single-day level and three-day average of diurnal slope and cortisol awakening response of salivary cortisol and cortisone, respectively. The considerable consistency between hair level and long-term salivary level in cortisol and cortisone implies that cortisol and cortisone in hair are valid biomarkers of

  7. Correlation Between Resting Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio and Sound-Induced Vasoconstriction at Fingertip in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, Yuuki

    2018-01-01

    A sound-induced sympathetic tone has been used as an index for orienting responses to auditory stimuli. The resting testosterone/cortisol ratio is a biomarker of social aggression that drives an approaching behavior in response to environmental stimuli, and a higher testosterone level and a lower cortisol level can facilitate the sympathetic response to environmental stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that the testosterone/cortisol ratio is correlated with the sound-induced sympathetic tone. The current study investigated the relationship between the resting testosterone/cortisol ratio and vasoconstriction induced by listening to sound stimuli. Twenty healthy males aged 29.0 ± 0.53 years (mean ± S.E.M) participated in the study. They came to the laboratory for 3 days and listened to one of three types of sound stimuli for 1 min on each day. Saliva samples were collected for an analysis of salivary testosterone and cortisol levels on the day of each experiment. After the collecting the saliva sample, we measured the blood volume pulse (BVP) amplitude at a fingertip. Since vasoconstriction is mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nerves, the strength of the reduction in BVP amplitude at a fingertip was called the BVP response (finger BVPR). No difference was observed between the sound-induced finger BVPR for the three types of sound stimuli ( p = 0.779). The correlation coefficient between the sound-induced finger BVPR and the salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio within participants was significantly different from no correlation ( p = 0.011) and there was a trend toward a significance in the correlation between the sound-induced finger BVPR and the salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio between participants ( r = 0.39, p = 0.088). These results suggest that the testosterone/cortisol ratio affects the difference in the sound-evoked sympathetic response.

  8. Correlations between serum cortisol and body mass index at old patients under balnear treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Liliana Elena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Glucocorticoids provide a significant resource of scientific progress in medical research, being studied in terms of molecules, genetics, physiopathology at the level of the human body, starting from animal models, with valuable recent discoveries regarding their implications in the human psychic level, stress reaction and the search of new possible therapeutic effects unknown until now. Our work are illustrated the correlations between serum cortisol and body mass index - BMI at old patients under balneal treatment with natural factors from Techirghiol lake. Material and methods. The study monitored 52 patients admitted in Balneal and Recovery Sanatorium of Techirghiol for complex balneal treatment, using mud baths (cold or warm, and physical treatments. The patients were grouped in two batches: batch of cold baths with mud- CMB (15 patients, 28.8%, 6 men and 9 women and batch of warm baths with mud-WMB (37 patients, 71.2%, 19 man and 18 women. The following issues were statistically analysed: BMI, respectively serum cortisol value variation for each batch studied, both at the time of admission and at the time of discharge; comparative analysis between the two moments for each batch; and the comparative analysis between the two study batches at the time of admission, respectively discharge and the BMI value variation in statistical relation with the serum cortisol values for each batch studies at the time of admission and at the time of discharge. Results. From statistical analysis of the correlation between the body mass index (BMI of patients included in research in the CMB batch at admission and discharge according to the variations of the serum cortisol level , the two variables (Serum cortisol / BMI both at admission and discharge are not correlated (r = -0.366; p = 0.180 > α = 0.05; r = -0.035; p = 0.901 > α = 0.05. Also, from statistical analysis of the correlation between the body mass index (BMI of patients included in

  9. Neural Correlates of the Cortisol Awakening Response in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Andreas; Tost, Heike; Haddad, Leila; Lederbogen, Florian; Wüst, Stefan; Schwarz, Emanuel; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The cortisol rise after awakening (cortisol awakening response, CAR) is a core biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation related to psychosocial stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, the neural regulation of the CAR has not been examined in humans. Here, we studied neural regulation related to the CAR in a sample of 25 healthy human participants using an established psychosocial stress paradigm together with multimodal functional and structural (voxel-based morphometry) magnetic resonance imaging. Across subjects, a smaller CAR was associated with reduced grey matter volume and increased stress-related brain activity in the perigenual ACC, a region which inhibits HPA axis activity during stress that is implicated in risk mechanisms and pathophysiology of stress-related mental diseases. Moreover, functional connectivity between the perigenual ACC and the hypothalamus, the primary controller of HPA axis activity, was associated with the CAR. Our findings provide support for a role of the perigenual ACC in regulating the CAR in humans and may aid future research on the pathophysiology of stress-related illnesses, such as depression, and environmental risk for illnesses such as schizophrenia.

  10. Seasonal and social correlates of fecal testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E; Wittwer, D J

    1999-04-01

    Fecal testosterone and cortisol levels were analyzed from six wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) over a 19-month period at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate the hormonal correlates of seasonal sexual behavior and environmental conditions. Group mean testosterone levels based on weekly samples from the six males did not differ between copulatory and noncopulatory periods or between rainy and dry seasons. Cortisol levels did change with copulatory periods, and were significantly higher during the second dry season, when mating continued following an exceptionally heavy rainy season, than during the first dry season, when mating ceased. Males exhibited individual variation in the timing of their hormone shifts relative to their sexual activity, but neither hormone levels nor sexual activity were related to male age. Despite individual differences in the timing of testosterone fluctuations around the onset and offset of the copulatory season, all males exhibited elevated cortisol concentrations following a slight increase in testosterone at the beginning of the copulatory season. Both the lack of significant changes in testosterone levels with the onset of the rainy and copulatory season and the lack of prebreeding increases in cortisol may be related to the low levels of overt aggression displayed by male muriquis over access to mates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Knowledge-sharing Behavior and Post-acquisition Integration Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    AbstractNot achieving the anticipated synergy effects in the post-acquisition integration context is a serious causefor the high acquisition failure rate. While existing studies on failures of acquisitions exist fromeconomics, finance, strategy, organization theory, and human resources management......, this paper appliesinsights from the knowledge-sharing literature. The paper establishes a conceptual link between obstaclesin the post-acquisition integration processes and individual knowledge-sharing behavior as related toknowledge transmitters and knowledge receivers. We argue that such an angle offers...... important insights toexplaining the high failure rate in acquisitions.Descriptors: post-acquisition integration, acquisition failure, individual knowledge-sharing behavior...

  12. Social behavior correlates of cortisol activity in child care: gender differences and time-of-day effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tout, K; de Haan, M; Campbell, E K; Gunnar, M R

    1998-10-01

    The relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production were examined in preschool children (N = 75) attending center-based child care. Three behavioral dimensions, shy/anxious/internalizing, angry/aggressive/externalizing, and social competence, were assessed by teacher report and classroom observation, and their relations with 2 measures of cortisol activity, median (or typical) levels and reactivity (quartile range score between second and third quartile values) were explored. Cortisol-behavior relations differed by gender: significant associations were found for boys but not for girls. Specifically, for boys externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median cortisol. Time of day of cortisol measurement affected the results. Surprisingly, median cortisol levels rose from morning to afternoon, a pattern opposite to that of the typical circadian rhythm of cortisol. This rise in cortisol over the day was positively correlated with internalizing behavior for boys. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings for the study of the development of hormone-behavior relations are discussed.

  13. Enhanced cortisol production rates, free cortisol, and 11beta-HSD-1 expression correlate with visceral fat and insulin resistance in men: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jonathan Q; Kahn, Steven E; Samuels, Mary H; Brandon, David; Loriaux, D Lynn; Brunzell, John D

    2009-02-01

    Controversy exists as to whether endogenous cortisol production is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We therefore quantified cortisol production and clearance rates, abdominal fat depots, insulin sensitivity, and adipocyte gene expression in a cohort of 24 men. To test whether the relationships found are a consequence rather than a cause of obesity, eight men from this larger group were studied before and after weight loss. Daily cortisol production rates (CPR), free cortisol levels (FC), and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured by stable isotope methodology and 24-h sampling; intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) by computed tomography; insulin sensitivity (S(I)) by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; and adipocyte 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11beta-HSD-1) gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR from subcutaneous biopsies. Increased CPR and FC correlated with increased IAF, but not SQF, and with decreased S(I). Increased 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression correlated with both IAF and SQF and with decreased S(I). With weight loss, CPR, FC, and MCR did not change compared with baseline; however, with greater loss in body fat than lean mass during weight loss, both CPR and FC increased proportionally to final fat mass and IAF and 11beta-HSD-1 decreased compared with baseline. These data support a model in which increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in men promotes selective visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance and may promote weight regain after diet-induced weight loss, whereas 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression in SQF is a consequence rather than cause of adiposity.

  14. The Correlation among Neural Dynamic Processing of Conflict Control, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in 10-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Fangfang; Liu, Tongran; Liu, Xiuying; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control is related to goal-directed self-regulation abilities, which is fundamental for human development. Conflict control includes the neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Testosterone and cortisol are essential hormones for the development of cognitive functions. However, there are no studies that have investigated the correlation of these two hormones with conflict control in preadolescents. In this study, we aimed to explore whether testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol ratio worked differently for preadolescent's conflict control processes in varied conflict control tasks. Thirty-two 10-year-old children (16 boys and 16 girls) were enrolled. They were instructed to accomplish three conflict control tasks with different conflict dimensions, including the Flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks, and electrophysiological signals were recorded. Salivary samples were collected from each child. The testosterone and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The electrophysiological results showed that the incongruent trials induced greater N2/N450 and P3/SP responses than the congruent trials during neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution in the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The hormonal findings showed that (1) the testosterone/cortisol ratio was correlated with conflict control accuracy and conflict resolution in the Flanker task; (2) the testosterone level was associated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict resolution in the Stroop task; (3) the cortisol level was correlated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict monitoring in the Simon task. In conclusion, in 10-year-old children, the fewer processes a task needs, the more likely there is an association between the T/C ratios and the behavioral and brain response, and the dual-hormone effects on conflict resolution may be testosterone-driven in the Stroop and

  15. The Correlation among Neural Dynamic Processing of Conflict Control, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in 10-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Shangguan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is related to goal-directed self-regulation abilities, which is fundamental for human development. Conflict control includes the neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Testosterone and cortisol are essential hormones for the development of cognitive functions. However, there are no studies that have investigated the correlation of these two hormones with conflict control in preadolescents. In this study, we aimed to explore whether testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol ratio worked differently for preadolescent’s conflict control processes in varied conflict control tasks. Thirty-two 10-year-old children (16 boys and 16 girls were enrolled. They were instructed to accomplish three conflict control tasks with different conflict dimensions, including the Flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks, and electrophysiological signals were recorded. Salivary samples were collected from each child. The testosterone and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The electrophysiological results showed that the incongruent trials induced greater N2/N450 and P3/SP responses than the congruent trials during neural processes of conflict monitoring and conflict resolution in the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The hormonal findings showed that (1 the testosterone/cortisol ratio was correlated with conflict control accuracy and conflict resolution in the Flanker task; (2 the testosterone level was associated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict resolution in the Stroop task; (3 the cortisol level was correlated with conflict control performance and neural processing of conflict monitoring in the Simon task. In conclusion, in 10-year-old children, the fewer processes a task needs, the more likely there is an association between the T/C ratios and the behavioral and brain response, and the dual-hormone effects on conflict resolution may be testosterone-driven in

  16. Industry Relatedness and Post-Acquisition Innovative Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cefis, Elena; Marsili, Orietta; Rigamonti, Damiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how characteristics of acquiring and acquired firms influence the curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship between relatedness and post-acquisition innovative performance. Using a relatedness index based on industry co-occurrence in a sample of 1,736 Dutch acquisitions, we...... find that acquirer's internal R&D and acquisition experience, and the small size of acquired firms, help to reach a balance between exploration of novelty and exploitation of synergies in unrelated acquisitions, and to achieve higher post-acquisition performance. However, while the acquirer's R......&D increases flexibility in the acquisition process in presence of deviations from the optimal level of relatedness, acquisition experience may enhance rigidities....

  17. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  18. The importance of cultural leadership during post-acquisition integration

    OpenAIRE

    Mcconnon, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are not only financial decisions but can also be understood as social processes. Due to the myriad of changes generated by an acquisition, the integration period is characterised by multiple adjustment difficulties. A substantive body of research blames post-acquisition ‘cultural clash’ caused by cultural differences between the two merging organisations as a major cause of disappointing integration outcomes. Yet research into the process of cultural leadership ...

  19. Impaired Memory Retrieval Correlates with Individual Differences in Cortisol Response but Not Autonomic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy…

  20. Serum cortisol level and its correlation to serum insulin and fasting blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianzhong; Zhang Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum cortisol levels and its correlation to blood sugar and serum insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Blood sugar with oxidase method and serum cortisol insulin levels with RIA (8 AM fasting specimen) were measured in 26 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 controls. Results: The serum cortisol levels in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The cortisol levels were positively correlated to the blood sugar levels (r=0.32, p<0.01), but not correlated to insulin levels. Conclusion: There were cortisol secretion disturbances in patients with type 2 diabetes

  1. Post-acquisition Integration as Sensemaking: Glimpses of Ambiguity, Confusion, Hypocrisy, and Politicization

    OpenAIRE

    Vaara, Eero

    2003-01-01

    Though many studies have examined post-acquisition integration challenges, they have mainly focused on rationalistic explanations for the difficulties encountered in post-acquisition integration. There remains little knowledge of how the ‘irrational’ features of post-acquisition decision-making may impede organizational integration. This study attempts to bridge that gap by examining post-acquisition decision-making from a sensemaking perspective. The paper presents an in-depth analysis of a ...

  2. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  3. Cortisol and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Auer, C

    2000-05-01

    Somatization symptoms are frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and feelings of distress. These features interact with the activity of the HPA-axis. Therefore we investigated relationships between somatization symptoms and cortisol. Seventy-seven participants were classified into three groups: somatization syndrome (at least eight physical symptoms from the DSM-IV somatization disorder list), somatization syndrome combined with major depression, and healthy controls. The following data were collected: salivary cortisol at three time points (morning, afternoon, evening), nighttime urinary cortisol, serum cortisol after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis. Salivary cortisol showed typical diurnal variations. However, the groups did not differ on any of the cortisol variables. A possible explanation may be counteracting effects of somatization and depression. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that associations between cortisol and psychopathological variables were time-dependent. DST results correlated with psychological aspects of somatization, but not with the number of somatoform symptoms per se.

  4. Cognition and Knowledge Sharing in Post-acquisition Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya; Michailova, Snejina

    2014-01-01

    conducted with ten respondents in four Indian IT companies that have acquired firms abroad. Findings: The authors find evidence for supporting the negative effect of in- and out-groups differentiation and the positive effect of interpersonal interaction on knowledge sharing among employees of the acquired...... of organisational objectives in a post-acquisition context. Managers should understand that the knowledge their employees possess is a strategic asset, and therefore how they use it is influential in attaining organisational goals in general, and acquisition integration objectives in particular. The creation...... of task- and project-related communities or groups can help in establishing a shared organisational identity, especially after the turbulent event of one company acquiring another one. The creation of communities or groups where socialisation is encouraged can lead to employees interacting with one...

  5. Low total cortisol correlates closely with low free cortisol in traumatic brain injury and predicts mortality and long-term hypopituitarism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Published data has demonstrated that low 0900h plasma total cortisol (PTC) in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury (TBI) predicts mortality. However, there is concern regarding the use of PTC to evaluate the pituitary-adrenal axis in acutely unwell patients due to potential discrepancies between PTC and plasma free cortisol (PFC) due to variations in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). We hypothesised that low PTC would correlate closely with PFC and would predict mortality and long-term hypopituitarism.100 patients (84 men, median age 33, range 18-75) were recruited on admission with TBI (mean GCS+\\/-SD = 8.59+\\/-4.2). Each patient had PTC and CBG measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 following TBI. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PTC <300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low. PFC was calculated for 25% of TBI samples and all control samples using Coolen\\'s equation (1). TBI patients reattended for dynamic pituitary testing >6 months after TBI.All controls had PTC >500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–10. By contrast, 78\\/100 TBI patients had at least one PTC <300 nmol\\/L.TBI patients in the lowest quartile of final PTC measurement had the highest mortality (p=0.0187). PTC correlated closely with PFC in both TBI patients (r=0.99, p<0.0001) and controls (r=0.99, p<0.0001). 32\\/79 (40.5%) of TBI survivors attended for dynamic pituitary testing. The median time to dynamic pituitary testing was 14 months (range 6–24 months). 15\\/32 (46.9%) underwent insulin tolerance testing, 9\\/32 (28.1%) underwent glucagon testing and 8\\/32 (25%) underwent short synacthen testing. 6\\/32 (18.8%) were ACTH deficient, of whom 5\\/6 (83.3%) previously had low PTC. 6\\/32 were GH deficient, all of whom previously had low PTC. One patient was gonadotropin deficient; he previously had low PTC. No patients were TSH or prolactin deficient. Overall, 12\\/32 (37

  6. Optimizing hippocampal segmentation in infants utilizing MRI post-acquisition processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanne K; Ahmadzai, Zohra M; Wood, Stephen J; Inder, Terrie E; Warfield, Simon K; Doyle, Lex W; Egan, Gary F

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the most reliable method for infant hippocampal segmentation by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging post-acquisition processing techniques: contrast to noise ratio (CNR) enhancement, or reformatting to standard orientation. MR scans were performed with a 1.5 T GE scanner to obtain dual echo T2 and proton density (PD) images at term equivalent (38-42 weeks' gestational age). 15 hippocampi were manually traced four times on ten infant images by 2 independent raters on the original T2 image, as well as images processed by: a) combining T2 and PD images (T2-PD) to enhance CNR; then b) reformatting T2-PD images perpendicular to the long axis of the left hippocampus. CNRs and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. T2-PD images had 17% higher CNR (15.2) than T2 images (12.6). Original T2 volumes' ICC was 0.87 for rater 1 and 0.84 for rater 2, whereas T2-PD images' ICC was 0.95 for rater 1 and 0.87 for rater 2. Reliability of hippocampal segmentation on T2-PD images was not improved by reformatting images (rater 1 ICC = 0.88, rater 2 ICC = 0.66). Post-acquisition processing can improve CNR and hence reliability of hippocampal segmentation in neonate MR scans when tissue contrast is poor. These findings may be applied to enhance boundary definition in infant segmentation for various brain structures or in any volumetric study where image contrast is sub-optimal, enabling hippocampal structure-function relationships to be explored.

  7. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud eVan Den Bos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behaviour in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focussed. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis: the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behaviour is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focussed behaviour following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase (indicative for activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling.

  8. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  9. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  10. Evidence for a positive correlation between serum cortisol levels and IL-1beta production by peripheral mononuclear cells in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limone, P; Biglino, A; Bottino, F; Forno, B; Calvelli, P; Fassino, S; Berardi, C; Ajmone-Catt, P; Bertagna, A; Tarocco, R P; Rovera, G G; Molinatti, G M

    2000-01-01

    A hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), together with some immunological abnormalities, involving citokine - and particularly Tumor Necrosis-Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) - production by polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the HPA axis is well known; however, there are no data demonstrating an interdependence between immunological and endocrine response in AN. To investigate the presence of a correlation between immune response and pituitary-adrenal function, plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were measured in 13 AN patients and in the same number of controls. TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta production by ex-vivo unstimulated and LPS-stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells was also assessed. Circulating cortisol concentrations were higher (p<0.01) in AN (156.7 +/- 45.1 microg/l, mean +/- SD) than in controls (105.9 +/- 25.7 microg/l). Unstimulated IL-1beta release in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures was slightly but not significantly higher in AN than in controls, while TNF-alpha release was similar in the two groups. A positive correlation was found between IL-1beta concentrations in unstimulated culture supranatants and serum cortisol levels in AN (r=0.782, p=0.002), while in normal subjects there was a trend toward a negative correlation; a slight positive correlation, while not significant, between IL-1beta and plasma ACTH, as well as between TNF-alpha and serum cortisol was also found in AN. These data suggest that the normal relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines release, particularly IL-1beta, and cortisol secretion is deranged in AN.

  11. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with midnight plasma cortisol level in Cushing's disease and other endogenous Cushing's syndrome

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    Priyadarshini Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to measure intraocular pressure (IOP and evaluate the correlation between IOP and midnight plasma cortisol (MPC level in patients with Cushing's disease (CD and other endogenous Cushing's syndrome (ECS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study from a single center including newly diagnosed patients with CD or ECS. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmological evaluation. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry in the morning and evening on two consecutive days. MPC value was obtained for each patient. The data were compared using paired and unpaired t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Among 32 patients, 22 were CD (68.75% and 10 patients were other ECS (31.25%. A total of 25 patients (78.12% in our study group had normal IOP (<22 mmHg, and seven patients (21.88% had increased IOP (≥22 mmHg. The percentage of patients with normal IOP was found to be significantly higher compared to percentage of patients with high IOP (P = 0.001 using one-sample Chi-square test. Mean MPC value was 468.6 ± 388.3 nmol/L in patients having IOP ≥22 mmHg and 658.5 ± 584 nmol/L in those with IOP <22 mmHg from both CD and ECS groups, but the difference was not statistically significant. No correlation was found between IOP and MPC (Spearman's rank correlation rho = −0.16 [P = 0.38]. Conclusion: In CD and ECS patients, IOP elevation is an uncommon feature, and high IOP in either group does not correlate with MPC level.

  12. Technological Similarity, Post-acquisition R&D Reorganization, and Innovation Performance in Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to disentangle the mechanisms through which technological similarity between acquiring and acquired firms influences innovation in horizontal acquisitions. We develop a theoretical model that links technological similarity to: (i) two key aspects of post-acquisition reorganization...... of acquired R&D operations – the rationalization of the R&D operations and the replacement of the R&D top manager, and (ii) two intermediate effects that are closely associated with the post-acquisition innovation performance of the combined firm – improvements in R&D productivity and disruptions in R......&D personnel. We rely on PLS techniques to test our theoretical model using detailed information on 31 horizontal acquisitions in high- and medium-tech industries. Our results indicate that in horizontal acquisitions, technological similarity negatively affects post-acquisition innovation performance...

  13. The effect of exogenous cortisol during sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of emotional memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, Hein J F; Hermans, Erno J; Qin, Shaozheng; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-09-01

    A host of animal work demonstrates that the retention benefit for emotionally aversive over neutral memories is regulated by glucocorticoid action during memory consolidation. Particularly, glucocorticoids may affect systems-level processes that promote the gradual reorganization of emotional memory traces. These effects remain largely uninvestigated in humans. Therefore, in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we administered hydrocortisone during a polysomnographically monitored night of sleep directly after healthy volunteers studied negative and neutral pictures in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. The following evening memory consolidation was probed during a recognition memory test in the MR scanner by assessing the difference in brain activity associated with memory for the consolidated items studied before sleep and new, unconsolidated items studied shortly before test (remote vs. recent memory paradigm). Hydrocortisone administration resulted in elevated cortisol levels throughout the experimental night with no group difference at recent encoding or test. Behaviorally, we showed that cortisol enhanced the difference between emotional and neutral consolidated memory, effectively prioritizing emotional memory consolidation. On a neural level, we found that cortisol reduced amygdala reactivity related to the retrieval of these same consolidated, negative items. These findings show that cortisol administration during first post-encoding sleep had a twofold effect on the first 24h of emotional memory consolidation. While cortisol prioritized recognition memory for emotional items, it reduced reactivation of the neural circuitry underlying emotional responsiveness during retrieval. These findings fit recent theories on emotional depotentiation following consolidation during sleep, although future research should establish the sleep-dependence of this effect. Moreover, our data may shed light on mechanisms underlying

  14. CORRELAÇÕES DA MORFOMETRIA OVARIANA E HORMONAIS DE PROGESTERONA E CORTISOL EM VACAS ZEBUS NÃO PRENHES OVARIAN MORPHOMETRY AND HORMONAL CORRELATIONS OF PROGESTERONE AND CORTISOL IN NO PREGNANT ZEBU COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da morfometria ovariana está diretamente ligado as suas aplicações práticas, na realização e interpretação dos achados dos exames ginecológicos em vacas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as correlações morfométricas e hormonais de 114 pares de ovários de vacas zebus não prenhes coletados em abatedouro entre os dias sete e quatorze do ciclo estral, procedendo-se a sua mensuração quanto a espessura, comprimento, largura e volume; diâmetro e volume do folículo, diâmetro e área do corpo lúteo, e concentrações de progesterona e cortisol. Observou-se diferença significativa para largura (1,95 cm e 1,83 cm e volume (7,26 mL e 6,23 mL do ovário esquerdo e direito, respectivamente. Houve correlação positiva (p<0,01 entre o volume do ovário esquerdo e a área do corpo lúteo. Houve predomínio do corpo lúteo do tipo maciço e protruso, presente em 43,39% dos 53 ovários, em relação ao tipo cavitário e incluso. Dos 84 ovários com corpos lúteos, 26,20% eram do tipo incluso e não houve correlação entre a área do corpo lúteo, progesterona e cortisol. Conclui-se que a área do corpo lúteo influencia no tamanho do ovário, havendo predominância dos corpos lúteos maciços e protrusos. Não existe correlação entre a produção de progesterona pelos corpos lúteos e a secreção de cortisol.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abatedouro, bovino, corpo lúteo, folículo. The study of ovarian morphometry is directly related to its practical applications to interpret the examination of the reproductive tract of the cow. The objective of this work was to study the morphometry and hormonal correlations in ovaries collected in slaughterhouse between 7 and 14 days post estrus in no pregnant zebu cows. One hundred fourteen pairs of ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse, measured in thickness, length, width and volume, diameter and volume of the follicle, diameter and area of the corpus luteum. Significative

  15. Correlação entre Inventário de Depressão de Beck e cortisol urinário em diabéticos tipo 2 Correlación entre el inventario de Depresión de Beck y el cortisol urinario en diabeticos tipo 2 Correlation between urine cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression inventory in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bulgarelli do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a correlação entre o cortisol urinário e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck em diabéticos do tipo 2. MÉTODOS: O cortisol urinário foi avaliado em uma amostra composta por 40 pacientes da Liga de Controle de Diabetes da Disciplina de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo e para a avaliação dos sintomas de depressão foi aplicado o Inventário de Depressão de Beck. RESULTADOS: Alta confiabilidade para o Inventário de Depressão de Beck(Alfa de Cronbach=0,920e correlação significativa foi observada entre cortisol urinário e Inventário de Depressão de Beck(Spearman,r=0.523,pOBJETIVO: Verificar la correlación entre el cortisol urinario y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck en diabéticos del tipo 2. MÉTODOS: El cortisol urinario fue evaluado en una muestra compuesta por 40 pacientes de la Liga de Control de Diabetes de la Disciplina de Endocrinología del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Sao Paulo y para la evaluación de los síntomas de depresión fue aplicado el Inventario de Depresión de Beck. RESULTADOS: Alta confiabilidad para el Inventario de Depresión de Beck(Alfa de Cronbach=0,920 y correlación significativa observada entre el cortisol urinario e Inventario de Depresión de Beck (Spearman,r=0.523,pOBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between urinary cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory in type 2 diabetics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes from the diabetes control league of the discipline of endocrinology of the HCFM-USP. Measures consisted of urinary cortisol and depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: The Beck Depression Inventory had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. There was a statistically significant correlation between urinary cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (Spearman r = 0.52, p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: The

  16. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin; Innominato, Pasquale F; Boerner, Julie; Mormont, M Christine; Iacobelli, Stefano; Baron, Benoit; Jasmin, Claude; Lévi, Francis

    2005-03-01

    Incapacitating symptom burden in cancer patients contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and can influence treatment outcomes because of poor tolerance to therapy. In this study, the role of circulating cytokines in the production symptoms in cancer patients is evaluated. Eighty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either normal (group I, n = 40) or dampened (group II, n = 40) 24-hour rest/activity patterns measured by actigraphy were identified. Actigraphy patterns were correlated with QOL indices, serum cortisol obtained at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and with serum levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) obtained at 8:00 a.m. and analyzed in duplicate by ELISA. Cytokine levels and survival were also correlated. Group II patients had significantly higher pre treatment levels of all three cytokines, displayed significantly poorer emotional and social functioning, had higher fatigue, more appetite loss, and poorer performance status compared with group I patients. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with WHO performance status >1 and in those with appetite loss. Fatigue was significantly associated with elevated TGF-alpha only. IL-6 was increased in those patients with extensive liver involvement and multiple organ replacement, and it was significantly correlated with dampened cortisol rhythm. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 was correlated with poor treatment outcome. Significant correlations were found between serum levels of TGF-alpha and IL-6, circadian patterns in wrist activity and serum cortisol and tumor-related symptoms in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These data support the hypothesis that some cancer patient's symptoms of fatigue, poor QOL, and treatment outcome are related to tumor or host generated cytokines and could reflect cytokine effects on the circadian timing system. This interplay between cytokine

  17. Cortisol stress response is positively correlated with central obesity in obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) before and after cognitive-behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Geliebter, Allan; Lorence, Margarita

    2004-12-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported trigger of binge eating, and high cortisol levels are positively related to both central body fat and food intake after laboratory stress. We therefore examined waist circumference (WHR) and cortisol stress responsivity after a cold pressor stress test (CPT) in 22 obese (BMI > 27) women (11 BED, 11 non-BED). BMI and WHR did not differ between groups. The BED group had higher morning basal cortisol than the non-BED group (P = .03) and greater AUC cortisol after CPT, after controlling for AUC insulin (P = .04). In the BED group, WHR was related to AUC cortisol (P = .002) and peak cortisol stress responsivity (P = .003). Twenty (10 non-BED, 10 BED) were randomized to a 6-week treatment program (CBT + Diet) or Wait-List (WL) control group. There were no BED group or treatment-group differences in WHR, morning basal cortisol, or AUC cortisol after CPT. The relationship between WHR and both AUC cortisol (P = .002) and peak cortisol stress responsivity after CPT (P = .008) remained significant in the BED group. In BED, there is a hyperactive HPA axis related to abdominal obesity that persists even after treatment, suggesting that cortisol might be a primary factor in the disorder.

  18. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 μg/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 μg/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 μg/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  19. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  20. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  1. Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Lamberts, Steven W J; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hair cortisol is a feasible parameter to measure cortisol exposure. We collected hair samples of 195 healthy individuals, 9 hypercortisolemic and one hypocortisolemic patient and measured hair cortisol levels. Cortisol was extracted from scalp hair using methanol and cortisol levels were measured using a salivary ELISA kit. Measurement of waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure was performed in 46 healthy subjects. We found a positive correlation between hair cortisol and both waist circumference (r=0.392, p=0.007) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.425, p=0.003). No correlations were found between hair cortisol levels and BMI, blood pressure or age. There was no decline in cortisol levels in six consecutive hair segments. Hair cortisol levels were elevated in patients with known hypercortisolism (pcortisol was positively correlated with WHR, suggesting that hair cortisol reflects cortisol exposure at tissue level, which was also supported by elevated hair cortisol levels in hypercortisolemic patients and concordance between hair cortisol levels and clinical disease course. Cortisol levels in hair are slightly influenced by hair treatment but not by natural hair colour, use of hair products, gender or age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of the Dimensions of Transformational Leadership on the Post-acquisition Performance of the Acquired Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Savovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions (M&A are the important mechanisms through which companies can achieve growth, gain access to new markets and diversify their activities. Although companies engage themselves in M&As with optimism, empirical evidence shows that many M&A transactions are not successful. Therefore, research is often focused on the identification of the ways to improve post-acquisition performance. One of the key success factors of M&A is to provide adequate transformational leadership during the process of change, especially in the critical phase of the post-acquisition integration. A transformational leader should provide incentives and support to the employees in order for them to accept changes and focus on achieving challenging goals. This paper explores the impact of the different dimensions of transformational leadership on the post-acquisition performance based on the example of a company operating in the Republic of Serbia’s retail sector, which was the subject of a cross-border acquisition. In order to ensure the adequate representativeness of the sample, a questionnaire was distributed in all parts of the company throughout the Republic of Serbia. The results of this study show that all the dimensions of transformational leadership positively impact post-acquisition performance. The “individual consideration” dimension of transformational leadership has the strongest impact on post-acquisition performance, whereas the “intellectual simulation” dimension has the weakest.

  3. Metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos em ovelhas naturalmente infectadas por nematódeos gastrintestinais e correlação entre nível sérico de cortisol e carga parasitária Neutrophils oxidative metabolism in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes and correlation between serum level of cortisol and parasitary burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Ciarlini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as relações entre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos, os níveis séricos de cortisol e a carga parasitária estimada pela contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG no final da gestação, durante a lactação e após o desmame de ovelhas naturalmente infectadas por nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizaram-se 22 ovelhas da raça Suffolk, homogêneas quanto à idade (três a quatro anos, número de parições (terceira e época de parição. O cortisol sérico foi determinado por radioimunoensaio e o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos pelo teste de redução do tetrazólio nitroazul (NBT. Os maiores valores de OPG foram observados na quinta semana de lactação, e as maiores taxas de cortisol e de redução do NBT ocorreram na quarta semana pós-desmame. Verificou-se correlação positiva (r = 0,52; PThe relationships between neutrophils oxidative metabolism, cortisol serum levels and worm burden, estimated by fecal egg count (EPG, were studied in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites at the end of pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning. Twenty-two Suffolk sheep three to four year-old, of same parity and season of parturition were used. Serum cortisol was determined by radioimmunoassay and the neutrophils oxidative metabolism by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction test. The highest EPG values were observed on the fifth week of lactation while the highest rates of cortisol and reduction of NBT occurred on the fourth week after weaning. A positive correlation (r = 0.52; P<0.01 was observed between the neutrophils capacity to reduce the NBT and the serum cortisol concentration in the pre-parturition period. Otherwise, the neutrophils oxidative metabolism decreased near to the parturition. A negative correlation (r = -0.39; P<0.01 between EPG and NBT reduction test was observed after weaning, which was coincident with the increase in the neutrophils capacity to reduce NBT, indicating that animals

  4. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  5. Radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Tetsuhiro; Ishitobi, Kazuyuki; Harada, Yoshimichi

    1975-01-01

    A system for the radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol was developed together with a nonchromatographic method for the assay. An anti-cortisol serum, produced by immunization of rabbits with cortisol-21-hemisuccinate-BSA, proved to have a high affinity and a high specificity for cortisol. The results determined by this system were satisfactory. The nonchromatographic method correlated well with the chromatographic one in normal subjects, who showed 66.2 +- 34.8 ng/ml (case number 22) plasma cortisol levels from 9:00 to 10:00 AM. Various provocation tests were applied to normal subjects and to patients with endocrine disease, and the results were discussed. (auth.)

  6. Cortisol and finfish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, T.; Yildiz, H.Y.; López-Olmeda, J.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tort, L.; Overli, O.; Martins, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and

  7. In etanercept-treated psoriatic arthritis patients clinical improvement correlated with an increase of serum cortisol relative to other adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, F; Sarzi-Puttini, P; DePortu, S; Cutolo, M; Carrabba, M; Straub, R H

    2008-01-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), long-term therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies sensitizes the pituitary gland and improves adrenal androgen secretion in prednisolone-naïve patients. However, whether this is similar in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 12 weeks of etanercept treatment upon the function of the HPA axis in patients with PsA. Eleven prednisolone-naïve patients (mean age 47.3+/-8.9 years) with PsA were included. We measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), cortisol, and androstenedione (ASD), at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF therapy (etanercept, 50 mg every week as a single dose by sc. injection). Clinical improvement was assessed using the Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28). Mean levels of serum ACTH, serum cortisol, serum 17OHP and serum ASD did not markedly change during 12 weeks of etanercept treatment. Similarly, the ratio of serum cortisol divided by serum ACTH did not change during 12 weeks of anti-TNF treatment. However, an increase of serum cortisol relative to serum 17OHP or ASD was related to clinical improvement. This indicates that improvement was linked to higher serum cortisol levels relative to others adrenal hormones. This is the first study to demonstrate baseline serum levels and the course of HPA axis-related hormones in patients with PsA. An increase of serum cortisol relative to others adrenocortical hormones (i.e., androstenedione and ACTH) was accompanied by clinical improvement.

  8. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  9. Expensive egos: narcissistic males have higher cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Reinhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

  10. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (β=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (β=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (β=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (β=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (β=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J W [Withington Hospital, Manchester (UK)

    1979-07-01

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A /sup 125/I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation.

  12. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A 125 I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation. (author)

  13. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later......, at 15:00h and 22:00h. Results showed no associations between any of the main diagnostic categories from the MINI-interview, or anxiety/depression measured with HADS or HSCL-25 and cortisol. However, significant associations were found between low cortisol awakening response, low cortisol slope during...... the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety...

  14. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  15. Increases in heart rate and serum cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs are positively correlated with an indoor waiting-room environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of veterinary clinical procedures on the welfare of dogs, with specific emphasis on the veterinary practice environment. Clinicopathologic variables have also not been assessed in these potentially stressful situations. Similar to human clinical studies, the veterinary clinical waiting room could present a significant stress factor for dogs. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of waiting-room environment on serum cortisol and glucose alterations as well as heart rate in privately owned healthy dogs. The clinical trial included 24 healthy dogs that were divided into 2 groups: the clinical waiting-room group (A) and the control group (B) that waited outside in a garden. During the entire experiment, 18 dogs (9 dogs per group) were monitored with a human heart rate monitor fastened around the chest. After 20 minutes of waiting, blood samples were collected from all of the dogs (24 dogs) to determine serum cortisol concentration. Serum cortisol concentration and mean, maximum, and minimum heart rate were significantly higher in group A compared with group B, but there was no statistical difference in serum glucose concentrations between the 2 study groups. Results of this study suggest that the waiting room is a potentially stressful situation for dogs in clinical veterinary practice, when compared with a garden, based on the assessment of adrenal cortex function and heart rate evaluation. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Inverse correlation between morning plasma cortisol levels and MMPI psychasthenia and depression scale scores in victims of mobbing with adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Antonio; Martocchia, Antonio; Frugoni, Patrizia; Baldini, Rossella; Sani, Gabriele; Di Simone Di Giuseppe, Barbara; Vairano, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Falaschi, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests stress-related changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mobbing. We investigated the association between HPA activity and psychological profiles in mobbing, using a multidisciplinary approach. Forty-eight victims of mobbing were evaluated by a working group of the Departments of Occupational Medicine, Psychiatry and Internal Medicine. After an informed consent, a detailed occupational history, a psychiatric interview with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) administration and a blood sample (8:00 AM) for the determination of basal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) plasma levels were collected. Twenty-six patients received an overnight dexamethasone (dex) test. Mean ACTH, cortisol and DHEAS levels were within normal ranges. The dex-test response was normal, with a significant hormone suppression (ACTH pmobbing with adjustment disorders was observed. A larger group of patients is necessary to identify and validate a cut-off cortisol level that may become an innovative biological parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up in victims of mobbing.

  17. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  18. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (pcortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Post-acquisition data mining techniques for LC-MS/MS-acquired data in drug metabolite identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurjad, Pooja Sukhdev; Marothu, Vamsi Krishna; Rathod, Rajeshwari

    2017-08-01

    Metabolite identification is a crucial part of the drug discovery process. LC-MS/MS-based metabolite identification has gained widespread use, but the data acquired by the LC-MS/MS instrument is complex, and thus the interpretation of data becomes troublesome. Fortunately, advancements in data mining techniques have simplified the process of data interpretation with improved mass accuracy and provide a potentially selective, sensitive, accurate and comprehensive way for metabolite identification. In this review, we have discussed the targeted (extracted ion chromatogram, mass defect filter, product ion filter, neutral loss filter and isotope pattern filter) and untargeted (control sample comparison, background subtraction and metabolomic approaches) post-acquisition data mining techniques, which facilitate the drug metabolite identification. We have also discussed the importance of integrated data mining strategy.

  20. Post-acquisition repetitive thought in fear conditioning: an experimental investigation of the effect of CS-US-rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-06-01

    Although repetitive thought (e.g., worry) is generally assumed to be a risk factor for psychopathological disorders such as anxiety disorders, the repetitive thought processes occurring after a conditioning event have not yet received much theoretical attention. However, as repetitive thought can be mimicked by (mental) rehearsal, which is well-known to enhance memory performance, it seems worthwhile to explore the role of rehearsal in conditioning. Therefore, the current study investigates the impact of rehearsing an acquired CS-US-contingency on subsequent conditioned fear responding. After acquiring two CS-US-contingencies with either a human scream or a white noise as US, participants were instructed to rehearse one of these CS-US-pairings during an experimental session as well as during the following week. Fear responding to the CS which was previously paired with the scream persisted in the participants who rehearsed the CS-US(scream)-contingency, but decreased in those participants who rehearsed the CS-US(noise)-contingency. The same pattern emerged in the US-expectancy ratings, but the effect failed to reach significance. For the CS which was paired with the noise-US, no rehearsal effect emerged. As acquisition to the noise-US was less pronounced and less robust as compared to the scream-US, claims regarding the rehearsal effect might be hampered for the CS-US(noise)-contingency. Repetitive post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency impacts CR retention. As the USs were not rated as more intense, aversive or startling after rehearsal compared to post-acquisition, US-inflation is discarded as a possible explanation of this effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurements and signification of unbound cortisol in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, W.; Coolens, J.L.; Van Baelen, H.; De Moor, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is generally accepted that transcortin-bound cortisol in plasma has no direct hormonal activity. For that reason unbound cortisol, rather than total cortisol will reflect hormonal impregnation. In this communication we present a method to calculate unbound cortisol from total cortisol and from the concentration of transcortin based on the binding equilibrium. The results of this technique correlate very well with those obtained by centrifugal ultrafiltration at 37 0 C (R=0.988, y=0.986+0.862xX; n=20) showing the validity of this technique. The diurnal variation of transcortin and of total or unbound cortisol was studied in normal adult volunteers. No diurnal variation was observed for transcortin and the concentration of this protein was identical in normal men [38.3+-3.1(SD)mg/l, n=17] and women (38.9+-4.6 mg/l; n=5) but markedly higher (89.9+-14.6 mg/l, n=9) in estrogen-treated women. As expected both total and unbound cortisol showed marked diurnal variation with relatively high levels at 8 AM (total cortisol 23.5+-2.7 μg% in men and 25.8+-6.1 μg% in women); unbound cortisol 2.3+-0.5 μg% in men; 3.0+-1.6 μg% in women) and low levels at 10 PM (total cortisol 4.9+-3.3 μg% in men, 5.7+-2.8 μg% in women; unbound cortisol 0.2+-0.1 μg% in men; 0.3+-0.1μg% in women). In estrogen-treated women the levels of total cortisol were about twice as high at all timepoints, but the unbound cortisol concentrations were similar. These results indicate that the unbound cortisol is not affected by the changed concentration of transcortin. In patients with Cushing's disease, on the other hand, the unbound cortisol is relatively more elevated than the total cortisol due to a high degree of saturation of this protein, which is often present at relatively low concentrations [fr

  2. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  3. Double Antibody EIA of Cortisol Using Peroxidase As Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, F.M.; Hamad, A.W.R.; Hashim, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique for plasma cortisol was established by using cortisol-3 (carboxymethyl) oxime covalently linked to the horseradish peroxidase as the label. An antibody raised in the rabbits against cortisol-3-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovline serum albumin was used as the first anti-body. Sheep anti-rabbit gamma-globulin serum with 8 percent poly-ethyleneglycol were used to separate antibody-bound and free cortisol. The enzyme activity of the bound fraction was measured with ortho-phenylene diamine as substrate. The procedure performed at room temperature was evaluated by sensitivity (50 pg/ tube). The correlation coefficient between our enzyme immunoassay technique and radioimmunoassay technique for determination of plasma cortisol was 97 percent

  4. Effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui

    2001-01-01

    The authors observed the effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers and their correlation. The levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol of smokers before and after cigarette withdrawal were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The Levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers is significantly higher than in controls. After natural withdrawal, the levels of plasma cortisol increased significantly, while beta-endorphin decreased significantly. After drug treatment, the levels of beta-endorphin and cortisol balanced. The drugs may play the role of cigarette withdrawal by improving the secretion of endogenous opium and the axis of hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal

  5. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1±4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69±0.09 μ g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2±4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27±0.03 μ g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted

  6. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  7. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  8. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  9. Aggression as an independent entity even in psychosis - The role of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Sengupta, Soumik; Pathak, Kangkan; Sah, Divyashree; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Gogoi, Vijay; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti

    2018-01-01

    Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis. The present study included 80 participants divided into four groups depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability were measured using ELISA. The groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability using standard statistical instruments. The present study found lower levels of morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and cortisol variability among the aggressive group (vs. non aggressive group) and among the diseased group (vs. non diseased group). The differences were most marked for cortisol variability which was related to both aggression and psychosis independently. There were statistically significant correlation between cortisol variability and aggression, which was retained even after controlling for psychosis. There was no significant correlation of cortisol variability with psychosis severity (after controlling for aggression score) or with age, gender or duration of psychosis. We conclude that aggression, even among patients with psychosis, is an independent entity characterized by lower levels of morning cortisol and cortisol variability. The etio-pathology may lie in some altered neuro-immune parameters executed by cortisol and psychosis as trigger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  11. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...

  12. FKBP5 methylation as a possible marker for cortisol state and transient cortisol exposure in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Britta K; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik; Kirchner, Henriette; Harbeck, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    Current glucocorticoid replacement regimens, in adrenal insufficiency, fail to mimic the physiological cortisol secretion, thereby fostering serious side effects. To experimentally evaluate the impact of CpG methylation within the FKBP5 gene as a possible short- and long-term marker for cortisol exposure in humans. An ACTH-stimulation test was carried out and methylation status of the FKBP5 gene in leukocytes was determined. A negative correlation between basal levels of methylation and serum cortisol was observed. Individual changes in FKBP5 methylation after 24 h correlated with cortisol responses. Considering previous studies conducted with murine leucocytes, FKBP5 methylation may be suitable as a long-term biomarker, rather than acute glucocorticoid exposure, also in humans.

  13. Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Dou, Jingtao; Gu, Weijun; Yang, Guoqing; Lu, Juming

    2013-10-01

    The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity--in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level--salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

  14. An exploratory study of competition scores and salivary cortisol concentrations in Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, R; Jensen, R B; Palme, R; Munksgaard, L; Christensen, J W

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this explorative study was to describe the relationship between competition scores and salivary cortisol concentrations in young horses during dressage and showjumping competitions. The study also investigated whether the diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol concentrations was affected by competition over consecutive days compared with the home environment. Saliva samples were collected from 126 dressage horses and showjumpers in their home environment and at 3 different events. The relationship between scores given by judges at the competition and cortisol concentrations at the event was assessed. The results demonstrated that competition scores correlated positively to baseline cortisol concentrations at one of 3 events (r = 0.53, P cortisol concentrations followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations measured in the morning and the lowest in the evening, both at home and in the competition environment (P cortisol concentrations were greater during the competitions than at home (P cortisol concentrations at competition, and exercise caused cortisol concentrations to increase in both showjumpers and dressage horses (P cortisol concentrations was maintained in the novel environment. Dressage horses demonstrated greater baseline cortisol concentrations at competition than showjumpers, suggesting that they may perceive the novel environment as more stressful. Furthermore, there was no consistent relationship between baseline salivary cortisol concentrations and competition scores across the events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG

  16. Radioligand binding assay of cortisol using horse transcortin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, R.J.; Sharma, B.R.; Lata, V.

    1979-01-01

    A modified radioligand binding assay was developed to measure cortisol in a single methylene chloride extract of human plasma/serum. The assay utilises 5 percent horse serum for cortisol binding and 3 H-cortisol as tracer. Except for a cross reaction of 13.3 percent for cortisone and 7 percent for prednisolone that for other steroids tested was negligible. The assay sensitivity at the lower 95 percent inhibition of buffer controls was 20 pg/tube. The log dose logit response standard curve was linear between 80 pg and 5 ng/tube. Recovery(Y) of cortisol added (x) to male and pregnant female plasma was quantitated (y = 0.983 X-0.47, r = 0.98). Regression analysis of cortisol estimates obtained in 51 plasma/serum samples with this assay system and a specific radioimmunoassay (using cortisol-3-BSA antiserum) for plasma cortisol gave a coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.95 and a regression coefficient (b) of 0.97. The method was found to be simple and highly reproducible. Availability of all reagents in the aqueous phase permitted handling of a large number of samples by a single technician. (auth.)

  17. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, p<0.001); the values correlated with serum cortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  19. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  1. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  2. Extraction-free cortisol assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method for determining the concentration of cortisol in a serum sample comprises: (a) incubating the sample, labelled cortisol and an effective amount of deblocking agent in an aqueous medium with a composite comprising anti-cortisol antibodies fixed in active form onto the surfaces of a negatively charged support material, the incubation being carried out at a pH of from 4.0 to 6.5 and under conditions sufficient to result in the formation of immunochemical complexes on the composite, some of which complexes comprise labelled cortisol; (b) separating the composite from the incubation medium; (c) determining the amount of label on the separated composite or in the remaining incubation medium; and (d) relating the determination of (c) to a standard to determine the cortisol concentration in the sample. (author)

  3. Clinical significance of the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were measured with RIA at 24:00 and 8:00 right after admission in 68 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and the tests were repeated in 61 patients one week later 40 controls entered this study. Results: The plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the patients than the corresponding readings in controls (P<0.001) with obliteration of the normal diurnal rhythm of secretion. The increase of the cortisol levels was positively correlated with the severity of the disease. As the condition of the patients improved, the cortisol levels dropped gradually. Conclusion: The plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were closely related to the severity of the disease and were of prognostic value. (authors)

  4. Cortisol covariation within parents of young children: Moderation by relationship aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Adam, Emma K; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Guardino, Christine M; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2015-12-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al., 2013; Saxbe and Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples' physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women's diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners' cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples' relationship functioning and physical health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hair cortisol content in patients with adrenal insufficiency on hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan

    2011-06-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) require life-long replacement therapy with exogenous glucocorticoids. Several studies have shown impaired subjective health status in these patients as well as increased morbidity and mortality risk, which may be caused by glucocorticoid over-replacement. As a measure of long-term cortisol exposure, the usefulness of hair cortisol analysis in patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement therapy was investigated. Hair samples, demographics, medical history and perceived stress scale questionnaires were collected from 93 patients across North America diagnosed with primary or secondary AI. Sixty-two household partners served as a control group. Cortisol was measured in the proximal 2 cm of hair, representing the most recent 2 months of exposure. A modified enzyme immunoassay was used for the measurement of cortisol. The male patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the male controls (P cortisol content correlated significantly with glucocorticoid dose (r = 0·3, P cortisol content correlates with hydrocortisone (HC) dose in patients with AI. Our results suggest that some AI patients may be over-treated and hence may be at risk for the adverse effects of cortisol. Measurement of HC in hair may become a useful monitoring tool for long-term cortisol exposure in patients treated with glucocorticoids. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker to Explore the Role of Maternal Stress in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Chandra Pani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student’s t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol ( than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (. A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (. Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect.

  7. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  8. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  9. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, pSleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  11. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54–76 years. We...

  12. Usefulness of Time-Point Serum Cortisol and ACTH Measurements for the Adjustment of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Elise; Joubert, Michael; Trzepla, Géraldine; Parienti, Jean Jacques; Freret, Thomas; Vanthygem, Marie Christine; Desailloud, Rachel; Lefebvre, Hervé; Coquerel, Antoine; Reznik, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment of daily hydrocortisone dose on clinical criteria lacks sensitivity for fine tuning. Long term hydrocortisone (HC) over-replacement may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Biochemical criteria may help detecting over- or under-replacement but have been poorly evaluated. Multicenter, institutional, pharmacokinetic study on ACTH and cortisol plasma profiles during HC replacement in 27 AI patients compared to 29 matched controls. All AI patients were administered HC thrice daily at doses of 6, 10 and 14 mg/m2/d. Blood samples were drawn hourly from 0800h to 1900h. The main outcome measures were: i) plasma peak cortisol and cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in AI patients compared to controls, ii) correlations between cortisol AUC vs single-point cortisol or ACTH decrease from baseline (ΔACTH) and iii) the predictive value of the two latters for obtaining AI patients' cortisol AUC in the control range. Cortisol peaks were observed 1h after each HC intake and a dose response was demonstrated for cortisol peak and cortisol AUC. The comparison of AI patients' cortisol AUC to controls showed that 81.5% AI patients receiving 6mg/m2/d were adequately replaced, whereas most patients receiving higher doses were over-replaced. The correlation coefficient between 1000h/1400h cortisol concentrations and 0800-1900h cortisol AUC were 0.93/0.88 respectively, whereas the 0800-1200h ΔACTH fairly correlated with 0800-1900h cortisol AUC (R = 0.57). ROC curve analysis indicated that the 1000h and 1400h cortisol concentrations best predicted over-replacement. Patients receiving a 6mg/m2 hydrocortisone daily dose exhibited the most physiological daytime cortisol profile. Single point plasma cortisol correlated with daytime cortisol AUC in AI patients. Although hydrocortisone dose should be currently determined on clinical grounds, our data suggest that single point plasma cortisol may be an adjunct for further hydrocortisone

  13. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in hair of obese and non-obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J; Sauvé, B; Tokmakejian, S; Koren, G; Van Uum, S

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis has been demonstrated to accurately reflect exposure to drug abuse, environmental toxins and exogenous hormones. We tested the feasibility of measuring cortisol and testosterone in hair of healthy and obese subjects. A modified immunoassay (ELISA) originally developed for saliva was used. Hair, urine and blood samples were collected from young non-obese and obese patients. Perceived stress (PSS) was measured using a validated questionnaire. There was no difference in PSS between non-obese and obese subjects. Hair cortisol levels were significantly correlated with weight (r = 0.27, p cortisol levels did not correlate with age or urinary cortisol. There was a negative correlation between hair testosterone and age (r = -0.47, p cortisol over hair testosterone (C/T) was higher in the obese group than in the young non-obese group. The C/T ratio correlated positively with age (r = 0.56, p cortisol levels increase, while hair testosterone levels decrease with obesity. The hair C/T ratio was significantly correlated with age, BMI and waist circumference better than hair cortisol or testosterone alone. As hair collection is non-invasive and is not influenced by moment-to-moment variations, the measurement of hormones in hair is a useful tool in research and possibly clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing's Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Odake, Yukiko; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Mariko; Ito, Jun; Hosokawa, Yusei; Yamada, Tomoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Natsu; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma) were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean value (MV) of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day) with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day). Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p  = 0.007, and 0.70, p  = 0.017) than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p  = 0.200), indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful

  15. Optimizing the radioimmunologic determination methods for cortisol and calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalla, G.

    1981-01-01

    In order to build up a specific 125-iodine cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) pure cortisol-3(0-carbodxymethyl) oxim was synthesized for teh production of antigens and tracers. The cortisol was coupled with tyrosin methylester and then labelled with 125-iodine. For the antigen production the cortisol derivate was coupled with the same method to thyreoglobulin. The major part of the antisera, which were obtained like this, presented high titres. Apart from a high specificity for cortisol a high affinity was found in the acid pH-area and quantified with a particularly developed computer program. An extractive step in the cortisol RIA could be prevented by efforts. The assay was carried out with an optimized double antibody principle: The reaction time between the first and the second antiserum was considerably accelerated by the administration of polyaethylenglycol. The assay can be carried out automatically by applying a modular analysis system, which operates fast and provides a large capacity. The required quality and accuracy controls were done. The comparison of this assay with other cortisol-RIA showed good correlation. The RIA for human clacitonin was improved. For separating bound and freely mobile hormones the optimized double-antibody technique was applied. The antiserum was examined with respect to its affinity to calcitonin. For the 'zero serum' production the Florisil extraction method was used. The criteria of the quality and accuracy controls were complied. Significantly increased calcitonin concentrations were found in a patient group with medullar thyroid carcinoma and in two patients with an additional phaechromocytoma. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair cortisol and cortisol awakening response are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome in opposite directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Linn K; Hinkelmann, Kim; Muhtz, Christoph; Dettenborn, Lucia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and metabolic risk are equivocal. Different methods of measuring HPA activity might indicate adverse vs. beneficial effects of HPA activity on metabolic risk thus contributing to heterogenous findings. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (1) the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) as a marker of awakening-induced activation of the HPA axis and (2) hair cortisol as a marker of long-term cortisol secretion are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recruited 41 healthy individuals (26 women, mean age: 41.2 years) and 44 patients with major depression (28 women, 41.4 years) and assessed CAR and hair cortisol values as well as all criteria of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density cholesterol levels) according to the International Diabetes Federation. CAR and hair cortisol values were divided into tertiles. Across groups, participants with hair cortisol or hair cortisone in the highest tertile showed significantly more criteria of the metabolic syndrome compared to participants in the medium or low tertile (F2,64=3.37, p=.04). These results were corroborated by significant positive correlations between mean hair cortisol values with waist circumference (r=.29, p=.03), triglycerides (r=.34, p=.01) and systolic blood pressure (r=.29, p=.04) and between mean hair cortisone and triglycerides (r=.46, pcortisol and hair cortisone levels but lower CAR values are associated with an unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Pawluski

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus. Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions… on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares, from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks, early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  19. Circulating cortisol-associated signature of glucocorticoid-related gene expression in subcutaneous fat of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, Maria G; Vickers, Kasey C; Varma, Sudhir; Malek, Rana; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T; Gold, Philip W; Skarulis, Monica C; Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-05-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations fluctuate in a circadian fashion, and glucocorticoids exert strong effects on adipose tissue and induce obesity through the glucocorticoid receptor. To examine the impact of physiologic levels of circulating cortisol on subcutaneous adipose tissue, 25 overweight and obese subjects were employed, and their serum levels of morning (AM) and evening (PM) cortisol, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h urinary-free cortisol (UFC) were compared with their clinical parameters, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of 93 receptor action-regulating and 93 glucocorticoid-responsive genes in abdominal subcutaneous fat. AM cortisol levels did not correlate with mRNA expression of the all genes examined, whereas PM cortisol levels, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h UFC were associated with distinct sets of these genes. Body mass index did not significantly correlate with the four cortisol parameters employed. These results suggest that physiologic levels of AM serum cortisol do not solely represent biological effects of circulating cortisol on the expression of glucocorticoid-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas PM levels, amplitude, and net amounts of the diurnally fluctuating serum cortisol have distinct effects. Through the genes identified in this study, glucocorticoids appear to influence intermediary metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and local circadian rythmicity in subcutaneous fat. Our results may also explain in part the development of metabolic abnormality and obesity in subjects under stress or patients with melancholic/atypical depression who demonstrate elevated levels of PM serum cortisol. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Influence of cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Martins, Luana; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; de Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; Santos de Sousa, Gustavo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 µg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 µg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p cortisol were 9.58 ± 4.86 µg/dL for obese and 9.89 ± 5.61 µg/dL for control groups. Mean values for urinary cortisol were 163.00 ± 100.35 µg/dL and 109.71 ± 34.88 µg/dL for obese and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05). Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  1. Association of copeptin and cortisol in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Kochanowski, Jan; Uchman, Dorota; Litwiniuk, Anna; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Baranowska, Boguslawa; Bik, Wojciech

    2015-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Obesity may increase the risk of developing MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate copeptin and cortisol plasma levels in newly diagnosed untreated MS patients and to determine whether copeptin and cortisol are related to the patients' clinical statuses. We report that copeptin and cortisol were higher in overweight/obese MS patients. Positive correlations were observed between the two parameters. We conclude that alterations of copeptin and cortisol levels in multiple sclerosis patients may be related to adiposity. An increase in cortisol may also be associated with copeptin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  4. Oxytocin, cortisol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: neurohormonal aspects of recreational 'ecstasy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C

    2016-12-01

    Most research into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has debated its psychobiological effects in relation to neurotransmission. This article debates the contributory roles of the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol for their psychobiological effects in humans. The empirical literature on these neurohormones is reviewed and suggestions for future research outlined. Acute MDMA or 'ecstasy' can generate increased levels of oxytocin and cortisol, and these neurohormonal changes may be important for its mood-enhancing and energy-activation effects in humans. However, an initial finding of enhanced sociability correlating with oxytocin levels has not been replicated. Potential reasons are debated. There may be dynamic interactions between the two neurohormones, with greater activation under cortisol, facilitating stronger positive feelings under oxytocin. Chronic regular use of MDMA can adversely affect cortisol in several ways. Regular users show increased cortisol in 3-month hair samples, changes to the cortisol awakening response, and indications of greater daily stress. Furthermore, these cortisol findings suggest changes to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The effects of chronic MDMA usage on oxytocin still need to be investigated. It is concluded that the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol contribute in various ways to the psychobiological effects of recreational ecstasy/MDMA.

  5. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Mi Jang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS.ResultsMidnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12 than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34 (P=0.001. Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4.ConclusionThe results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS.

  6. Cortisol in schizophrenia: No association with tobacco smoking, clinical symptoms or antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Kozumplik, Oliver; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Mimica, Ninoslav; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Domino, Edward F; Pivac, Nela

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is associated with higher cortisol levels in healthy subjects. In schizophrenia this relationship is not clear. There are divergent results on the association between cortisol with smoking, clinical symptoms and medication in schizophrenia. This study evaluated this association in 196 Caucasian inpatients with schizophrenia (51.30±26.68years old), subdivided into 123 smokers and 73 non-smokers. Basal salivary cortisol levels were measured twice, at 08.00 and 09.00AM, 90-120min after awakening. The effect of smoking on cortisol was evaluated according to current smoking status, the number of cigarettes/day and the nicotine addiction intensity. The influence of clinical symptoms and/or antipsychotic medication on cortisol was determined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and chlorpromazine equivalent doses. Non-smokers were older, received lower doses of antipsychotics, had higher PANSS scores, and had longer duration of illness than smokers. Salivary cortisol was similar in schizophrenic patients subdivided according to the smoking status, the number of cigarettes/day and nicotine addiction intensity. No significant correlation was found between salivary cortisol and PANSS scores, chlorpromazine equivalent doses, age of onset or the duration of illness. The findings revealed no association between salivary cortisol and smoking, nicotine addiction intensity, or clinical symptoms. Our preliminary data showed no correlation between salivary cortisol and chlorpromazine equivalent doses and/or antipsychotic medication. Our findings suggest that smoking does not affect the cortisol response in schizophrenic patients as it has been shown in healthy individuals. Future studies should investigate a possible desensitization of the stress system to smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  8. Improved radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, J.; Sgoutas, D.

    1975-01-01

    We report a simplified radioimmunoassay procedure for determination of plasma cortisol. The method offers the advantage that tracer, antibody, and assay buffer are added in a single step with the use of semi-automated equipment. Thus, critical pipetting procedures are minimized, and assay time is reduced to 4 h. No prior extraction or chromatographic purification of cortisol is required. The procedure is simple, reliable, and accurate. For either between-assay or within-assay determinations, the coefficients of variation are about 6 percent. Our results compare well with those obtained from a procedure that included extraction and chromatographic purification of cortisol in several plasma samples. Conditions for optimizing the assay are also discussed. (auth)

  9. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  10. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  11. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to mon...

  12. Stress Hormone Cortisol Enhances Bcl2 Like-12 Expression to Inhibit p53 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weizhong; Liu, Sanguang; Liang, Yunfei; Zhou, Zegao; Bian, Wei; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) is unclear. It is suggested that psychological stress associates with the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Bcl2-like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) suppresses p53 protein. This study tests a hypothesis that the major stress hormone, cortisol, inhibits the expression of p53 in HC cells (HCC) via up regulating the expression of Bcl2L12. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with HC to be analyzed for the levels of cortisol. HCC were cultured to assess the role of cortisol in the regulation of the expression of Bcl2L12 and p53 in HCC. We observed that the serum cortisol levels were higher in HC patients. Expression of Bcl2L12 in HCC was correlated with serum cortisol. Cortisol enhanced the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. Bcl2L12 binding to the TP53 promoter was correlated with p53 expression in HCC. Cortisol increased the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC to inhibit p53 expression. Stress hormone cortisol suppresses p53 in HCC via enhancing Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. The results suggest that cortisol may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of HC.

  13. Comparison of VIDAS and Radioimmunoassay Methods for Measurement of Cortisol Concentration in Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Proverbio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay (RIA is the “gold standard” method for evaluation of serum cortisol concentration. The VIDAS cortisol test is an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay designed for the MiniVidas system. The aim of this study was to compare the VIDAS method with RIA for measurement of bovine serum cortisol concentration. Cortisol concentrations were evaluated in 40 cows using both VIDAS and RIA methods, the latter as the reference method. A paired Student’s -test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plot, and Deming regression analysis were used to compare the two methods. There was no statistically significant difference between mean serum cortisol concentrations measured by VIDAS or RIA methods (. Both methods were able to detect significant differences in mean low and high cortisol concentrations ( RIA and VIDAS. The correlation coefficient was low, but a Bland-Altman plot and Deming regression analysis show neither constant nor proportional error. The VIDAS method produced slightly higher values than RIA, but the difference was small and in no case did the mean value move the normal range. Results suggest that VIDAS method is suitable for the determination of bovine serum cortisol concentration in studies of large numbers of animals.

  14. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  15. Cortisol Measures Across the Weight Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Dichtel, Laura E; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2015-09-01

    There are conflicting reports of increased vs decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in obesity; the most consistent finding is an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and morning cortisol. In anorexia nervosa (AN), a low-BMI state, cortisol measures are elevated. This study aimed to investigate cortisol measures across the weight spectrum. This was a cross-sectional study at a clinical research center. This study included 60 women, 18-45 years of age: overweight/obese (OB; N = 21); AN (N = 18); and normal-weight controls (HC; N = 21). HPA dynamics were assessed by urinary free cortisol, mean overnight serum cortisol obtained by pooled frequent sampling every 20 minutes from 2000-0800 h, 0800 h serum cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin, morning and late-night salivary cortisol, and dexamethasone-CRH testing. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Cortisol measures demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with BMI, nadiring in the overweight-class I obese range, and were similarly associated with visceral adipose tissue and total fat mass. Mean cortisol levels were higher in AN than OB. There were weak negative linear relationships between lean mass and some cortisol measures. Most cortisol measures were negatively associated with postero-anterior spine and total hip BMD. Cortisol measures are lowest in overweight-class I obese women-lower than in lean women. With more significant obesity, cortisol levels increase, although not to as high as in AN. Therefore, extreme underweight and overweight states may activate the HPA axis, and hypercortisolemia may contribute to increased adiposity in the setting of caloric excess. Hypercortisolemia may also contribute to decreased BMD and muscle wasting in the setting of both caloric restriction and excess.

  16. Testosterone is related to deviance in male army veterans, but relationships are not moderated by cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan; Booth, Alan

    2014-02-01

    The Vietnam Experience Study (VES) of 4462 male U.S. Army veterans is the first large dataset used to demonstrate that testosterone (but not cortisol) is correlated with diverse measures of antisocial, aggressive or dominant behavior. Many subsequent studies have sustained these relationships while also pointing to important caveats. Some researchers suggest that testosterone is correlated to dominance and aggression only (or mostly) in people with low cortisol, not in those with high cortisol. Here we look back to the VES to test this "dual hormone" hypothesis. We find no testosterone-cortisol interaction for seven measures of antisocial deviance. We consider scope conditions under which the dual hormone hypothesis may be valid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petri Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. Method: cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004 and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017. Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. Conclusion: it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  19. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Consiglio, Angélica Rosat; Pai, Daiane Dal

    2017-04-20

    to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004) and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017). Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE) and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  20. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC, and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC and mean value (MV of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day. Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p = 0.007, and 0.70, p = 0.017 than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p = 0.200, indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a

  1. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  2. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  3. Effect of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning on Blood Cortisol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Farnaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intoxication with ALP is extremely lethal. The present study was conducted to determine the range of serum cortisol levels in ALP poisoning and its correlation with patient outcome. Methods: This study was carried out on patients who were intoxicated with ALP. Their demographic data and pertinent findings in their history and physical examination were recorded at the time of arrival and also when shock and severe metabolic acidosis emerged. 5cc blood was taken from the patients to measure blood cortisol level, when shock and severe metabolic acidosis developed. Blood cortisol level analysis was performed using ELISA method. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The average ingested dose was 1.98+1.79 tablets each containing 3 grams of ALP. Overall, 77% of the patients presented tachycardia and hypotension. Blood cortisol level less than 15 µg/dl, 15-33 µg/dl, and more than 34 µg/dl were regarded as adrenal insufficiency, critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, and adequate adrenal response, respectively. Eventually, 3 patients fell within the first category, 24 patients matched with the second category, and 3 patients corresponded to the last category. Conclusion: Blood cortisol concentration is satisfactory only in 10% of the patients. In majority of the patients although it is not apparently low, it has not shown the expected rise comparable to the shock and stress state of such patients. It defines a role for corticosteroids therapy in management of ALP poisoning, particularly if it does not respond to conventional treatments.

  4. Cortisol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cortisoltest.html Cortisol Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cortisol Test? Cortisol is a hormone that affects almost every ...

  5. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Morning plasma cortisol is low among obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan P; Khurana, Madan L; John, Jomimol; Gupta, Nandita; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause for androgen excess in women. It is associated with wide variety of metabolic disorders. The present study assessed morning plasma cortisol in women with PCOS. One hundred and ninety seven cases and 55 controls were enrolled for this study. The mean age of patients and controls were 23 ± 5.6 years and 25 ± 4.3 years. One hundred twelve (56%) women with PCOS had BMI >25. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in lean PCOS women compared to controls (13.4 ± 5.1 versus 11.3 ± 4.5, p cortisol was lower among obese women with PCOS. Morning plasma cortisol correlated negatively with BMI in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  8. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) during pregnancy: Composition, continuity, change, and concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Bryce, Crystal I; Letourneau, Nicole; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    Individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis are often operationalized using summary measures of cortisol that are taken to represent stable individual differences. Here we extend our understanding of a novel latent variable approach to latent trait cortisol (LTC) as a measure of trait-like HPA axis function during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=380) prospectively collected 8 diurnal saliva samples (4 samples/day, 2 days) within each trimester. Saliva was assayed for cortisol. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to fit LTC models to early morning and daytime cortisol. For individual trimester data, only the daytime LTC models had adequate fit. These daytime LTC models were strongly correlated between trimesters and stable over pregnancy. Daytime LTC was unrelated to the cortisol awakening response and the daytime slope but strongly correlated with the area under the curve from ground. The findings support the validity of LTC as a measure of cortisol during pregnancy and suggest that it is not affected by pregnancy-related changes in HPA axis function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an assay for urinary free cortisol determination on the Technicon Immuno 1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letellier, M.; Levesque, A.; Daigle, F.

    1997-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a method using an ethyl acetate extraction procedure for the determination of urinary free cortisol on the Technicon Immuno 1 system from Bayer Corporation. We tested the assay precision, linearity, and correlation with the Urinary Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol radioimmunoassay. We also studied the efficiency of the extraction procedure, performed a cross-reactivity study with different cortisol metabolites, and determined the reference values. The assay shows within-run CVs varying from 1.6 to 5.3% and between-day CVs from 2.7 to 6.1% for urinary free cortisol concentrations from 58 to 1097 nmol/L. The assay demonstrates an excellent linearity and a very good correlation with the Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol assay (slope 0.94, y-intercept = 29 nmol/L, Sy|x = 54 nmol/L, r = 0.996). The reference values were estimated at 42-281 nmol/d. The extraction procedure shows an average recovery of 99.0% and minimal interference with the cortisol metabolites tested with the exception of cortisone. The evaluation shows that the developed assay has the analytical characteristics required for its utilization in a clinical laboratory. (author)

  10. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; van Kruysbergen, Rulanda G P M; de Jong, Frank H; Koper, Jan W; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome is increased in shift workers. This may be due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the behavioral rhythm. The stress hormone cortisol could play a role in this phenomenon because it is secreted in a circadian rhythm, and long-term elevated cortisol leads to components of the metabolic syndrome. We compared cortisol levels in scalp hair of shift and day workers to study changes in long-term cortisol due to shift work. Hair samples were collected from 33 shift workers and 89 day workers. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol levels were measured using ELISA. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Shift workers had higher hair cortisol levels than day workers: 47.32 pg/mg hair [95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.37-58.21] vs. 29.72 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 26.18-33.73) (P cortisol levels were present only in younger shift workers: 48.53 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 36.56-64.29) vs. 26.42 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 22.91-30.55) (P cortisol and BMI were positively correlated (β = 0.262; P = 0.005). Shift work at a young adult age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and increased BMI. Elevated cortisol levels and BMI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk found in shift workers.

  11. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  13. Cortisol in hair measured in young adults - a biomarker of major life stressors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorsson Elvar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress as a cause of illness has been firmly established. In public health and stress research a retrospective biomarker of extended stress would be an indispensible aid. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether concentrations of cortisol in hair correlate with perceived stress, experiences of serious life events, and perceived health in young adults. Methods Hair samples were cut from the posterior vertex area of (n = 99 university students who also answered a questionnaire covering experiences of serious life events, perceived Stress Scale and perceived health during the last three months. Cortisol was measured using a competitive radioimmunoassay in methanol extracts of hair samples frozen in liquid nitrogen and mechanically pulverised. Results Mean cortisol levels were significantly related to serious life events (p = 0.045, weakly negatively correlated to perceived stress (p = 0.025, r = -0.061 but nor affected by sex, coloured/permed hair, intake of pharmaceuticals or self-reported health. In a multiple regression model, only the indicator of serious life events had an independent (p = 0.041 explanation of increased levels of cortisol in hair. Out of four outliers with extremely high cortisol levels two could be contacted, both reported serious psychological problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that measurement of cortisol in hair could serve as a retrospective biomarker of increased cortisol production reflecting exposure to major life stressors and possibly extended psychological illness with important implications for research, clinical practice and public health. Experience of serious life events seems to be more important in raising cortisol levels in hair than perceived stress.

  14. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  15. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  16. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Onodera, Takeshi [Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toko, Kiyoshi, E-mail: toko@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  17. Social-emotional competence and early adolescents' peer acceptance in school: Examining the role of afternoon cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Oberle

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of afternoon cortisol in social-emotional competence and peer acceptance in early adolescence. To date, research on basal cortisol activity and social development in childhood and adolescence has predominately focused on understanding maladjustment and dysfunction in development. The degree to which basal cortisol is also involved in positive adjustment and social functioning remains largely unexplored. A total of 154 early adolescents (46% female; Mean age = 11.26; SD = .65 from diverse ethnic backgrounds provided self-reports of perspective taking, peer reports of acceptance by classmates, peer reports of prosocial behaviors, and saliva samples to assess basal cortisol. As expected and in alignment with previous research, afternoon cortisol, perspective taking, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were all positively correlated. Path analyses followed by bootstrapping analyses revealed that the direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to higher levels of prosocial behavior was fully mediated by perspective taking skills. The direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to peer acceptance was fully mediated by perspective taking skills and prosocial behavior. The findings are discussed within the broader context of previous research on cortisol and social adjustment in childhood and early adolescence. The practical relevance of the findings is considered.

  18. Social-emotional competence and early adolescents' peer acceptance in school: Examining the role of afternoon cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of afternoon cortisol in social-emotional competence and peer acceptance in early adolescence. To date, research on basal cortisol activity and social development in childhood and adolescence has predominately focused on understanding maladjustment and dysfunction in development. The degree to which basal cortisol is also involved in positive adjustment and social functioning remains largely unexplored. A total of 154 early adolescents (46% female; Mean age = 11.26; SD = .65) from diverse ethnic backgrounds provided self-reports of perspective taking, peer reports of acceptance by classmates, peer reports of prosocial behaviors, and saliva samples to assess basal cortisol. As expected and in alignment with previous research, afternoon cortisol, perspective taking, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were all positively correlated. Path analyses followed by bootstrapping analyses revealed that the direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to higher levels of prosocial behavior was fully mediated by perspective taking skills. The direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to peer acceptance was fully mediated by perspective taking skills and prosocial behavior. The findings are discussed within the broader context of previous research on cortisol and social adjustment in childhood and early adolescence. The practical relevance of the findings is considered.

  19. Cortisol, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S B; Rubino, D; Sinaii, N; Ramsey, S; Nieman, L K

    2013-01-01

    Circulating cortisol and psychosocial stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). To evaluate these relationships, a cross-sectional study of 369 overweight and obese subjects and 60 healthy volunteers was performed and reviewed the previous literature. Overweight and obese subjects had at least two other features of Cushing's syndrome. They underwent measurements representing cortisol dynamics (24 h urine cortisol excretion (UFC), bedtime salivary cortisol, 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) and metabolic parameters (BMI, blood pressure (BP); fasting serum triglycerides, HDL, insulin, and glucose). Subjects also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). UFC, salivary cortisol, and weight from 60 healthy volunteers were analyzed. No subject had Cushing's syndrome. UFC and dexamethasone responses were not associated with BMI or weight. However, salivary cortisol showed a trend to increase as BMI increased (P cortisol levels were weak to moderately correlated with fasting insulin (rs = -0.31, P = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (rs = -0.31, P = 0.01) in men and systolic (rs = 0.18, P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (rs = 0.20, P = 0.009) in women. PSS results were higher in obese subjects than controls, but were not associated with cortisol or metabolic parameters. As expected, WC correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and systolic BP (adjusted for BMI and gender; P cortisol and metabolic parameters. Taken together, these data do not support a strong relationship between systemic cortisol or stress and obesity or MS. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. BDNF and cortisol levels in children with or without post-traumatic stress disorder after sustaining sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Seref; Uysal, Cem; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Yuksel, Tugba; Aktas, Huseyin

    2015-06-01

    There are studies reporting that cortisol and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, up-to-date no study evaluated the relationship between PTSD and the levels of cortisol and BDNF in children and adolescents who have sustained trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF, cortisol and adrenocorticotropine (ACTH) levels differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. The study included 55 children aged between 6 and 17 years who sustained sexual assault (M/F: 13/42). The patients were divided into two groups, with or without PTSD based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA). Of the participants, 49% (n=27) were diagnosed with PTSD. Cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels were evaluated using the ELISA method. There were no significant differences between patients with or without PTSD in terms of cortisol, ACTH, BDNF levels. There were no correlations between CAPS-CA scores and cortisol, ACTH, and BDNF levels in patients with or without PTSD. In patients with PTSD, decreased cortisol levels were found with increasing time after trauma, and no significant correlation was found with the cortisol levels in patients without PTSD. Although no significant association was found between biochemical parameters and the presence or severity of PTSD; decreasing cortisol levels with increasing time after trauma in patients with PTSD suggest that cortisol might have played a role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Serum cortisol level variations in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck-Gassama; Ndoye, O; Mbodj, M; Akala, A; Cisse, F; Niang, M; Ndoye, R

    2000-01-01

    This work studies the thyroid disorders impact on adrenals glands by measuring total cortisol. Radioimmunoassays of thyroid hormones and cortisol were performed in 108 subjects, aged 20-52 years, with thyroid diseases. Our results show low cortisol values (80.35 nmol/L) in 4.77% of hyperthyroids, high values in 3.57% of hyperthyroids (1348.18 nmol/L) and 12.5% of hypothyroids (969.05 nmol/L). In hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone stimulates the secretion of 11 ceto metabolites biologically inactive, unable to slow pituitary activity, inducing an increased production of endogene cortisol. Excessive catabolism can lead to the exhausting of overstimulated adrenal glands, and therefore to a decreased cortisol. In hypothyroidism, high cortisol results of increase cortisol half life and decrease of metabolic clearance. Control mechanisms often allow normal cortisol values. These alterations in functional activity of adrenal glands, seen in nearly 10% of these subjects, sometimes command a specific attitude in diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijl, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not

  3. A comparison of the use of urinary cortisol to creatinine ratios and nocturnal salivary cortisol in the evaluation of cyclicity in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, U M; Hunter, S J; McDonnell, M; Mullan, K R; Atkinson, A B

    2013-01-01

    Cyclical Cushing's syndrome is detected in our center by collecting sequential early morning urine (EMU) samples for cortisol to creatinine ratio over 28 d. The Endocrine Society suggests that nocturnal salivary cortisol (NSC) may be used to assess patients for cyclical Cushing's. However, there is only very limited evidence that it correlates with EMU testing or that it demonstrates cycling over 28 d. We sought to correlate NSC with EMU results collected the following morning and to determine whether NSC could be used to detect cyclical Cushing's. An observation study of 28-d collections for NSC and EMU was performed in a tertiary referral center over 1 yr. A 28-d collection of NSC and EMU was performed in 10 patients with confirmed or suspected Cushing's syndrome. The main outcome of the study was the correlation of salivary and urinary cortisol with graphical assessment of results for cycling. Eleven collections were performed. One patient with cyclical Cushing's completed the collection before and after cabergoline therapy. Two hundred seventy matched salivary and urinary results were correlated (r = 0.79; P Cushing's, EMU and NSC followed a similar cyclical pattern. In one patient with recurrent cyclical Cushing's, cortisol was elevated in both saliva and urine but with more prominent cycles in saliva. NSC correlated well with EMU. NSC detected all cases of cyclical Cushing's. Therefore, NSC may prove to be an additional option or replacement for EMU in detecting cyclical Cushing's syndrome.

  4. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies...... is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  5. Suitability of saliva cortisol as a biomarker for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation assessment, effects of feeding actions, and immunostimulatory challenges in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinn, A. -C.; Knight, C. H.; Bruckmaier, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    , current research focuses on noninvasive sampling of media other than blood, for example, saliva. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of saliva cortisol as a biomarker under different physiological and immunological states in dairy cows. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate the relationship...... between HPA axis activation and saliva cortisol concentration, 2) investigate effects of some feeding action (as influenced by feed and water consumption) on saliva cortisol concentration, and 3) evaluate the time lag between plasma and saliva cortisol during induced inflammatory conditions...... administration. Saliva and blood samples were taken before, during, and after drinking, feeding, and ruminating. Only a low correlation between saliva and plasma cortisol concentrations (r = 0.03, P = 0.83) but no significant effects of the different feeding actions on saliva cortisol were observed. When...

  6. Stress and cortisol responses in men: differences according to facial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    Stress response is associated with increased activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Chronic stress-induced elevation in cortisol may alter its own negative regulation with multiple long-term consequences for physical and psychological health. One of the most reliable physical traits associated with mental, apparent physical health, and competitiveness is the degree of facial fluctuating asymmetry. However, to our knowledge there are no studies regarding the relationship between cortisol levels, facial symmetry and male competitiveness, and how cortisol changes after a stressful test depending on these traits. Here, a group of 100 college men were photographed to obtain their facial asymmetry levels. They then, answered the perceived stress scale and the intrasexual competition test and donated two saliva samples (pre-and post-test sample) to measure the change in their cortisol levels after a stressful test. We found that basal cortisol levels were positively correlated with both perceived stress and competitiveness, but not with facial fluctuating asymmetry. Cortisol levels increased in most symmetrical men after a short stressful test, but it decreased in most asymmetrical men. The results suggest differences in endocrine responses according to facial fluctuating asymmetry in men and how these responses could be related to the maintenance of social status.

  7. A lack of consistent evidence for cortisol dysregulation in premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesner, Jeff; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    Although decades of research has examined the association between cortisol regulation and premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD), no review exists to provide a general set of conclusions from the extant research. In the present review we summarize and interpret research that has tested for associations between PMS/PMDD and cortisol levels and reactivity (n=38 original research articles). Three types of studies are examined: correlational studies, environmental-challenge studies, and pharmacological-challenge studies. Overall, there was very little evidence that women with and without PMS/PMDD demonstrate systematic and predictable mean-level differences in cortisol, or differences in cortisol response/reactivity to challenges. Methodological differences in sample size, the types of symptoms used for diagnosis (physical and psychological vs. only affective), or the type of cortisol measure used (serum vs. salivary), did not account for differences between studies that did and did not find significant effects. Caution is recommended before accepting the conclusion of null effects, and recommendations are made that more rigorous research be conducted, considering symptom-specificity, within-person analyses, and multiple parameters of cortisol regulation, before final conclusions are drawn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  9. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  10. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  11. Changes of serum contents of cortisol and ACTH in patients after operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lianghong; Zhang Xinlu; Chen Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum contents of cortisol and ACTH after operation. Methods: Serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured with RIA both before and ld, 3d post-operatively in 30 patients after Grade III operation and 15 patients after Grade IV operation. Results: On the first post-operative day, the serum cortisol and ACTH levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than their respective pre-operative levels. Levels in Grade IV group were significantly higher than those in Grade III group. On the third post-operative day, the serum cortisol levels dropped markedly and were lower than their respective pre-operative levels. However, the serum ACTH levels continued to rise in both groups and were significantly higher than the respective levels pre-operatively as well as those on dl. The ACTH levels in the two groups were not significantly different on d3. Conclusion: Serum cortisol and ACTH levels increased in the early post-operative phase and the degree of increase of cortisol was correlated with the magnitude of the operation. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da; Mendonca, B.B. de; Nicolau, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  13. Evaluation of urinary excretion of cortisol by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da.

    1992-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of urinary cortisol extracted by organic solvent (free cortisol) has been used for along time in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. With the development of more specific antisera it became possible to measure urinary cortisol without extracting it. The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It was used Gamma Coat 125 I - cortisol kit provided by Clinical Assay, Incstar, US, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98,1%, for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively). A positive correlation between the two methods was noticed in all groups studied (p < 0.05). It was concluded that both methods are efficient for the investigation of hypercortisolism. However, it's suggested that non-extracted urinary cortisol measurement should be the method of choice since it's an easy-to-perform and affordable method to diagnose Cushing's syndrome. (author)

  14. Daily cortisol production rate in man determined by stable isotope dilution/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, N.V.; Loughlin, T.; Yergey, A.L.; Zawadzki, J.K.; Booth, J.D.; Winterer, J.C.; Loriaux, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Growth retardation as well as the development of Cushingoid features in adrenally insufficient patients treated with the currently accepted replacement dose of cortisol (33-41 mumol/day.m2; 12-15 mg/m2.day) prompted us to reevaluate the cortisol production rate (FPR) in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome, using a recently developed thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The stable isotope [9,12,12-2H3]cortisol was infused continuously for 31 h at about 5% of the anticipated FPR. Blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals for 24 h, spun, and pooled in 4-h groups. Tracer dilution in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated with controlled infusions in 6 patients with adrenal insufficiency. Results from 12 normal volunteers revealed a FPR of 27.3 +/- 7.5 mumol/day (9.9 +/- 2.7 mg/day) or 15.7 mumol/day.m2; 5.7 mg/m2. day. A previously unreported circadian variation in FPR was observed. Patients with Cushing's syndrome demonstrated unequivocal elevation of FPR and cortisol concentration correlated during each sample period in normal volunteers, indicating that cortisol secretion, rather than metabolism, is mainly responsible for changes in plasma cortisol. Our data suggest that the FPR in normal subjects may be lower than previously believed

  15. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lindholm, Torun; Nordenström, Anna; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2009-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in every-day life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  17. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  19. Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivars, Katrin; Nelson, Nina; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Ström, Jakob O; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life. 130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30), noon (10:00-12:00) and evening (19:30-21:30), each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life. Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  20. Relationship between coping ways with stress and levels of IL-1β and cortisol in coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Agha Yousefi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Coping ways with stress in coronary heart disease patients can lead to significant changes in the levels of biomarkers IL- 1 β and cortisol. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between coping ways with stress and level of IL- 1 β and cortisol in coronary heart disease patients.   Materials and Methods: The statistical population covered all patients with CHD who referred to Tehran Shahid Rajaie Heart Hospital. 44 patients with CHD admitted to different wards of the hospital were selected as eligible cases.In the present, Lazarus and Folkman questionnaires and Human IL- 1 β kits manufactured by Austrian Bender Med System Manufacturing Co and cortisol kits ( made by IBL Manufacturing Co., Germany,employing ELISA method of measurement ,were used.   Results: It was found that there was a significant positive correlation between emotional focused coping ways with biomarkers IL - 1 β and cortisol .But, a significant negative correlation was observed between problem focused coping ways and biomarkers IL-1 β and cortisol .Moreover, between 8 ways of coping with stress only predictive positive re-evaluation had a significant relationship with IL-1 β and Cortisol.   Conclusion: An increase in the use of problem focused coping ways including positive re-evaluation way can reduce levels of IL- 1 β and cortisol.

  1. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    pregnant by 100d postpartum had lower concentrations of hair cortisol at d 42 and 84 in milk. Lastly, other biomarkers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation, such as glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin, were not strongly correlated with measurements of cortisol in hair. Overall, hair cortisol measurements appear to be associated with clinical disorders and have a direct association with pregnancy status; however, concentrations of hair cortisol may not be suited to differentiate situations of stress with lower magnitudes, such as the development of subclinical disease. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  3. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests [fr

  4. Oral lichen planus: salival biomarkers cortisol, immunoglobulin A, adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Cayuela, Cristina Aznar; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Parra-Perez, Francisco; Escribano, Damian; Ceron, Jose

    2016-03-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease, inflammatory and autoimmune in character, in which the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Psychological stress has also been implicated in triggering or exacerbating the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological profile, sleep, and salivary biological markers-cortisol, immunoglobin A (IgA), and adiponectin - in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). The sample consisted of 65 patients (33 with OLP and 32 control patients). Patients completed hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADD, HADA). Questionnaires were used to assess sleepiness: the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for rating pain. Unstimulated whole saliva was evaluated, together with total proteins: cortisol, IgA, and adiponectin. Patients with OLP obtained significantly higher HADA and PSQI scores than control subjects (P = 0.001, P = 0.012, respectively). Total salivary protein (flow at rest) analysis found that total proteins were higher in the OLP group (P = 0.001). In the OLP group, IgA was 80.3 ± 51.3 vs. the control group 48.9 ± 32.8 (P = 0.005). Mean cortisol was 0.5 ± 0.3 μg/dl in the OLP group vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/dl in the control group (P = 0.010). The OLP group showed a correlation between the HADA variable and pain (r = 0.358; P = 0.041), HADD (r = 0.568; P = 0.001), and PSQI (r = 0.537; P = 0.001). OLP patients presented worse psychological profiles and sleep disturbances, as well as higher values for IgA, cortisol, and total proteins than control subjects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  6. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  7. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the ...

  8. Serum cortisol and BDNF in patients with major depression-effect of yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, G H; Varambally, Shivarama; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rao, Mukund; Christopher, Rita; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Depression is associated with low serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of serum cortisol. Yoga practices have been associated with antidepressant effects, increase in serum BDNF, and reduction in serum cortisol. This study examined the association between serum BDNF and cortisol levels in drug-naïve patients with depression treated with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both. Fifty-four drug-naïve consenting adult outpatients with Major Depression (32 males) received antidepressants only (n = 16), yoga therapy only (n = 19), or yoga with antidepressants (n = 19). Serum BDNF andcortisol levels were obtained before and after 3 months using a sandwich ELISA method. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis. The groups were comparable at baseline on most parameters. Significant improvement in depression scores and serum BDNF levels, and reduction in serum cortisol in the yoga groups, have been described in previous reports. A significant negative correlation was observed between change in BDNF (pre-post) and cortisol (pre-post) levels in the yoga-only group (r = -0.59, p = 0.008). In conclusion, yoga may facilitate neuroplasticity through stress reduction in depressed patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and delineate the pathways for these effects.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for serum cortisol with 125I-labeled ligand: comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.S.; Safa, A.M.; Deodhar, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    We evaluated a previously modified double-antibody radioimmunoassay for serum cortisol. It was compared with the conventional double-antibody method that includes the usual extraction step, and also with an antibody-coated tube method. In this modified method, cortisol was released from its binding globulin by enzymatic degradation rather than by extraction with ether, and a preincubated mixture of first and second antibody was used to separate antibody-bound cortisol from free. These two steps shortened total assay time significantly. Results still correlated well (r = 0.87) with results by the conventional method, but the antibody-coated tube method gave lower results (r = 0.61). Because of its good correlation with the conventional method, this method was thought to be more accurate. In 52 normal subjects, mean cotrtisol concentrations at 0800 and 1700 hours were 161 +/- 52 (SD) mug/liter and 91 +/-- 27 mug/liter, respectively. In 16 normal subjects, cortisol values before and after dexamethasone treatment (1 mg at midnight) were 134 +/-- 53 mug/liter and less than 20 mug/liter. In the same subjects, cortisol concentrations before and 30 min and 60 min after Cortrosyn (synthetic corticotropin 1-24, 0.25 mg) administration were 103 +/-- 25, 205 +/-- 45 and 223 +/-- 51 mug/liter, respectively

  10. Relationship between local cerebral glucose uptakes, serum prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol levels changes during epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang; Mao Xianghui; Tang Ganghua; Zhao Jun; Sun Aijun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation of local cerebral FDG uptake value of glucose to the changes of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol levels in serum during epilepsy. Methods: 76 epileptic patients with solitary epileptic focus were examined by 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the FDG uptake value of epileptic foci were measured. Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels of the patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) before and after seizures. Results: During ictal studies, all patients showed increased FDG uptake of epileptic foci compared with that in interictal phase. The serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significant higher after seizures. The changes of hormone levels correlated significantly with the lengths of seizure free intervals (SFIs) and with the types of seizures. But the variations of hormone levels had no relation with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci. In patients with absentia seizures, no significant increase was observed in serum PRL and cortisol levels. The changes of GH were not related with the types of seizures. Also, it was found that changes of hormone levels had significant relations to the lengths of SFIs. Conclusions: Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significantly different before and after seizures. This study suggests that changes of postictal hormone levels correlated significantly with the types of seizures and lengths of SFIs, but the changes of hormone levels are not related with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci

  11. New approach for monitoring fish stress: A novel enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting cortisol levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Ota, Shirei; Murata, Masataka; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Endo, Hideaki

    2017-07-15

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. As a well-known indicator of fish stress, a simple and rapid method for detecting cortisol changes especially sudden increases is desired. In this study, we describe an enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting fish cortisol levels. Detection of cortisol using amperometry was achieved by immobilizing both anti-cortisol antibody (selective detection of cortisol) and glucose oxidase (signal amplification and non-toxic measurement) on an Au electrode surface with a self-assembled monolayer. This system is based on the maximum glucose oxidation output current change induced by the generation of a non-conductive antigen-antibody complex, which depends on the levels of cortisol in the sample. The immunosensor responded to cortisol levels with a linear decrease in the current in the range of 1.25-200ngml -1 (R=0.964). Since the dynamic range of the sensor can cover the normal range of plasma cortisol in fish, the samples obtained from the fish did not need to be diluted. Further, electrochemical measurement of one sample required only ~30min. The sensor system was applied to determine the cortisol levels in plasma sampled from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which were then compared with levels of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). Values determined using both methods were well correlated. These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish without sample dilution. We also believe that the proposed system could be integrated in a miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and useful as a portable diagnostic in fish farms in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  13. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  14. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  15. Stress, breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    2002-04-01

    Recent research has shown that regular consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with lower stress levels and reports of better physical and mental health. The present study examined this issue using an objective indicator of stress, salivary cortisol. The results showed that stress was associated with higher cortisol levels and daily consumption of breakfast cereal was associated with lower cortisol levels. Although it was not possible to rule out all the alternative explanations of the association between breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol, analyses did show that the effect could not be accounted for by general health or nutritional status. The effects of breakfast cereal consumption and stress were also independent, which shows that the effects of breakfast found here cannot be due to stress buffering. Further research manipulating the nutrient content of the breakfast cereal is now required to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  16. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  17. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  18. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  19. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  20. Plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations in stereotypic and non-stereotypic horses: do stereotypic horses cope better with poor environmental conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fureix Carole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotypic behaviours, i.e. repetitive behaviours induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope and/or brain dysfunction, are intriguing as they occur in a variety of domestic and captive species without any clear adaptive function. Among the different hypotheses, the coping hypothesis predicts that stereotypic behaviours provide a way for animals in unfavourable environmental conditions to adjust. As such, they are expected to have a lower physiological stress level (glucocorticoids than non-stereotypic animals. Attempts to link stereotypic behaviours with glucocorticoids however have yielded contradictory results. Here we investigated correlates of oral and motor stereotypic behaviours and glucocorticoid levels in two large samples of domestic horses (NStudy1 = 55, NStudy2 = 58, kept in sub-optimal conditions (e.g. confinement, social isolation, and already known to experience poor welfare states. Each horse was observed in its box using focal sampling (study 1 and instantaneous scan sampling (study 2. Plasma samples (collected in study 1 but also non-invasive faecal samples (collected in both studies were retrieved in order to assess cortisol levels. Results Results showed that 1 plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations did not differ between horses displaying stereotypic behaviours and non-stereotypic horses and 2 both oral and motor stereotypic behaviour levels did not predict plasma cortisol or faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations. Conclusions Cortisol measures, collected in two large samples of horses using both plasma sampling as well as faecal sampling (the latter method minimizing bias due to a non-invasive sampling procedure, therefore do not indicate that stereotypic horses cope better, at least in terms of adrenocortical activity.

  1. Test-enhanced learning may be a gender-related phenomenon explained by changes in cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten L; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2011-02-01

    testing increases memory of a topic studied more than additional study or training. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not clearly understood. Testing can be stressful and studies suggest that the stress hormone cortisol has modulating effects on memory, predominantly in men. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills testing induce a cortisol increase, whether the cortisol increase enhances retention of CPR skills, and how this relates to gender. we randomised a convenience sample of medical students attending a mandatory course to one intervention and one control group. Students received a 4-hour course on CPR skills. During the final half-hour of the intervention course, participants were tested in CPR scenarios, whereas the control group underwent additional training. We assessed learning outcomes 2 weeks later by rating student performance in a CPR scenario using a checklist and a single blinded assessor. We measured salivary cortisol pre-course, half an hour before the end of the course and post-course, and compared learning outcomes and cortisol responses between groups and genders. in total, 146 of 202 (72%) students completed the study. We found a significant difference in learning outcome between the intervention and control groups for both genders (mean ± standard deviation, 5.0 ± 3.5; p = 0.006). We found a significant effect of increase in cortisol on learning outcome in men. The correlation between learning outcome and cortisol increase was medium to large for men (r = 0.38), but not for women (r = -0.05). cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills testing induces a rise in cortisol in men, which is related to the better retention of skills in men. Cortisol modulates test-enhanced learning in men.

  2. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  3. A comparative analysis of the level of cortisol and the number of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... methods of evaluating stress, which include the effect of stressors on ... [1,10,11] The degree of surgical stress directly correlates with cortisol ... for simple intraalveolar extraction of one or more teeth and aged between 18 and ...

  4. A direct radio-immunoassay for plasma aldosterone: significance of endogenous cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, A.J.M. de; Hofman, J.A.; Hendriks, Th.; Rosmalen, F.M.A.; Ross, H.A.; Benraad, Th.J.

    1980-01-01

    A direct radio-immunoassay for plasma aldosterone was developed, using a highly specific antiserum raised in sheep. An excellent correlation was observed between its results and the levels measured after extraction and chromatography. The necessity of including a blocking agent to inhibit the binding of aldosterone to plasma proteins was investigated. It was found that in low-cortisol ( 10 μg/100 ml) the final assay result was independent of the presence of ANS. The effect of cortisol was interpreted in terms of its influence on aldosterone binding to plasma proteins in the absence of a blocking agent. (Auth.)

  5. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol.

  6. Cortisol/cortisone ratio and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity are associated with pediatric primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Campino, Carmen; Baudrand, Rene; Carvajal, Cristian A; García, Hernán; Aglony, Marlene; Bancalari, Rodrigo; García, Lorena; Loureiro, Carolina; Vecchiola, Andrea; Tapia-Castillo, Alejandra; Valdivia, Carolina; Sanhueza, Sebastian; Fuentes, Cristobal A; Lagos, Carlos F; Solari, Sandra; Allende, Fidel; Kalergis, Alexis M; Fardella, Carlos E

    2016-09-01

    To identify novel biomarkers associated with pediatric primary hypertension. We recruited 350 participants (4-16 years). Anthropometric parameters and aldosterone, plasma renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 levels and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-9 and MMP-2) activities were measured. Genomic DNA was isolated. Patients with altered glucose metabolism, severe obesity [BMI-SD score (BMI-SDS) > 2.5], renovascular disease, primary aldosteronism and apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome were excluded. In selected participants (n = 320), SBP was positively correlated with BMI-SDS (r = 0.382, P cortisol/cortisone ratio (r = 0.231, P cortisol/cortisone ratio (P cortisol/cortisone ratio (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.98-7.71) and increased MMP-9 activity (OR = 4.23; 95% CI = 2.15-8.32). We report that MMP-9 activity and the cortisol/cortisone ratio were higher in pediatric primary hypertensive patients, and these associations were independent of the effect of obesity. The potential role of these novel biomarkers in predicting hypertension risk and blood pressure regulation warrants further investigation.

  7. Relationship between salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in saliva and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Mudrika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the association between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA levels in patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 20 subjects, with clinical examinations including oral hygiene index, sulcus bleeding index (Muhlemann and Son and probing depth was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software package (version 7.0, and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to see the correlation between the groups. Results: In cortisol and DHEA the mean and standard deviation of periodontitis group were (2.6 ± 0.37 and (66.7 ± 8.7 respectively. Conclusion: This shows there is an increase in the mean value of cortisol and DHEA in periodontitis than the control group. Salivary cortisol and DHEA level were found to be increased in concordance with disease severity. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001.

  8. Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.; Read, G.F.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-μl volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

  9. CELL DAMAGE, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, AND CORTISOL LEVELS RELATED TO NUTRITION IN SKI MOUNTAINEERING DURING A TWO-DAY RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase activities (GR and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise

  10. Cortisol Awakening Response, Internalizing Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen Chong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cortisol awakening response (CAR has been associated with depression and a broader range of internalizing problems. Emerging adulthood is characterized by numerous stressful transitional life events. Furthermore, the functioning of the neurobiological stress system changes across development. These considerations underscore the importance of evaluating the physiological stress system in emerging adults in identifying the extent to which cortisol levels vary with risk and protective factors for mental health. The present study evaluated the association between internalizing symptoms and perceived life satisfaction with CAR in 32 young adults. Three saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels upon awakening and participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Results show a significant positive correlation between area under the curve for CAR with internalizing symptoms (DASS total and the DASS-depression subscale, but not with life satisfaction. Study limitations, implications, and future directions for these finding were discussed.

  11. Plasma and muscle cortisol measurements as indicators of meat quality and stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, F D; Trout, G R; McPhee, C P

    1995-01-01

    Post-slaughter blood samples and muscle samples were collected from pigs slaughtered at the completion of a live-animal performance trial. There were two lines of pigs in which the halothane allele (n) was segregating. The lines were a lean line selected for rapid lean growth and an unselected fat line. There were homozygous normal (NN), homozygous halothane positive (nn) and heterozygous (Nn) genotypes in both lnes. Cortisol was measured in the plasma of the blood samples and in muscle juice obtained by high-speed centrifugation. Meat quality was assessed using pH, colour, fibre-optic probe, drip loss and cure yield measurements. Plasma cortisol concentrations in the fat line were significantly (P meat quality attributes were generally highly significant (r = 0·31 to r = 0·51, P < 0·001) There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0·73, P < 0·0001) between plasma and muscle cortisol concentrations.

  12. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-12-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

  13. Effect of cortisol on gluconeogenesis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastradipradja, D.

    1976-01-01

    Three non-pregnant goats of local Malaysian breed with body weights between 15.9 and 22.6 kg were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to study the effect of daily cortisol injections for 5-6 days on gluconeogenesis. The treatments consisted of cortisol injection at a daily level of 1 mg/kg BW (body weight), 2.5 mg/kg BW, and a control. An extra goat (14.0 kg) received the same treatments for comparison and to check the accuracy of the methods employed. NaH 14 CO 3 , preceded by a primer dose, was infused continuously for 4-5 h to estimate quantitatively the extent to which gluconeogenesis may be affected by cortisol administration. Glucose-2- 3 H was also injected as a single pulse to assess kinetic parameters of the glucose pool. There was strong tendency (P=0.08) indicating that cortisol administration increased plasma glucose concentration. The mean increases above pre-treatment levels were 6.6, 21.3 and 53.5 mg/100 ml plasma for control, low and high cortisol treatment respectively. The transfer quotient from CO 2 to glucose for the treatments was significantly different (P 2 fixation expressed in absolute amounts was not significantly different among treatments (0.24, 0.33 and 0.36 mg/min per kg BW for control, low and high cortisol doses respectively). The insignificant result of the statistical test seemed to be caused by the low precision inherent in the experimental design. The data also show that glucose utilization was not impaired following cortisol treatment, and rather suggest normal glucose utilization at a higher level of plasma glucose concentration. (author)

  14. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  15. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of intravenous sodium salicylate administration prior to castration on plasma cortisol and electroencephalography parameters in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, L; Coetzee, J F; Gehring, R; Murray, L; Song, T; Mosher, R A

    2011-12-01

    Nociception is an unavoidable consequence of many routine management procedures such as castration in cattle. This study investigated electroencephalography (EEG) parameters and cortisol levels in calves receiving intravenous sodium salicylate in response to a castration model. Twelve Holstein calves were randomly assigned to the following groups: (i) castrated, untreated controls, (ii) 50 mg/kg sodium salicylate IV precastration, were blood sampled at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360, and 480 min postcastration. The EEG recording included baseline, castration, immediate recovery (0-5 min after castration), middle recovery (5-10 min after castration), and late recovery (10-20 min after castration). Samples were analyzed by competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay for cortisol and salicylate, respectively. EEG visual inspection and spectral analysis were performed. Statistical analyses included anova repeated measures and correlations between response variable. No treatment effect was noted between the two groups for cortisol and EEG measurements, namely an attenuation of acute cortisol response and EEG desynchronization in sodium salicylate group. Time effects were noted for EEG measurements, cortisol and salicylates levels. Significant correlations between cortisol and EEG parameters were noted. These findings have implications for designing effective analgesic regimens, and they suggest that EEG can be useful to monitor pain attributable to castration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Acculturation, maternal cortisol and birth outcomes in women of Mexican descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Hoffman, M. Camille; Zerbe, Gary O.; Coussons-Read, Mary; Ross, Randal G.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effects of acculturation on cortisol, a biological correlate of maternal psychological distress, and perinatal infant outcomes, specifically gestational age at birth and birth weight. Methods Fifty-five pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital and collected saliva samples at home over 3 days during pregnancy at 15–18 (early), 26–2 (mid), and 32+ (late) weeks gestation and once in the postpartum period (4–12 weeks). These values were used to determine the diurnal cortisol slope at each phase of pregnancy. Mothers also completed an acculturation survey and gave permission for a medical chart review to obtain neonate information. Results Multiple regression analyses determined that greater acculturation levels significantly predicted earlier infant gestational age at birth (R2=0.09, p=0.03). T-tests revealed that mothers of low birth weight infants weight (acculturation scores than mothers of infants with birth weight >2500g (t=−2.95, p=0.005). A blunted maternal cortisol slope during pregnancy was also correlated with low birth weight (r=−0.29, p=0.05), but not gestational age (r=−0.08, p=0.59). In addition, more acculturated women had a flatter diurnal cortisol slope late in pregnancy (R2=0.21, p=0.01). Finally diurnal maternal cortisol rhythms were identified as a potential mediator between increased acculturation and birth weight. Conclusions This study associated increased acculturation with perinatal outcomes in the US Mexican population. This relationship may be mediated by prenatal maternal diurnal cortisol, which can program the health of the fetus leading to several adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:22366584

  18. Changes of serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin-II (AT-II) levels in patients with open chest surgery during peri-operative stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunyun; Tian Runhua; Zhao Huiyuan; Li Xiaoqin; Wang Ling

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the systemic stress reaction in patients with open chest surgery through measurement of the changes of serum cortisol and plasma AT-II levels during peri-operative stage. Methods: Serum cortisol and plasma AT-II levels were measured with RIA in 35 patients underwent open chest surgery both before and after the operative procedure. Results: The serum level of cortisol and plasma levels of AT-II were significantly higher after operation than those before operation ( P < 0.05 ). Also, the systolic pressure and heart rate were increased significantly (P<0.05). The post-operative heart rate was significantly positively correlated with both cortisol and AT-II levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: Stress reaction is evident in patients after open chest surgery with increase of serum cortisol and plasma AT-II levels. The stress reaction, if excessive, should be properly dealt with. (authors)

  19. Differences in Cortisol Response to Trauma Activation in Individuals with and without Comorbid PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dekel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although depression symptoms are often experienced by individuals who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following trauma exposure, little is know about the biological correlates associated with PTSD and depression co-morbidity vs. those associated with PTSD symptoms alone.Methods: Here we examined salivary cortisol responses to trauma activation in a sample of 60 survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001. Participants recalled the escape from the attacks 7 months post 9/11. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after their recollection of the trauma. PTSD, depression, and somatic symptoms were also assessed. From the behavioral assessment scales, the participants were grouped into three conditions: those with comorbid PTSD and depressive symptoms, PTSD alone symptoms, or no-pathology.Results: Baseline and cortisol response levels differed between the comorbid, PTSD alone, and no-pathology groups. Individuals endorsing co-morbid symptoms had higher PTSD and somatic symptom severity and their cortisol response decreased following their trauma reminder while a trend of an elevated response to the trauma was found in the PTSD alone group. Our findings show distinct psychological and biological correlates related to the endorsement of PTSD with and without depression comorbidity.Conclusions: The findings suggest that comorbidity symptoms manifestation entails a separate trauma induced condition from PTSD. Future research on biological correlates of comorbid PTSD and depression is warranted.

  20. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  1. Distinct Trajectories of Cortisol Response to Prolonged Acute Stress Are Linked to Affective Responses and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Treadway, Michael T; Valeri, Linda; Mehta, Malavika; Douglas, Samuel; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-08-16

    individual neuroendocrine stress response patterns are linked to affective responses to stress and structural variability in neuroendocrine regulatory brain regions. By applying latent class linear mixed modeling on individuals' patterns of cortisol responses to a prolonged acute stressor, we identified three distinct trajectories of cortisol response. Relative to the group showing a moderate cortisol response, groups characterized by hyper and mild cortisol response were both associated with more negative affect. Moreover, a continuous measure of cortisol response showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release correlated with reduced hippocampal gray matter volume. Given that neuroendocrine stress responses are conceptualized as biomarkers of stress susceptibility, these insights may have clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377995-09$15.00/0.

  2. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  3. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... In Cushing's syndrome, serum cortisol level is elevated, and obesity is one of ... follows: A baseline blood sample for cortisol, fasting plasma glucose, full ... Continuous variables were expressed as means ± standard deviation.

  4. The relationship between the menstrual cycle and cortisol secretion: Daily and stress-invoked cortisol patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-03-29

    The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm

  7. Determination of cortisol in blood plasma by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.

    1978-01-01

    A method to measure cortisol in blood plasma is developed using tritium a tracer. Thin-layer chromatographer is used for very accurate separation and determination of cortisol free of impurities. Results show a concentration of 14,02+-5,79 μg/100ml for cortisol in blod. This method appears to be especially useful when interfering substances are present [pt

  8. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period.

  9. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant’s work activities during the 6–8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  10. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansong eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs, we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs.

  11. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs.

  12. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon I. Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001. Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05, with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  13. Poverty-alleviation program participation and salivary cortisol in very low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-06-01

    Correlational studies have shown associations between social class and salivary cortisol suggestive of a causal link between childhood poverty and activity of the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the associations between a family's participation in a large-scale, conditional cash transfer program in Mexico (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) during the child's early years of life and children's salivary cortisol (baseline and responsivity). We also examined whether maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of program participation. Low-income households (income Mexico were enrolled in a large-scale poverty-alleviation program between 1998 and 1999. A comparison group of households from demographically similar communities was recruited in 2003. Following 3.5 years of participation in the Oportunidades program, three saliva samples were obtained from children aged 2-6 years from intervention and comparison households (n=1197). Maternal depressive symptoms were obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Results were that children who had been in the Oportunidades program had lower salivary cortisol levels when compared with those who had not participated in the program, while controlling for a wide range of individual-, household- and community-level variables. Reactivity patterns of salivary cortisol did not differ between intervention and comparison children. Maternal depression moderated the association between Oportunidades program participation and baseline salivary cortisol in children. Specifically, there was a large and significant Oportunidades program effect of lowering cortisol in children of mothers with high depressive symptoms but not in children of mothers with low depressive symptomatology. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that the economic circumstances of a family can influence a child's developing stress

  14. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  16. Elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are associated with major depressive disorder: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Reazul; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Moktadir, Abdullah Al; Nahar, Zabun; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Shahid, Shelina Fatema Binte; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasnat, Abul

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder is diagnosed on the basis of patient’s self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives, and a mental status examination, and yet we do not have any reliable biomarker for this. Mood-regulating pathways are affected by oxidative injury to lipids and cortisol is released into the blood due to stimulation of corticotrophin receptors in the adrenal cortex. Here, we aimed to determine serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in major depressive disorder patients and controls. Methods: We collected blood samples from 247 major depressive disorder patients and 248 controls. Serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. Results: We found malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± standard deviation at 4.49 ± 1.37 and 2.87 ± 0.82 µmol/L, respectively, p < 0.001. Cortisol levels were also found significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± SD at 19.22 ± 1.64 and 17.37 ± 1.34 µg/dL, respectively, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlation was observed between serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in patients (r =−0.170, p = 0.021). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed good diagnostic value for malondialdehyde and cortisol, with the area under the curve at 0.853 and 0.819, respectively. Conclusion: The present study suggests that increased serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are strongly associated with major depressive disorder. We believe elevations of malondialdehyde and cortisol in serum level arise independently and they could serve as biomarkers for major depressive disorder. PMID:29770218

  17. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kellar

    Full Text Available When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08 and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation/ul(tissue extract added. The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1 fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught, 2 specimen condition (state of decomposition, 3 total body length, 4 sex, 5 sexual maturity state, 6 pregnancy status, 7 lactation state, and 8 adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  18. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

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    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  19. Perioperative changes of serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin II levels in patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Runhua; Lun Limin; Li Yusheng; Yu Yunyun; Li Xin; Zheng Chunxi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perioperative changes of serum stress hormones cortisol and plasma angiotensin II in patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignancy. Methods: Serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin II levels were measured with RIA repeatedly in 35 thoracotomy patients operated for malignancy before operation, 1 h after starting operation, at the end of operation, and one day later, Heart rate and blood pressure were constantly monitored during operation. Results: The serum levels of cortisol and plasma angiotensin-II rose gradually during operation with significant differences among the measurements (P < 0. 001 -0.05), No age-difference for the measurements was observed except for a higher systolic pressure in patients over 60. Heart rates at 1 h were positively correlated with 1 h angiotensin-II levels. Heart rates at the end of operation were positively correlated with the cortisol and angiotensin-II levels at that time. Conclusion: The serum levels of these stress hormones rose significantly during the operation. Stress responses in older patients were adequate, yet the higher levels of stress hormones might bring more adverse effect in elderly people, especially cognition impairment. Smooth anaesthesia and adequate post-operative analgesia would lessen the stress effect, providing more ideal recovery, especially for the older patients. (authors)

  20. Antepartum depression severity is increased during seasonally longer nights: relationship to melatonin and cortisol timing and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliska, Charles J; Martínez, Luis F; López, Ana M; Sorenson, Diane L; Nowakowski, Sara; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey; Parry, Barbara L

    2013-11-01

    Current research suggests that mood varies from season to season in some individuals, in conjunction with light-modulated alterations in chronobiologic indices such as melatonin and cortisol. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations in darkness on mood in depressed antepartum women, and to determine the relationship of seasonal mood variations to contemporaneous blood melatonin and cortisol measures; a secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors on measures of melancholic versus atypical depressive symptoms. We obtained measures of mood and overnight concentrations of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol in 19 depressed patients (DP) and 12 healthy control (HC) antepartum women, during on-going seasonal variations in daylight/darkness, in a cross-sectional design. Analyses of variance showed that in DP, but not HC, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) scores were significantly higher in women tested during seasonally longer versus shorter nights. This exacerbation of depressive symptoms occurred when the dim light melatonin onset, the melatonin synthesis offset, and the time of maximum cortisol secretion (acrophase) were phase-advanced (temporally shifted earlier), and melatonin quantity was reduced, in DP but not HC. Serum cortisol increased across gestational weeks in both the HC and DP groups, which did not differ significantly in cortisol concentration. Nevertheless, serum cortisol concentration correlated positively with HRSD score in DP but not HC; notably, HC showed neither significant mood changes nor altered melatonin and cortisol timing or quantity in association with seasonal variations. These findings suggest that depression severity during pregnancy may become elevated in association with seasonally related phase advances in melatonin and cortisol timing and reduced melatonin quantity that occur in DP, but not HC. Thus, women who experience antepartum depression may be more susceptible than

  1. Radioimmunological method for determination of cortisol in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.; Mileva, Zh.; Kekhajova, M.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of cortisol in saliva after being previously extracted with dichlormethane. Cortisol concentration in saliva of 19 subjects was determined by this method. The saliva cortisol levels were compared with those of blood plasma. No statistically significant difference was found. The method finds acceptance primarily when frequent measurements of cortisol level are neccessary as a screening technique and when strongly abnormally high levels should be differentiated from the normal ones: in this latter case determination of plasma cortisol is mandatory. 5 tabs., 8 refs

  2. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that 10 -7 M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Friendship network position and salivary cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    We employed a social network analysis approach to examine the associations between friendship network position and cortisol levels. The sample consisted of 74 first-year students (93% female, ages 22-38 years, M = 27) from a highly competitive, accelerated Nursing program. Participants completed questionnaires online, and the entire group met at one time to complete a series of sociometric nominations and donated a saliva sample. Saliva was later assayed for cortisol. Metrics derived from directed friendship nominations indexed each student's friendship network status regarding popularity, gregariousness, and degree of interconnectedness. Results revealed that (1) individuals with lower gregariousness status (i.e., lowest number of outgoing ties) had higher cortisol levels, and (2) individuals with higher popularity status (i.e., higher numbers of incoming ties) had higher cortisol levels. Popularity and gregariousness-based network status is significantly associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Implications for prevailing theories of the social determinants of individual differences in biological sensitivity and susceptibility to context are discussed.

  4. Sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism is maintained in elderly subjects and is not oestrogen dependent.

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    Toogood, A A; Taylor, N F; Shalet, S M; Monson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The net interconversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) may determine hepatic and adipose tissue exposure to glucocorticoid action. Cortisol metabolism exhibits a sexual dimorphism with an apparently lower activity of 11betaHSD1 in females that, in an animal model, has been attributed to the effects of oestrogen. The aim of this study is to determine whether the sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism persists between post-menopausal, oestrogen-deficient women and elderly men. Fifteen healthy men, aged 60.8-82.0 years, and 7 healthy women, aged 62.4-87.5 years, were studied. None of the subjects was receiving steroid medication at the time of the study. All the women were post-menopausal and none was receiving sex steroid replacement therapy. 24-h urine collections were taken from each patient and assayed for steroid metabolites by gas chromatography. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was drawn, after an overnight fast, for the determination of serum IGF-I and IGFBP1 levels. The ratio of 11-hydroxy cortisol metabolites to 11-oxo cortisol metabolites (Fm/Em) was significantly higher in men than in women, 0.80 (0.55-1.86) vs. 0.67 (0.46-0.98) (P cortisol and cortisone metabolite (Fm/Em) and total fat mass approached significance, r = - 0.39 (P = 0.07). These relationships were not apparent in the women when considered alone. Among the men there were negative relationships between Fm/Em and total fat mass, r = - 0.48, and Fm/Em and trunk fat mass, r = - 0.48 which approached significance (both P = 0.07). Serum IGFBP-1 levels were not significantly different between the two sexes. There was a significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and Fm/Em in the men, r = 0. 84 (P sexual dimorphism in cortisol metabolism is not dependent on oestrogen, although the possibility that oestrogen exerts a permanent modifying effect on 11beta-HSD1 gene expression during the pre

  5. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

  6. Change in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol in morbidly obese patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Galindo, Isabel; Llavero, Carolina; Arroyo, Antonio; Calero, Alicia; Diez, María; Zubiaga, Lorea; Calpena, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with the macro- and microvascular effects of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Referring to serum cortisol, it has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and it has been demonstrated that weight loss normalizes cortisol levels and improves insulin resistance. The aims of this study were to analyze CRP and cortisol levels pre- and postoperatively in morbidly obese patients undergoing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and to correlate them with weight loss and parameters associated with cardiovascular risk. A prospective study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between October 2007 and May 2011 was performed. A total of 40 patients were included in the study. CRP levels decreased significantly 12 months after surgery (median reduction of 8.9 mg/l; p = 0.001). Serum cortisol levels decreased significantly 6 months after surgery (median reduction of 34.9 μg/dl; p = 0.001). CRP values reached the normal range (cortisol, a significant association was observed with the cardiovascular risk predictor (triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio) from the 6th month after surgery onward (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.559; p = 0.008). CRP levels are increased preoperatively and in the postoperative course up to 1 year after surgery. Serum cortisol levels remain elevated until the 6th month after surgery. From this moment onward, serum cortisol is associated with the cardiovascular risk predictor reflecting the cardiovascular risk decreasement during the weight loss.

  7. Resetting the Abnormal Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients With Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Chadarevian, Rita; Gueroult, Carole; Abitbol, Jean-Louis; Newell-Price, John

    2017-09-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are found commonly on axial imaging. Around 30% exhibit autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) associated with increased cardiovascular events and death. We hypothesized that AI/ACS patients have an abnormal cortisol rhythm that could be reversed by use of carefully timed short-acting cortisol synthesis blockade, with improvement in cardiovascular disease markers. In a phase 1/2a, prospective study (Eudract no. 2012-002586-35), we recruited six patients with AI/ACS and two control groups of six sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched individuals: (1) patients with AI and no ACS (AI/NoACS) and (2) healthy volunteers with no AI [healthy controls (HC)]. Twenty-four-hour circadian cortisol analysis was performed to determine any differences between groups and timing of intervention for cortisol lowering using the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. Circadian profiles of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Serum cortisol levels in group AI/ACS were significantly higher than both group AI/NoACS and group HC from 6 pm to 10 pm [area under the curve (AUC) difference: 0.81 nmol/L/h; P = 0.01] and from 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.86 nmol/L/h; P cortisol rhythms were reassessed. Postintervention evening serum cortisol was lowered, similar to controls [6 pm to 10 pm (AUC difference: -0.06 nmol/L/h; P = 0.85); 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.10 nmol/L/h; P = 0.76)]. Salivary cortisone showed analogous changes. IL-6 levels were elevated before treatment [10 pm to 2 pm (AUC difference: 0.42 pg/mL/h; P = 0.01)] and normalized post treatment. In AI/ACS, the evening and nocturnal cortisol exposure is increased. Use of timed evening doses of metyrapone resets the cortisol rhythm to normal. This unique treatment paradigm is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular risk marker IL-6. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children

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    Sharmila J Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. Aim: To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i Routine dental examination, (ii restoration, and (iii extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the findings. Results: A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah′s anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  9. An assessment of hair cortisol among postpartum Brazilian mothers and infants from a high-risk community in São Paulo: Intra-individual stability and association in mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Fink, Günther; Brentani, Helena; Brentani, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    This study examined maternal-infant synchrony of hair cortisol at 12 months after birth and the intra-individual stability of maternal hair cortisol in the postpartum period. Participants were selected from an ongoing São Paulo birth cohort project, where families are considered to be "high-risk" due to their chronic stress experiences, with the majority living in slums (favelas). Cortisol was collected through 3-cm segments of hair samples, with values representing approximate levels of cortisol from 9 to 12 months for mothers and children and 6 to 12 months for mothers. Maternal and infant cortisol values reflecting chronic stress 9-12 months after birth were highly correlated (r = .61, p cortisol levels (6-9 months) and child cortisol levels at 9-12 months (r = .51, p cortisol values showed stability over time (r = .79, p cortisol in other mother-child dyads, suggesting stronger synchrony under high-risk contexts where families are faced with challenging circumstances. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Children and adolescents with obesity and the metabolic syndrome have high circulating cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Yasar; Aygun, Denizmen; Yilmaz, Erdal; Ayar, Ahmet

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the varying degrees of obesity and blood glucocorticoid levels in obese children and adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome features. We studied 241 obese children and adolescents aged between 2 and 17.6 years; 127 boys and 114 girls. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Measurements included blood pressure, cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profiles. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria adapted from World Health Organisation and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III guidelines. Blood cortisol and ACTH levels were higher in patients with MS than without MS (p = 0.02). ACTH levels increased with weight (r = 0.13, p = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.21, p = 0.002), diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.17, p = 0.01), fasting glucose (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Cortisol production was only correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.12, p = 0.05). Results from the present study indicates that there may be a link between cortisol production and the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents.

  11. Cortisol evaluation during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Meriem; Donaldson, Malcolm; Aribi, Yamina; Iabassen, Malek; Cherfi, Lyes; Nebbal, Mustapha; Medjaher, Meriem; Haffaf, ElMehdi; Abdennebi, Benaissa; Guenane, Kamel; Djermane, Adel; Kemali, Zahra; OuldKablia, Samia

    2018-05-01

    Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is difficult in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the frequency and predictive factors of AI in victims of TBI from Algiers. Between November 2009 and December 2013, TBI victims had a single 8-9 am serum cortisol measurement during the acute postinjury period (0-7 days). AI was defined according to basal cortisol levels of 83, 276 and 414 nmol/L. Variables studied were TBI severity according to Glasgow coma scale, duration of intubation and coma, pupillary status, hypotension, anaemia, brain imaging findings, diabetes insipidus and medication. Insulin tolerance test was performed during the recovery phase, defining AI as peak cortisol 414 nmol/L. Hydrocortisone replacement is advised in TBI patients with morning cortisol <276 nmol/L or those <414 nmol/L with additional risk factors for AI. As acute and subsequent AI are poorly correlated, patients with moderate/severe TBI require adrenal re-evaluation during the recovery phase. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adaptive and maladaptive cortisol responses to pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, Arlette; Zadik, Zvi; Chalew, Stuart

    2008-09-01

    The recent unprecedented increase of childhood obesity has led to an alarming rise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) among these children. The process underlying the progression from simple obesity to T2D is not well understood. Cortisol is a candidate factor in the pathogenesis of T2D, as it can exacerbate insulin resistance and provoke other disturbances of the metabolic syndrome. The 24-h integrated concentration (IC) of cortisol is suppressed in non-diabetic obese children compared to lean children. This difference in IC-cortisol is not due to changes in cortisol binding globulin or plasma cortisol to cortisone ratio between groups. In obese individuals, IC-cortisol suppression disappears with age after adolescence, which corresponds with increasing occurrence of T2D and other metabolic disorders of obesity. We consider the IC-cortisol levels of lean insulin sensitive children to be metabolically inappropriate for obese insulin resistant children. Thus, we hypothesize that suppression of IC-cortisol is an important adaptive response to obesity (cortisol adaptive suppression) in childhood that prevents pediatric T2D while failure to suppress IC-cortisol (cortisol suppression failure) exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2D. In further support of this hypothesis is early pilot data suggesting that cortisol suppression failure occurs in obese children with impaired fasting glucose levels. The mechanism(s) underlying cortisol adaptive suppression, how and why these mechanism(s) fail are unknown. Elucidation of these mechanisms may lead to interventions to prevent the development of T2D and its complications in obese individuals.

  13. Hair cortisol and adiposity in a population‐based sample of 2,527 men and women aged 54 to 87 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cortisol exposure is hypothesized to contribute to obesity. This study examined associations between hair cortisol concentrations, a novel indicator of long‐term cortisol exposure, and adiposity in a large population‐based sample. Methods Data were from 2,527 men and women aged 54 and older (98% white British) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp‐nearest 2 cm hair segment, and height, weight, and waist circumference were objectively measured. Covariates included age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, diabetes, and arthritis. Results In cross‐sectional analyses, hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with weight (r = 0.102, P obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) (F = 6.58, P = 0.001) and raised waist circumference (≥102 cm in men, ≥88 cm in women) (F = 4.87, P = 0.027). Hair cortisol levels were also positively associated with the persistence of obesity (F = 12.70, P cortisol concentrations, assessed in hair, is associated with markers of adiposity and with the persistence of obesity over time. PMID:28229550

  14. Hair cortisol and adiposity in a population-based sample of 2,527 men and women aged 54 to 87 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Chronic cortisol exposure is hypothesized to contribute to obesity. This study examined associations between hair cortisol concentrations, a novel indicator of long-term cortisol exposure, and adiposity in a large population-based sample. Data were from 2,527 men and women aged 54 and older (98% white British) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp-nearest 2 cm hair segment, and height, weight, and waist circumference were objectively measured. Covariates included age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, diabetes, and arthritis. In cross-sectional analyses, hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with weight (r = 0.102, P obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) (F = 6.58, P = 0.001) and raised waist circumference (≥102 cm in men, ≥88 cm in women) (F = 4.87, P = 0.027). Hair cortisol levels were also positively associated with the persistence of obesity (F = 12.70, P cortisol concentrations, assessed in hair, is associated with markers of adiposity and with the persistence of obesity over time. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  15. Relationships of salivary cortisol and melatonin rhythms to sleep quality, emotion, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pei; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2017-08-01

    After being diagnosed with lung cancer, patients often experience sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur because of changes in neurotransmitter secretion caused by tumors. This study investigated the correlation of cortisol and melatonin rhythms with sleep quality, anxiety, depression, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study and recruited 40 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 40 healthy adults. The patient group had a lower salivary melatonin level and flatter slope (p cortisol level and steeper slope (p cortisol slope (p = 0.005) and fatigue score (p = 0.032) predicted the sleep quality score (p = 0.011). Overall, the patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer had poorer sleep quality, higher depression levels, lower salivary melatonin levels, higher cortisol levels, and flatter melatonin and cortisol slopes than did the controls. The fatigue level and cortisol slope significantly predicted sleep quality. Therefore, the assessment of cortisol and melatonin rhythms and levels could provide crucial information that may be beneficial for managing symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relations of age and pubertal development with cortisol and daily stress in youth at clinical risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskow, Danielle M; Addington, Jean; Bearden, Carrie E; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Heinssen, Robert; Mathalon, Daniel H; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Cannon, Tyrone D; Woods, Scott W; Walker, Elaine F

    2016-04-01

    Prodromal syndromes often begin in adolescence - a period of neurodevelopmental changes and heightened stress sensitivity. Research has shown elevated stress and cortisol in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This cross-sectional study examined relations of age and pubertal status with cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy controls (HCs) and CHR adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relations of age and pubertal stage with cortisol and stress would be more pronounced in CHR youth. Participants were 93 HCs and 348 CHR adolescents from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). At baseline, measures of stress (Daily Stress Inventory - DSI), Tanner stage (TS), and salivary cortisol were obtained. ANCOVA revealed increased DSI scores with age for both groups, and higher DSI scores in CHR adolescents than HCs, with a more pronounced difference for females. Contrary to prediction, with age controlled, HCs showed greater TS-related DSI increases. Analysis of cortisol showed no significant interactions, but a main effect of age and a trend toward higher cortisol in the CHR group. Correlations of cortisol with TS were higher in HC than CHR group. Stress measures increased with age in HC and CHR adolescents, and DSI scores also increased with TS in HCs. The results do not support a more pronounced age or TS increase in stress measures in CHR adolescents, but instead suggest that stress indices tend to be elevated earlier in adolescence in the CHR group. Potential determinants of findings and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Rijn, Sophie van; Wied, Minet de; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this study extended previous studies in that not only baseline and reactivity to a psychosocial stressor were examined, but also recovery from a stressor. These three phases of cortisol could be impacted differentially in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) with (+ANX) and without anxiety (-ANX). The results revealed that cortisol patterns in response to psychosocial stress were different for boys with ODD/CD+ANX (n=32), ODD/CD-ANX (n=22) and non-clinical controls (NC) (n=34), with age range of 7.8-12.9 years. The ODD/CD-ANX group showed lower overall cortisol levels than the NC group. When considering the three phases of cortisol separately, the ODD/CD-ANX group had lower baseline cortisol levels relative to the other groups, whereas the ODD/CD+ANX showed an impaired cortisol recovery response. Within those with ODD/CD, callous-unemotional traits were predictive of high baseline cortisol levels. Also, anxiety predicted high baseline and recovery cortisol levels, whereas a high number of CD symptoms predicted reduced cortisol stress reactivity. These results clearly indicate that comorbid anxiety is an important factor in explaining differences in stress response profiles in boys with ODD/CD; although boys with CD/ODD are generally characterized by an impaired cortisol stress response, we found that those with comorbid anxiety showed impaired cortisol recovery, whereas those without anxiety showed reduced baseline cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple radioimmunoassay for plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, J.; Brown, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for plasma cortisol is described which combines the advantages of (i) direct analysis of untreated plasma samples, (ii) use of solid-coupled anti-cortisol antibodies and (iii) use of a gamma-labelled radioligand. The reagents are relatively easily prepared and stable, and the analysis can be completed in 4 h. Inter-assay precision (C.V.) is 8-11%. Critical examination of specificity using high pressure liquid chromatography showed that 23-35% of the immunoassayable material in plasma was not cortisol. RIA results on samples collected under basal conditions were an average 40 nmol/l lower than fluorimetric results, while in insulin hypoglycaemia and synacthen (ACTH) stimulation tests, this difference increased to over 100 nmol/l. The RIA is technically more simple than fluorimetric, competitive-protein-binding, and many RIA methods, and can be used with advantage in the routine investigation of adrenocortical function. However, using the present antiserum, the RIA is not applicable to investigations on patients receiving metyrapone, nor in suspected cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (Auth.)

  19. Development of a modified cortisol extraction procedure for intermediately sized fish not amenable to whole-body or plasma extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Taylor W; Blaylock, Reginald B; Evans, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    The corticosteroid hormone cortisol is the central mediator of the teleost stress response. Therefore, the accurate quantification of cortisol in teleost fishes is a vital tool for addressing fundamental questions about an animal's physiological response to environmental stressors. Conventional steroid extraction methods using plasma or whole-body homogenates, however, are inefficient within an intermediate size range of fish that are too small for phlebotomy and too large for whole-body steroid extractions. To assess the potential effects of hatchery-induced stress on survival of fingerling hatchery-reared Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), we developed a novel extraction procedure for measuring cortisol in intermediately sized fish (50-100 mm in length) that are not amenable to standard cortisol extraction methods. By excising a standardized portion of the caudal peduncle, this tissue extraction procedure allows for a small portion of a larger fish to be sampled for cortisol, while minimizing the potential interference from lipids that may be extracted using whole-body homogenization procedures. Assay precision was comparable to published plasma and whole-body extraction procedures, and cortisol quantification over a wide range of sample dilutions displayed parallelism versus assay standards. Intra-assay %CV was 8.54%, and average recovery of spiked samples was 102%. Also, tissue cortisol levels quantified using this method increase 30 min after handling stress and are significantly correlated with blood values. We conclude that this modified cortisol extraction procedure provides an excellent alternative to plasma and whole-body extraction procedures for intermediately sized fish, and will facilitate the efficient assessment of cortisol in a variety of situations ranging from basic laboratory research to industrial and field-based environmental health applications.

  20. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  1. Hair plucking, stress, and urinary cortisol among captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Colin M; Boose, Klaree J; Squires, Erica C; Marchant, Linda F; White, Frances J; Meinelt, Audra; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2016-09-01

    Hair plucking has been observed in many captive primate species, including the great apes; however, the etiology of this behavioral pattern is poorly understood. While this behavior has not been reported in wild apes, an ethologically identical behavior in humans, known as trichotillomania, is linked to chronic psychosocial stress and is a predominantly female disorder. This study examines hair plucking (defined here as a rapid jerking away of the hair shaft and follicle by the hand or mouth, often accompanied by inspection and consumption of the hair shaft and follicle) in a captive group of bonobos (N = 13) at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in Columbus, Ohio. Plucking data were collected using behavior and all-occurrence sampling; 1,450 social and self-directed grooming bouts were recorded during 128 hr of observation. Twenty-one percent of all grooming bouts involved at least one instance of plucking. Urine samples (N = 55) were collected and analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol. Analyses of urinary cortisol levels showed a significant positive correlation between mean cortisol and self-directed plucking for females (r = 0.88, P association between relative self-directed hair plucking and cortisol among female bonobos. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between hair plucking and cortisol among apes. Overall, these data add to our knowledge of a contemporary issue in captive ape management. Zoo Biol. 35:415-422, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. School start time influences melatonin and cortisol levels in children and adolescents - a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimi, Alicia; Martins, Alessandra Castro; Dresch, Fabiane; da Silva, Lilian Corrêa; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    School start time influences sleep parameters. Differences between circadian sleep parameters on weekends and weekdays have been associated with obesity, sleep, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, circadian rhythm dysregulation affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol. In the current study, we investigate the effect of school start time on cortisol and melatonin levels in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 454 students (mean age, 12.81 ± 2.56 years; 58.6% female). From this sample, 80 participants were randomly selected for saliva collection to measure melatonin and cortisol levels. Circadian sleep parameters were assessed by self-reported sleep and wake up schedules and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. The outcomes, salivary melatonin and cortisol levels, were measured in morning, afternoon and night saliva samples, and behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The main results revealed that morning school start time decreased the secretion of melatonin. Morning melatonin levels were significantly positively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekdays and on weekends. Afternoon melatonin levels were positively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekends in the morning school students. Conversely, in the afternoon school students, night melatonin levels were negatively correlated with the sleep midpoint on weekdays. Cortisol secretion did not correlate with circadian sleep parameters in any of the school time groups. In conclusion, school start time influences melatonin secretion, which correlated with circadian sleep parameters. This correlation depends on the presence of psychiatric symptoms. Our findings emphasize the importance of drawing attention to the influence of school start time on the circadian rhythm of children and adolescents.

  3. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hyponatremia due to cortisol insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Onoue, Tomoaki; Inoue, Hideki; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency such as occurs in Addison's disease causes hyponatremia and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Hyponatremia results from both aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency. RTA is due to aldosterone insufficiency. The involvement of cortisol in RTA is unclear. Here, we report a woman in her 70s who was admitted to our hospital with severe hyponatremia (106 mEq/l) and RTA. The patient exhibited low plasma cortisol levels with little response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormon...

  4. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower ...

  5. The Cortisol Awakening Response and Cognition across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gilda E.; Moffat, Scott D.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is thought to play a central role in the regulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), results from past studies examining the relationship between the CAR and hippocampally-mediated memory and cognition have been mixed. Inconsistent findings may be due to the use of cortisol samples collected on only 1 to 2 days since reduced sampling can permit unstable situational factors to bias results. We used cortisol assessments from 10 consecutive days to test the relationship of the CAR to episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed in a sample of healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults (age range: 23 – 79 years; N = 56). We tested if the relationship between the CAR and cognition would depend upon age and also tested if other cortisol measures, specifically waking cortisol, diurnal cortisol output (i.e., area under the curve) and diurnal cortisol slope (linear and quadratic), would be related to cognition. We found that a more positive CAR slope was related to better episodic memory and that this relationship did not depend upon age. The CAR was not significantly related to working memory. The relationship of the CAR to processing speed was not significant when using a CAR measure that corrected for non-compliant cortisol sampling. We also found that higher waking cortisol was significantly related to better working memory, but not episodic memory or processing speed. Neither diurnal cortisol output nor diurnal linear cortisol slope was significantly related to cognitive functioning. Future work should investigate the mechanisms underpinning the relationship of the cortisol awakening process to cognitive functioning. PMID:27105036

  6. Born to yawn? Cortisol linked to yawning: a new hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2011-11-01

    Yawning has become an interesting and curious scientific conundrum. Links between several neurological disorders can be found through the commonality of yawning episodes and contagious yawning. However, the reasons why we yawn are uncertain. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. We do not know whether cortisol levels fluctuate during yawning. Potentially, yawning and cortisol levels may provide a valuable diagnostic tool and warning of untoward underlying neurological problems. A new hypothesis is proposed that links cortisol levels with yawning episodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  8. Aggressive behavior and hair cortisol levels in captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) as animal-based welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Marina; Temple, Déborah; Abáigar, Teresa; Cuadrado, Mariano; Delclaux, Maria; Enseñat, Conrad; Almagro, Vanessa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Carbajal, Annaïs; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Amat, Marta; Lopez-Bejar, Manel; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas). Four different groups of gazelles from three different zoos were observed and the expression of intra-specific affiliative and negative social behaviors was assessed across the different groups. Hair samples were taken from sub-groups of animals and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Significant differences between groups of dorcas gazelles were found in frequency of negative social behavior and hair cortisol concentration. Despite the low sample size, these two parameters had a positive Spearman correlation coefficient (r s  = +0.80, P = 0.20). These results suggest that hair cortisol levels are sensitive to differences in the social structure of dorcas gazelles. Zoo Biol. 35:467-473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  10. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to community violence and children's diurnal cortisol response in an urban community-dwelling sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-03-01

    While community violence has been linked to psychological morbidity in urban youth, data on the physiological correlates of violence and associated posttraumatic stress symptoms are sparse. We examined the influence of child posttraumatic stress symptoms reported in relationship to community violence exposure on diurnal salivary cortisol response in a population based sample of 28 girls and 15 boys ages 7-13, 54% self-identified as white and 46% as Hispanic. Mothers' reported on the child's exposure to community violence using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence and completed the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms (CCDS) which captures factors related to posttraumatic stress; children who were eight years of age or greater reported on their own community violence exposure. Saliva samples were obtained from the children four times a day (after awakening, lunch, dinner and bedtime) over three days. Mixed models were used to assess the influence of posttraumatic stress symptoms on cortisol expression, examined as diurnal slope and area under the curve (AUC), calculated across the day, adjusting for socio-demographics. In adjusted analyses, higher scores on total traumatic stress symptoms (CCDS) were associated with both greater cortisol AUC and with a flatter cortisol waking to bedtime rhythm. The associations were primarily attributable to differences on the intrusion, arousal and avoidance CCDS subscales. Posttraumatic stress symptomatology reported in response to community violence exposure was associated with diurnal cortisol disruption in these community-dwelling urban children.

  11. Stress in School. Some Empirical Hints on the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm of Children in Outdoor and Indoor Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Becker, Christoph; Auestad, Bjørn H; Simon, Perikles; Kirsch, Peter

    2017-04-30

    This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children's normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD) = 0.46) were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG), and 11 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of one full school day per week in the forest over the school year. Stress levels were measured in cortisol with three samples of saliva per day. Furthermore, the data allowed for statistical control of physical activity (PA) values. For data analysis, we used a linear mixed-effects model (LMM) with random intercept and general correlation matrix for the within-unit residuals. The LMM yields that IG have expected greater decline of cortisol compared to CG; rate 0.069 µg/L vs. 0.0102 µg/L (log-units/2 h), p = 0.009. PA does not show a statistically significant interaction with cortisol ( p = 0.857), despite being higher in the intervention group ( p child's diurnal rhythm, with a significant decline of cortisol from morning to noon. This effect is constant over the school year. The CG does not show this decline during either measurement day. Further research is needed to fully explain this interesting phenomenon.

  12. Plasma cortisol and oxytocin levels predict help-seeking intentions for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Larkin, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Depressed individuals often refuse or withdraw from help, a phenomenon termed help-negation, which is a risk factor for poor outcomes. Most previous research has investigated psychosocial factors including stigma as causes of low help-seeking intentions for depression, however these do not adequately explain the problem. We hypothesised that because help-negation worsens with symptom severity, it might be linked to important biological changes associated with depression itself. We investigated the relative contributions of cortisol, a stress hormone linked to depression, and oxytocin, a hormone which mediates social behaviours, alongside psychosocial factors, to help-seeking intentions among depressed and non-depressed individuals. Morning plasma cortisol and oxytocin levels, psychopathology, suicidal ideation, help-seeking intentions from informal sources including family and friends, and formal sources including health professionals, and perceived social support were quantified in 63 adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) who were not receiving any treatment, and 60 healthy controls. Between-group analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed. Help-seeking intentions were lower in depressed than healthy participants, negatively correlated to cortisol and positively correlated to oxytocin. Cortisol negatively, and oxytocin positively, predicted help-seeking intentions from informal but not formal sources, after controlling for psychopathology and psychosocial factors. Neuroendocrine changes associated with depression may contribute to low help-seeking from friends and family, which may have implications for interpersonal support and outcomes. Research and clinical approaches which incorporate biological as well as psychosocial factors may allow for more targeted and effective early interventions to address lack of help-seeking and depression progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    chamber and necklace did not affect the cortisol level, although they had prevented grooming. Consequently, animals with the artifacts had more ticks than the ones with no artifacts (34.56% versus 14.9% tick recovery rate, P< 0.05. The last blood sample collection had revealed an increase on the cortisol level, coinciding with the final parasitic life cycle of R. microplus (Table 1. No significant correlation were detected between cortisol levels and the tick recovery rate. Grooming is important to decrease the cattle tick infestation, but its limitation presented in this study, did not elevate the serum cortisol level, related to animal stress.

  14. Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingham, MG; Mostyn, A; Forhead, AJ; Fowden, AL; Symonds, ME; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    The endocrine regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial protein, in fetal adipose tissue remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine if fetal plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine (T3) influenced the mRNA abundance of UCP2, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 2 (11βHSD2) in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. Perirenal–abdominal adipose tissue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which either cortisol (2–3 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline was infused for 5 days up to 127–130 days gestation, or near term fetuses (i.e. 142–145 days gestation) that were either adrenalectomised (AX) or remained intact. Fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were higher in the cortisol infused animals and lower in AX fetuses compared with their corresponding control group, and increased with gestational age. UCP2 and GR mRNA abundance were significantly lower in AX fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and increased with gestational age and by cortisol infusion. Glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue was augmented by AX and suppressed by cortisol infusion, the latter also preventing the gestational increase in 11βHSD1 mRNA and decrease in 11βHSD2 mRNA. When all treatment groups were combined, both fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were positively correlated with UCP2, GR and 11βHSD2 mRNA abundance, but negatively correlated with 11βHSD1 mRNA abundance. In conclusion, plasma cortisol and T3 are both required for the late gestation rise in UCP2 mRNA and differentially regulate glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. PMID:15961419

  15. Stress-related cortisol responsivity modulates prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, K; Piefke, M

    2017-12-01

    It is known that there is inter-individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed to examine the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a re-analysis of data published previously, with a focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. Twenty-one male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure. Salivary cortisol was measured to assess the intensity of the biological stress response. Additionally, participants rated the subjective experience of stress on a 5-point rating scale. Stressed participants were post-hoc differentiated in high (n = 11) and low cortisol responders (n = 10). Cortisol niveau differed significantly between the two groups, whereas subjective stress ratings did not. PM performance of low cortisol responders was stable across time and the PM performance of controls declined. High cortisol responders showed a nominally weaker PM retrieval across the early trails and significantly improved only on the last trial. The data demonstrate for the first time that participants with a low cortisol responsivity may benefit from stress exposure before the planning phase of PM. PM performance of high cortisol responders shows a more inconsistent pattern, which may be interpreted in the sense of a recency effect in PM retrieval. Alternatively, high cortisol responses may have a deteriorating effect on PM retrieval, which disappeared on the last trials of the task as a result of the decrease of cortisol levels across time. Importantly, the data also demonstrate that the intensity of cortisol responses does not necessarily correspond to the intensity of the mental experience of stress. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  16. Salivary Cortisol and Cortisone do not Appear to be Useful Biomarkers for Monitoring Hydrocortisone Replacement in Addison's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, I L; Lacerda, M; Pillay, T S; Blom, D J; Johannsson, G; Dave, J A; Levitt, N S; Haarburger, D; van der Walt, J-S

    2016-12-01

    Salivary cortisol has been used to monitor hydrocortisone replacement in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Since salivary cortisol is metabolised to salivary cortisone, it may be an adjunctive analyte to assess adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement in patients with AD. We aimed to characterise the exposure of salivary cortisol and cortisone in patients and healthy controls. We measured salivary cortisol and cortisone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and constructed a day curve (08:00 until 24:00 h) with 16 time points in 25 AD patients taking their usual hydrocortisone dose and in 26 healthy controls. The median (interquartile range) area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol was not different for patients, compared with controls [55.63 (32.91-151.07) nmol*min*l -1 vs. 37.49 (27.41-52.00) nmol*min*l -1 ; p=0.098, respectively], whereas the peak cortisol C max was higher in patients [32.61 (5.75-146.19) nmol/l vs. 8.96 (6.96-12.23) nmol/l; p=0.013], compared with controls. The AUC for cortisone [23.65 (6.10-54.76) nmol*min*l -1 vs. 227.73 (200.10-280.52) nmol*min*l -1 ; p≤ 0.001, respectively], and peak cortisone C max was lower in patients than in controls [11.11 (2.91-35.85) nmol/l vs. 33.12 (25.97-39.95) nmol/l; p=0.002]. The AUC for salivary cortisol and salivary cortisone were not correlated with any measures of hydrocortisone dose. The time-course and AUC of salivary cortisol were similar between Addison's patients and healthy controls. Patients had substantially lower salivary cortisone AUC, compared to healthy controls. Salivary cortisol AUC and pharmacokinetics were not related to hydrocortisone dose and thus are not likely useful markers for the adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petersson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dog–owner interaction results in increasing oxytocin levels in owners and dogs, decreasing cortisol levels in owners but increasing cortisol levels in dogs. The present study aimed to further investigate whether oxytocin and cortisol levels in the previously tested owners and dogs were associated with their behaviors during the interaction experiment. Ten female volunteer dog–owners and their male Labrador dogs participated in a 60 min interaction experiment with interaction taking place during 0–3 min and blood samples for analysis of oxytocin and cortisol were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The entire experiment was videotaped and the following variables were noted; the different types (stroking, scratching, patting and activating touch, i.e., scratching and patting combined as well as the frequency of touch applied by the owner, the number of times the owner touched her dog, the dog’s positions and time spent in each position. Correlations were analyzed between the behavioral variables and basal oxytocin levels, maximum oxytocin levels, delta oxytocin levels, basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels at 15 min. Owners with low oxytocin levels before and during the interaction touched their dogs more frequently (0 min: Rs = -0.683, p = 0.042; oxytocin maximum: Rs = -0.783, p = 0.013. The lower the dogs’ oxytocin levels during the interaction, the more stroking they received (Rs = -0.717, p = 0.041. The more frequently activating touch was applied by the owner, the higher the dogs’ cortisol levels became (15 min: Rs = 0.661, p = 0.038. The higher the owners’ maximum oxytocin level the fewer position changes the dogs made (Rs = -0.817, p = 0.007 and the shorter time they spent sitting (Rs = -0.786, p = 0.036, whereas the higher the owners’ basal cortisol levels, the longer time the dogs spent standing (0 min: Rs = 0.683, p = 0.041. In conclusion, oxytocin and cortisol levels, both in

  18. Post-acquisition data processing for the screening of transformation products of different organic contaminants. Two-year monitoring of river water using LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Herrera; Ulaszewska, M M; Hernando, M D; Martínez Bueno, M J; Gómez, M J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a comprehensive strategy for detecting and elucidating the chemical structures of expected and unexpected transformation products (TPs) from chemicals found in river water and effluent wastewater samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), with post-acquisition data processing and an automated search using an in-house database. The efficacy of the mass defect filtering (MDF) approach to screen metabolites from common biotransformation pathways was tested, and it was shown to be sufficiently sensitive and applicable for detecting metabolites in environmental samples. Four omeprazole metabolites and two venlafaxine metabolites were identified in river water samples. This paper reports the analytical results obtained during 2 years of monitoring, carried out at eight sampling points along the Henares River (Spain). Multiresidue monitoring, for targeted analysis, includes a group of 122 chemicals, amongst which are pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and PAHs. For this purpose, two analytical methods were used based on direct injection with a LC-ESI-QTOF-MS system and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with bi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight spectrometer (GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS).

  19. ACTH- and cortisol-associated neutrophil modulation in coronary artery disease patients undergoing stent implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Keresztes

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress and activation of neutrophil granulocytes are increasingly recognized as major risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD, but the possible relationship of these two factors in CAD patients is largely unexplored. Activation of neutrophils was reported to be associated with stenting; however, the issue of neutrophil state in connection with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is incompletely understood from the aspect of stress and its hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA background. Thus, we aimed to study cortisol- and ACTH-associated changes in granulocyte activation in patients undergoing PCI.Blood samples of 21 stable angina pectoris (SAP and 20 acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients were collected directly before (pre-PCI, after (post-PCI and on the following day of PCI (1d-PCI. Granulocyte surface L-selectin, CD15 and (neutrophil-specific lactoferrin were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lactoferrin, IL-6 were also assayed. In both groups, pre- and post-PCI ratios of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils were relatively high, these percentages decreased substantially next day; similarly, 1d-PCI plasma lactoferrin was about half of the post-PCI value (all p≤0.0001. Post-PCI ACTH was reduced markedly next day, especially in ACS group (SAP: p<0.01, ACS: p≤0.0001. In ACS, elevated pre-PCI cortisol decreased considerably a day after stenting (p<0.01; in pre-PCI samples, cortisol correlated with plasma lactoferrin (r∼0.5, p<0.05. In 1d-PCI samples of both groups, ACTH showed negative associations with the ratio of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils (SAP: r = -0.601, p<0.005; ACS: r = -0.541, p<0.05 and with plasma lactoferrin (SAP: r = -0.435, p<0.05; ACS: r = -0.609, p<0.005.Pre- and post-PCI states were associated with increased percentage of activated/degranulated neutrophils indicated by elevated lactoferrin parameters, the 1d-PCI declines of which were associated with plasma

  20. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Ooishi

    Full Text Available Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF to HF ratio (LF/HF increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in

  1. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Kawato, Suguru; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR) and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF) increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF) to HF ratio (LF/HF) increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in physiological

  2. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, Yuuki; Mukai, Hideo; Watanabe, Ken; Kawato, Suguru; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR) and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF) increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF) to HF ratio (LF/HF) increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in physiological

  3. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  5. Evaluation of a competitive binding assay for cortisol using horse transcortin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, F.; Hubl, W.; Schnorr, D.; Doerner, G.

    1978-01-01

    A non-chromatographic competitive binding assay (CBA) using horse transcortin has been employed in the routine measurement of cortisol in plasma, urine and amniotic fluids. Comparing the values with those of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) or a fluorimetric method (FM) an excellent correlation between the three methods both in plasma and urine has been calculated in normal subjects and in patients with various endocrine disorders. In amniotic fluids, however, there were discrepancies between CBA and RIA. Whereas CBA showed no differences, RIA gave significantly higher values in a amniotic fluids of female than of male fetuses. Elevated free plasma cortisol levels observed in patients with prostatic cancer after diethyl stilboestrol diphosphate therapy did not correlate with unconjugated urinary cortisol concentration as measured with CBA and FM. In newborns, a relatively high plasma level found 12 hours after birth was followed by a nadir on the 2nd and 3rd day of life and by an increase until levels of adults on the 5th day of life were reached. (author)

  6. Hair-Normalized Cortisol Waking Response as a Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity following Acute Trauma: A Proof-of-Concept Study with Pilot Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Walton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of persistent posttraumatic pain and disability remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that disordered stress-system pathway (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be responsible for the genesis and maintenance of long-term sensory and emotional problems. However, confidence in current evidence is limited by the necessarily retrospective collection of data. Hair cortisol can serve as a calendar of HPA axis activity going back several months prior to injury. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility of using hair cortisol and hair-normalized salivary cortisol as biomarkers of distress following traumatic injuries of whiplash or distal radius fracture. Ten subjects provided complete data within 3 weeks of injury. Hair cortisol, cortisol waking response (CWR, and mean daily cortisol (MDC were captured at inception, as were self-report indicators of pain, disability, and pain catastrophizing. Pain and disability were also captured 3 months after injury. Results indicate that cortisol waking response may be a useful biomarker of current distress as measured using the pain catastrophizing scale, especially when normalized to 3-month hair cortisol (r=0.77 raw, 0.93 normalized. Hair-normalized CWR may also have predictive capacity, correlating with 3-month self-reported disability at r=0.70. While promising, the results must be viewed in light of the small sample.

  7. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  8. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  9. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  10. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Susman, Elizabeth J; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether childhood abuse results in disrupted cortisol activity. Nonstress, morning cortisol was measured in 84 females with confirmed familial sexual abuse and 89 nonabused, comparison females. Although dynamically controlling for co-occurring depression and anxiety, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that relative to comparison females, the linear trend for abused females was significantly less steep when cortisol was examined across development from age 6 to age 30, t (1, 180) = -2.55, p cortisol activity starting in adolescence with significantly lower levels of cortisol by early adulthood, F (1, 162) = 4.78, p cortisol activity was initially significantly higher, t (1, 425) = 2.18, p cortisol hyposecretion subsequent to a period of heightened secretion.

  11. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  12. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  14. Cortisol exposure, cognition and clinical course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Anne Titia

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we aimed to identify the influence of cortisol exposure and cognitive performance on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Data regarding sociodemographics, disease characteristics and genetic analysis of the cortisol receptors, were collected of 366 patients with bipolar

  15. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  16. Cortisol intermediates and hydrocortisone responsiveness in critical neonatal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Saarela, Timo; Ramet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko

    2017-07-01

    Therapy-resistant hypotension complicates diseases in neonates. Our objective was to investigate whether lack of therapeutic response to plasma expanders and inotropes associates with serum levels of cortisol and its precursors. We investigated 96 infants with hypotension and critical neonatal disease for cortisol metabolism and are divided into responders and non-responders to plasma expanders and inotropes. Serum concentrations of steroids were analysed soon after the onset of volume expansion and inotrope treatment for shock. The 48 non-responders were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (HC) and serum cortisol concentrations were monitored a week later. The mean cortisol concentrations did not differ between the responders and non-responders: 13.6 ± 2.5 and 12.5 ± 4.5 μg/dL, respectively. Dehydroepiandrosterone (37.3 ± 19.5 versus 324.0 ± 106.3; p cortisol and cortisone between the responders and non-responders. Hydrocortisone administration acutely increased blood pressure. Six non-responders who died despite HC administration had low levels of cortisol. The responders had normal serum cortisol after HC treatment. Precursors of cortisol, proximal to the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, accumulated in neonates with hypotension, responding to HC treatment.

  17. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  18. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  19. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  20. Plasma cortisol radioimmunoassay with 125I-cortisol and polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Keiko; Ogihara, Toshio; Miyai, Kiyoshi; Kumahara, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Kaichiro.

    1976-01-01

    A new, convenient, and less time-consuming plasma cortisol radioimmunoassay was set up. An antibody raised to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate-BSA was used at a 1: 6400 dilution. Because of its relatively high specificity, direct assay was possible. The main points of improvement were as follows, 125 I-cortisol was used as the labelled compound, B-F separation was done with polyethylene glycol, the effect of endogeneous corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) was avoided by the use of 0.6% glutamate buffer pH 3.3 treatment. It was found that by the omission of heat treatment it was possible to avoid this CBG effect. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.1 mg/tube, and the assay range was 1 to 80 μg/dl plasma when a 10 μl sample was used. Precision and accuracy were satisfactory. Coefficient of variance for intraassay and interassay were 6.0% at 12.1 μg/dl, 3.8% at 36.6 μg/dl and 7.5% at 10.2 μg/dl, 6.7% at 41.8 μg/dl respectively. Data obtained by this method, by Murphy's CPBA method, and by other commercial RIA methods were quite comparable. The mean value of serum cortisol (8:30 - 11:30) in normal subjects was 7.7 +- 3.4 μg/dl (m +- S.D., n=102). Mean value of serum cortisol was decreased slightly but significantly with age. (auth.)

  1. Association of Aldosterone and Cortisol with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Prehypertension Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqa Badar Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Pakistani population has higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV diseases at younger ages, due to undiagnosed, uncontrolled hypertension (HTN. A variety of associated HTN stressors is also reported. The study plans to understand the variables associated with initiation of HTN in this population. Objective. To find plasma aldosterone and cortisol relationship with some CV risk factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, sodium and potassium in different stages of HTN particularly prehypertension. Subjects and Methods. The study conducted on 276 subjects (25–60 years, classified into prehypertensive (=55, HTN stage-1 (=70 and II (=76 according to 7th JNC report and compared with normotensive controls (=75. The anthropometric profiles (height, weight, waist circumference, Body Mass index and BP recorded. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, total cholesterol, Low density lipoproteins, blood glucose, Na+ and K+, using standard laboratory techniques, were determined in fasting blood samples. Results. Subjects were mostly overweight and obese (80%, 90%, and 76% in pre-HTN, stage-I and II versus 69% in controls. The aldosterone level (ng/dl was in higher normal range (9.17–12.41 and significantly correlated to BMI (0.587 in controls, and to TC (0.726 and LDL (0.620 in pre-HTN stage-I. The cortisol level was positively correlated (25. Conclusion. Pre-HTN stage among Pakistani population with successive increase in various risk factors of HTN in relation to aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. Interaction of the risk factors with endogenous levels of these hormones may initiate stages of HTN.

  2. The Effects of Multivitamin Supplementation on Diurnal Cortisol Secretion and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Con Stough

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime, at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks. Perceived Stress (PSS was measured at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks, while blood serum measures of B6, B12 and homocysteine (HCy as well as red cell folate (B9 were also collected at these time points. A significant interaction was found between treatment group and study visit for the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR. Compared to placebo, at 16-weeks multivitamin supplementation was found to be associated with a near-significant trend towards an increased CAR. No significant differences in PSS were found between groups, with PSS increasing in both groups across the course of the study. Red cell folate was found to be significantly correlated with the CAR response at 16-weeks while HCy levels were not found to be associated with the CAR response, although HCy significantly correlated with waking cortisol levels at 8-weeks. A possible interpretation of the elevation in CAR associated with multivitamin supplementation is that this represents an adaptive response to everyday demands in healthy participants.

  3. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child health outcomes may be mediated by chronic stress, given the chronically higher levels of cortisol in children and adolescents in families with low SES. It is especially notable that the association between SES and cortisol was already found in children of young age as this can have major consequences, such as increased

  4. Detection of endogenous cortisol in equine tears and blood at rest and after simulated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Hart, Kelsey A; Berghaus, Roy D; Norton, Natalie A; Moore, Phillip A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether cortisol is present in equine tears at rest and during simulated stress and compare tear cortisol to serum free and total cortisol. Fourteen healthy adult horses were included. Paired tear total cortisol and serum total and free cortisol concentrations were measured with ELISA, chemiluminescent immunoassay, and ultrafiltration methodology, respectively, in 10 horses at rest once daily for five consecutive days. In an additional four horses, paired tear and serum samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation (cosyntropin, 1 μg/kg IV). Cortisol was detectable in equine tears at rest. Following ACTH stimulation, tear cortisol increased significantly from baseline at 60-120 min (P ≤ 0.001). Serum total and free cortisol also increased significantly at 30-180 min after ACTH stimulation (P ≤ 0.001). Both serum and tear cortisol returned to baseline concentrations by 360 min. Changes in tear cortisol were similarly associated with changes in serum total and free cortisol, although high tear cortisol concentrations suggest a portion of tear cortisol may be protein-bound. Cortisol is present in equine tears and increases in concert with serum cortisol following ACTH stimulation. Further study is needed to determine whether endogenous cortisol in tears contributes to ocular pathology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Interferences in the radioimmunological determination of urinary free cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Fenner, A.; Dulce, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The magnitude of interferences arising in the radioimmunological assessment of urinary free cortisol is studied (a) by comparing cortisol immunoreactivities from crude urine, after organic solvent extraction of different selectivity and after additional chromatography by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and (b) by evaluation of the profile of immunoreactivity resulting from the fractions eluted by HPLC. Three antisera from different sources have been investigated. Values of cortisol-immunoreactivity in crude urine were about six times and values of a simple dichloromethane extract about three times higher than values obtained after HPLC. The main part of the interfering compounds arising in organic extracts have a polarity similar to cortisol, which cannot be easily eliminated by simple solvent extraction procedures. Specific estimation of urinary cortisol by radioimmunoassay requires a preceding chromatographic technique of high efficiency, such as HPLC, which represents an adequate tool for the routine laboratory. (Auth.)

  6. Prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations predict neurodevelopment in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Head, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and cortical thickness was determined. Child cognitive functioning was evaluated using standardized measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Second Edition). Higher maternal cortisol concentrations during the third trimester were associated with greater child cortical thickness primarily in frontal regions. No significant associations were observed between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child cortical thinning. Elevated third trimester maternal cortisol additionally was associated with enhanced child cognitive performance. Findings in this normative sample of typically developing children suggest that elevated maternal cortisol during late gestation exert lasting benefits for brain development and cognitive functioning 6-9 years later. The benefits of fetal exposure to higher maternal cortisol during the third trimester for child neurodevelopment are consistent with the role cortisol plays in maturation of the human fetus. It is plausible that more extreme elevations in maternal cortisol concentrations late in gestation, as well as exposure to pharmacological levels of synthetic glucocorticoids, may have neurotoxic effects on the developing fetal brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sleep Characteristics and Daytime Cortisol Levels in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha; Waite, Linda; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-05-01

    Older adults frequently report sleep problems and are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disruption. Experimental sleep restriction of younger adults has suggested that cortisol may be on the pathway between sleep restriction and cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether the natural variation in sleep among older adults is associated with daytime cortisol level. Salivary cortisol samples and actigraphy sleep data were collected from a random subsample of participants in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally representative probability sample of adults aged 62-90 (N = 672). Salivary cortisol was measured with 3 timed samples at the beginning, middle, and end of a 2-hr in-home interview. Sleep characteristics were derived from wrist actigraphy (fragmentation, wake after sleep onset [WASO], and duration) and from survey responses about usual sleep duration and sleep problems. For each individual, a single summary daytime cortisol level was estimated by fitting a marginal longitudinal model for the 3 time-stamped cortisol samples. The resulting estimates were then regressed on each sleep measure, adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. From actigraphy, both higher fragmentation score (β = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00 to 0.03) and longer WASO (β = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.51) were significantly associated with higher daytime cortisol; sleep duration was not. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep problems were also not associated with cortisol. Actigraph measures of sleep disturbance are associated with higher daytime cortisol among older adults. However, cross-sectional data cannot distinguish causal direction or whether cortisol and sleep disruption have a common cause. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of thoracic epidural etidocaine 1.5% on somatosensory evoked potentials, cortisol and glucose during cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1992-01-01

    The effect of thoracic (T7-8) epidural etidocaine 1.5%, 9 ml, and continuous per- and postoperative epidural infusion of etidocaine 1.5%, 4 ml/h, on early (less than 500 ms) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and cortisol and glucose in plasma during cholecystectomy, was examined in ten...... stimulation at the L1, T10 or T6 dermatomal level (P greater than 0.09). SEPs were abolished in only two patients at T6, and no patient had SEPs abolished at T10 or L1. The plasma concentrations of cortisol and glucose were significantly increased 20 min after surgical incision and remained increased...... throughout the study. No correlation was found between the block-induced decrease in the peak-to-peak amplitude at T6 or T10 and increase in plasma cortisol, except for a negative correlation at T10 and the initial increase in cortisol (Rs = 0.72, P = 0.03). In conclusion, thoracic epidural administration...

  10. Effects of psychosocial work characteristics on hair cortisol - findings from a post-trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Barrech, Amira; Gündel, Harald; Lang, Jessica; Quinete, Natalia Soares; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged work stress, as indicated by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, jeopardizes health. Cortisol represents a candidate mechanism connecting stress to ill health. However, previous findings appear inconclusive, and recommendations were made to assess work stress at multiple time points and also to investigate ERI (sub-)components. This study therefore examines the effects of two single time points, as well as the mean and change scores between time points of ERI and its components on hair cortisol concentration (HCC), a long-term cortisol measurement. Participants were 66 male factory workers (age: 40.68 ± 6.74 years; HCC: 9.00 ± 7.11 pg/mg), who were followed up after a stress management intervention (2006-2008). In 2008 (T1) and 2015 (T2), participants completed a 23-item ERI questionnaire, assessing effort, the three reward components (esteem, job security, job promotion) and over-commitment. In 2015, participants also provided a 3-cm hair segment close to the scalp for HCC analysis, as well as information on relevant confounders (i.e. medication intake, age, work characteristics, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, number of stressful life events). Linear regressions revealed hardly any cross-sectional or longitudinal effect of ERI and its components on HCC. Only the change scores between T1 and T2 of job security were negatively associated with lower HCC in unadjusted (β = -.320; p = .009) and adjusted (β = -.288; p = .044) models. In this study, only a decrease of perceived job security over time was significantly associated with higher HCC, and other predictors were not related to this outcome. Especially after correction for multiple testing, this study revealed just a weak association of different psychosocial work measurements with HCC. Lay summary This study showed that an increase in perceived job insecurity is correlated with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The higher levels of cortisol might

  11. Sexual thoughts: links to testosterone and cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) or cortisol (C) in males of a variety of species, including humans, and just thinking about sex increases T in women. We investigated whether sexual thoughts change T or C in men and whether hormone measures (baseline, post-activity, and changes) correlate with psychological sexual arousal. We used the Imagined Social Situation Exercise to assess how hormones respond to and correlate with sexual thoughts and arousal relative to three control conditions: neutral, stressful, and positive. A total of 99 men provided a baseline saliva sample, imagined and wrote about a sexual or control situation, and provided a second saliva sample 15 min later. Results indicated that, for participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline and post-activity C corresponded to larger increases in self- reported sexual and autonomic arousal. Although sexual thoughts increased sexual arousal, they did not change T or C compared to control conditions. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts are not sufficient to change T or C in men, but C may facilitate sexual arousal by directing energy towards a sexual situation.

  12. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms

  13. Persistent amenorrhea and decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio after recovery from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Sabbadin, Chiara; Minardi, Silvia; Favaro, Angela; Donà, Gabriella; Bordin, Luciana; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2017-04-01

    Persistent amenorrhea is a frequent condition affecting anorexic patients after stable weight recovery. It has been proposed that it could be due to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis linked with persistent hormonal impairments, such as relative hypercortisolemia and hypoleptinemia, and psychological symptoms related to anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal pattern involved in the persistence of amenorrhea after recovery from AN. Eight weight-recovered anorexic patients with amenorrhea were investigated and matched with 10 healthy eumenorrhoic women, comparable for age and BMI. Data showed basal FSH and LH values similar in both groups and a normal pituitaric response to LHRH administration. Morning serum cortisol was normal but significantly higher in patients, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) to cortisol ratio, leptin and vitamin D were significantly lower in patients than controls. Women with previous AN presented insulin resistance and two patients showed an overall picture consistent with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In conclusion, long-lasting amenorrhea after recovery from AN is linked with a persistent hypothalamic dysfunction, although other concomitant causes like PCOS and insulin resistance should be considered. Decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio is a new finding which could be correlated to the persistent hypogonadism.

  14. Mindfulness practice reduces cortisol blunting during chemotherapy: A randomized controlled study of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Peng, Cheng; Sleight, Alix G; Nguyen, Nathalie; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this randomized clinical experiment was to test the influence of a mindfulness meditation practice, when delivered during 1 session of active chemotherapy administration, on the acute salivary cortisol response as a marker of neuroendocrine system activity in cancer patients. A mindfulness, attention-control, or resting exposure was assigned to 57 English- or Spanish-speaking colorectal cancer patients at 1 county oncology clinic and 1 university oncology clinic at the start of chemotherapy. Saliva samples were collected at the start of chemotherapy and at subsequent 20-minute intervals during the first 60 minutes of chemotherapy (4 samples in all). Self-reporting on biobehavioral assessments after chemotherapy included distress, fatigue, and mindfulness. An area-under-the-curve analysis (AUC) showed a relative increase in cortisol reactivity in the mindfulness group after adjustments for biological and clinical measures (β = 123.21; P = .03). More than twice as many patients in the mindfulness group versus the controls displayed a cortisol rise from the baseline to 20 minutes (69% vs 34%; P = .02). AUC values were uncorrelated with biobehavioral measure scores, although mindfulness scores were inversely correlated with fatigue (r = -0.46; P mindfulness practice during chemotherapy can reduce the blunting of neuroendocrine profiles typically observed in cancer patients. Implications include support for the use of mindfulness practice in integrative oncology. Cancer 2017;123:3088-96. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Examination of cortisol and state anxiety at an academic setting with and without oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Holding oral presentations in a university course is perceived as stressful and can increase stress hormone concentrations and state anxiety. In such a naturalistic setting, further attention should be paid to the relationship between psychological and hormonal measures of acute stress, as well as women's intake of hormonal contraceptives as a potential moderating variable. In the present study, 76 healthy students gave saliva samples before and after their oral presentations in a university course as well as on a second, control day in the same course without giving an oral presentation. Anticipatory state anxiety was rated on both days. Cortisol concentrations as well as state anxiety were substantially higher on the presentation relative to the control day. During the oral presentation, an increase in cortisol concentrations was observed, whereas a decrease occurred on the control day. Nearly the same picture emerged for both variables when looking at men, women taking hormonal contraceptives and free-cycling women separately. A positive correlation was found between the change in anticipatory state anxiety in the presentation compared to the control day and cortisol concentrations before and after the oral presentation. Concluding, oral presentations constitute a potent stressor and do not seem to be substantially different between men, free-cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives. Future studies may want to explore changes associated with specific menstrual cycle phases and with specific hormonal contraceptives.

  16. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  17. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  18. One-tube micromethod for radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.; Morris, R.

    1978-01-01

    A micro-scale method is presented for measurement of cortisol. Serum or plasma, 2 μl, is diluted with buffer and the solution heated at 60 0 C in the presence of high-affinity antibody and [ 3 H]cortisol. Corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum is denatured, releasing cortisol and making it available to the antibody, which is stable during the incubation. After cooling, ammonium sulfate solution is added, followed by a toluene-based scintillant that does not dissolve in the aqueous phase. The vial is shaken to extract the free cortisol into the scintillant. Antibody-bound cortisol remains in the aqueous phase and does not produce any scintillation. The amount of [ 3 H]cortisol that is free at the end of the incubation, and which therefore gives rise to the measured counts, is related to the concentration of cortisol in the original serum, and may be calculated from a standard curve. The assay is sensitive and precise. Ranges are presented for normal and pathologic subjects

  19. Thyroid and Cortisol hormones in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Vivekanandhan, S

    2017-08-01

    There is paucity of research in the putative role of hormonal biomarkers in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to analyze the clinical profile, socio-demographic status, co-morbidity, hormonal biomarkers namely Thyroid hormones and Cortisol in children with ADHD and compare them with healthy controls and to explore the association of the hormonal biomarkers with severity of ADHD. Thirty children with DSM-IV TR diagnosis of ADHD were assessed using semi structured proforma, Conners' Parent Rating Scale revised short (CPRS - R: S) , Mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children and adolescents and Childrens' Global Assessment Scale as well as serum levels of total Triiodothyronine (T3) ,total Thyroxine (T4) , Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Cortisol using chemiluminescent immunometric assay and compared with 30 age- and gender -matched controls. The typical profile of cases of ADHD was of a male with mean age of 9.47 years (S.D=2.43) belonging to Hyperactive subtype of ADHD. Serum T4 was significantly lower in cases compared to controls. No significant difference was found in serum T3, TSH and Cortisol levels. No significant correlation between the CPRS : R-S scores and the hormonal biomarkers. There is need for exploration of Serum T4 as putative biomarker for ADHD with replication in future studies. It may also be important to report the negative finding of Cortisol as a biomarker of ADHD in the context of effective utilization of resources for research with special relevance to resource deficit developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of stress in absenteeism: cortisol responsiveness among patients on long-term sick leave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik B Jacobsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.

  1. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose T Faghih

    Full Text Available The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  2. Diagnostic value of daily fluctuations in the free form of testosterone and cortisol in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome under the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important pathogenetic link of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS in men are disorders of testosterone production in the testes and adrenal adrenal cortisol production. Тestosterone deficiency and functional hypercortisolism have a mutual influence on each other. Comprehensive assessment of testosterone and cortisol balance and identify their daily variability in the saliva may improve the diagnosis of hormonal disorders in men with obesity and MS. In the present study, by comparative and correlation analysis assessed the circadian rhythm of cortisol and testosterone production in young and middle age men, finding the relationship between the concentration of these hormones in the morning and evening portions of saliva with the changes of anthropometric, hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The study involved 35 patients with MS, 16 – with overweight and obesity without the MS and 19 – with normal body weight. In men with obesity and MS found a violation of the circadian rhythm of testosterone production. Evening saliva testosterone showed a close correlation with the parameters of the MSome and clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency, as well as a more pronounced decrease with age. Circadian rhythm of cortisol production was not violated, but cortisol was significantly increased in the evening portion of saliva in patients with obesity and MS. MS was associated not only with an increase in the concentration of free salivary cortisol in the evening hours, but with lower cortisol levels in the batch of saliva collected in the morning, which is consistent with other studies.

  3. Isolated Cortisol Deficiency: A Rare Cause of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Awatif; Mursi, Alaaddin; Alghofely, Mohammed; Asery, Ali

    2012-01-01

    For decades, congenital panhypopituitarism has been recognized to cause infantile cholestasis. However, the identity of the hormone whose deficiency causes such derangement of the liver is not clear. Here, we report four cases of isolated severe cortisol deficiency presenting with neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycemia, of whom two had familial primary glucocorticoid deficiency and the other two had isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency. The resolution of cholestasis by hydrocortisone replacement therapy suggests a causal relationship between cortisol deficiency and the development of neonatal cholestasis. In conclusion, the presentation of a young infant with cholestasis and hypoglycemia should alert pediatricians to the possibility of cortisol deficiency and prompt investigation of adrenal function should be undertaken. PMID:23006463

  4. Micromethod for determination of cortisol in peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.; Mileva, Zh.; Kekhajova, M.

    1982-01-01

    The micromethod for determination of cortisol in peripheral blood is based on the classical radiommunologic method for its determination. A drop of peripheral blood is applied on filter paper, used for detection of phenyketonuria. A 7 mm disk of this paper is then cut with a perforator and placed in the tube instead of 50 microliters blood plasma. The classical radiommunoassay and the micromethod were used in parallel for determining peripheral blood cortisol concentrations in 26 sexually mature persons, in 12 children and in 40 patients with thyroid hyperfunction. In all tested 78 persons no statistically significant difference (P>0.5) was found in cortisol concentrations, determined by the two methods. (authors)

  5. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and...

  6. Aging, health behaviors, and the Diurnal rhythm and awakening response of salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the awakening response and diurnal rhythm of cortisol in young versus older adults in relation to health behaviours. Older adults displayed significantly reduced cortisol upon awakening, a lower cortisol awakening response and a flatter diurnal profile represented by a reduced area under the curve and cortisol slope. There was also a significant interaction of age, cortisol and diet; younger adults with a higher fat and lower fruit and vegetable intake exhibited the flatte...

  7. Testosterone, Cortisol and Financial Risk-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Herbert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Both testosterone and cortisol have major actions on financial decision-making closely related to their primary biological functions, reproductive success and response to stress, respectively. Financial risk-taking represents a particular example of strategic decisions made in the context of choice under conditions of uncertainty. Such decisions have multiple components, and this article considers how much we know of how either hormone affects risk-appetite, reward value, information processing and estimation of the costs and benefits of potential success or failure, both personal and social. It also considers how far we can map these actions on neural mechanisms underlying risk appetite and decision-making, with particular reference to areas of the brain concerned in either cognitive or emotional functions.

  8. Does cortisol modulate emotion recognition and empathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schulze, Lars; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Roepke, Stefan; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Emotion recognition and empathy are important aspects in the interaction and understanding of other people's behaviors and feelings. The Human environment comprises of stressful situations that impact social interactions on a daily basis. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on emotion recognition and empathy. In this placebo-controlled study, 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women (mean age 24.5 years) received either 10mg of hydrocortisone or placebo. We used the Multifaceted Empathy Test to measure emotional and cognitive empathy. Furthermore, we examined emotion recognition from facial expressions, which contained two emotions (anger and sadness) and two emotion intensities (40% and 80%). We did not find a main effect for treatment or sex on either empathy or emotion recognition but a sex × emotion interaction on emotion recognition. The main result was a four-way-interaction on emotion recognition including treatment, sex, emotion and task difficulty. At 40% task difficulty, women recognized angry faces better than men in the placebo condition. Furthermore, in the placebo condition, men recognized sadness better than anger. At 80% task difficulty, men and women performed equally well in recognizing sad faces but men performed worse compared to women with regard to angry faces. Apparently, our results did not support the hypothesis that increases in cortisol concentration alone influence empathy and emotion recognition in healthy young individuals. However, sex and task difficulty appear to be important variables in emotion recognition from facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  10. Acute psychosocial stress and everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men: The impact of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of the training-induced decrease in basal cortisol concentration in the improvement in muscular performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Kulpa, J; Duda, K; Rychlik, U; Zoladz, J A

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise-induced changes in cortisol concentration (C) and training related adaptation within hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been widely examined, but their influence on muscle strength performance is at best uncertain. Twenty four young healthy men were randomly assigned to an endurance training group (ET, n=12) or to a non-exercising controls (CON, n=12). ET performed supervised endurance training on cycle ergometer for 20 weeks. Endurance training program improved exercise capacity (14 % increase in power output generated at peak oxygen uptake - VO(2peak)), muscle strength performance (increase in MVC - maximal voluntary contraction - by 9 % and in TTF 50 % MVC - time to fatigue at 50 % MVC - by 21 %) and led to a decrease in basal serum C concentration (P=0.006) and an increase in basal testosterone to cortisol (T/C) and free testosterone to cortisol (fT/C) ratios (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). It was found that the decrease in C concentration (deltaC) was positively correlated to the increase in local muscular endurance (deltaTTF 50 % MVC). No significant hormonal changes were seen in CON group. It is concluded that greater decrease in cortisol concentration after the endurance training is accompanied by poorer improvement in skeletal muscle performance in previously untrained subjects.

  12. Specific and practicable assessment of urinary free cortisol by combination of automatic high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Fenner, A.; Altinok, G.; Dulce, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    An assay for the specific measurement of urinary free cortisol excretion is described. The method involves a simple solid-phase extraction, automatic high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and radioimmunological quantification. The concurrent study on antigenically interfering compounds in the organic extract of urine revealed that non-specific immunoreactivities with a chromatographic behaviour very similar to cortisol are present in urine, which are not attributable to the steroids commonly studied for cross-reactivity. Non-chromatographed values are about twice as high as those chromatographed by HPLC. Correlation between them was significant (r=0.98). Precision and accuracy of the present method are within the range commonly achieved by radioimmunoassay methods. The normal range of urinary free cortisol excretion was found to be 28-117 nmol/24h (n=128). The present method, suitable for routine purposes, provides a basis for external quality control of urinary cortisol estimations, which is inadequate with the non-specific methods usually applied. (Auth.)

  13. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Pregnancy is known to alter the feedback effect of cortisol on ACTH secretion and .... ANOVA and LSD test, superscripts (*) depict significant differences between cases and controls, analyzed by ..... Influence of brain angiotensin ...

  14. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, Laura S.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values

  15. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values

  16. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The differential impact of two anesthetic techniques on cortisol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based intratracheal general anesthesia (ITGA) and bupivacaine‑based epidural anesthesia (EA), using cortisol as a biochemical marker. Materials and Methods: Following the approval of the Hospital Ethical Board, informed written consent from ...

  18. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  19. Attachment predicts cortisol response and closeness in dyadic social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Beck, Lindsey A

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined how the interplay of partners' attachment styles influences cortisol response, actual closeness, and desired closeness during friendship initiation. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at four timepoints throughout either a high or low closeness task that facilitated high or low levels of self-disclosure with a potential friend (i.e., another same-sex participant). Levels of actual closeness and desired closeness following the task were measured via inclusion of other in the self. Results from multi-level modeling indicated that the interaction of both participants' attachment avoidance predicted cortisol response patterns, with participants showing the highest cortisol response when there was a mismatch between their own and their partners' attachment avoidance. Further, the interaction between both participants' attachment anxiety predicted actual closeness and desired closeness, with participants both feeling and wanting the most closeness with partners when both they and their partners were low in attachment anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose and lipid profile of ..... stressor, neurons with cell bodies in the paraventricular nuclei of the ... metabolic changes that contribute to heart disease and other health problems21.

  1. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    . In conclusion, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was associated with a higher evening cortisol level, but not with awakening cortisol level. Future prospective family, high-risk and twin studies are needed to decide whether abnormalities in the HPA axis can be identified as an endophenotype......Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross......-sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low...

  2. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in the absence of light perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Kupers, R.; Ptito, M.

    2017-01-01

    As light plays an important role in the synchronisation of the internal biological clock to the environmental day/night schedule, we compared the 24-h profiles of biological circadian markers in blind and normal sighted individuals. Salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were collected...... every two hours in eleven blind subjects, reporting no conscious light perception, and eleven age- and sex-matched normal sighted controls. Timing of melatonin onset and associated cortisol quiescence period confirm an increased incidence of abnormal circadian patterns in blindness. Additionally, blind...... subjects showed a greater overall melatonin concentration throughout the 24-h period. Cortisol profiles, including concentration and morning cortisol peaks, on the other hand, did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. These findings support previous reports of an increase in abnormal circadian...

  3. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  4. New, advantageous approach to the direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilden, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum cortisol is simplified by a unique solution to the problem of eliminating competition between cortisol-binding globulin and cortisol immunoglobulin. Increasing incubation temperature tends to release cortisol from its carrier protein while favoring the immunoglobulin reaction. We applied this methodology, using reagents supplied as a commercial kit. Serum, 5 μl, is diluted with 125 I-containing tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer and incubated at 45 0 C for 1 h, then aspirated. All standards are constituted in steroid-deprived serum. The clinical validity of the method is supported by comparisons with conventional methods during months of use under routine laboratory conditions. The simplified method also offers improved performance characteristics and, as described, is fully instrumented. The significance of this use of thermodynamic properties is discussed in terms of more general applicability

  5. Similarities of cellular receptors for interferon and cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipic, B.; Schauer, P.; Likar, M.

    1977-01-01

    Cellular receptors are molecules located on the cell membrane. Their function is to bind different molecules to the cell surface. These molecules can penetrate into the cytoplasm and trigger cellular changes. One kind of such bound molecules are interferons and corticosteroids. Until very recently very little was known about interferon's receptors on the cell surface, mechanisms of interferon's binding to them or about kinetics of such binding. On the basis of results published elsewhere and on the basis of experimental results, the authors suggest: receptors for interferon and cortisol are glycoproteins located on the cell surface, in analogy with PHA receptors they are chemically sialoglycoproteins, binding kinetics of cortisol and interferon is similar, interferon and cortisol compete for cellular receptors, binding of cortisol or interferon is dependent on allosteric configuration of receptor molecules. (author)

  6. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cabrera, Joaquín (UNIR); Calvete, Esther; León-Mejía, Ana (UNIR); Pérez-Sancho, Carlota; Peinado, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is associated with different psychological problems, the role of biological markers of stress in cyberbullying has been relatively neglected. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the profile of cortisol secretion along the day in subjects involved in cyberbullying and 2) to investigate whether the predictive relationship between cyberbullying victimization and subjective symptoms of stress and anxiety are accounted for by cortisol reactivity. A longitudinal study ...

  7. Cognitive control moderates parenting stress effects on children's diurnal cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Raffington, Laurel; Schmiedek, Florian; Heim, Christine; Shing, Yee Lee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two weekend days from 53 6-to-7-year-old children. Children completed a cognitive control task and a self-report stress questionnaire with an experiment...

  8. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  9. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram eMossink

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-hour ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 minutes thereafter (cortisol awakening response. Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems.

  11. Modified-release hydrocortisone to provide circadian cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Ghobadi, Cyrus; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Huatan, Hiep; Campbell, Michael J; Newell-Price, John; Darzy, Ken; Merke, Deborah P; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

    2009-05-01

    Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm regulated by the brain's central pacemaker. Loss of this rhythm is associated with metabolic abnormalities, fatigue, and poor quality of life. Conventional glucocorticoid replacement cannot replicate this rhythm. Our objectives were to define key variables of physiological cortisol rhythm, and by pharmacokinetic modeling test whether modified-release hydrocortisone (MR-HC) can provide circadian cortisol profiles. The study was performed at a Clinical Research Facility. Using data from a cross-sectional study in healthy reference subjects (n = 33), we defined parameters for the cortisol rhythm. We then tested MR-HC against immediate-release hydrocortisone in healthy volunteers (n = 28) in an open-label, randomized, single-dose, cross-over study. We compared profiles with physiological cortisol levels, and modeled an optimal treatment regimen. The key variables in the physiological cortisol profile included: peak 15.5 microg/dl (95% reference range 11.7-20.6), acrophase 0832 h (95% confidence interval 0759-0905), nadir less than 2 microg/dl (95% reference range 1.5-2.5), time of nadir 0018 h (95% confidence interval 2339-0058), and quiescent phase (below the mesor) 1943-0531 h. MR-HC 15 mg demonstrated delayed and sustained release with a mean (sem) maximum observed concentration of 16.6 (1.4) microg/dl at 7.41 (0.57) h after drug. Bioavailability of MR-HC 5, 10, and 15 mg was 100, 79, and 86% that of immediate-release hydrocortisone. Modeling suggested that MR-HC 15-20 mg at 2300 h and 10 mg at 0700 h could reproduce physiological cortisol levels. By defining circadian rhythms and using modern formulation technology, it is possible to allow a more physiological circadian replacement of cortisol.

  12. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Kaergaard, Anette

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three...... during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1% per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p...

  13. 75Se-labelled cortisol in analysis by competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.S.; Chambers, V.E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Selenium 75 has nuclear properties very suitable for the labelling of steroids used as tracers in competition analysis. A method of preparing a selenium-labelled cortisol derivative, 75 Se methylselenoprednisolone, is described. A system based on bonding competition between plasma cortisol and 75 Se methylselenoprednisolone on transcortine was studied, the separation taking place on a Sephadex adsorbant. An early analysis with highly stable reagents was achieved [fr

  14. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g+ = 0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g+ = -0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress.

  16. Nongenomic actions of cortisol in the teleost lactotroph model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borski, Russell J; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Mita, M

    2006-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC)-IP3 in mediating cortisol's actions. During 30 min and 4-hour incubation, chicken GnRH-II induces a 2-4 fold increase in PRL release from the tilapia pituitary. The stimulatory effect of cGnRH-II was reduced by cortisol, cortisol-21......-hemisuccinate (HEF) and its membrane impermeant analog, HEF-BSA. Since GnRH induces PRL release, in part, via activation of PLC this suggests that cortisol may rapidly inhibit GnRH-induced PRL release by suppressing PLC activity. We also found that cortisol rapidly inhibits IP3 accumulation in tilapia RPD under...... stimulation by angiotensin II, a factor known to exert its cellular effects through stimulation of the PLC-IP3 pathway. Further studies demonstrate that cortisol reduces PLC activity (measured by the hydrolysis of 3H-PIP2) in a dose dependent manner from crude tilapia lactotroph membrane preparations. SRIF...

  17. A Pharmacokinetic Model of a Tissue Implantable Cortisol Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael A; Bakh, Naveed; Bisker, Gili; Brown, Emery N; Strano, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Cortisol is an important glucocorticoid hormone whose biochemistry influences numerous physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, it is a biomarker of interest for a number of conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and others. An implantable biosensor capable of real time monitoring of cortisol concentrations in adipose tissue may revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, as well as provide an invaluable research tool. Toward this end, a mathematical model, informed by the physiological literature, is developed to predict dynamic cortisol concentrations in adipose, muscle, and brain tissues, where a significant number of important processes with cortisol occur. The pharmacokinetic model is applied to both a prototypical, healthy male patient and a previously studied Cushing's disease patient. The model can also be used to inform the design of an implantable sensor by optimizing the sensor dissociation constant, apparent delay time, and magnitude of the sensor output versus system dynamics. Measurements from such a sensor would help to determine systemic cortisol levels, providing much needed insight for proper medical treatment for various cortisol-related conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cortisol, hedonics, and maternal responsiveness in human mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A S; Steiner, M; Corter, C

    1997-10-01

    New mothers are more attracted to the body odor of newborn infants than are nonmothers. In this study we investigated the relation of postpartum hormones and of prior experience with infants to this enhanced maternal attraction to infant odors. New mothers were asked to complete a hedonics task, using a pleasantness scale to provide an attraction score to different odorants presented on a cotton substrate in a 1-pt Baskin-Robbins container. Mothers were "blind" to the contents of the container. Participants also completed an extensive set of 100-item likert scales concerning their attitudes toward infants, care taking, own maternal adequacy, and other interpersonal relations. Mothers were videotaped interacting with their infants and provided salivary samples prior to the interaction. Salivary samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for salivary concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone. Results show that first-time mothers with higher cortisol concentrations were more attracted to their own infant's body odor. Mothers with higher cortisol levels were also better able to recognize their own infants' odors. While cortisol was not related to attitudinal measures of maternal responsiveness, mothers with more prior experience interacting with infants exhibited both more attraction to infant odors and more positive maternal attitudes. Together, prior maternal experience and postpartum cortisol explain a significant proportion of the variance in mothers' attraction to newborn infant odors. These relations are discussed in terms of the variety of "meanings" cortisol could have during the postpartum period. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  19. Chronotype, sleep loss, and diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol in a simulated daylong driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Golonka, Krystyna; Marek, Tadeusz; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Tucholska, Kinga

    2010-07-01

    distinct diurnal variation (F = 2.950, p < .019), whereas E types showed a flattened diurnal curve. Cortisol values did not correlate with subjective assessments of workload, arousal, or sleepiness at any time-of-day. Diurnal cortisol pattern parameters (i.e., morning level, mean level, and range of diurnal changes) showed significant positive correlations with sleep length before the experiment (r = .48, .54, and .53, respectively) and with sleep index (r = .63, .64, and .56, respectively). The conclusions of this study are: (i) E-oriented types showed lower salivary cortisol levels and a flattened diurnal curve in comparison with M types; (ii) sleep loss was associated with lower morning cortisol and mean diurnal level, whereas higher cortisol levels were observed in rested individuals. In the context of stress theory, it may be hypothesized that rested subjects perceived the driving task as a challenge, whereas those with reduced sleep were not challenged, but bored/exhausted with the experimental situation.

  20. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  1. Specificity and sensitivity of binding proteins in the radioimmunoassay of cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison concerning avidity towards cortisol and 10 other steroids was made between several binding proteins either in solution or bound to cellulose as so called ''solid phase'' reagent. Human blood cortisol binding protein (CBP, transcortin), and two distinctly different cortisol-binding rabbit antisera and the isolated immunoglobulins thereof were compared in their avidity to bind cortisol and several other steroids. The antisera were harvested from rabbits immunized with either cortisol-21-succinyl-albumin (CSA) or cortisol-3-oxim-albumin (COA). The latter antiserum, having the highest titre in cortisol titration, showed the greatest specificity and was most useful as a binding reagent in cortisol radioimmunoassay when used as a solid phase reagent. The determination of cortisol in micro samples of blood serum is possible without steroid extraction or serum protein denaturation and with only minor influence of steroid impurities in the sample to be analyzed. Affinity constants for all compared binding reagents and steroids are given

  2. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  3. Sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion starts after age 10 in healthy children: urinary cortisol metabolite excretion rates during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, Stefan A; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Detailed data on the physiological pattern of adrenocortical activity during normal growth are lacking. An established method to determine adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion is the measurement of 24-h excretion rates of major urinary cortisol metabolites (C21). To test the hypothesis that the frequently reported higher cortisol secretion in men than in women develops during puberty, we examined C21 together with excretions of combined urinary free and conjugated cortisol (F(comb)) in 400 healthy boys and girls aged 3-18 yr using GC-MS. Daily excretion rates of C21, F(comb), and body surface area (BSA)-corrected F(comb) significantly increased with age in both sexes. In contrast, C21/BSA (microgxm(-2).day(-1)) declined from the age of 3-4 yr to 7-8 yr in boys and girls (P activity (allotetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisol) in females compared with males. Our results demonstrate dynamic changes in adrenocortical activity in healthy children resulting in an emerging sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion after age 11. The latter can be explained, at least partly, by diverging 5alpha-reductase activities in boys and girls. F(comb), a frequently analyzed GC-MS parameter, proved not to reflect dynamic changes in cortisol secretion. In conclusion, the varying metabolic need for cortisol during normal growth may have implications for future improvements in glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

  4. Circadian variation in serum cortisol during hydrocortisone replacement is not attributable to changes in cortisol-binding globulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T T; Gunganah, K; Monson, J P; Drake, W M

    2016-04-01

    Patients taking hydrocortisone (HC) replacement for primary or secondary adrenal failure require individual adjustment of their dose. In addition to modifying the administered doses of HC for each patient, physicians are increasingly interested in variations in the bioavailability of glucocorticoid replacement. One potential determinant of the bioavailability of replaced HC is a variation in serum cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) concentration, which may, in turn, affect interpretation of cortisol profiles and individual dose selection for patients on hydrocortisone replacement therapy. To investigate the hypothesis that there is a circadian variation in CBG levels. A total of 34 male patients divided into 3 groups (10 patients with non-somatotroph structural pituitary disease on HC replacement, 11 patients with treated acromegaly on HC replacement and 13 patients with treated acromegaly not on HC replacement) and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Cortisol and CBG levels were measured at 6 time points (0800, 1100, 1300, 1500, 1700 and 1900). No significant circadian variation in CBG concentration was found in any of the 4 groups. Circadian variation in serum cortisol during hydrocortisone replacement is not attributable to changes in cortisol-binding globulin concentration. Changes in serum cortisol levels may thus be explained by other factors including 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity or circadian changes in the binding properties of CBG. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cortisol and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Prior to Treatment in Children With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels between children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) prior to treatment and healthy controls. In addition, the study aimed to assess any correlations between OCD symptom severity and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. Twenty-nine children, aged from 7 to 17 years (male/female: 21/8) and diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV prior to treatment, were compared with 25 healthy control subjects (male/female: 16/9). The study was conducted between December 2012 and December 2013. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered to the children. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels were detected using a prepared kit with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels in the OCD group were significantly higher when compared with the control group (P = .02, P = .03, and P = .046, respectively). No association was detected between the severity and duration of OCD symptoms and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. CDI scores in both groups were similar. The mean (SD) duration of OCD symptoms was 17.9 (18.5) months. Our findings suggest that BDNF levels adaptively increase as a result of the damaging effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity on brain tissue in the early stages of OCD. HPA axis abnormalities and BDNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy. We used data from 3039 women from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development-study cohort. Serum cortisol was measured in blood, collected at the first prenatal visit, at different gestational ages (median=91days, range=40-256days), and at various time points during the day (median=11:45h, range=08:00-18:30h). We assessed associations between maternal serum cortisol in pregnancy and biological factors, lifestyle factors and stress factors, including depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, work stress, parenting stress and fatigue. In multivariable analysis, variables that were associated with higher cortisol levels in pregnancy were lower maternal age [1.5nmol/l, 95%CI (0.6-2.4)], being nulliparous [21.5 nmol/l (15.9-27.1)], lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) [1.3nmol/l (0.3-2.4)], higher C-reactive protein (CRP) [1.0nmol/l (0.4-1.5)], carrying a female fetus [9.2nmol/l (1.8-16.5)], non-smoking [14.2nmol/l (0.6-27.7)], sufficient sleep [8.5nmol/l (0.9-16.1)], and being unemployed [12.7nmol/l (2.2-23.2)]. None of the psychosocial stressors was significantly associated with serum cortisol levels in pregnancy. A total of 32% of all variance in cortisol was explained by gestational age, maternal age, time of day, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, CRP, fetal sex, smoking behavior, self

  7. Hair cortisol concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in response to machine milking of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objective to obtain insight into the dynamics of the release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol in response to machine milking in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy multiparous lactating Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in the study. Animals were at the 4th-5th month of pregnancy and were submitted to machine milking 2 times daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning: In baseline conditions, immediately before milking and after milking; and in the early afternoon: In baseline conditions, before milking and after milking, for 2 consecutive days. Endocrine variables were measured in duplicate, using a commercial radioimmunoassay for circulating β-endorphin and ACTH concentrations and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for cortisol concentration. Results: Data obtained showed a similar biphasic cortisol secretion of lactating dairy cows, with a significant increase of cortisol concentration after morning machine milking, at both the 1st and the 2nd day (p<0.05, and a decrease after afternoon machine milking at the 2nd day (p<0.01. One-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of the machine milking on the cortisol changes, at both morning (f=22.96; p<0.001 and afternoon (f=15.10; p<0.01 milking, respectively. Two-way RM ANOVA showed a significant interaction between cortisol changes at the 1st and the 2nd day (f=7.94; p<0.0002, and between the sampling times (f=6.09; p<0.001. Conversely, no significant effects of the machine milking were observed on β-endorphin and ACTH changes, but only a moderate positive correlation (r=0.94; p<0.06 after milking stimuli. Conclusions: A wide range of cortisol concentrations reported in this study showed the complex dynamic patterns of the homeostatic mechanisms involved during machine milking in dairy cows, suggesting that β-endorphin and ACTH were not the main factors that caused the

  9. The cortisol awakening response is associated with performance of a serial sequence reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Schneider, Luke; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Clow, Angela; Ridding, Michael C; Pitcher, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    There is emerging evidence of a relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CAR is associated with acquisition, retention and overnight consolidation or improvement of a serial sequence reaction time task. Salivary samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening in 39 healthy adults on 2 consecutive days. The serial sequence reaction time task was repeated each afternoon. Participants completed the perceived stress scale and provided salivary samples prior to testing for cortisol assessment. While the magnitude of the CAR (Z score) was not associated with either baseline performance or the timed improvement during task acquisition of the serial sequence task, a positive correlation was observed with reaction times during the stable performance phase on day 1 (r=0.373, p=0.019). Residuals derived from the relationship between baseline and stable phase reaction times on day 1 were used as a surrogate for the degree of learning: these residuals were also correlated with the CAR mean increase on day 1 (r=0.357, p=0.048). Task performance on day 2 was not associated with the CAR obtained on this same day. No association was observed between the perceived stress score, cortisol at testing or task performance. These data indicate that a smaller CAR in healthy adults is associated with a greater degree of learning and faster performance of a serial sequence reaction time task. These results support recognition of the CAR as an important factor contributing to cognitive performance throughout the day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the P1798 cortisol-sensitive and non-resistant lymphosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The P1798 lymphosarcoma is a tumor with both cortisol-sensitive (CS) and cortisol-resistant (CR) lines. Although differences between the CS and CR cells have been reported, none can fully explain the detailed mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in CR tumors. Recently, it was shown that 5-azacytidine treatment could generate CS cells from CR SAK lymphoma cells in vitro. The present study examined the effect of combination treatment with 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the growth of the P1798 lymphosarcoma. 5-Azacytidine rendered the P1798 CR tumors partially cortisol-sensitive, and enhanced the cortisol-induced regression of the P1798 CS tumors. Survival of mice bearing both CS and CR P1798 tumors was increased by combination treatment. Similar whole cell and nuclear binding of 3 H-TA were observed in both 5-azacytidine-treated and control P1798 tumors. However, CR nuclei retained 64% of the whole cell binding of 3 H-TA compared to 25-29% nuclear retention in CS tumors. DNA methylation in tumors from 5-azacytidine-treated mice decreased to 53% (CS) and 42% (CR) of control. Since 5-azacytidine did not result in any change in thymidine labeling index or cell cycle distribution in P1798 tumors, it would appear to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic to P1798 tumors. Three cell lines have been isolated from the P1798 lymphosarcoma: two are cortisol-sensitive both in vivo and in vitro, while the other is cortisol-resistant. Results from this study suggest that glucocorticoid resistance is a reversible process, and that the effect of 5-azacytidine on the P1798 CR tumor is at the gene expression level

  12. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  13. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Erica C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA, and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415. AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (PPPP

  14. Sex differences in cortisol's regulation of affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Gary D; Rice, Leslie K; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation. First, men were more affiliative toward their dogs after victory, whereas women were more affiliative after defeat. Second, the greater a female competitor's increase in cortisol, the more time she spent affiliating with her dog, whereas for men, the pattern was the exact opposite: the greater a male competitor's increase in cortisol, the less time he spent affiliating with his dog. This pattern suggests that, in the wake of competition, men and women's affiliative behavior may serve different functions-shared celebration for men; shared consolation for women. These sex differences show not only that men and women react very differently to victory and defeat, but also that equivalent changes in cortisol across the sexes are associated with strikingly different behavioral consequences for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  16. A simplified ultrafiltration method for determination of serum free cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the suitability of the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane for measuring free cortisol in serum. The method combines two independent assays: total cortisol and the ultrafiltrate fraction of added [ 3 H]cortisol. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.25-0.30 ml of ultrafiltrate collected from 0.6 to 1 ml of serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]cortisol at 37 0 C for 20 min. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practical (no more than 0.6 ml of serum is necessary) and repeatable (CV: 3.8% within-assay and 12.2% in different assays). Error introduced in free cortisol measurement due to dilution effects in dialysis is systematically defined, and the effect of tracer purity on the ultrafiltration method is examined. Dialyzed sera from normal men and women, from patients with Cushing's disease and adrenal insufficiency, and from pregnant women gave ultrafiltration results that accurately duplicated those obtained by previous dialysis. (Auth.)

  17. Job satisfaction and cortisol awakening response in teachers scoring high and low on burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Albiol, Luis; Serrano, Miguel Angel; Salvador, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is an important psychosocial risk in the job context, especially in professions with a strong social interaction, as in the case of teaching. High levels of burnout have been related to negative psychological indicators and hormonal alterations. This study compares job satisfaction and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in teachers scoring high (HB) and low (LB) on burnout. HB teachers showed lower job satisfaction and no significant differences in the CAR when compared with the LB group. The results of the study suggest a general dissatisfaction with work along with a different functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in HB teachers. Although non significantly, they showed a lower magnitude of the CAR than LB teachers. When considering the whole sample, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization correlated negatively and personal accomplishment positively with each subscale of the job satisfaction questionnaire whereas cortisol levels or CAR did not correlate significantly with both burnout subscales and job satisfaction. These results should be taken into account when working to prevent burnout in teachers, as the modified parameters could be considered indicators of the onset or development of the syndrome.

  18. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swab on cortisol enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Kaji, Yumi; Yasukouchi, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    Cotton swabs are among the most commonly used devices for collecting saliva, but various studies have reported that their use impacts the results of salivary cortisol assays. These studies, however, estimated this impact by comparing the average of the concentration and/or scatter plots. In the present study, we estimated the impact of cotton swabs on the results of salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) by Bland-Altman plot. Eight healthy males (aged 20-23 years) provided four saliva samples on different days to yield a total of 32 samples. Saliva samples were collected directly in plastic tubes using plastic straws and then pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). There was a lower correlation between cotton and passive saliva collection. Individually, four subjects showed a negative correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection. A Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes a proportional bias on the EIA assay result. Our findings indicate a considerable effect of using cotton swabs for saliva collection, and subject-specific variability in the impact. A Bland-Altman plot further suggests possible reasons for this effect.

  19. Liver upregulation of genes involved in cortisol production and action is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, Esther; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Vicent, David; Sánchez-Franco, Franco; Barabash, Ana; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio J; Rubio, Miguel Angel

    2012-03-01

    Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, which converts cortisone (inactive) to cortisol, is downregulated in obesity. However, this compensation fails in obese with metabolic abnormalities, such as diabetes. To further characterize the tissue-specific cortisol regeneration in obesity, we have investigated the mRNA expression of genes related to local cortisol production, i.e., 11β-HSD1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and cortisol action, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a cortisol target gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver, and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifty morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, 14 men (mean age, 41.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI, 48.0 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) and 36 women (mean age, 44.6 ± 1.9 years; BMI, 44.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)), were classified as having MS (MS+, n = 20) or not (MS-, n = 30). Tissue mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hepatic mRNA levels of these genes were higher in obese patients with MS (11β-HSD1, P = 0.002; H6PDH, P = 0.043; GR, P = 0.033; PEPCK, P = 0.032) and positively correlated with the number of clinical characteristics that define the MS. The expression of the four genes positively correlated among them. In contrast to the liver, these genes were not differently expressed in VAT or SAT, when MS+ and MS- obese patients were compared. Coordinated liver-specific upregulation of genes involved in local cortisol regeneration and action support the concept that local hepatic hypercortisolism contributes to development of MS in morbidly obese patients.

  20. Methodology for determination of plasma cortisol in fish using Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To determine plasma cortisol procedure in fish using competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and methods. Two plasma samples of juveniles rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were analized by using ELISA human kit for cortisol assay. For standard curve calibration...

  1. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...... not statistically significant. The results would support the notion that exhaustion is associated with HPA axis hypoactivity as assessed by salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the SF-36 vitality provides a measure of exhaustion that may be useful in epidemiological studies in order to explore long-term health effects...

  2. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  3. Analysis of cortisol and other stress-related hormones in patients with Meniere's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cruijsen, N; Dullaart, RPF; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    Objective: To evaluate cortisol and catecholamine levels in patients with Meniere's disease. Study Design: Prospective, controlled study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Thirty patients with Meniere's disease and 18 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measures: Serum and saliva cortisol,

  4. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  5. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  6. Increased plasma concentrations of vasopressin, oxytocin, cortisol and the prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite during labour in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, K; Bergström, A; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2003-11-01

    This study investigated if the plasma vasopressin concentration increases during labour in the dog and whether the change in vasopressin correlates with that of oxytocin, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha and cortisol. Five beagle dogs each delivered three to seven puppies. Blood samples were taken from a catheter inserted into the cephalic vein during labour and by venepuncture during the other periods. Vasopressin concentration increased from 2 +/- 0 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 26 +/- 11 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high at the birth of the second puppy and then decreased. Oxytocin increased from 63 +/- 5 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 166 +/- 19 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated throughout labour. The PGF2alpha metabolite concentration increased from 0.2 +/- 0.0 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 66 +/- 17 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated 1 h after the completion of parturition. The cortisol concentration increased from 49 +/- 9 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 242 +/- 35 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high during the birth of the second puppy and then declined. The plasma level of vasopressin was strongly correlated with that of cortisol but less with that of the PGF2alpha metabolite, and not significantly with the concentration of oxytocin. This indicates that the four hormones play different roles during labour in the dog.

  7. Radioimmunoassay and chemical ionization/mass spectrometry compared for plasma cortisol determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, C.; Johnson, S.; Hedner, P.; Gustafsson, A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determination of cortisol in plasma and urine, based on chemical ionization/mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled cortisol as the internal standard. The within-run precision (CV) was 2.5-5.7%, the between-run precision 4.6%. Results by this method were compared with those by a radioimmunological method (RIANEN Cortisol, New England Nuclear) for 395 plasma samples. The latter method gave significantly higher (approx. 25%) cortisol values

  8. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Circulating Angiogenic Cell Function is Inhibited by Cortisol in Vitro and Associated with Psychological Stress and Cortisol in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J.; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age = 26 years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:26925833

  10. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demel, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be used for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oximino-(2-( 125 I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p 0.00956x ). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (Schulz et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by Eve v. Cauter (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurrence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occurred between 7:00 and 12:00 h (mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

  11. Radioimmunological analysis of circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demel, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    Since blood cortisol (F) and melatonin (MLT) display a circadian secretion pattern and since the saliva concentration of this hormones is an excellent indicator of its blood levels the measurement of salivary F and MLT may be user for examining circadian rhythmicity. In this study the relationship between salivary F and MLT was explored. For this purpose it was necessary first to establish and validate a radioimmunoassay for F in saliva: salivary F was determined by a direct radioimmunoassay using cortisol-3-(O-carb oxymethyl) oximino-(2-( 125 I)iodohistamin) as tracer and cortisol-3-CMO-BSA antiserum. The parallel measurement of F levels in saliva and serum of adults gave an excellent correlation (r=0.87, p 0.00956x ). Serum F was assayed on the Abott TDX-System using a radioimmunofluorescence method. Secondly, using this assay the circadian saliva F pattern was determined as well as the pattern of salivary MLT in 9 young, healthy volunteers. For saliva MLT estimations a previously published method was applied (SCHULZ et al 1990). Using a computerized program (RHYTHM) written by EVE v. CAUTER (1979), the hormone data of each individuum were examined for circadian rhythmicity and its acrophase (time of occurence of the maximum of a sinusoid fitted to the data). The F acrophase occured between 7:00 and 12:00 h (Mean: 3:33 h, SD: 104.4 min). The easy stress-free non invasive nature of saliva collection makes saliva to one of the most accessible body fluids and of high value in studying the circadian system in healthy humans as well as in infants, children, pregnant women and anaemic patients. Measurements of salivary F and MLT may help to elucidate not only the circadian rhythms of these hormones under normal and pathological conditions but it may also provide insight in physiology and pathology of the circadian system in general. (author)

  12. Cortisol awakening response and emotion at extreme altitudes on Mount Kangchenjunga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Raúl; Martínez, Carlos; Alvero-Cruz, José R

    2017-12-24

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was examined over a 45days stay at extreme altitudes (above of about 5500m) on Mount Kangchenjunga. The CAR refers to a peak cortisol response during the waking period that is superimposed to the diurnal rhythmicity in cortisol secretion, whose function has been proposed to be the anticipation of demands of the upcoming day (the CAR anticipation hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, we distinguished between resting days on which the expedition team engaged in routine activities in the base camp, and ascent days on which it planned to climb up a very demanding track. We were also interested in examining the association of testosterone with emotional anticipation, given the role of this steroid hormone in reward-related processes in challenge situations. Results showed that the climber group had a bigger CAR on ascent days, relative to the Sherpa group at the same altitude and the non-climber group at sea level. Several methodological issues, however, made it difficult to interpret these group differences in terms of the CAR anticipation hypothesis (e.g. a seemingly influential covariate was awakening time). Although based on tentative results, correlational and regression analyses controlling for awakening time coherently showed that the CAR was associated with anticipation of a hard day and feelings of fear, and testosterone was associated with feelings of energy and positive affect. Whether or not the anticipation of a hard day played a key role in regulation of the CAR, the observation of an intact CAR in the climber group under hypobaric hypoxia conditions would require in-depth reflection from the perspective of human adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  14. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  15. A Generalized Correlation Plot Package for the CEBAF Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Wu; W. Akers; S. Schaffner; H. Shoaee; W. A. Watson; D. Wetherholt

    1996-01-01

    The Correlation Package is a general facility for data acquisition and analysis serving as an online environment for performing a wide variety of machine physics experiments and engineering diagnostics. Typical correlation experiments consist of an initial set of actions followed by stepping one or two accelerator parameters while measuring up to several hundred control system parameters. The package utilizes the CDEV [1] device API to access accelerator systems. A variety of analysis and graphics tools are included through integration with the Matlab math modeling package. A post- acquisition script capability is available to automate the data reduction process. A callable interface allows this facility to serve as the data acquisition and analysis engine for high level applications. A planned interface to archived accelerator data will allow the same analysis and graphics tools to be used for viewing and correlating history data. The object oriented design and C++ implementation details as well as the current status of the Correlation Package will be presented

  16. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level | Odeniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or underproduction of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity.

  18. Characterization of 24-h cortisol release in obese and non-obese hyperandrogenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J E; Bray, M A; Faiman, C; Reyes, F I

    1994-12-01

    Excessive androgen output is a well-recognized feature of adrenocortical oversecretion in women with ovarian hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). However, evidence of a concomitant alteration of cortisol secretion is lacking even though obesity per se, a common clinical feature of PCOD, has been shown to be associated with cortisol oversecretion. To clarify whether a subtle alteration in cortisol secretion exists, a study of 24-h episodic cortisol release and post-prandial cortisol responses was undertaken in eight women with PCOD and eight normal women comprising equal numbers of obese and non-obese subjects. All four groups showed normal biphasic 24-h cortisol secretion profiles but cortisol pulse frequency was increased in the PCOD groups. Independently, both hyperandrogenism and obesity were associated with an accelerated cortisol clearance rate. These changes, together with normal or only slightly elevated 24-h cortisol integrated area under the curve, suggest an increased compensatory cortisol production in women with PCOD. Furthermore, subjects with PCOD and subjects with obesity showed different post-prandial cortisol responses to normal non-obese women. In conclusion, these subtle cortisol abnormalities may be a manifestation of altered central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and peripheral metabolic abnormalities, and may be linked to the pathophysiology of PCOD.

  19. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  20. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol

  1. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab H H; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol

  2. Glucocorticoid treatment earlier in childhood and adolescence show dose-response associations with diurnal cortisol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Holm, Sara K; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    or diurnal cortisol output; however, sex-dependent group differences were observed. Specifically, female patients had a higher CAR relative to female controls, while male patients had higher daily cortisol levels compared to male controls. Notably, CAR in female patients and daily cortisol levels in male...... for males and females....

  3. Cortisol, Health, and Coping in Patients with Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger

    2016-01-01

    SHC, fatigue, pain, coping, and social support. The patients showed a seemingly normal cortisol profile. However, CAR was larger among patients compared to the reference population. Patients with low cortisol reactivity had more SHC, pain, and fatigue, and those with higher evening cortisol reported...

  4. The biological clock modulates the human cortisol response in a multiplicative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Booij, Sanne H.; van der Zwan, J Esi; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol

  5. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin

  6. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by endogenous cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar. 2009. Neuroimmunomod. 16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expr...

  7. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  8. Endogenous Cortisol: Acute Modulation of Cytokine Gene Expression in Bovine PBMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  9. The impact of cortisol in steatotic and non-steatotic liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Bujaldon, Esther; Mendes-Braz, Mariana; Avalos de León, Cindy G; Jiménez-Castro, Mónica B; Álvarez-Mercado, Ana I; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Rodés, Juan; Peralta, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the effects of regulating cortisol levels on damage and regeneration in livers with and without steatosis subjected to partial hepatectomy under ischaemia-reperfusion. Ultimately, we found that lean animals undergoing liver resection displayed no changes in cortisol, whereas cortisol levels in plasma, liver and adipose tissue were elevated in obese animals undergoing such surgery. Such elevations were attributed to enzymatic upregulation, ensuring cortisol production, and downregulation of enzymes controlling cortisol clearance. In the absence of steatosis, exogenous cortisol administration boosted circulating cortisol, while inducing clearance of hepatic cortisol, thus maintaining low cortisol levels and preventing related hepatocellular harm. In the presence of steatosis, cortisol administration was marked by a substantial rise in intrahepatic availability, thereby exacerbating tissue damage and regenerative failure. The injurious effects of cortisol were linked to high hepatic acethylcholine levels. Upon administering an α7 nicotinic acethylcholine receptor antagonist, no changes in terms of tissue damage or regenerative lapse were apparent in steatotic livers. However, exposure to an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist protected livers against damage, enhancing parenchymal regeneration and survival rate. These outcomes for the first time provide new mechanistic insight into surgically altered steatotic livers, underscoring the compelling therapeutic potential of cortisol-acetylcholine-M3 muscarinic receptors. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  11. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system. (a) Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device...

  12. Capturing effort and recovery: reactive and recuperative cortisol responses to competition in well-trained rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallen, V.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Zwolle, H.J.; Valk, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim It is well known that physical strain is associated with increased cortisol production. And although mental stress elevates cortisol concentrations as well, little is known of the independent and/or combined effects of both on the secretion of cortisol. Aim of the study was to

  13. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K.; Deng, Huihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was

  14. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, V.A. van; Cornelisse, S.; Marin, M.F.; Ackermann, S.; Garfinkel, S.N.; Abercrombie, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory

  15. Investigations on a cortisol-iodine-125-radioimmunoassay test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, U.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of a cortisol-iodine-125-RIA test system the reliability criteria were detected. Additionally, the so-called normal values of the cortisol daily rhythm were determined in a test group with normal metabolism. Moreover, in an other examination control values for the ACTH stimulation were registered and in addition the reproducability of this test was investigated. The results of the examinations and investigations confirm the necessity of taking precision and normal values determined in the own laboratory - as basis for the interpretation of radiochemical substrate analyses. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Domino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  17. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  18. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Uma; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jeyapal, Bhagyameena; Jagadeesh, Sushuruthi; Jayakumar, Parvathee

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I) and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II) and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16), Pearson correlation, and paired t -test. Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  19. Cortisol in tissue and systemic level as a contributing factor to the development of metabolic syndrome in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinopoulos, Petros; Michalaki, Marina; Kottorou, Anastasia; Habeos, Ioannis; Psyrogiannis, Agathoklis; Kalfarentzos, Fotios; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsana

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). To investigate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the expression of HSD11B1, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptors) α (NR3C1α) and β (NR3C1β) in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese patients with and without MetS. The study included 37 severely obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)), 19 with MetS (MetS+ group) and 18 without (MetS- group), studied before and during bariatric surgery. Before the day of surgery, urinary free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal variation of serum and salivary cortisol were estimated. During surgery, biopsies of the liver, VAT and SAT were obtained. The expression of HSD11B1, NR3C1α and NR3C1β was evaluated by RT-PCR. UFC and area under the curve for 24-h profiles of serum and salivary cortisol were lower in the MetS- group. In the MetS- group, mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in liver exhibited a negative correlation with liver NR3C1α (LNR3C1α) and VAT expression of HSD11B1 was lower than the MetS+ group. We observed a downregulation of the NR3C1α expression and lower VAT mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in the MetS- group, indicating a lower selective tissue cortisol production and action that could protect these patients from the metabolic consequences of obesity. In the MetS- group, a lower activity of the HPA axis was also detected. Taken together, cortisol in tissue and systematic level might play a role in the development of MetS in severely obese patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-11-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol levels with these methods. While the effects of several specific single genetic variants is known, the joint genome-wide contribution to cortisol levels is unclear. Our aim was to estimate the amount of cortisol variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. the SNP heritability, using a variety of cortisol measures, cohorts and analysis approaches. We analyzed morning plasma (n=5705) and saliva levels (n=1717), as well as diurnal saliva levels (n=1541), in the Rotterdam Study using genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium score regression was fitted on the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed by the CORNET consortium on morning plasma cortisol (n=12,597) and saliva cortisol (n=7703). No significant SNP heritability was detected for any cortisol measure, sample or analysis approach. Point estimates ranged from 0% to 9%. Morning plasma cortisol in the CORNET cohorts, the sample with the most power, had a 6% [95%CI: 0-13%] SNP heritability. The results consistently suggest a low SNP heritability of these acute and short-term measures of cortisol. The low SNP heritability may reflect the substantial environmental and, in particular, situational component of these cortisol measures. Future GWAS will require very large sample sizes. Alternatively, more long-term cortisol measures such as hair cortisol samples are needed to discover further genetic pathways regulating cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on plasma oxytocin and cortisol in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Charlotte; Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A; Lambert, Gavin W; Tilbrook, Alan J

    2013-04-29

    Oxytocin is known for its capacity to facilitate social bonding, reduce anxiety and for its actions on the stress hypothalamopituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Since oxytocin can physiologically suppress activity of the HPA axis, clinical applications of this neuropeptide have been proposed in conditions where the function of the HPA axis is dysregulated. One such condition is major depressive disorder (MDD). Dysregulation of the HPA system is the most prominent endocrine change seen with MDD, and normalizing the HPA axis is one of the major targets of recent treatments. The potential clinical application of oxytocin in MDD requires improved understanding of its relationship to the symptoms and underlying pathophysiology of MDD. Previous research has investigated potential correlations between oxytocin and symptoms of MDD, including a link between oxytocin and treatment related symptom reduction. The outcomes of studies investigating whether antidepressive treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) influences oxytocin concentrations in MDD, have produced conflicting outcomes. These outcomes suggest the need for an investigation of the influence of a single treatment class on oxytocin concentrations, to determine whether there is a relationship between oxytocin, the HPA axis (e.g., oxytocin and cortisol) and MDD. Our objective was to measure oxytocin and cortisol in patients with MDD before and following treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI. We sampled blood from arterial plasma. Patients with MDD were studied at the same time twice; pre- and post- 12 weeks treatment, in an unblinded sequential design (clinicaltrials.govNCT00168493). Results did not reveal differences in oxytocin or cortisol concentrations before relative to following SSRI treatment, and there were no significant relationships between oxytocin and cortisol, or these two physiological variables and psychological symptom scores, before or after treatment. These outcomes

  2. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  3. Local preparation and evaluation of liquid phase radioimmunoassay for determination of human serum cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.; El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.; Ebeid, N.H.; Michael, E.; Zein, N.; Elfarargy, Ah.F.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was the preparation of the primary reagents of cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) using liquid phase double antibody technique. Three basic components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal anti-cortisol antibody, "1"2"5I-cortisol RIA tracer and cortisol standards. Cortisol requires conjugation step to be real antigen. Therefore, in this study this mandatory conjugation step was performed & characterized. Then formulation, optimization and validation of this liquid phase RIA technique were carried out. This assay is precise, specific and sensitive enough for using as a diagnostic tool for the adrenal cortex status. (author)

  4. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesInconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.MethodsWe investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized a...

  5. Salivary cortisol levels: the importance of clown doctors to reduce stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. Saliba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological biomarker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS. Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner: collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  6. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases.

  7. Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: moderation by infant-mother attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2010-06-01

    Experimental animal studies suggest that early glucocorticoid exposure may have lasting effects on the neurodevelopment of the offspring; animal studies also suggest that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. We prospectively followed 125 mothers and their normally developing children from pregnancy through 17 months postnatal. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infants were assessed at an average age of 17 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and ratings of infant-mother attachment classification were made from the standard Ainsworth Strange Situation assessment. Prenatal cortisol exposure, indexed by amniotic fluid levels, negatively predicted cognitive ability in the infant, independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors. This association was moderated by child-mother attachment: in children with an insecure attachment, the correlation was [r(54) = -.47, p < .001]; in contrast, the association was nonexistent in children who had a secure attachment [r(70) = -.05, ns]. These findings mimic experimental animal findings and provide the first direct human evidence that increased cortisol in utero is associated with impaired cognitive development, and that its impact is dependent on the quality of the mother-infant relationship. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social mobbing calls in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): effects of experience and associated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Tommasi, Luca; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-04-01

    We compared the mobbing response to model snakes of two groups of captive-born common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) differing in genetic relatedness, age and past experience. Mobbing vocalisations (tsik calls), other mobbing behaviour and attention to the stimulus were recorded for 2 min. intervals pre-exposure, during exposure to various stimuli and post-exposure. Marmosets in one group were vocally reactive to all stimuli, although more so to one particular stimulus resembling rearing snakes and modified images of it, whereas the marmosets in a younger and genetically unrelated group attended to the stimuli but made very few mobbing calls. The parent stock of the first group had suffered stress in early life and had developed a phobic response to a specific stimulus, which they had transmitted to their offspring. A third group, matching the older group in age range but genetically unrelated, was also found to be unresponsive to the stimulus that elicited the strongest response in the first group. Cortisol levels in samples of hair were assayed and a significant negative correlation was found between the number of tsik calls made during presentation of the stimuli and the cortisol level, showing that mobbing behaviour/behavioural reactivity is associated with low levels of physiological stress.

  9. Cortisol awakening response in drug-naïve panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakuszkowiak-Wojten K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Jerzy Landowski, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Background: It is unclear whether hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is involved in the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. The findings remain inconsistent. Cortisol awakening response (CAR is a noninvasive biomarker of stress system activity. We designed the study to assess CAR in drug-naïve PD patients.   Materials and methods: We assessed CAR in 14 psychotropic drug-naïve outpatients with PD and 14 healthy controls. The severity of PD was assessed with Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. The severity of anxiety and depression was screened with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.   Results: No significant difference in CAR between PD patients and control group was found. No correlations were observed between CAR and anxiety severity measures in PD patients and controls.   Limitations: The number of participating subjects was relatively small, and the study results apply to nonsuicidal drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia and with short-illness duration. There was a lack of control on subjects’ compliance with the sampling instructions.  Conclusion: The study provides no support for elevated CAR levels in drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia. Keywords: panic disorder, PD, CAR, cortisol awakening response, HPA axis, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

  10. Increased cortisol awakening response after completing the summer treatment program in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Rumiko; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Egami, Chiyomi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chizuru; Mukasa, Akiko; Iemura, Akiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Furusho, Junichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we examined the CAR in children with ADHD and their mothers before, immediately after, and 4months after an intensive summer treatment program (STP). Participants were 37 children aged 7-12years who completed the STP in 2009 and 2010, and their mothers. Daily saliva samples for cortisol measurement were collected twice daily at awakening and 30min afterwards at pre-STP, post-STP, and during a follow-up measurement period. ADHD symptom scores were evaluated by parents, and participants completed the Kid-KINDL R QOL questionnaire. CAR was low in children with ADHD before the STP, and increased to the control range 4months after STP. Maternal CAR also tended to increase after STP. Changes in the CAR in children tended to correlate with an improved ADHD inattention scores (p=0.091), physical health (p=0.070), and school life subscales scores in the Kid-KINDL R (p=0.079). We demonstrated that STP improved the behavior and QOL of children with ADHD. Our results indicate that STP could lead to improvements in HPA axis function, as reflected by increased CAR after STP. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented

  12. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p polar bears.

  13. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  14. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Anna Van Ast

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle and skin conductance responses. In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on fear potentiated startle data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by skin conductance responses, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

  15. Prolactin, cortisol and thyroxine levels and the premature infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of prolactin, cortisol and thyroxine values in cord and maternal plasma to fetal age and weight and to the incidence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was investigated in 80 neonates of whom 40 were born at more than 37 weeks' gestation. Of the 40 born at less than 36 weeks 11 developed HMD.

  16. Accumulation of hepatic Hsp70 and plasma cortisol in Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatic isoforms Hsp70, Hsp74 and Hsp76 were identified and quantified from copper exposures. Long-term DDT exposure did not result in significant induction of hepatic Hsp70. An increase in plasma cortisol concentration was associated with a decrease in heat shock protein accumulation after cadmium exposure, ...

  17. Salivary cortisol and depression in public sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels have been suggested to play a role in the development of depression. An association has been shown in some studies but not consistently. The timing of an association is uncertain, and long-term follow-up studies may miss associations in narrower time windows. In the pres...

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  19. Cortisol, reaction time test and health among offshore shift workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Waage, Siri; Ursin, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol shows a pronounced endogenous diurnal rhythm, which is affected by the sleep/wake cycle, meals and activity. Shift work and especially night work disrupts the sleep/wake cycle and causes a desynchronization of the natural biological rhythms. Therefore, different shift...

  20. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  1. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS−) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS− than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS− differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  2. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, Harpal; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G.

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL -1 with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  3. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  4. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Seema, E-mail: seemanara@mnnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tripathi, Vinay [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shrivastav, Tulsidas G. [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-12-03

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL{sup -1} with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  5. Serotonin transporter genotype, salivary cortisol, neuroticism and life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cortisol alone or in interaction with other risk factors (familial risk, the serotonin transporter genotype, neuroticism and life events (LEs)) predicts onset of psychiatric disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk. MATRIAL AND METHODS: In a high-risk study...

  6. Stress and sex: does cortisol mediate sex change in fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goikoetxea, Alexander; Todd, Erica V; Gemmell, Neil J

    2017-12-01

    Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid (GC) in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal and morphological) are well studied. However, the exact mechanism behind the transduction of the environmental signals into the molecular cascade that underlies this singular process remains largely unknown. We here synthesize current knowledge regarding the role of cortisol in teleost sex change with a focus on two well-described transformations: temperature-induced masculinization and socially regulated sex change. Three non-mutually exclusive pathways are considered when describing the potential role of cortisol in mediating teleost sex change: cross-talk between GC and androgen pathways, inhibition of aromatase expression and upregulation of amh (the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone). We anticipate that understanding the role of cortisol in the initial stages of sex change will further improve our understanding of sex determination and differentiation across vertebrates, and may lead to new tools to control fish sex ratios in aquaculture. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  8. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  9. Relationship between cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress and declarative memory decline during aging: Impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2014-03-01

    It is hypothesized that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes function together to maintain adaptive functioning during stressful situations differently in adolescence than the characteristic inverse relations found in adulthood. We examined within-person correlated changes (coupling) in cortisol, DHEA and testosterone in response to parent-adolescent conflict discussion, social performance, and venipuncture paradigms. Data are derived from two samples of boys and girls from the Northeastern US (213 adolescents aged 11-16, M=13.7, SD=1.5 years; 108 adolescents aged 9-14, M=11.99, SD=1.55) using different biological sampling vehicles (saliva and blood). Results consistently show that across samples, vehicles, and contexts, cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone are positively coupled in response to environmental stimuli. Findings underscore the importance of considering the effects of multiple hormones together in order to further our understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior, especially during adolescence, as adolescence is a developmental transition period that may be qualitatively different from adulthood in terms of hormone functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioimmunoassay and liquid-chromatographic analysis for free cortisol in urine compared with isotope dilution-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantto, O.

    1982-01-01

    Three different routine methods for analysis for urinary cortisol with those by a highly specific reference method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (I) were compared. A ''high-performance'' liquid-chromatographic method (II) gave the most comparable results (regression coefficient 0.86, intercept 9 nmol/L). For some urines much lower values were obtained by I than by II. Two radioimmunoassay (III) methods, one involving direct assay and one involving extraction, gave less-accurate results (regression coefficients of 1.87 and 1.52 and intercepts of 86 and 12 nmol/L, respectively), although values obtained by III and by I correlated well (r = 0.95-0.99), indicating a relation between the free cortisol and the compounds interfering in III. The apparent accuracy for the extraction method was improved by using as calibration standards urine samples previously assayed by I (regression coefficient 0.90, intercept 6 nmol/L). All four methods investigated showed a statistically significant sex-related difference in 24-h urinary cortisol excretion; evidently such a finding should be a prerequisite in any such method proposed for routine use

  12. Long-term cortisol levels measured in scalp hair of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Visser, Jenny A; Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Klessens-Godfroy, Francoise J M; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2014-09-01

    In obese subjects a relatively high cortisol output in urine has been observed compared to nonobese individuals. However, cortisol levels in blood, saliva, and urine in association with obesity have been inconsistent across studies, possibly due to the high variability of systemic cortisol levels. Cortisol levels measured in scalp hair provide a marker for long-term cortisol exposure, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease in an elderly population and to disease course in Cushing's disease. We aimed to compare hair cortisol levels between obese patients and nonobese controls. Hair cortisol levels of 47 obese patients (median BMI 38.8, range 31.1-65.8), 41 overweight, and 87 normal-weight subjects using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were measured. Obese patients had higher hair cortisol levels than overweight and normal weight subjects (respectively 30.8 vs 8.5 and 8.4 pg/mg hair, P cortisol levels was found between normal weight and overweight subjects. Our results suggest a higher long-term cortisol exposure in obese patients, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Future research will determine whether long-term cortisol levels provide a novel treatment target in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Cortisol Interferes with the Estradiol-Induced Surge of Luteinizing Hormone in the Ewe1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Pierce, Bree N.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Turner, Anne I.; Karsch, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was ∼1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for a cycle effect. Four treatment sequences were tested (cycle 1-cycle 2): vehicle-vehicle, cortisol-cortisol, vehicle-cortisol, cortisol-vehicle. Again, cortisol delayed but did not block the LH surge, and this delay occurred in both cycles. Thus, an elevation in plasma cortisol can interfere with the positive feedback action of estradiol by delaying and attenuating the LH surge. PMID:19056703

  14. A mathematical model of aging-related and cortisol induced hippocampal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Janette JL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hippocampus is essential for declarative memory synthesis and is a core pathological substrate for Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common aging-related dementing disease. Acute increases in plasma cortisol are associated with transient hippocampal inhibition and retrograde amnesia, while chronic cortisol elevation is associated with hippocampal atrophy. Thus, cortisol levels could be monitored and managed in older people, to decrease their risk of AD type hippocampal dysfunction. We generated an in silicomodel of the chronic effects of elevated plasma cortisol on hippocampal activity and atrophy, using the systems biology mark-up language (SBML. We further challenged the model with biologically based interventions to ascertain if cortisol associated hippocampal dysfunction could be abrogated. Results The in silicoSBML model reflected the in vivoaging of the hippocampus and increased plasma cortisol and negative feedback to the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Aging induced a 12% decrease in hippocampus activity (HA, increased to 30% by acute and 40% by chronic elevations in cortisol. The biological intervention attenuated the cortisol associated decrease in HA by 2% in the acute cortisol simulation and by 8% in the chronic simulation. Conclusion Both acute and chronic elevations in cortisol secretion increased aging-associated hippocampal atrophy and a loss of HA in the model. We suggest that this first SMBL model, in tandem with in vitroand in vivostudies, may provide a backbone to further frame computational cortisol and brain aging models, which may help predict aging-related brain changes in vulnerable older people.

  15. Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2013-12-01

    The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed. Recognition data revealed that cortisol's rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol's slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug. This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of specifically emotional memories. The results suggest that rapid effects of cortisol may lead to impaired emotional memory contextualization, while slow effects of cortisol may confer protection against emotional memory generalization. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  16. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K; Deng, Huihua

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol concentrations were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Work stress was measured using the effort-reward imbalance scale. The ratio of effort to reward showed significantly positive association with hair cortisol concentration. The cortisol concentration in the system increases with the effort-reward imbalance. Measurement of hair cortisol can become a useful biomarker of chronic work stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gestational cortisol and social play shape development of marmosets' HPA functioning and behavioral responses to stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Taylor, Jack H; Birnie, Andrew K; Huffman, Michelle C; French, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-01

    Both gestational cortisol exposure (GCE) and variability in postnatal environments can shape the later-life behavioral and endocrine outcomes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We examined the influence of GCE and social play on HPA functioning in developing marmosets. Maternal urinary cortisol samples were collected across pregnancy to determine GCE for 28 marmoset offspring (19 litters). We administered a social separation stressor to offspring at 6, 12, and 18 months of age, during which we collected urinary cortisol samples and behavioral observations. Increased GCE was associated with increased basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, but the strength of this relationship decreased across age. Increased social play was associated with decreased basal cortisol levels and a marginally greater reduction in cortisol reactivity as offspring aged, regardless of offspring GCE. Thus, GCE is associated with HPA functioning, but socially enriching postnatal environments can alter the effects associated with increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cortisol regulates nitric oxide synthase in freshwater and seawater acclimated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerber, Lucie; Madsen, Steffen S; Jensen, Frank B

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol and nitric oxide (NO) are regulators of ion transport and metabolic functions in fish. In the gill, they show opposite effects on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity: cortisol stimulates NKA activity while NO inhibits NKA activity. We hypothesized that cortisol may impact NO production...... in osmoregulatory tissues by regulating NO synthase (NOS) expression. We evaluated the influence of cortisol treatment on mRNA expression of Nos1 and Nos2 in gill, kidney and middle intestine of both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) acclimated rainbow trout and found both tissue- and salinity-dependent effects....... Nos2 expression was down-regulated in the gill by cortisol injection in both FW and SW trout. This was substantiated by incubating gill tissue with cortisol ex vivo. Similarly, cortisol injection significantly down-regulated Nos2 expression in kidney of SW fish but not in FW fish. In the middle...

  19. Increased testosterone levels and cortisol awakening responses in patients with borderline personality disorder: gender and trait aggressiveness matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Juliane; Gäbel, Andrea; Nagy, Krisztina; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by antagonism, negative affectivity, disinhibition, and impairments in interpersonal functioning, including enhanced impulsive aggression. Interpersonal dysfunctions may be related to alterations in endocrine systems. The current study investigated alterations in basal activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress system in BPD patients and their association to anger-related aggression with a particular focus on effects of gender and comorbid conditions of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Saliva testosterone levels as well as cortisol awakening responses were assessed in 55 medication-free female and male patients with BPD and compared to 47 gender-, age-, and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers. In addition, analyses controlling for current depression and PSTD and bivariate correlations between testosterone and cortisol levels on the one hand and anger and aggressiveness on the other hand were performed. The results revealed increased saliva testosterone levels in female and male patients with BPD as well as elevated cortisol awakening responses in female, but not male patients with BPD compared to healthy volunteers. Cortisol awakening responses were positively related to anger and aggressiveness in female patients with BPD, but no associations were found with testosterone levels. In line with previous reports, the present results suggest endocrine alterations in BPD which may be associated with interpersonal impairments, such as increased anger-related aggressive behavior and could have implications for the development of new (psychopharmaco-) therapeutic interventions that may help to restore the alterations in the HPA and HPG systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of physical activity on psychological distress, cortisol and obesity: results of the Farming Fit intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Susan; Chandrasekara, Ananda; Kremer, Peter; Torres, Susan; McCoombe, Scott; Lewandowski, Paul

    2013-10-28

    Rural and regional Australians have a higher likelihood of mental illness throughout their lifetime than people living in major cities, although the underlying reasons are not yet well defined. Additionally, rural populations experience more lifestyle associated co-morbidities including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 revealed a positive correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community. Chronic stress is known to overstimulate the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and cortisol secretion which are associated with abdominal adiposity. Increasing physical activity may normalise cortisol secretion and thereby positively impact both physical and mental health. This paper assesses the effects of increasing physical activity on obesity, health behaviors and mental health in Victorian farming men and women. Farming Fit was a six month quasi-experimental (convenience sample) longitudinal design control-intervention study. Overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) farm men (n = 43) and women (n = 29) were recruited with demographic, health behaviors, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemistry data collected at baseline and at a six months. Salivary cortisol and depression anxiety stress scale results were collected at baseline, three and six months. The intervention group (n = 37) received a personalized exercise program and regular phone coaching to promote physical activity. The intervention group showed significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference. Results indicated that following the six month exercise program, the intervention group were 2.64 ± 0.65 kg lighter (p physical activity altered measures of obesity in farm men and women but did not affect mental health measures or cortisol secretion levels. ACTRN12610000827033.

  1. Reduced cingulate gyrus volume associated with enhanced cortisol awakening response in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojia Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between stress-induced increased cortisol levels and atrophy of specific brain regions, however, this association has been less revealed in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and associations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and gray matter volumes in young healthy adults with self-reported childhood trauma exposures. METHODS: Twenty four healthy adults with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of cortisol awakening response (CAR. The 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted to compare the gray matter volume between two groups. Correlations of gray matter volume changes with severity of childhood trauma and CAR data were further analyzed. RESULTS: Adults with self-reported childhood trauma showed an enhanced CAR and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus. Moreover, a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol secretions after awaking and the right middle cingulate gyrus volume reduction in subjects with childhood trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels.

  2. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997. Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL than in healthy controls (13.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL than in controls (10.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL. Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  3. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  4. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  5. Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H

    2011-03-01

    Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.

  6. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  7. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Marie; Schaefer, Johanna M; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Déchelotte, Pierre; Verhulst, Frank C; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-03

    Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects. Here we studied if ghrelin-reactive Ig are associated with anxiety and depression and with the stress-induced cortisol response in a general population of adolescents. Furthermore, to test the possible infectious origin of ghrelin-reactive Ig, their levels were compared with serum IgG against common viruses. We measured ghrelin-reactive IgM, IgG and IgA in serum samples of 1199 adolescents from the Dutch TRAILS study and tested their associations with 1) anxiety and depression symptoms assessed with the Youth Self-Report, 2) stress-induced salivary cortisol levels and 3) IgG against human herpesvirus 1, 2, 4 and 6 and Influenza A and B viruses. Ghrelin-reactive IgM and IgG correlated positively with levels of antibodies against Influenza A virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated negatively with antibodies against Influenza B virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated positively with anxiety scores in girls and ghrelin-reactive IgG correlated with stress-induced cortisol secretion, but these associations were weak and not significant after correction for multiple testing. These data indicate that production of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies could be influenced by viral infections. Serum levels of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies probably do not play a role in regulating anxiety, depression and the stress-response in adolescents from the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hair cortisol in drug-naïve first-episode individuals with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis H. Andrade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare hair cortisol concentrations (HCC in drug-naïve first-episode psychosis (FEP patients and healthy controls and to investigate the correlations between HCC and psychopathology. Methods: Twenty-four drug-naïve FEP patients and 27 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-1 was used to confirm/rule out diagnoses, and the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS was used to assess symptom severity. Hair samples (2-3 cm long obtained from the posterior vertex region of the scalp were processed in 1-cm segments considering a hair growth rate of 1 cm per month. The 1-cm segments were classified according to their proximity to the scalp: segment A was the closest to the scalp and referred to the month prior to inclusion in the study. Segments B and C referred to the 2nd and 3rd months prior to the time of evaluation respectively. Hair steroid extraction was performed using a known protocol. Results: Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with gender and age as covariates revealed a group effect (F1.106 = 4.899, p = 0.029 on HCC. Between-segment differences correlated with total PANSS score and with PANSS General Psychopathology subscale and total score. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as assessed by long-term (3-month cortisol concentration, is abnormal in the early stages of psychosis. The magnitude of changes in HCC over time prior to the FEP correlates to psychopathology. HPA axis abnormalities might begin prior to full-blown clinical presentation requiring hospital admission.

  9. 并购后高管变更、合法性与并购绩效——基于制度理论的视角%Top Management Turnover, Legitimacy and Acquisition Performance in the Post-Acquisition Phase: An Institutional Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐琦

    2012-01-01

    并购后的高管变更对于企业的并购绩效具有重要的影响,但目前的研究结论没有取得一致性.本文基于制度理论的视角引入合法性的概念,通过123份并购样本实证分析了并购后高管变更、合法性以及并购绩效之间的关系.研究结果显示:并购后高管变更与并购的外部合法性和内部合法性之间均存在显著的负相关;而外部合法性和内部合法性对于并购绩效具有显著的积极作用.本研究结论对于我国企业的并购后高管变更决策以及如何提升并购绩效具有理论指导意义.%Top management turnover in the post-acquisition phase has significant effect on corporate acquisition performance. However, findings of these studies are inconsistent. Most studies have been done from the perspective of enterprise resources theory, organizational learning theory, corporate culture theory and transaction cost theory to explore the relationship between post-acquisition TMT and firm performance. However, this area of research is rarely investigated from the institutional theory. The institutional theory emphasizes that each organization is embedded in its institutional environment in which it is subject to various institutional factors. Especially in China and other emerging markets, these institutional factors may have direct or indirect effect on corporate strategic behavior and performance. In addition, corporate different strategic choices and behaviors will result in different degrees of legitimacy of these institutional factors. The current study argues that the social recognition obtained from all the stakeholders represent the legitimacy of the corporate behavior or the firm itself. Different groups of stakeholders judge the legitimacy of a firm based different perspectives and interests. Different strategic actions may result in different levels of legitimacy, which will further stimulate or constrain corporate strategic behavior and thus affect the

  10. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chou Hou,1 Yen-Ju Lin,2 Kuo-Cheng Lu,1 Han-Sun Chiang,3 Chia-Chi Chang,4 Li-King Yang1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, 2Department of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, 4School of Gerontology Health Management, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear.Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49 or control (n=50 group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes.Results: The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (−2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P<0.05, as well as the frequency of the adverse reaction score (−3.35±5.76 vs −0.81±4.59, P<0.05, the severity of adverse reactions score (−1.93±2.73 vs 0.33±2.71, P<0.05, and hemodialysis stressor scale (HSS score (−6.00±4.68 vs −0.877±7.08, P<0.05. The difference in salivary cortisol correlated positively with HD stress score scales (r=0.231, P<0.05, systolic blood pressure (r=0.264, P<0.05, and respiratory rates (r=0.369, P<0.05 and negatively with finger temperature (r=−0.235, P<0.05 in the total study population. The 5-year cardiovascular survival in the experimental group was higher in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by <0.6 pg/mL than that in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by >0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs

  11. The effect of breeding facility and sexual stimulation on plasma cortisol in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, D G; Barnett, J L; Hemsworth, P H; Jongman, E

    1995-12-01

    Nine boars were used to evaluate effects of breeding facility design and sexual activity on plasma cortisol concentrations . In one breeding facility (conventional), boars were housed individually in small pens, and female pigs were mated in those boar pens. In another breeding facility (Detection-Mating Area [DMA] system), boars were housed individually in stalls, and female pigs were mated in a specific mating pen adjacent to the front of stalls where boars were housed. After 51 d of housing treatment, a catheter was surgically implanted in the cephalic vein for collection of blood samples. Daytime profiles (hourly collections from 0900 to 1700) of cortisol did not differ among boars in the two treatment groups. Cortisol was greater (P cortisol in boars, but breeding facility did not affect the ACTH-induced changes in cortisol concentrations. There was a treatment x time interaction (P cortisol after sexual stimulation, and the magnitude and duration of increase in cortisol were greater (P Cortisol was greater (P cortisol concentration in boars seems to be a normal biological response to sexual activity. However, magnitude and duration of the increase in cortisol may be influenced by breeding facility design and mating procedure. There is no evidence, based on physiological data, that housing boars in stalls in the DMA system has any adverse effects on their welfare.

  12. Cortisol responses to mental stress, exercise, and meals following caffeine intake in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Farag, Noha H; Vincent, Andrea S; Thomas, Terrie L; Wilson, Michael F

    2006-03-01

    Caffeine elevates cortisol secretion, and caffeine is often consumed in conjunction with exercise or mental stress. The interactions of caffeine and stress on cortisol secretion have not been explored adequately in women. We measured cortisol levels at eight times on days when healthy men and women consumed caffeine (250 mg x 3) and underwent either mental stress or dynamic exercise protocols, followed by a midday meal, in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Men and women had similar cortisol levels at the predrug baselines, but they responded differently to mental stress and exercise. The cortisol response to mental stress was smaller in women than in men (p=.003). Caffeine acted in concert with mental stress to further increase cortisol levels (p=.011), the effect was similar in men and women. Exercise alone did not increase cortisol, but caffeine taken before exercise elevated cortisol in both men and women (psrelease in response to stress and caffeine therefore appears to be a function of the type of stressor and the sex of the subject. However, repeated caffeine doses increased cortisol levels across the test day without regard to the sex of the subject or type of stressor employed (p<.00001). Caffeine may elevate cortisol by stimulating the central nervous system in men but may interact with peripheral metabolic mechanisms in women.

  13. Direct immune-detection of cortisol by chemiresistor graphene oxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Lee, Kyungmin; Jung, Hunsang; Kang, Hee Kyung; Jo, Jihoon; Park, In-Kyu; Lee, Hyun Ho

    2017-12-15

    In this study, a biosensor to detect a stress biomarker of cortisol using cortisol monoclonal antibody (c-Mab) covalently immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) channel as electrical sensing element was demonstrated. Highly specific immune-recognition between the c-Mab and the cortisol was identified and characterized on a basis of resistance change at the rGO channel based chemiresistor sensor achieving the limit of detection of 10pg/mL (27.6 pM). In addition, cortisol concentrations of real human salivary sample and buffer solution of rat adrenal gland acute slices, which could secret the cortisol induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were directly measured by the chemiresistor corresponding to the specific sensing of the cortisol. The rGO chemiresistor could selectively measure the cortisol levels in spite of diverse neuroendocrine's existence. The potential perspective of this study can be a protocol of new cortisol sensor development, which will be applicable to point-of-care testing (POCT) targeted for salivary cortisol, in vitro psychobiological study on cortisol induction, and implantable sensor chip in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, K; Peiman, K S; Larsen, M H; Aarestrup, K; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher with cortisol-vegetable shortening than with cortisol-cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol-vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol-cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are both viable techniques for cortisol manipulation in fishes in temperate climates, providing researchers with different options depending on study objectives. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  16. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: novel perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2013-09-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol's effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the etiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol's effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Urinary cortisol and depression in early pregnancy: role of adiposity and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, John W; Gallaher, Marcia J; Powers, Robert W

    2015-02-13

    Depression before and during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight and preterm birth. Abnormal maternal cortisol has been hypothesized as one mediator between depression and adverse birth outcomes. The relationship between cortisol and depression in pregnancy is exhibited most strongly in the African American population, and most studies have focused either on circulating or placental levels of cortisol. The utility of urinary cortisol in early pregnancy related to depression and adiposity has not been investigated. Twenty-five pregnant African American women identified by the Edinburgh Depression Scale as having depression were investigated and matched by body mass index (BMI), age, race, and infant birth weight centile to non-depressed subjects. Maternal urine and plasma cortisol in early pregnancy were quantified and investigated in relation to depression and adiposity. Morning urine cortisol levels tracked positively with plasma cortisol (r(2) = 0.25, p cortisol between depressed and non-depressed pregnant women. Plasma cortisol was significantly negatively associated with several measures of maternal adiposity including percent body fat (r(2) = -0.10, p obese women were found to have significantly higher cortisol levels compared to women with depression, obesity or both (p obese pregnant women evidence atypical cortisol levels compared to non-depressed non-obese pregnant women. Plasma cortisol in early pregnancy is negatively associated with measures of maternal adiposity. Atypical low circulating maternal cortisol among depressed (lean and obese) and non-depressed obese pregnant African American women may indicate hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction in early pregnancy.

  18. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hair cortisol and progesterone detection in dairy cattle: interrelation with physiological status and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2018-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitric Oxide, Inflammation, Lipid Profile, and Cortisol in Normal- and Overweight Women With Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Alma; Molina, Francisco; Gassó, Manuela; Camacho, Maria Victoria; Peinado, Maria Ángeles; del Moral, Maria Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Research has identified many factors associated with fibromyalgia (FM), but findings have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate changes in levels of nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory markers, lipid profile, and cortisol in normal- and overweight patients with FM and controls. Since most patients with FM are overweight, we explored possible changes in these markers according to body mass index (BMI). This preliminary study was performed on serum samples of women with FM and age-matched controls, grouped according to their BMI: 12 normal-weight patients and 12 controls and 13 overweight patients and 8 controls. Ozone-based chemiluminescence assay was used to measure NO. Inflammatory mediators and cortisol were determined by immunoassay. Lipid profile was measured by a spectrophotometric procedure. Functional capacity was assessed by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). Normal-weight patients showed higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein B compared to controls (both p < .05). CRP, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides were higher in overweight patients versus overweight controls (all p < .05) and in overweight versus normal-weight patients (CRP p < .01; apolipoprotein B, triglycerides p < .05). The other markers were unaffected. Apolipoprotein B (r = .762; p < .05) and NO (r = -.921; p < .05) levels correlated with FIQ score in normal-weight patients. CRP level correlated with FIQ (r = .912; p < .05) in overweight patients. CRP and apolipoprotein B, biomarkers linked to cardiovascular events, may be associated with FM-related dysfunction in normal- and overweight women with FM. Their increased levels in these patients may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A randomized placebo-controlled study on the effects of pioglitazone on cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Hagen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    by allotetrahydrocortisol (alloTHF)/THF and androsterone/etiocholanolone (A/E) ratios. Delta values denoted changes during the treatment period (16 weeks--basal). Pyridostigmine growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests were performed, and testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), DHEA, DHEAS, adiponectin, and insulin...... levels. Delta A/E ratio inversely correlated with Delta IGF-I and Delta peak GH during GH stimulation tests. No significant changes were measured in T, DHT, DHEA, DHEAS, 24 h mean cortisol, or urinary excretion of steroid metabolites. CONCLUSION(S): Pioglitazone decreased relative 5alpha...

  2. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  3. Effects of head down tilt upon cortisol and sex hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Felice; Pecorelli, Lia; Uva, Bianca Maria; Masini, Maria Angela; More, Massimo; Strollo, Giovanna; Riondino, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    Real and modelled μG conditions seem to induce reversible testicular failure. Suitable onground simulation methods are anyway needed in order to better aim further studies in humans in space. A 5- hour head down tilt (5h-HDT) was therefore performed in 22 male and female healthy volunteers looking at adrenal and gonadal hormones as compared to 12 age- and gender- matched controls. Cortisol and A decreased significantly in both genders, being cortisol decrease less pronounced in women, while leptin, LH, testosterone, estradiol and estrone failed to do so. The authors conclude that a 5h-HDT is only acceptable for adrenal adaptation studies whole longer duration HDT protocols are needed for gonadal investigations.

  4. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and negative experiences in work and private life, were collected together with salivary cortisol over 3 days (n = 265). Higher bedtime ratings of stress and problems during the day were associated with morning ratings of poor sleep. Poorer morning ratings of sleep were associated with higher ratings of stress...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  5. Adult adiposity linked to relationship hostility for low cortisol reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Slep, Amy; Lorber, Michael; Thorson, Katherine; Heyman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Past research on the relation between hostility in intimate relationships and adiposity has yielded mixed findings. The present study investigated whether the association between relationship hostility and adiposity is moderated by people’s biological reactions to couple conflict. Cohabiting adult couples (N = 117 couples) engaged in two conflict interactions, before and after which salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results revealed an association between relationship hostility and adip...

  6. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    TRICKETT, PENELOPE K.; NOLL, JENNIE G.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; SHENK, CHAD E.; PUTNAM, FRANK W.

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether chil...

  7. Cortisol levels, burnout and engagement in university employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Valdés, Juan A.; Vega-Michel, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    People’s psychological relationship with work can be conceptualized as a continuum ranging from negative experiences of professional burnout to positive experiences, known as engagement. A retrospective ex post facto study was carried out for the purpose of exploring and measuring the degree of relation of professional burnout and job engagement to cortisol levels and the filing of claims for medical costs among university employees. One hundred ninety-nine subjects participated. A weak posit...

  8. Altered cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome: insulin enhances 5alpha-reduction but not the elevated adrenal steroid production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilchorozidou, Tasoula; Honour, John W; Conway, Gerard S

    2003-12-01

    Androgen excess in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be ovarian and/or adrenal in origin, and one proposed contributing mechanism is altered cortisol metabolism. Increased peripheral metabolism of cortisol may occur by enhanced inactivation of cortisol by 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) or impaired reactivation of cortisol from cortisone by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) resulting in decreased negative feedback suppression of ACTH secretion maintaining normal plasma cortisol concentrations at the expense of androgen excess. We have tested whether any enzyme dysregulation was related to circulating insulin or androgen concentrations in women with PCOS and have sought to clarify their relationship with obesity. First, to avoid obesity-related effects on cortisol metabolism, 18 lean women with PCOS were compared with 19 lean controls who were closely matched for body mass index (BMI). Second, the impact of obesity was studied in a cross-section of 42 PCOS women of a broad range of BMI. We measured 24-h urinary excretion of steroid metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and fasting metabolic and hormone profiles. Urinary excretion of androgens [androsterone (P = 0.003), etiocholanolone (P = 0.02), and C19 steroid sulfates (P = 0.009)], cortisone metabolites [tetrahydrocortisone (THE) (P = 0.02), alpha-cortolone (P lean PCOS subjects when compared with controls. A significantly higher 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF)/5beta-THF ratio (P = 0.04) and a significantly lower alpha-THF + THF + alpha-cortol/THE + cortolones ratio (P = 0.01) were found in lean PCOS women compared with lean controls, indicating both enhanced 5alpha-R and reduced 11beta-HSD1 activities. A decreased THE/cortolones ratio (P = 0.03) was also found in lean PCOS women compared with lean controls, indicating increased 20 alpha/beta-HSD activity. In the group of 42 PCOS subjects, measures of 5alpha/5beta reduction were positively correlated with the

  9. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  10. Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga

    2013-06-01

    Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation.

  11. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    Full Text Available We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship, relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance, or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries. Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms than individual attributes.

  12. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A

    2018-03-02

    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  13. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes.

  14. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  15. Effects of Cortisol on Short and Long Term Diet and Morphology