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Sample records for possibly reflecting differences

  1. Arts meet antrhopology: possible reflections and dialogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Freitag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in social sciences about arts and anthropology is not a new topic, although its influence on the contemporary researches is still a not so recurring fact. Exemplifying the importance of continuing with this problematic matter, —always thinking that both disciplines could methodologically and theoretically support and enrich each other— this article aims at presenting some possible relationships between arts and anthropology, focusing, on one hand, on the contributions accomplished by the contemporary visual anthropology through the work done by the Indigenous Photo Archive in Mexico, and on the other hand, to think, from the artistic filed, about Teresa Pereda’ work, whose visual poeticpresents appropriations that are usual features in the anthropological task: the look on others and their culture. According to the results found in this text, it is reinforced the premise that anthropology can learn from arts ways of thinking the visual thing, overall, when building the anthropological text, and that, anthropology in turn contributes in reconsidering the way to deal with the cultural differences, so recurrent in the poetic of some contemporaneous artists.

  2. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...

  3. The possibility of a science of consciousness Critical reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The opposite goes for Merleau-Ponty whose first-person ontology does not account for third-person epistemology. The question is ultimately how far a science of consciousness is really possible. This paper enquires about the possibility of an approach that allows a scientific account of consciousness, specifically qualia, ...

  4. Giorgio Agamben and Dante Alighieri - possible theoretical reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Gaspari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the Dante Alighieri’s poetry is more important than studying only the medieval era and its literary representations; it is also to glimpse survival perspective, which is brought to us by ways that are not always very calm, being guided through rhizomes that organize and disorganize themselves around the author. Thus, thinking of this rhizome, on evolution of the book and of the world, the aim of this text is to view Dante as an idea originator. Giorgio Agamben is chosen as an interlocutor of the Florentine work, because he is a philosopher who shows his reflection in his most texts regarding medieval poetry work and it gives him the true light of contemporaneity that it seems to deserve. From this choice, concepts such as parody, comedy and tragedy, contemporaneity, limbo, prophecy and creation, power and glory, criticism, canon, sacred, and profane will be analyzed. Thinking regarding Dante from Giorgio Agamben’s reflections seems to be important, not only due to his thought span on actuality, but also to be someone that reflects Dante and for him to compose Giorgio many texts, which complement and renew themselves over time, according to the philosopher.

  5. Reflections on the challenges and possibilities of journal publication in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine; Siry, Christina; Mueller, Michael

    2015-12-01

    In this editorial we reflect on the intersections between the review and publishing policies of Cultural Studies of Science Education (CSSE) and the challenges and possibilities in global science education publishing. In particular we discuss the tensions associated with open or closed review policies, the hegemony of English as a language of publication, and reflect on some of the common challenges experienced by editors and authors from different contexts. We draw on the paper set in this issue consisting of five papers focused on publishing in various contexts, and elaborate several central questions for the field of science education and the dissemination of knowledges.

  6. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  7. Elements of reflection on pathologies possibly induced by caesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content of few known publications on the possible pathological effects of caesium 137: a Belarus study on the consequences of Chernobyl, results of few autopsies performed on babies and adults, a study performed on rats, and a study performed on a set of 94 children in a sanatorium

  8. Possibilities and Limits of Self-Reflection in the Teaching Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the possibilities of self-reflection for the teaching profession by relating the problem the philosophy of Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and Edmund Husserl. Explains that in philosophy reflection has always played a major role, while it has not always had a major role in education. Concludes that it is possible to learn from mistakes…

  9. Practical differences among probabilities, possibilities, and credibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Moulin, Caroline

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents some important differences that exist between theories, which allow the uncertainty management in data fusion. The main comparative results illustrated in this paper are the followings: Incompatibility between decisions got from probabilities and credibilities is highlighted. In the dynamic frame, as remarked in [19] or [17], belief and plausibility of Dempster-Shafer model do not frame the Bayesian probability. This framing can however be obtained by the Modified Dempster-Shafer approach. It also can be obtained in the Bayesian framework either by simulation techniques, or with a studentization. The uncommitted in the Dempster-Shafer way, e.g. the mass accorded to the ignorance, gives a mechanism similar to the reliability in the Bayesian model. Uncommitted mass in Dempster-Shafer theory or reliability in Bayes theory act like a filter that weakens extracted information, and improves robustness to outliners. So, it is logical to observe on examples like the one presented particularly by D.M. Buede, a faster convergence of a Bayesian method that doesn't take into account the reliability, in front of Dempster-Shafer method which uses uncommitted mass. But, on Bayesian masses, if reliability is taken into account, at the same level that the uncommited, e.g. F=1-m, we observe an equivalent rate for convergence. When Dempster-Shafer and Bayes operator are informed by uncertainty, faster or lower convergence can be exhibited on non Bayesian masses. This is due to positive or negative synergy between information delivered by sensors. This effect is a direct consequence of non additivity when considering non Bayesian masses. Unknowledge of the prior in bayesian techniques can be quickly compensated by information accumulated as time goes on by a set of sensors. All these results are presented on simple examples, and developed when necessary.

  10. Reflections on Supervision and Culture: What Difference Does Difference Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    For this commentary, the author went back and read most of her own writings on graduate education. Having only just retired but still working with supervisees and doing research, she reflects on supervision and culture. She has four questions for authors and readers: (1) What is supervision?; (2) What are the implications of "sameness" and…

  11. Angular dependance of spectral reflection for different materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Pascal M.

    2017-10-01

    Parameters like the sun angle as well as the measurement angle mostly are not taken into account when simulating because their influence on the reflectivity is weak. Therefore the impact of a changing measurement and illumination angle on the reflectivity is investigated. Furthermore the impact of humidity and chlorophyll in the scenery is studied by analyzing reflectance spectra of different vegetative background areas. It is shown that the measurement as well as the illumination angle has an important influence on the absolute reflection values which raises the importance of measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

  12. Investigation of multiple Bragg reflections at a constant neutron wavelength and their possible separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, P; Vrána, M; Šaroun, J; Em, V; Seong, B S

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Bragg reflections (MBR) realized in one bent-perfect crystal (BPC) slab by sets of different lattice planes behave differently in comparison to the case of perfect nondeformed or mosaic crystal. Individual sets of lattice planes are mutually in dispersive diffraction geometry and the kinematical approach can be applied on this MBR process. It has been found that contrary to the perfect nondeformed or mosaic crystal, individual reflections participating in the MBR process can be spatially separated.

  13. Reflections on the different sides of idleness in contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Zaczuk Bassinello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, idleness experienced a modernization and democratization process especially with the crisis of a society focused on work – the post-Industrial Revolution - and the emergence of new ideas that put the free time, the leisure and recreation in the role of structural elements of the new social context and like tools for the new ways of life. In this work, we we seek to focus on the significant aspects of reality and function of leisure in our time, clarifying their relationship with the processes of personal, social and economic innovation by establishing a balance of our acts in thinking the leisure and work and leisure and life from different angles of approach. In order to analyze this phenomenon, we were based on scientific sources which are representative in the context, and then we elaborated a general overview of the subject from the contributions of the bakhtinian perspectives. We observed that the increase in leisure options in the last decades of the twentieth century, along with the growth of the studies of the idleness phenomenon and its possibilities, allowed an evolution of its concepts, from activities or practices associated to the consumption and to digital entertainment, to its understanding as an experience whose key of the discussion is the subject living these experiences. We believe that this reflection about idleness may open possibilities of a better comprehension of its insertion in the social and human sciences field and, especially, in its contribution to a new attitude of the relational production, centered on the subject, which stimulates a society that creates and innovates goods and services and who deepens the studies of leisure from the dynamic experiential horizon to the right to the otherness and to its time – the own one and the others’ – such as "the right to unfunctionality", from listening to the other word.

  14. REFLECTIONS ON IMAGE AND PHOTOGRAPHY: possibilities in research and teaching of Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mendonça Lisboa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting this reflexion from the theoretical contributions such as Guy Debord and Susan Sontag to have a critical understanding of our reality, mediated by images, we intend, throughout this article, to reflect to the reader, some ability to think and work at school with images in educational processes and research, especially Physical Education. Is it possible their use? What can be the interests? How of photography can be enhanced and theoretical-methodologically thought over the educational and scientific practices that have commitment with social changes? These are the main considerations that we give as a challenge to be assumed by researchers/teachers.

  15. Detection limit calculations for different total reflection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, theoretical calculations of detection limits for different total-reflection techniques are presented.. Calculations include grazing incidence (TXRF) and gracing exit (GEXRF) conditions. These calculations are compared with detection limits obtained for conventional x-ray fluorescence (XRF). In order to compute detection limits the Shiraiwa and Fujino's model to calculate x-ray fluorescence intensities was used. This model made certain assumptions and approximations to achieve the calculations, specially in the case of the geometrical conditions of the sample, and the incident and takeoff beams. Nevertheless the calculated data of detection limits for conventional XRF and total-reflection XRF show a good agreement with previous results. The model proposed here allows to analyze the different sources of background and the influence of the excitation geometry, which contribute to the understanding of the physical processes involved in the XRF analysis by total reflection. Finally, a comparison between detection limits in total-reflection analysis at grazing incidence and at grazing exit is carried out. Here a good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the reversibility principle is found, showing that detection limits are similar for both techniques. (author)

  16. Crystals with an Open Wave-Vector Surface: Peculiarities of Reflection and Possibilities of Designing Flat Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eritsyan, O. S.; Lalayan, A. A.; Arakelyan, O. M.; Papoyan, A. A.; Kostanyan, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    The frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of MgF 2 crystal in the frequency range of 200-800 cm -1 at different orientations of the optical axis has been investigated. The experimental data are compared with the calculation results. This comparison confirms that the wave vectors for the extraordinary wave have an open surface. This makes it possible to focus a divergent beam refracted at a flat boundary ori- ented perpendicularly to the optical crystal axis. The focusing effect of a plane-parallel MgF 2 crystal plate is calculated.

  17. How Do Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Processes Differ in Relation to Different Contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasila, Raimo; Lauriala, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice represents a central theme in teacher education. The focus of this study is to look at pre-service teachers' reflection processes and their breadth and depth in four different contexts. Our research data consist of 53 pre-service teachers' mathematics portfolios, from which three were selected for closer scrutiny. The chosen…

  18. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  19. Robust reflective ghost imaging against different partially polarized thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Zong-Guo; Xiong, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the influence of degree of polarization (DOP) of thermal light on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the reflective ghost imaging (RGI), which is a novel and indirect imaging modality. An expression for the CNR of RGI with partially polarized thermal light is carefully derived, which suggests a weak dependence of CNR on the DOP, especially when the ratio of the object size to the speckle size of thermal light has a large value. Different from conventional imaging approaches, our work reveals that RGI is much more robust against the DOP of the light source, which thereby has advantages in practical applications, such as remote sensing.

  20. Micro reflectance difference techniques: Optical probes for surface exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Del Pozo-Zamudio, O.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Ulloa-Castillo, N.A.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Micro reflectance difference spectroscopy ({mu}-RDS) is a promising tool for the in-situ and ex-situ characterization of semiconductors surfaces and interfaces. We discuss and compare two different approaches used to measure {mu}-RD spectra. One is based on a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, while the other uses a laser and a XY translation stage. To show the performance of these systems, we have measured surface optical anisotropies of GaSb(001) sample on which anisotropic strains have been generated by preferential mechanical polishing along [110] and [1 anti 10] directions. The spectrometers are complementary and the selection of one of them depends on the sample to be investigated and on experimental conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  3. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference application for morphology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Zhao, Kun; Lü, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-20

    Analogous with scanning electron microscopy, we use an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) approach for morphology detection. By scanning the active carbon clusters in a one-dimensional way and the reservoir rocks in a two-dimensional way, the morphology of the samples' surface can be revealed in OIRD signal images. High OIRD signals of active carbon samples refer to the centralized distribution areas of carbon, and the fluctuations are caused by the uneven distribution of carbon pellets. OIRD intensity is proportional to the thickness of materials. In terms of rocks, the trough areas with smaller values refer to the low-lying fields. The areas with relatively large OIRD intensities correspond to the protuberance areas of rocks. Consequently, OIRD is a sensitive yet rapid measure of surface detection in material and petrogeology science.

  4. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  5. Possible climate change over Eurasia under different emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. P.; Monier, E.; Gao, X.

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to evaluate possible climate change over EURASIA, we analyze results of six AMIP type simulations with CAM version 3 (CAM3) at 2x2.5 degree resolution. CAM3 is driven by time series of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice obtained by running the MIT IGSM2.3, which consists of a 3D ocean GCM coupled to a zonally-averaged atmospheric climate-chemistry model. In addition to changes in SSTs, CAM3 is forced by changes in greenhouse gases and ozone concentrations, sulfate aerosol forcing and black carbon loading calculated by the IGSM2.3. An essential feature of the IGSM is the possibility to vary its climate sensitivity (using a cloud adjustment technique) and the strength of the aerosol forcing. For consistency, new modules were developed in CAM3 to modify its climate sensitivity and aerosol forcing to match those used in the simulations with the IGSM2.3. The simulations presented in this paper were carried out for two emission scenarios, a "Business as usual" scenario and a 660 ppm of CO2-EQ stabilization, which are similar to the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, respectively. Values of climate sensitivity used in the simulations within the IGSM-CAM framework are median and the bounds of the 90% probability interval of the probability distribution obtained by comparing the 20th century climate simulated by different versions of the IGSM with observations. The associated strength of the aerosol forcing was chosen to ensure a good agreement with the observed climate change over the 20th century. Because the concentration of sulfate aerosol significantly decreases over the 21st century in both emissions scenarios, climate changes obtained in these simulations provide a good approximation for the median, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of the probability distribution of 21st century climate change.

  6. On a possible use of multiple Bragg reflections for high-resolution monochromatization of neutrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Wagner, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 350, - (2004), e667-e670 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891 Keywords : neutron diffraction * multiple reflections * higg-resolution monochromator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2004

  7. Verification of possible asymmetry of polarization of thermal neutrons reflected by a mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, A.I.; Runov, V.V.; Gukasov, A.G.; Shchebetov, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments with a polarizing neutron guide do not confirm the neutron polarization asymmetry observed previously by Berndorfer for neutrons traversing a polarizing neutron guide. In connection with the spin-orbit effects a verification is carried out on single reflection of neutrons by magnetic or nonmagnetic mirrors. With an accuracy of 10 -4 -10 -3 no polarization asymmetry is observed

  8. Investigation of multiple Bragg reflections at a constant neutron wavelength and their possible separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav; Šaroun, Jan; Em, V.; Seong, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 340, 012015 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 1742-6588. [5th European Conference on Neutron Scattering. Praha, 17.07.2011-21.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0654 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 226507 - NMI3 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron diffraction * bragg reflection * neutron beam Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  9. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  10. Reflections on The Possibility of Using Statistical Analysis Science and Innovation in The Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan (Susu Aurelia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation and comparability of statistics indicators of the   science and innovation  on international background reflect country competitiveness and it position regarding field of science, innovation and distribution of new technologies. Better comprehensions of the factors that contribute at the success in these fields are helped by using proper indicators like instruments of identification of the best practice. But the system of indicators is developed only for the ”science”. The ”innovation” in Moldova is not covered by statistical work and can only be assessed indirectly.

  11. A Language Teacher's Reflection on Maladaptive Immunity, Possible Selves and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    The concept of language teacher immunity as productive and maladaptive system has emerged in very recent years, although motivation has been incrementally studied in second language field. It is important to establish a relationship between language teacher immunity, possible selves and motivation. This study aimed to focus on a teacher's…

  12. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  13. Markers of Psychological Differences and Social and Health Inequalities: Possible Genetic and Phenotypic Overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Marioni, Riccardo; Deary, Ian J

    2017-02-01

    Associations between markers of ostensible psychological characteristics and social and health inequalities are pervasive but difficult to explain. In some cases, there may be causal influence flowing from social and health inequalities to psychological differences, whereas sometimes it may be the other way around. Here, we focus on the possibility that some markers that we often consider as indexing different domains of individual differences may in fact reflect at least partially overlapping genetic and/or phenotypic bases. For example, individual differences in cognitive abilities and educational attainment appear to reflect largely overlapping genetic influences, whereas cognitive abilities and health literacy may be almost identical phenomena at the phenotypic, never mind genetic, level. We make the case for employing molecular genetic data and quantitative genetic techniques to better understand the associations of psychological individual differences with social and health inequalities. We illustrate these arguments by using published findings from the Lothian Birth Cohort and the Generation Scotland studies. We also present novel findings pertaining to longitudinal stability and change in older age personality traits and some correlates of the change, molecular genetic data-based heritability estimates of Neuroticism and Extraversion, and the genetic correlations of these personality traits with markers of social and health inequalities. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Personality published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework: Reflections, possible clarifications and how to move forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Hussey, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework has been offered as a conceptual basis for facilitating greater communication and cooperation between the functional/behavioural and cognitive traditions within psychology, thus leading to benefits for both scientific communities. The current article is written from the perspective of two functional researchers, who are also proponents of the functional-cognitive framework, and attended the "Building Bridges between the Functional and Cognitive Traditions" meeting at Ghent University in the summer of 2014. The article commences with a brief summary of the functional approach to theory, followed by our reflections upon the functional-cognitive framework in light of that meeting. In doing so, we offer three ways in which the framework could be clarified: (a) effective communication between the two traditions is likely to be found at the level of behavioural observations rather than effects or theory, (b) not all behavioural observations will be deemed to be of mutual interest to both traditions, and (c) observations of mutual interest will be those that serve to elaborate and extend existing theorising in the functional and/or cognitive traditions. The article concludes with a summary of what we perceive to be the strengths and weaknesses of the framework, and a suggestion that there is a need to determine if the framework is meta-theoretical or is in fact a third theoretical approach to doing psychological science. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Soil emanometry possibilities in assessment of different influences on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojzes, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive gas radon having origin in mineral composition of rocks is a dangerous radio-toxic element. This fact imposes a need of its detection and quantification with the aid of radon risk assessment in either geological basement or living rooms. Except for this it is possible to use the radon detection, thanks to its relatively simple measurement, for purposes of geological near-surface structure characterization because this object has also a direct influence on human environment. The goal of contribution is to present an attempt of utilization of field emanation survey (in complex with other geophysical survey methods) as means to closer and more detailed definition of that part of geological environment which is affected by both human activity of undermining and natural tectonic faults. In situ field measurements were carried out in the Homa Nitra Region whose environment is heavily burdened with such factors. (authors)

  16. Commercial and ERDA waste packaging criteria: possible similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, B.

    1977-01-01

    The schedule calls for hot operation of two waste repositories by the end of 1985, and these facilities will have to be licensed. This licensing requirement sets the commercial program apart from the ERDA defense waste program. Packaging criteria are discussed for commercial and ERDA wastes. The different NRC, DOT, and EPA criteria are considered

  17. Telling Different Tales: Possible Childhoods in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Deepa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the insights/questions that emerged while putting together a set of stories for children published in a series named "Different Tales." These stories, set in Dalit and other minority communities, problematize the normative grids through which we view "childhood" as they depict the complex ways in which…

  18. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marcelle

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The difference in methane production in high and low RFI ... feed, protein turnover and overall tissue metabolism (mitochondrial .... 2007) and is influenced significantly by genetics and diets (Bottje et al., ... From Figure 1 it can be seen that protein turnover, tissue metabolism and stress explain 37% of the.

  19. Reflections on the differences between religion and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Culture may be thought of as a causal agent that affects the evolutionary process by uniquely human means. Religion, on the other hand, is considered a process of revelation and contains the concept of the "faithful" who receive the message of revelation. Culture permits the "self-conscious evaluation of human possibilities" and therefore presents a device for increasing human control over species change. There are dangers, however, in accepting cultural relativism without any constraint, such as respect for human life and dignity. In this article, the author attempts to clarify the boundaries between religion and culture and acknowledges that further research is needed on the religion/culture dichotomy.

  20. Effects of irradiation conditions and environment on the reflectivity of different steel mirrors for ITER diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Teresa; Martin, Piedad; Fernandez, Pilar; Hodgson, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work possible degradation of the reflectivity for mirrors made from various steels subjected to ionizing radiation, at moderate temperature and in different environments (vacuum, air, or nitrogen) up to a total dose of 9 MGy, has been examined. Mirrors were prepared from conventional austenitic stainless steel (316L) and also reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels (Eurofer, ODS-Eurofer, F82H), and the reflectivity studied from ultraviolet to near infrared, before and after different treatments. Under all conditions the austenitic steel mirrors only degrade slightly (<10%), however for the reduced activation steels important reflectivity degradation for wavelengths below 1000 nm are observed for the different conditions. Surface morphology and microstructure has been also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The production of near surface nitrides is considered to be the possible cause of the optical degradation.

  1. Alterity In/Of Happiness: Reflecting on the radical possibilities of unruly bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chandler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how fat and disabled subjects may be taught to appear as happy through biopedagogies in order to manage shame and disgust evoked by their unruly, non-conforming bodies. We begin by articulating what we mean by “biopedagogies”. We then unpack how the requirement to be happy feeds directly into a neoliberal agenda, which demands we must take care of ourselves both economically and emotionally in order to be considered good citizens. We explore how, in the midst of the requirement to be happy while living in bodies not recognised as inhabitable, we create and find moments of alterity in/of happiness. Through analysing art by disabled and fat activists and artists, we examine how disabled and fat people find happiness in difference, rather than in spite of it while at the same time, hanging on to rage and dull pain within this alterity of happiness.

  2. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour.

  4. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...... described by Caufield and co-workers. One of the New Zealand isolates of group A (S. mutans strain N) appeared to produce inhibitory activity similar to that of the group I prototype strain UA140. Four other New Zealand isolates of group B (S. mutans strains M19, M34, B34 and D14) had mutacin II......-like activity. The group B mutacin producers differed from the group A mutacin producers in their additional activity against Staph. aureus 46. Seven S. mutans strains (M46, B46, B57, M12, M28, B28 and 13M) were distinguished from the group A and group B mutacin producers in that they inhibited E. faecium TE1...

  5. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sylwester

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour.

  6. Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cloninger, C Robert; Venneri, Annalena

    2009-06-30

    Personality dimensions such as novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PER) are said to be heritable, stable across time and dependent on genetic and neurobiological factors. Recently a better understanding of the relationship between personality traits and brain structures/systems has become possible due to advances in neuroimaging techniques. This Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study investigated if individual differences in these personality traits reflected structural variance in specific brain regions. A large sample of eighty five young adult participants completed the Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and had their brain imaged with MRI. A voxel-based correlation analysis was carried out between individuals' personality trait scores and grey matter volume values extracted from 3D brain scans. NS correlated positively with grey matter volume in frontal and posterior cingulate regions. HA showed a negative correlation with grey matter volume in orbito-frontal, occipital and parietal structures. RD was negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus and in the rectal frontal gyrus. PER showed a positive correlation with grey matter volume in the precuneus, paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus. These results indicate that individual differences in the main personality dimensions of NS, HA, RD and PER, may reflect structural variance in specific brain areas.

  7. Implementation of inquiry-based science education in different countries: some reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-03-01

    In this forum article, I reflect on issues related to the implementation of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in different countries. Regarding education within the European Union (EU), the Bologna system has in later years provided extended coordination and comparability at an organizational level. However, the possibility of the EU to influence the member countries regarding the actual teaching and learning in the classrooms is more limited. In later years, several EU-projects focusing on IBSE have been funded in order to make science education in Europe better, and more motivating for students. Highlighting what Heinz and her colleagues call the policy of `soft governance' of the EU regarding how to improve science education in Europe, I discuss the focus on IBSE in the seventh framework projects, and how it is possible to maintain more long-lasting results in schools through well-designed teacher professional development programs. Another aspect highlighted by Heinz and her colleagues is how global pressures on convergence in education interact with educational structures and traditions in the individual countries. The rise of science and science education as a global culture, encompassing contributions from all around the world, is a phenomenon of great potential and value to humankind. However, it is important to bear in mind that if science and science education is going to become a truly global culture, local variation and differences regarding foci and applications of science in different cultures must be acknowledged.

  8. Cultural differences in emotion regulation during self-reflection on negative personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Lau, Anna S

    2013-01-01

    Reflecting on negative personal experiences has implications for mood that may vary as a function of specific domains (e.g., achievement vs. interpersonal) and cultural orientation (e.g., interdependence vs. independence). This study investigated cultural differences in the social-cognitive and affective processes undertaken as Easterners and Westerners reflected on negative interpersonal and performance experiences. One hundred Asian Americans and 92 European-American college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: interpersonal rejection, achievement failure, or a control condition. Results revealed that Asian Americans experienced greater distress than European Americans after self-reflecting over a failed interpersonal experience, suggesting cultural sensitivity in the relational domain. Consistent with theoretical predictions, analysis of the social cognitive and affective processes that participants engaged in during self-reflection provided some evidence that self-enhancement may buffer distress for European Americans, while emotion suppression may be adaptive for Asian Americans.

  9. Gender differences in category-specificity do not reflect innate dispositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Gainotti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that certain categories of objects are processed more efficiently than others in specific tasks; a phenomenon known as category-specificity in perceptual and conceptual processing. In the last two decades there have also been several reports of gender differences in categor...... of this discrepancy is that previous reports of gender differences may have reflected differences in familiarity originating from socially-based gender roles....

  10. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  11. Individual Differences in EEG Spectral Power Reflect Genetic Variance in Gray and White Matter Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, D.J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schnack, H.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The human electroencephalogram (EEG) consists of oscillations that reflect the summation of postsynaptic potentials at the dendritic tree of cortical neurons. The strength of the oscillations (EEG power) is a highly genetic trait that has been related to individual differences in many phenotypes,

  12. Saw palmetto alters nuclear measurements reflecting DNA content in men with symptomatic BPH: evidence for a possible molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Robert W; Marks, Leonard S; Miller, M Craig; Bales, Wes D; Fan, John; Macairan, Maria Luz; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nuclear chromatin characteristics of epithelial cells, looking for an SPHB-mediated effect on nuclear DNA structure and organization. Saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) causes contraction of prostate epithelial cells and suppression of tissue dihydrotestosterone levels in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, but a fundamental mechanism remains unknown. A 6-month randomized trial, comparing prostatic tissue of men treated with SPHB (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20), was performed. At baseline, the two groups were similar in age (65 versus 64 years), symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score 18 versus 17), uroflow (maximal urinary flow rate 10 versus 11 mL/s), prostate volume (59 versus 58 cm(3)), prostate-specific antigen (4.2 versus 2.7 ng/mL), and percentage of epithelium (17% versus 16%). Prostatic tissue was obtained by sextant biopsy before and after treatment. Five-micron sections were Feulgen stained and quantitatively analyzed using the AutoCyte QUIC-DNA imaging system. Images were captured from 200 randomly selected epithelial cell nuclei, and 60 nuclear morphometric descriptors (NMDs) (eg, size, shape, DNA content, and textural features) were determined for each nucleus. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the differences in the variances of the NMDs between the treated and untreated prostate epithelial cells. At baseline, the SPHB and placebo groups had similar NMD values. After 6 months of placebo, no significant change from baseline was found in the NMDs. However, after 6 months of SPHB, 25 of the 60 NMDs were significantly different compared with baseline, and a multivariate model for predicting treatment effect using 4 of the 25 was created (P <0.001). The multivariate model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 94% and an accuracy of 85%. Six months of SPHB treatment appears to alter the DNA chromatin structure and organization in prostate epithelial cells. Thus, a possible molecular

  13. Ferritin gene organization: differences between plants and animals suggest possible kingdom-specific selective constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, D; Wei, J; Briat, J; Theil, E C

    1996-03-01

    Ferritin, a protein widespread in nature, concentrates iron approximately 10(11)-10(12)-fold above the solubility within a spherical shell of 24 subunits; it derives in plants and animals from a common ancestor (based on sequence) but displays a cytoplasmic location in animals compared to the plastid in contemporary plants. Ferritin gene regulation in plants and animals is altered by development, hormones, and excess iron; iron signals target DNA in plants but mRNA in animals. Evolution has thus conserved the two end points of ferritin gene expression, the physiological signals and the protein structure, while allowing some divergence of the genetic mechanisms. Comparison of ferritin gene organization in plants and animals, made possible by the cloning of a dicot (soybean) ferritin gene presented here and the recent cloning of two monocot (maize) ferritin genes, shows evolutionary divergence in ferritin gene organization between plants and animals but conservation among plants or among animals; divergence in the genetic mechanism for iron regulation is reflected by the absence in all three plant genes of the IRE, a highly conserved, noncoding sequence in vertebrate animal ferritin mRNA. In plant ferritin genes, the number of introns (n = 7) is higher than in animals (n = 3). Second, no intron positions are conserved when ferritin genes of plants and animals are compared, although all ferritin gene introns are in the coding region; within kingdoms, the intron positions in ferritin genes are conserved. Finally, secondary protein structure has no apparent relationship to intron/exon boundaries in plant ferritin genes, whereas in animal ferritin genes the correspondence is high. The structural differences in introns/exons among phylogenetically related ferritin coding sequences and the high conservation of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms suggest that kingdom-specific functional constraints may

  14. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection: sex differences and relationship with left ventricular diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-08-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic function. We investigated, in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship among arterial stiffness, wave reflection, and LV diastolic function. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study using applanation tonometry. The central pulse pressure/stroke volume index, total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification, and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. LV diastolic function was evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were greater in women compared with men, independent of body size and heart rate (all Pfunction in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, a higher central pulse pressure/stroke volume index predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 2.30) and men (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.39), independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic function in men and women. Women's higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF.

  16. Polarization contrast linear spectroscopies for cubic semiconductors under stress: macro- and micro-reflectance difference spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Castro-Garcia, R.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Chavira-Rodriguez, M. [Departamento de Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The technique to measure optical anisotropies (OA) in cubic semiconductors is termed either reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) or reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). In this paper we report on the application of RDS/RAS to a number of cubic semiconductors. We discuss RD spectra of GaAs, Si, CdTe, GaP, InP and GaSb (001) surfaces, induced by an uniaxial stress applied along [110] crystal directions. We show that all RD spectra can be explained in terms of a phenomenological model based on a perturbative Hamiltonian. We further report on measurements of spatial-resolved RDS measurements of GaAs employing a newly developed micro-RD spectrometer with a spatial resolution of 5 {mu}m. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations......Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged...

  18. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients with Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Beyer (Sebastian E.); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); F. Schöberl (Florian); L. von Baumgarten; S.E. Petersen (Steffen); C. Kubisch (Christian); H. Janssen (Hendrik); B. Ertl-Wagner (Birgit); M.F. Reiser (Maximilian F.); W.H. Sommer (Wieland H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. Methods-A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed

  19. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflective index and normalized difference vegetative index during plant senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Gabriela; Lagorio, M Gabriela; Paruelo, José M

    2016-07-20

    The relationship between the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and chlorophyll fluorescence along senescence was investigated in this work. Reflectance and radiance measurements were performed at canopy level in grass species presenting different photosynthetic metabolism: Avena sativa (C3) and Setaria italica (C4), at different stages of the natural senescence process. Sun induced-chlorophyll fluorescence at 760nm (SIF 760 ) and the apparent fluorescence yield (SIF 760 /a, with a=irradiance at time of measurement) were extracted from the radiance spectra of canopies using the Fraunhofer Line Discrimination-method. The photosynthetic parameters derived from Kautsky kinetics and pigment content were also calculated at leaf level. Whilst stand level NDVI patterns were related to changes in the structure of canopies and not in pigment content, stand level PRI patterns suggested changes both in terms of canopy and of pigment content in leaves. Both SIF 760 /a and Φ PSII decreased progressively along senescence in both species. A strong increment in NPQ was evident in A. sativa while in S. italica NPQ values were lower. Our most important finding was that two chlorophyll fluorescence signals, Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a, correlated with the canopy PRI values in the two grasses assessed, even when tissues at different ontogenic stages were present. Even though significant changes occurred in the Total Chlr/Car ratio along senescence in both studied species, significant correlations between PRI and chlorophyll fluorescence signals might indicate the usefulness of this reflectance index as a proxy of photosynthetic RUE, at least under the conditions of this study. The relationships between stand level PRI and the fluorescence estimators (Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a) were positive in both cases. Therefore, an increase in PRI values as in the fluorescence parameters would indicate higher RUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  20. Comparison of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A reflectance and normalized difference vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Roy, D. P.; Yan, L.; Li, Z.; Huang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The moderate spatial resolution satellite data from the polar-orbiting Landsat-8 (launched 2013) and Sentinel-2A (launched 2015) sensors provide 10 m to 30 m multi-spectral global coverage with a better than 5-day revisit. Although a national laboratory traceable cross-calibration comparison of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) was undertaken pre-launch, there are a number of other sensor differences, notably due to spectral, spatial and angular differences. To examine these in a comprehensive way, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A data for approximately 20° × 10° of southern Africa acquired in the summer (January to March) and winter (July to September) of 2016 were compared. Only Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A observations acquired within one-day apart were considered. The sensor data were registered and then each orbit projected into 30 m fixed global Web Enabled Landsat Data (GWELD) tiles defined in the MODIS sinusoidal equal area projection. Only corresponding sensor observations of each 30 m tile pixel that were flagged as cloud and snow-free, unsaturated, and that had no significant change in their one day separation, were compared. Both the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A data were atmospherically corrected using the Landsat Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) and were also corrected to nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance (NBAR). Top of atmosphere and surface reflectance for the spectrally corresponding visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared OLI and MSI bands, and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were compared and their differences quantified using regression analyses. The resulting statistical transformations may be used to improve the consistency between the Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2A MSI data. The importance and sensitivity of the results to correct filtering, atmospheric correction and adjustment to NBAR is demonstrated.

  1. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Diversity in action: exchange of perspectives and reflections on taxonomies of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana; Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William; Netter, Petra; Pessoa, Luiz; Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Rusalov, Vladimir; Peterson, Isaac T; Schmidt, Louis A

    2018-04-19

    Throughout the last 2500 years, the classification of individual differences in healthy people and their extreme expressions in mental disorders has remained one of the most difficult challenges in science that affects our ability to explore individuals' functioning, underlying psychobiological processes and pathways of development. To facilitate analyses of the principles required for studying individual differences, this theme issue brought together prominent scholars from diverse backgrounds of which many bring unique combinations of cross-disciplinary experiences and perspectives that help establish connections and promote exchange across disciplines. This final paper presents brief commentaries of some of our authors and further scholars exchanging perspectives and reflecting on the contributions of this theme issue.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffeo, Michele; Polonio, Luca; Bonini, Nicolao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers' decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field) experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001). The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as "complete decision approach" when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as "partial decision approach" when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory) experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in Experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005). Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements). In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision.

  4. Individual differences in competent consumer choice: the role of Cognitive Reflection and Numeracy skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGraffeo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether cognitive reflection and numeracy skills affect the quality of the consumers’ decision-making process in a purchase decision context. In a first (field experiment, an identical product was on sale in two shops with different initial prices and discounts. One of the two deals was better than the other and the consumers were asked to choose the best one and to describe which arithmetic operations they used to solve the problem; then they were asked to complete the numeracy scale (Lipkus et al., 2001. The choice procedures used by the consumers were classified as complete decision approach when all the arithmetic operations needed to solve the problem were computed, and as partial decision approach when only some operations were computed. A mediation model shows that higher numeracy is associated with use of the complete decision approach. In turn, this approach is positively associated with the quality of the purchase decision. Given that these findings highlight the importance of the decision processes, in a second (laboratory experiment we used a supplementary method to study the type of information search used by the participants: eye-tracking. In this experiment the participants were presented with decision problems similar to those used in experiment 1 and they completed the Lipkus numeracy scale and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT, (Frederick, 2005. Participants with a high CRT score chose the best deal more frequently, and showed a more profound and detailed information search pattern compared to participants with a low CRT score. Overall, results indicate that higher levels of cognitive reflection and numeracy skills predict the use of a more thorough decision process (measured with two different techniques: retrospective verbal reports and eye movements. In both experiments the decision process is a crucial factor which greatly affects the quality of the purchase decision.

  5. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberali, Jordana M; Reyna, Valerie F; Furlan, Sarah; Stein, Lilian M; Pardo, Seth T

    2012-10-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their relation to other cognitive tasks that assess numerical reasoning, such as the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), has been debated. In studies conducted in Brazil and in the USA, we administered an objective Numeracy Scale (NS), Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), and the CRT to assess whether they measured similar constructs. The Rational-Experiential Inventory, inhibition (go/no-go task), and intelligence were also investigated. By examining factor solutions along with frequent errors for questions that loaded on each factor, we characterized different types of processing captured by different items on these scales. We also tested the predictive power of these factors to account for biases and fallacies in probability judgments. In the first study, 259 Brazilian undergraduates were tested on the conjunction and disjunction fallacies. In the second study, 190 American undergraduates responded to a ratio-bias task. Across the different samples, the results were remarkably similar. The results indicated that the CRT is not just another numeracy scale, that objective and subjective numeracy scales do not measure an identical construct, and that different aspects of numeracy predict different biases and fallacies. Dimensions of numeracy included computational skills such as multiplying, proportional reasoning, mindless or verbatim matching, metacognitive monitoring, and understanding the gist of relative magnitude, consistent with dual-process theories such as fuzzy-trace theory.

  7. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martínez, A., E-mail: alm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx, E-mail: alastras@gmail.com; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guevara-Macías, L. E.; Nuñez-Olvera, O.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F. [Instituto de Investigación en Comunicación Optica, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Alvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78000 (Mexico); Lastras-Montaño, L. A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Lastras-Montaño, M. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD) spectroscopy of GaAs(001) grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  8. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lastras-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD spectroscopy of GaAs(001 grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  9. Detection of the specific binding on protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Heng; Wen, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Lu, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2010-01-01

    The specific binding between Cy5-labeled goat anti-mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mouse IgG with a concentration range from 625 to 10 4 µg ml −1 has been detected successfully by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method in each procedure of microarray fabrication. The experimental data prove that the OI-RD method can be employed not only to distinguish the different concentrations in label-free fashion but also to detect the antibody–antigen capture. In addition, the differential treatment of the OI-RD signals can decrease the negative influences of glass slide as the microarray upholder. Therefore the OI-RD technique has promising applications for the label-free and high-throughput detection of protein microarrays

  10. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Patrick; Neyse, Levent; David-Barett, Tamas; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i), the other participants' (ii), men's (iii), and women's (iv) number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women's predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one's ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  11. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ring

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i, the other participants’ (ii, men’s (iii, and women’s (iv number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women’s predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one’s ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  12. Type Ia supernovae in elliptical and spiral galaxies - Possible differences in photometric homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippenko, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that beta, the initial postmaximum rate of SN brightness decline (in the B band) defined by Pskovskii (1977), may have a smaller dispersion among SNe Ia in elliptical galaxies than in all other types of galaxies. Contamination of the sample by SNe Ib is unlikely to be the primary cause of this difference. Although the number of objects is very small, it is also possible that the velocity of SN Ia ejecta in elliptical galaxies is lower than in spiral galaxies. If correct, these observations provide the first direct evidence for physical differences among SNe Ia in different environments; reddening variations due to gas and dust are unlikely to produce most of the observed dispersion in beta among spirals. One obvious possibility is that the SNe Ia in spiral galaxies come from intermediate-mass stars, and that differences in the metallicities, accretion rates, or other properties account for the observations. A more extreme, improbable explanation is that not all SNe Ia in spiral galaxies result from carbon deflagrations of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. 43 refs

  13. Impact of possible climate changes on river runoff under different natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Nasonova, Olga N.; Kovalev, Evgeny E.; Ayzel, Georgy V.

    2018-06-01

    The present study was carried out within the framework of the International Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) for 11 large river basins located in different continents of the globe under a wide variety of natural conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate possible changes in various characteristics of annual river runoff (mean values, standard deviations, frequency of extreme annual runoff) up to 2100 on the basis of application of the land surface model SWAP and meteorological projections simulated by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) according to four RCP scenarios. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that changes in climatic runoff are different (both in magnitude and sign) for the river basins located in different regions of the planet due to differences in natural (primarily climatic) conditions. The climatic elasticities of river runoff to changes in air temperature and precipitation were estimated that makes it possible, as the first approximation, to project changes in climatic values of annual runoff, using the projected changes in mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation for the river basins. It was found that for most rivers under study, the frequency of occurrence of extreme runoff values increases. This is true both for extremely high runoff (when the projected climatic runoff increases) and for extremely low values (when the projected climatic runoff decreases).

  14. Categories of difference in science and policy: Reflections on academic practices, conceptualizations and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policy-making. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences. The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be.

  15. Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes 238 Pu and 239 Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that 238 Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than 239 Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of 238 Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of 239 Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that 238 Pu was more soluble than 239 Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of 238 Pu relative to 239 Pu increases

  16. Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that {sup 238}Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of {sup 238}Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of {sup 239}Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that {sup 238}Pu was more soluble than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of {sup 238}Pu relative to {sup 239}Pu increases.

  17. Junior high school students’ reflective thinking on fraction problem solving: In case of gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe reflective thinking of junior high school students on solving the fractions problem in terms of gender differences. This research is a qualitative approach involving one male student and one female student in seventh grade. The data were collected through the assignment of fractional problem solving and interview, then the data were triangulated and analyzed by three stages, namely data condensation, data display and conclusion. The results showed that the subjects of male and female were reacting, elaborating and contemplating at each stage of solving the fractions problem. But at the stage of devising the plan, the female subject was contemplating, relying more on their beliefs, did not consider their experience, in addition, the female subject didn’t use experience of the steps she planned to solve the problem of fractions.

  18. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIBERALI, JORDANA M.; REYNA, VALERIE F.; FURLAN, SARAH; STEIN, LILIAN M.; PARDO, SETH T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their relation to other cognitive tasks that assess numerical reasoning, such as the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), has been debated. In studies conducted in Brazil and in the USA, we administered an objective Numeracy Scale (NS), Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), and the CRT to assess whether they measured similar constructs. The Rational–Experiential Inventory, inhibition (go/no-go task), and intelligence were also investigated. By examining factor solutions along with frequent errors for questions that loaded on each factor, we characterized different types of processing captured by different items on these scales. We also tested the predictive power of these factors to account for biases and fallacies in probability judgments. In the first study, 259 Brazilian undergraduates were tested on the conjunction and disjunction fallacies. In the second study, 190 American undergraduates responded to a ratio-bias task. Across the different samples, the results were remarkably similar. The results indicated that the CRT is not just another numeracy scale, that objective and subjective numeracy scales do not measure an identical construct, and that different aspects of numeracy predict different biases and fallacies. Dimensions of numeracy included computational skills such as multiplying, proportional reasoning, mindless or verbatim matching, metacognitive monitoring, and understanding the gist of relative magnitude, consistent with dual-process theories such as fuzzy-trace theory. PMID:23878413

  19. Adult age-differences in subjective impression of emotional faces are reflected in emotion-related attention and memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although younger and older adults appear to attend to and remember emotional faces differently, less is known about age-related differences in the subjective emotional impression (arousal, potency, and valence of emotional faces and how these differences, in turn, are reflected in age differences in various emotional tasks. In the current study, we used the same facial emotional stimuli (angry and happy faces in four tasks: emotional rating, attention, categorical perception, and visual short-term memory (VSTM. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of age on the subjective emotional impression of angry and happy faces and to examine whether any age differences were mirrored in measures of emotional behavior (attention, categorical perception, and memory.In addition, regression analyses were used to further study impression-behavior associations. Forty younger adults (range 20-30 years and thirty-nine older adults (range 65-75 years participated in the experiment. The emotional rating task showed that older adults perceived less arousal, potency, and valence than younger adults and that the difference was more pronounced for angry than happy faces. Similarly, the results of the attention and memory tasks demonstrated interaction effects between emotion and age, and age differences on these measures were larger for angry than for happy faces. Regression analyses confirmed that in both age groups, higher potency ratings predicted both visual search and visual short-term memory efficiency. Future studies should consider the possibility that age differences in the subjective emotional impression of facial emotional stimuli may explain age differences in attention to and memory of such stimuli.

  20. Do differences in visuospatial ability between senile dementias of the Alzheimer and Lewy body types reflect differences solely in mnemonic function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, A; McKeith, I G; Galloway, P H; Tasker, N; Steckler, T

    1995-02-01

    Visuospatial memory was investigated in two groups of patients suffering from senile dementias of the Alzheimer (SDAT) or Lewy body (SDLT) types; a, third, age-matched, healthy control group was also included. The two patient groups were mildly demented and could not be distinguished from each other by traditional tests of cognitive function. A different pattern of performance emerged in the two groups on a computerised test of spatial working memory, which is a self-ordered pointing task requiring the subject to search for hidden tokens. An analysis of the pattern of errors revealed that the SDLT group made more of both possible types of error ("Within Search" and "Between Search") than the SDAT group. Neither patient groups' performance differed from each other when assessed on a computerised Corsi spatial span task. A measure of planning ability was obtained by examining search strategies. Although an index previously developed to measure the subject's use of a particular strategy in the spatial working memory task failed to detect any differences between the three groups, a novel index was calculated which focuses on performance within a search, and this revealed deficits in both demented groups. Since the two patient groups differed from each other in the spatial working memory, but not the Corsi spatial span, task, it is suggested that the differences between the two demented groups are not due to a specific mnemonic impairment, but reflect dysfunctions in non-mnemonic processes mediated by fronto-subcortical circuits, which are more severely damaged in SDLT.

  1. Bioenergetics during calvarial osteoblast differentiation reflect strain differences in bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong T; Farber, Charles R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-05-01

    Osteoblastogenesis is the process by which mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts that synthesize collagen and mineralize matrix. The pace and magnitude of this process are determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Two inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J, exhibit differences in peak bone mass and bone formation. Although all the heritable factors that differ between these strains have not been elucidated, a recent F1 hybrid expression panel (C3H × B6) revealed major genotypic differences in osteoblastic genes related to cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, we hypothesized that the metabolic rate of energy utilization by osteoblasts differed by strain and would ultimately contribute to differences in bone formation. In order to study the bioenergetic profile of osteoblasts, we measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) first in a preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1C4 and subsequently in primary calvarial osteoblasts from C3H and B6 mice at days 7, 14, and 21 of differentiation. During osteoblast differentiation in media containing ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate, all 3 cell types increased their oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates compared with the same cells grown in regular media. These increases are sustained throughout differentiation. Importantly, C3H calvarial osteoblasts had greater oxygen consumption rates than B6 consistent with their in vivo phenotype of higher bone formation. Interestingly, osteoblasts utilized both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis during the differentiation process although mature osteoblasts were more dependent on glycolysis at the 21-day time point than oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, determinants of oxygen consumption reflect strain differences in bone mass and provide the first evidence that during collagen synthesis osteoblasts use both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to synthesize and

  2. Relative differences in strength and power from slow to fast isokinetic velocities may reflect dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Palmer, Ty B; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-07-01

    We compared absolute and normalized values for peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), rate of velocity development, and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, as well as the %decrease in PT and %increase in MP from 1.05 to 3.14 rad·s(-1) in younger versus older men. Measurements were performed twice for reliability. Isokinetic measurements were normalized to the isometric muscle actions. Absolute isometric PT, isokinetic PT and MP, and EMG amplitudes at 1.05 and 3.14 rad·s(-1) were greater in the younger men, although normalizing to isometric PT eliminated the age differences. The older men exhibited greater %decrease in PT (37.2% vs. 31.3%) and lower %increase in MP (87.6% vs. 126.4%) regardless of normalization. Normalization eliminated absolute differences in isokinetic strength and power, but the relative differences from slow to fast velocities may reflect dynapenia characterized by age-related decreases in fast-twitch fiber function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Soy Food Intake and Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Possible Difference in Asian Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Ju, Dan; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2017-01-01

    Soy foods may protect against breast cancer in Asian but not in Western populations. We examined if the levels of various markers of breast cancer risk and inflammation, as well as the effects of soy food consumption on these markers, differ between Asian and non-Asian premenopausal women in two soy intervention trials. One study randomized 220 women to a 2-yr intervention and the other one randomized 96 women in a crossover design to examine the effects of consumption of 2 daily soy servings on nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) volume; estrogens in serum, NAF, and urine; insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and inflammatory markers in serum; and mammographic densities. Mixed linear models were applied to assess ethnic differences in biomarkers and response to the soy diet. Serum C-reactive protein, serum leptin, NAF volume, and NAF estrone sulfate were lower, while urinary isoflavones were higher in Asian than in non-Asian women. A significant interaction (p interaction = 0.05) between ethnicity and soy diet was observed for IGF-1 but not for other biomarkers. The current findings suggest possible ethnic differences in levels of biomarkers for breast cancer risk but little evidence that Asian women respond differently to soy foods than non-Asian women.

  4. Different size biomolecules anchoring on porous silicon surface: fluorescence and reflectivity pores infiltration comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M.; Rossi, Andrea M. [National Institute for Metrological Research, Thermodynamic Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Renacco, Chiara; Farano, Alessandro [Ribes Ricecrhe Srl, Via Lavoratori Vittime del Col du Mont 24, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Derosas, Manuela [Biodiversity Srl, Via Corfu 71, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Enrico, Emanuele [National Institute for Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The performance of porous silicon optical based biosensors strongly depends on material nanomorphology, on biomolecules distribution inside the pores and on the ability to link sensing species to the pore walls. In this paper we studied the immobilization of biomolecules with different size, such as antibody anti aflatoxin (anti Aflatox Ab, {proportional_to}150 KDa), malate dehydrogenase (MDH, {proportional_to}36KDa) and metallothionein (MT, {proportional_to}6KDa) at different concentrations on mesoporous silicon samples ({proportional_to}15 nm pores diameter). Fluorescence measurements using FITC- labeled biomolecules and refractive index analysis based on reflectivity spectra have been employed together to detect the amount of proteins bound to the surface and to evaluate their diffusion inside the pores. Here we suggest that these two techniques should be used together to have a better understanding of what happens at the porous silicon surface. In fact, when pores dimensions are not perfectly tuned to the protein size a higher fluorescence signal doesn't often correspond to a higher biomolecules distribution inside the pores. When a too much higher concentration of biomolecule is anchored on the surface, steric crowd effects and repulsive interactions probably take over and hinder pores infiltration, inducing a small or absent shift in the fringe pattern even if a higher fluorescence signal is registered. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Possible cross-cultural differences in the perception of impact of voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M-L; Ho, Elaine M; Ma, Estella P-M; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine; Branski, Ryan; Richardson, Katherine; Li, Nicole Y-K

    2011-05-01

    Perception of the impact of voice disorders may differ across different cultural backgrounds. This study investigated the difference in the perception of the impact of voice disorders between the American (Pittsburgh) and Chinese (Hong Kong) cultures. Sixty dysphonic subjects from Hong Kong, China, and 60 dysphonic subjects from Pittsburgh, USA, were recruited to complete the Chinese and English versions of the Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), respectively. Data analyses using independent t tests were conducted on (1) the total profile scores; (b) total activity limitation score (ALS) and total participation restriction score (PRS); (c) section scores of job, daily communication, and social communication; and (d) section ALS and section PRS. Hong Kong subjects showed significantly higher scores than the Pittsburgh subjects in total profile and other subsections except in the job PRS. RESULTS support the possible influence of individualist and collectivist cultures on the perceived impact of voice disorders on the activity and participation. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  7. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  8. Numerical simulation of white double-layer coating with different submicron particles on the spectral reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jiale; Cheng, Qiang; Si, Mengting; Su, Yang; Zhou, Yifan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    The spectral selective coating is becoming more and more popular against solar irradiation not only in keeping the coated objects stay cool but also retain the appearance of the objects by reducing the glare of reflected sunlight. In this work a numerical study is investigated to design the double-layer coating with different submicron particles to achieve better performance both in thermal and aesthetic aspects. By comparison, the performance of double-layer coating with TiO_2 and ZnO particles is better than that with single particles. What's more, the particle diameter, volume fraction of particle as well as substrate condition is also investigated. The results show that an optimized double-layer coating with particles should be the one with an appropriate particle diameter, volume fraction and the black substrate. - Highlights: • The double-layer coating has a great influence on both thermal and aesthetic aspects. • The double-layer coating performs better than the uniform one with single particles. • The volume fraction, particle diameter and substrate conditions are optimized.

  9. "Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference": reflection techniques for addiction psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballon, Bruce C; Skinner, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors aim to incorporate educational reflection techniques in an addiction psychiatry postgraduate core rotation in order to increase critical self-awareness of attitudes, values, and beliefs related to working with people with substance use and other addictive disorders. Reflection discussion times, reflection journaling, and mandatory end-of-rotation reflection papers were embedded into a core addiction psychiatry postgraduate training block. Qualitative analysis of 28 reflection papers was performed to determine key factors and constructs that impacted on the development of attitudes and professionalism. A number of constructs emerged that demonstrated the attitudes, beliefs, stereotypes, and stigmas students have regarding addictive disorders. Some constructs also highlighted that students felt much more comfortable dealing with addictive disorders after the training and would treat individuals with these conditions in a more effective manner. Reflection techniques were endorsed as extremely valuable by students, especially in the development of professional attitudes that will help clinicians effectively engage and provide appropriate care for individuals suffering from addictive disorders. The authors suggest that reflective practices be used more extensively in psychiatric training in order to build and establish reflexive self-awareness as a core professional competence essential to work effectively in clinical practice, especially in the most demanding contexts.

  10. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients With Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sebastian E; Hunink, Myriam G; Schöberl, Florian; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Petersen, Steffen E; Dichgans, Martin; Janssen, Hendrik; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian F; Sommer, Wieland H

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging, nonenhanced CT, or duplex ultrasound with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis being administered after positive findings. The analysis was performed from the societal perspective based on US recommendations. Input parameters were derived from the literature. Costs were obtained from United States costing sources and published literature. Outcomes were lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefits, with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY. The strategy with the highest net monetary benefit was considered the most cost-effective. Extensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the effect of varying parameter values. In the reference case analysis, CTA dominated all other imaging strategies. CTA yielded 0.02 QALYs more than magnetic resonance imaging and 0.04 QALYs more than duplex ultrasound followed by CTA. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY, CTA yielded the highest net monetary benefits. The probability that CTA is cost-effective was 96% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that duplex ultrasound was cost-effective only for a prior probability of ≤0.02 and that these results were only minimally influenced by duplex ultrasound sensitivity and specificity. Nonenhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging never became the most cost-effective strategy. Our results suggest that CTA in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion is cost-effective. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Cortical potentials in an auditory oddball task reflect individual differences in working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgil, Kate A; Golob, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    This study determined whether auditory cortical responses associated with mechanisms of attention vary with individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and perceptual load. The operation span test defined subjects with low versus high WMC, who then discriminated target/nontarget tones while EEG was recorded. Infrequent white noise distracters were presented at midline or ±90° locations, and perceptual load was manipulated by varying nontarget frequency. Amplitude of the N100 to distracters was negatively correlated with WMC. Relative to targets, only high WMC subjects showed attenuated N100 amplitudes to nontargets. In the higher WMC group, increased perceptual load was associated with decreased P3a amplitudes to distracters and longer-lasting negative slow wave to nontargets. Results show that auditory cortical processing is associated with multiple facets of attention related to WMC and possibly higher-level cognition. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Peroxisome proliferation due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): species differences and possible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcombe, C.R.; Mitchell, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to mono(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) for 72 hr resulted in marked induction of peroxisomal enzyme activity (β-oxidation; cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidase) and concomitant increases in the number of peroxisomes. Similar treatment of cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes revealed little or no effect of MEHP. In order to eliminate possible confounding influences of biotransformation, the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from MEHP have been identified. Using cultured hepatocytes these agents were found to be metabolite VI [mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate] and metabolite IX [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate]. The addition of these active metabolites to cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes again revealed little effect upon peroxisomes or related enzyme activities (peroxisomal β-oxidation or microsomal lauric acid hydroxylation). These studies demonstrate a marked species difference in the response of hepatocytes to MEHP-elicited peroxisome proliferation. Preliminary studies have also suggested that peroxisome proliferation due to MEHP may be due to an initial biochemical lesion of fatty acid metabolism

  13. Metacognitive ability of male students: difference impulsive-reflective cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtarom; Sugiyanti; Utami, R. E.; Indriana, K.

    2018-03-01

    This study revealed the metacognitive activity of male students in impulsive cognitive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problems, especially in the material of plane. One student of impulsive cognitive style and one student of reflective cognitive-style were selected to be the subjects of the study. Data were collected by giving written test of problem solving and interview. Data analysis was done through data reduction, data presentation, data interpretation and conclusion. The results showed that male student of reflective cognitive style was meticulous and careful in solving the problem so as to obtain correct answers, while the impulsive cognitive style student had the characteristics of using a short time in solving the problem, but less careful so that the answers tended to be wrong

  14. Possible mechanism for species difference on the toxicity of pivalic acid between dogs and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Nakajima, Yoshitsugu; Nakamura, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    In a high dose toxicity study of pivalic acid (PA), PA caused skeletal muscle disorder in dog, and a significant increase of pivaloyl carnitine (PC) was observed in canine muscle, but not in rat muscle. In order to understand species difference of the toxicity of PA, we compared the in vitro metabolism of PA among dog, rat and rabbit, especially focussing on the carnitine conjugate. Canine muscle showed low, but significant carnitine conjugating activity, while that of rat was negligible. Canine kidney mitochondria had significant activity in the pivaloyl CoA synthesis (7 nmol/mg protein/h), but muscle mitochondria showed only trace activity. Both kidney and muscle mitochondria displayed similar carnitine acyltransferase activity (2-3 nmol/mg protein/h) towards pivaloyl CoA. On the other hand, with respect to the activity of carnitine acyltransferase in the reverse direction using PC as substrate, canine muscle mitochondria showed higher activity than that of kidney mitochondria. This means that PC is not the final stable metabolite, but is converted easily to pivaloyl CoA in canine muscle. These results suggest one of the possible mechanisms for canine selective muscle disorder to be as follows. Only canine muscle can metabolize PA to its carnitine conjugate slowly, but significantly. In canine muscle, PC is not the final stable metabolite; it is easily converted to pivaloyl CoA. As carnitine conjugation is thought to be the only detoxification metabolic route in canine muscle, under certain circumstances such as carnitine deficiency, the risk of exposure with toxic pivaloyl CoA might increase and the CoASH pool in canine muscle might be exhausted, resulting in toxicity in canine muscle

  15. Conservation Through Different Lenses: Reflection, Responsibility, and the Politics of Participation in Conservation Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash Walton, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the arenas of advocacy, politics, and self-reflection in strengthening conservation and resource management initiatives. It frames key questions that reflective conservation practitioners may address in seeking to enhance the results of conservation projects, including equity and more inclusive participation by nonprivileged groups. The essay touches on the importance of understanding conservation work within particular political and historic dynamics, including the need to understand non-Western and/or indigenous or traditional perspectives on conservation. The author makes the case that Western or privileged conservation practitioners are uniquely situated to advocate effectively for change.

  16. Reflectance-difference spectroscopy as an optical probe for in situ determination of doping levels in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lara-Velazquez, I.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guel-Sandoval, S.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78000 (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on in situ Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy measurements carried out on GaAs(001). Measurements were performed at temperatures of 580 C and 430 C, in both n and p-type doped films and for both (2 x 4) and c(4 x 4) reconstructions. Samples employed were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy with doping levels in the range from 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. We demonstrate the potential of Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy for impurity level determinations under growth conditions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) - a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols are solid particles dissolved in the atmosphere and have strong influence in the earth climate. Their solid surfaces are the only atmospheric medium for condensation of water leading to cloud formation and ultimately to precipitation. Besides their role in cloud formation, the elemental composition of aerosols reveals useful information about air masses and their transport patterns as well as air pollution. The elemental composition can be considered like a fingerprint of an air mass telling the story about its origin and fate. The presence of Al, Ti and Fe for instance indicates a source located in a highly exposed soil or often desert region, whereas Ni, V and Pb can be traced back to anthropogenic activities like fuel combustion or industrial processes. Other important source regions are the oceans, which emit the main aerosol constituents Na, Cl, and S. The concentrations of these elements in the atmosphere are extremely low and long sampling times are necessary to gain reliable results with most of the common analysis techniques. In contrast to this total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), as a technique capable to cope with tiny sample amounts, offers the unique possibility to reduce collection times to a minimum of minutes to hours. Such short sampling times in turn render it possible to monitor different air masses either passing through a ground based station or -in the ideal case- flown into by a small research aircraft. Different aerosol samples were taken by aircraft during the second aerosol characterization experiment (ACE-2) with sampling times ranging from 15 minutes up to one hour. These filter samples were analyzed by TXRF for trace elements subsequently. Together with background information about back trajectories and size distribution covering the time of sampling the presence of different air masses could be detected. In another project, short-term samples in the Chicago/Lake Michigan area are collected to study the air mass

  18. Bifurcation parameters of a reflected shock wave in cylindrical channels of different roughnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penyazkov, O.; Skilandz, A.

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of bifurcation on the induction time in cylindrical shock tubes used for chemical kinetic experiments, one should know the parameters of the bifurcation structure of a reflected shock wave. The dynamics and parameters of the shock wave bifurcation, which are caused by reflected shock wave-boundary layer interactions, are studied experimentally in argon, in air, and in a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture for Mach numbers M = 1.3-3.5 in a 76-mm-diameter shock tube without any ramp. Measurements were taken at a constant gas density behind the reflected shock wave. Over a wide range of experimental conditions, we studied the axial projection of the oblique shock wave and the pressure distribution in the vicinity of the triple Mach configuration at 50, 150, and 250 mm from the endwall, using side-wall schlieren and pressure measurements. Experiments on a polished shock tube and a shock tube with a surface roughness of 20 {μ }m Ra were carried out. The surface roughness was used for initiating small-scale turbulence in the boundary layer behind the incident shock wave. The effect of small-scale turbulence on the homogenization of the transition zone from the laminar to turbulent boundary layer along the shock tube perimeter was assessed, assuming its influence on a subsequent stabilization of the bifurcation structure size versus incident shock wave Mach number, as well as local flow parameters behind the reflected shock wave. The influence of surface roughness on the bifurcation development and pressure fluctuations near the wall, as well as on the Mach number, at which the bifurcation first develops, was analyzed. It was found that even small additional surface roughness can lead to an overshoot in pressure growth by a factor of two, but it can stabilize the bifurcation structure along the shock tube perimeter.

  19. Does Asking Make a Difference? Effects of Initiator, Possible Gain, and Risk on Attributed Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Barbara; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates three variables related to attributed altruism: (1) the effects of initiating prosocial behavior; (2) the potential gain or loss for the prosocial actor; and (3) the possible risk for the prosocial actor. Determines that any evidence of selfish motivation detracts from perceived altruism, and that no evidence of selfish motivation…

  20. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  1. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  2. Individual Differences and Possible Effects from Outdoor Education: Long Time and Short Time Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, Tove Anita; Jacobsen, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study explores differences in the children's outcomes from outdoor education. The results revealed different outcomes within different subgroups: The children with an easy or a withdrawal temperament are good functioning both indoor and outdoor. Their outcomes from outdoor education are an increased vitality, which might be seen as a short…

  3. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents as a possible symptom of different mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorder. However, conduct disorder is characterised by a stable aggressive behavioural pattern, recurrently violating either the basic rights of the others or of the generally accepted social norms. Aggressive behaviour can also be present in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD, affective and psychotic disorders, autistic spectrum disorders and in some other developmental neurological disorders including intellectual disability ‒ but only as a possible and not a typical symptom. Child and adolescent psychiatrist can mainly help with aggressive behaviour associated with mental disorders. In all other possible causes of aggressive behaviour, child and adolescent psychiatry has neither the possibility/capacity nor the authority to intervene.  

  4. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-03-25

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system.

  5. Solution strategies as possible explanations of individual and sex differences in a dynamic spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Daniel; Contreras, María José; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, José

    2008-05-01

    When individuals perform spatial tasks, individual differences emerge in accuracy and speed as well as in the response patterns used to cope with the task. The purpose of this study is to identify, through empirical criteria, the different response patterns or strategies used by individuals when performing the dynamic spatial task presented in the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R). Results show that participants can be classified according to their response patterns. Three different ways of solving a task are described, and their relation to (a) performance factors (response latency, response frequency, and invested time) and (b) ability tests (analytical reasoning, verbal reasoning, and spatial estimation) are investigated. Sex differences in response patterns and performance are also analyzed. It is found that the frequency with which men and women employ each one of the strategies described here, is different and statistically significant. Thus, employed strategy plays an important role when interpreting sex differences on dynamic spatial tasks.

  6. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption....... These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture....

  7. In situ differential reflectance spectroscopy of thin crystalline films of PTCDA on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, Holger; Nitsche, Robert; Dienel, Thomas; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We report an investigation of the excitonic properties of thin crystalline films of the archetypal organic semiconductor PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) grown on poly- and single crystalline surfaces. A sensitive setup capable of measuring the optical properties of ultrathin organic molecular crystals via differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is presented. This tool allows to carry out measurements in situ, i.e., during the actual film growth, and over a wide spectral range, even on single crystalline surfaces with high symmetry or metallic surfaces, where widely used techniques like reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) or fluorescence excitation spectroscopy fail. The spectra obtained by DRS resemble mainly the absorption of the films if transparent substrates are used, which simplifies the analysis. In the case of mono- to multilayer films of PTCDA on single crystalline muscovite mica(0001) and Au(111) substrates, the formation of the solid state absorption from monomer to dimer and further to crystal-like absorption spectra can be monitored

  8. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  9. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  10. Adversity and sex differences in social and emotional sensitivity in children; a possible mechanism for sex differences in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Hill; Helen Sharp; Lynne Murray

    2010-01-01

    Females are superior to males on a range of tasks indexing social sensitivity, the capacity to infer others' mental states and respond with appropriate behaviours and emotions(1-3). There are also sex differences in psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Boys have higher rates of psychiatric disorders before puberty, but disorders increase markedly in girls after puberty (4). The causes of the commonest forms of disorder, antisocial behaviour problems in boys, and depression ...

  11. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  12. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  13. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Liberali (Jordana ); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); S. Furlan (Sarah); L.M. Stein (Lilian ); S.T. Pardo (Seth )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDespite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their

  14. Anatomically discrete sex differences in neuroplasticity in zebra finches as reflected by perineuronal nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornez, Gilles; ter Haar, Sita M; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Large morphological sex differences in the vertebrate brain were initially identified in song control nuclei of oscines. Besides gross differences between volumes of nuclei in males and females, sex differences also concern the size and dendritic arborization of neurons and various neurochemical

  15. Possible experiments to distinguish between different methods of treating the Pauli principle in nuclear potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolle, D.; Assenbaum, H.J.; Funck, C.; Langanke, K.

    1987-01-01

    The finite Pauli repulsion model of Walliser and Nakaichi-Maeda and the orthogonality condition model are two microscopically motivated potential models for the description of nuclear collisions which, however, differ from each other in the way they incorporate antisymmetrization effects into the nucleus-nucleus interaction. We have used α+α scattering at low energies as a tool to distinguish between the two different treatments of the Pauli principle. Both models are consistent with the presently available on-shell (elastic) and off-shell (bremsstrahlung) data. We suggest further measurements of α+α bremsstrahlung including the coplanar laboratory differential cross section in Harvard geometry at α-particle angles of around 27 0 and the γ-decay width of the 4 + resonance at E/sub c.m./ = 11.4 MeV, because in both cases the two models make significantly different predictions

  16. The Spliced Leader Trans-Splicing Mechanism in Different Organisms: Molecular Details and Possible Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainá eBitar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The spliced leader (SL is a gene that generates a functional ncRNA that is composed of two regions: an intronic region of unknown function (SLi and an exonic region (SLe, which is transferred to the 5’ end of independent transcripts yielding mature mRNAs, in a process known as spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS. The best described function for SLTS is to solve polycistronic transcripts into monocistronic units, specifically in Trypanosomatids. In other metazoans, it is speculated that the SLe addition could lead to increased mRNA stability, differential recruitment of the translational machinery, modification of the 5' region or a combination of these effects. Although important aspects of this mechanism have been revealed, several features remain to be elucidated. We have analyzed 157 SLe sequences from 148 species from 7 phyla and found a high degree of conservation among the sequences of species from the same phylum, although no considerable similarity seems to exist between sequences of species from different phyla. When analyzing case studies, we found evidence that a given SLe will always be related to a given set of transcripts in different species from the same phylum, and therefore, different SLe sequences from the same species would regulate different sets of transcripts. In addition, we have observed distinct transcript categories to be preferential targets for the SLe addition in different phyla. This work sheds light into crucial and controversial aspects of the SLTS mechanism. It represents a comprehensive study concerning various species and different characteristics of this important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism.

  17. Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Reder

    2016-09-01

    The study highlights how the choice of some approaches or soil parameterizations can affect the results both in absolute and in relative terms and how these differences could be highly related to weather forcing in inputs or investigated soil. The analyses point out a decrease in average water content in the shallower part of the soil with different extents according to climate zone, concentration scenario and soil/cover features. Moreover, the projected increase in temperature and then in evapotranspirative demand do not ever result in higher actual evapotranspiration values, due to the concurrent variations in precipitation patterns.

  18. Assessment of possible diel and sex-related differences in round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 104-111 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive species * diel feeding * inter-sex differences * nest-guarding * breeding season Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2015

  19. Is it possible to tell the difference between fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannestad, S.; Tu, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ringwald, A.; Wong, Y.Y.Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    We study the difference between thermally produced fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter in detail. In the linear regime of structure formation, their distinct free-streaming behaviours can lead to pronounced differences in the matter power spectrum. While not detectable with current cosmological data, such differences will be clearly observable with upcoming large scale weak lensing surveys for particles as light as m{sub HDM} {proportional_to} 0.2 eV. In the nonlinear regime, bosonic hot dark matter is not subject to the same phase space constraints that severely limit the amount of fermionic hot dark matter infall into cold dark matter halos. Consequently, the overdensities in fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter of equal particle mass can differ by more than a factor of five in the central part of a halo. However, this unique manifestation of quantum statistics may prove very difficult to detect unless the mass of the hot dark matter particle and its decoupling temperature fall within a very narrow window, 1

  20. Time in Early Childhood: Creative Possibilities with Different Conceptions of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Time is an important driver of pedagogy which is often overlooked in the busy atmosphere of an early childhood centre. Engaging philosophically with three different concepts of time, and drawing examples from literature and art to focus attention on how time is constituted in early childhood centres, this article argues that we inhabit the…

  1. Lévy flight and Brownian search patterns of a free-ranging predator reflect different prey field characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Humphries, Nicolas E; Bradford, Russell W; Bruce, Barry D

    2012-03-01

    1. Search processes play an important role in physical, chemical and biological systems. In animal foraging, the search strategy predators should use to search optimally for prey is an enduring question. Some models demonstrate that when prey is sparsely distributed, an optimal search pattern is a specialised random walk known as a Lévy flight, whereas when prey is abundant, simple Brownian motion is sufficiently efficient. These predictions form part of what has been termed the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis (LFF) which states that as Lévy flights optimise random searches, movements approximated by optimal Lévy flights may have naturally evolved in organisms to enhance encounters with targets (e.g. prey) when knowledge of their locations is incomplete. 2. Whether free-ranging predators exhibit the movement patterns predicted in the LFF hypothesis in response to known prey types and distributions, however, has not been determined. We tested this using vertical and horizontal movement data from electronic tagging of an apex predator, the great white shark Carcharodon carcharias, across widely differing habitats reflecting different prey types. 3. Individual white sharks exhibited movement patterns that predicted well the prey types expected under the LFF hypothesis. Shark movements were best approximated by Brownian motion when hunting near abundant, predictable sources of prey (e.g. seal colonies, fish aggregations), whereas movements approximating truncated Lévy flights were present when searching for sparsely distributed or potentially difficult-to-detect prey in oceanic or shelf environments, respectively. 4. That movement patterns approximated by truncated Lévy flights and Brownian behaviour were present in the predicted prey fields indicates search strategies adopted by white sharks appear to be the most efficient ones for encountering prey in the habitats where such patterns are observed. This suggests that C. carcharias appears capable of exhibiting

  2. The Minimum Data Set Depression Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…

  3. An assimilation test of Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity from different height layers in improving the WRF rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Chu, Zhigang; Yu, Fuliang

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts require high-resolution and accurate rainfall information, which is one of the most difficult variables to be captured by the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. Radar data assimilation is an effective method for improving rainfall forecasts by correcting the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the NWP system. The aim of this study is to explore an efficient way of utilizing the Doppler radar observations for data assimilation, which is implemented by exploring the effect of assimilating radar data from different height layers on the improvement of the NWP rainfall accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for numerical rainfall forecast in the Zijingguan catchment located in the ;Jing-Jin-Ji; (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) Region of Northern China, and the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3-DVar) technique is adopted to assimilate the radar data. Radar reflectivity and radial velocity are assimilated separately and jointly. Each type of radar data is divided into seven data sets according to the height layers: (1) 2000 m, and (7) all layers. The results show that radar reflectivity assimilation leads to better results than radial velocity assimilation. The accuracy of the forecasted rainfall deteriorates with the rise of the height of the assimilated radar reflectivity. The same results can be found when assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity at the same time. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for efficient assimilation of the radar data in improving the NWP rainfall products.

  4. Possible universal cause of high-Tc superconductivity in different metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Shaginyan, V.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using the theory of the high temperature superconductivity based on the idea of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) it is shown that neither the d-wave pairing symmetry, nor the pseudogap phenomenon, nor the presence of the Cu-O 2 planes are of decisive importance for the existence of the high-T c superconductivity. The analysis of recent experimental data on this type of superconductivity in different materials is carried out. It is shown that these facts can be understood within the theory of superconductivity based on the FCQPT. The main features of a room-temperature superconductor are discussed [ru

  5. Differences in pollution levels among civil law countries: A possible interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vita, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the way the legal systems of different countries can explain the discrepancies in their pollution levels. In particular, we underline the factors of capital accumulation and the financial market development, that are driven, among other things, by the various levels of protection accorded by the legal system to both shareholders and creditors. The research develops in two directions. Firstly, we supply a theoretical analysis to explain how constraints on the process of capital accruement affect the pollution level. In the model, a crucial role is assigned to the rate of interest, and its relationship with discount rates, which constitutes an important variable in decisions to implement anti-pollution devices. Secondly, we perform an econometric analysis using the data of eighty-five countries belonging to the legal family of civil law, for the period from 1992 to 2003, adopting four pollution indicators as dependent variables. Our main findings are that legal families and financial market development can help to explain the differences in environmental indicators observed among nations

  6. Response time in economic games reflects different types of decision conflict for prosocial and proself individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko; Takagishi, Haruto; Li, Yang; Kanai, Ryota; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2017-06-13

    Behavioral and neuroscientific studies explore two pathways through which internalized social norms promote prosocial behavior. One pathway involves internal control of impulsive selfishness, and the other involves emotion-based prosocial preferences that are translated into behavior when they evade cognitive control for pursuing self-interest. We measured 443 participants' overall prosocial behavior in four economic games. Participants' predispositions [social value orientation (SVO)] were more strongly reflected in their overall game behavior when they made decisions quickly than when they spent a longer time. Prosocially (or selfishly) predisposed participants behaved less prosocially (or less selfishly) when they spent more time in decision making, such that their SVO prosociality yielded limited effects in actual behavior in their slow decisions. The increase (or decrease) in slower decision makers was prominent among consistent prosocials (or proselfs) whose strong preference for prosocial (or proself) goals would make it less likely to experience conflict between prosocial and proself goals. The strong effect of RT on behavior in consistent prosocials (or proselfs) suggests that conflict between prosocial and selfish goals alone is not responsible for slow decisions. Specifically, we found that contemplation of the risk of being exploited by others (social risk aversion) was partly responsible for making consistent prosocials (but not consistent proselfs) spend longer time in decision making and behave less prosocially. Conflict between means rather than between goals (immediate versus strategic pursuit of self-interest) was suggested to be responsible for the time-related increase in consistent proselfs' prosocial behavior. The findings of this study are generally in favor of the intuitive cooperation model of prosocial behavior.

  7. Exercises Abroad: How Differing National Experiences are Reflected in Emergency Response Planning and Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianno, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Recently a member of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Consequence Management Response Team took part in outreaches and an exercise in different foreign countries. In Brazil and South Korea, the outreaches revolved around a nuclear power plant exercise. In Canada, participation was limited to a table top Consequence Management exercise. This talk will briefly discuss each event and resulting pertinent observations. In each case, it became evident that governments respond to disasters very differently, and that these differences are not only culturally based, but also influenced by each government's respective experience in dealing with natural disasters

  8. Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, M.; Kohl, B.; Münch, D.; Raatschen, N.; Albada, H.B.; Hamoen, L.; Metzler-Nolte, N.; Sahl, H.G.; Bandow, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Mersacidin, gallidermin, and nisin are lantibiotics, antimicrobial peptides containing lanthionine. They show potent antibacterial activity. All three interfere with cell wall biosynthesis by binding lipid II, but they display different levels of interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. On one end

  9. Simultaneous existence of different enviroments in aqueous clay systems and its possible role in prebiotic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, N

    1975-08-05

    The formation of packets of parallel oriented platelets and separating distances of several angstrom units in montmorillonite-water systems produces an intrinsic inhomogeneity with respect to the proton donating power of internal and external zones. Stable packets can be induced by both inorganic and organic molecules or ions, in suspensions or in drying-out systems. The coexistence of zones with different proton donating power was demonstrated by the pH-sensitive color reaction of benzidine, where stable packets of montmorillonite platelets were formed by the use of either paraquat or diquat. The close proximity of the two types of zones, which can be of the order of several angstroms, produces the conditions which were defined by Katchalsky as essential for the polymerization of amino acids. Since these enviromental conditions are quite common in nature, both at present and in prebiotic times, it is proposed that the inhomogeneity of clay-water systems with respect to proton donating power should be taken into account in both theoretical and experimental efforts to demonstrate the catalytic activity of clays in prebiotic synthesis.

  10. The Cultural Argument for Understanding Nature of Science. A Chance to Reflect on Similarities and Differences Between Science and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christiane S.; Bliersbach, Markus; Marniok, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Understanding Nature of Science (NOS) is a central component of scientific literacy, which is agreed upon internationally, and consequently has been a major educational goal for many years all over the globe. In order to justify the promotion of an adequate understanding of NOS, educators have developed several arguments, among them the cultural argument. But what is behind this argument? In order to answer this question, C. P. Snow's vision of two cultures was used as a starting point. In his famous Rede Lecture from 1959, he complained about a wide gap between the arts and humanities on the one hand and sciences on the other hand. While the representatives of the humanities refer to themselves as real intellectuals, the scientists felt rather ignored as a culture, despite the fact that their achievements had been so important for Western society. Thus, Snow argued that as these intellectual cultures were completely different from each other, a mutual understanding was impossible. The first European Regional IHPST Conference took up the cultural view on science again. Thus, the topic of the conference "Science as Culture in the European Context" encouraged us to look at the two cultures and to figure out possibilities to bridge the gap between them in chemistry teacher education. For this reason, we put together three studies—one theoretical and two independent research projects (one dealing with creativity in science, the other with scientific laws and theories) which contribute to our main research field (promoting an understanding of NOS)—in order to address the cultural argument for understanding science from an educational point of view. Among the consented tenets of what understanding NOS implies in an educational context, there are aspects which are associated mainly with the humanities, like the tentativeness of knowledge, creativity, and social tradition, whereas others seem to have a domain-specific meaning, like empirical evidence, theories and laws

  11. Through Solidarity to "Fluidarity": Understanding Difference and Developing Change Agency through Narrative Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruggi, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development of the concept of solidarity as expressing a sense of shared humanity, while detailing critiques of its current use, especially when it implies a privileged center setting the agenda for the sake of marginalized others. My research demonstrates how solidarity can be modified when encountering difference, and how…

  12. Different Oceanographic Regimes in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula Reflected in Benthic Nematode Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available Marine free-living nematode communities were studied at similar depths (~500 m at two sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, characterised by different environmental and oceanographic conditions. At the Weddell Sea side, benthic communities are influenced by cold deep-water formation and seasonal sea-ice conditions, whereas the Drake Passage side experiences milder oceanic conditions and strong dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This resulted in different surface primary productivity, which contrasted with observed benthic pigment patterns and varied according to the area studied: chlorophyll a concentrations (as a proxy for primary production were high in the Weddell Sea sediments, but low in the surface waters above; this pattern was reversed in the Drake Passage. Differences between areas were largely mirrored by the nematode communities: nematode densities peaked in Weddell stations and showed deeper vertical occurrence in the sediment, associated with deeper penetration of chlorophyll a and indicative of a strong bentho-pelagic coupling. Generic composition showed some similarities across both areas, though differences in the relative contribution of certain genera were noted, together with distinct community shifts with depth in the sediment at all locations.

  13. Are population differences in plant quality reflected in the preference and performance of two endoparasitoid wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Dam, van N.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid in exploring the role of direct plant defence, through the production of allelochemicals, on the performance of parasitoid wasps and their hosts. However, few studies have determined if parasitoids can detect differences in plant quality and thus

  14. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L.; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we

  15. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L.; Naguib, Marc; Oers, Van Kees

    2016-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated

  16. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Willems

    Full Text Available Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2. Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals showing no AB whatsoever.Here, we studied these individual differences in AB task performance in relation to differences in attentional timing. Furthermore, we investigated whether AB magnitude is predictive for the amount of attention allocated to T1. For both these purposes pupil dilation was measured, and analyzed with our recently developed deconvolution method. We found that the dynamics of temporal attention in small versus large blinkers differ in a number of ways. Individuals with a relatively small AB magnitude seem better able to preserve temporal order information. In addition, they are quicker to allocate attention to both T1 and T2 than large blinkers. Although a popular explanation of the AB is that it is caused by an unnecessary overinvestment of attention allocated to T1, a more complex picture emerged from our data, suggesting that this may depend on whether one is a small or a large blinker.The use of pupil dilation deconvolution seems to be a powerful approach to study the temporal dynamics of attention, bringing us a step closer to understanding the elusive nature of the AB. We conclude that the timing of attention to targets may be more important than the amount of allocated attention in accounting for individual differences.

  17. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Charlotte; Herdzin, Johannes; Martens, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB) phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2). Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals showing no AB whatsoever. Here, we studied these individual differences in AB task performance in relation to differences in attentional timing. Furthermore, we investigated whether AB magnitude is predictive for the amount of attention allocated to T1. For both these purposes pupil dilation was measured, and analyzed with our recently developed deconvolution method. We found that the dynamics of temporal attention in small versus large blinkers differ in a number of ways. Individuals with a relatively small AB magnitude seem better able to preserve temporal order information. In addition, they are quicker to allocate attention to both T1 and T2 than large blinkers. Although a popular explanation of the AB is that it is caused by an unnecessary overinvestment of attention allocated to T1, a more complex picture emerged from our data, suggesting that this may depend on whether one is a small or a large blinker. The use of pupil dilation deconvolution seems to be a powerful approach to study the temporal dynamics of attention, bringing us a step closer to understanding the elusive nature of the AB. We conclude that the timing of attention to targets may be more important than the amount of allocated attention in accounting for individual differences.

  18. How to count and assess different energies, in particular renewable energies: methodological reflections and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concepts of primary energy and of final energy, as well as their relationships which are conventionally adopted at the international level, the author shows that these concepts are not suitable to the assessment of economic and energetic efficiency of energy systems, notably those comprising several transformations of an energy into another. He also shows that the methodology developed by the Academy of Technologies in its 'Vecteurs' report is perfectly adapted. This is illustrated by two examples: the main uses of biomass, and the use of peak productions of wind energy which is essentially intermittent. With this method, it is possible to identify the main factors which must be quantified when assessing the technical-economic relevance of such or such choice, notably thermodynamic efficiencies of each step, capitals to be invested and expectable load factors, or impact in terms of CO 2 emissions. Appendices proposes energetic statistics for France (energy assessment, consumption of primary energy), an assessment of methanization, and an analysis of wind energy production in Europe while taking its intermittency into account, for the production of hydrogen

  19. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  20. Individual Differences in Temporal Selective Attention as Reflected in Pupil Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Charlotte; Herdzin, Johannes; Martens, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention is restricted for the second of two targets when it is presented within 200-500 ms of the first target. This attentional blink (AB) phenomenon allows one to study the dynamics of temporal selective attention by varying the interval between the two targets (T1 and T2). Whereas the AB has long been considered as a robust and universal cognitive limitation, several studies have demonstrated that AB task performance greatly differs between individuals, with some individuals s...

  1. The becoming of an entrepreneurial opportunity.:– reflections on different ‘opportunity-ontologies’.

    OpenAIRE

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    2015-01-01

    As innovation and entrepreneurship is about bringing something “new” into the world, a key point must be focusing on the entrepreneurial opportunity and how we get access to entrepreneurial opportunities. Contemporary research within entrepreneurship and innovation are mainly based in different forms of constructivist and social-constructivist approaches, by Alvarez and Barney (Alvarez & Barney 2007; Alvarez & Barney 2010) named creation theory. Within these approaches the entrepreneu...

  2. Exploring Possible Neural Mechanisms of Intelligence Differences Using Processing Speed and Working Memory Tasks: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiter, Gordon D.; Deary, Ian J.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.; Fox, Helen C.; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the possible neural foundations of individual differences in intelligence test scores, we examined the associations between Raven's Matrices scores and two tasks that were administered in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting. The two tasks were an n-back working memory (N = 37) task and inspection time (N = 47). The…

  3. Do Performance-based Health Measures Reflect Differences in Frailty Among Immigrants Age 50+ in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Thomas D; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    Life course influences, including country of residence and country of birth, are associated with frailty index scores. We investigated these associations using performance-based health measures. Among 33,745 participants age 50+ (mean age 64.8 ± 10.1; 55% women) in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, grip strength, delayed word recall, and semantic verbal fluency were assessed. Participants were grouped by country of residence (Northern/Western Europe or Southern/Eastern Europe), and by country of birth (native-born, immigrants born in low- and middle-income countries [LMICs], or immigrants born in high-income countries [HICs]). Participants in Southern/Eastern Europe had lower mean test scores than those in Northern/Western Europe, and their scores did not differ by country of birth group. In Northern/Western Europe, compared with native-born participants, LMIC-born immigrants demonstrated lower mean grip strength (32.8 ± 7.6 kg vs. 35.7 ± 7.7 kg), delayed recall (2.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.9), and verbal fluency scores (16.0 ± 6.9 vs. 20.3 ± 7.0). HIC-born immigrants had mean scores higher than LMIC-born immigrants, but lower than native-born participants (all pnational income levels of both country of residence and country of birth. This was similar to previously observed differences in frailty index scores.

  4. [Do online ratings reflect structural differences in healthcare? The example of German physician-rating websites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszmer, Nina; Jaegers, Lena; Schöffski, Oliver; Emmert, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Previous surveys have shown that patient satisfaction varies with the regional supply of physicians. Online ratings on physician-rating websites represent a relatively new instrument to display patient satisfaction results. The aim of this study was (1) to assess the current state of online ratings for two medical disciplines (dermatologists and ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists), and (2) to analyze online derived patient satisfaction results according to the physician density in Germany. We collected online ratings for 420 dermatologists and 450 ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists on twelve German physician-rating websites. We analyzed the online ratings according to the physician density (low, medium, high physician density). For this purpose, we collected secondary data from both physician-rating websites and the regional associations of statutory health insurance physicians. Data analysis was performed using Median tests and Chi-square tests. In total, 10,239 online ratings for dermatologists and 8,168 online ratings for ENT specialists were analyzed. Almost all dermatologists (99.3 %) and ENT specialists (98.9 %) were listed on one of the physician-rating websites. A total of 93.5 % of all listed dermatologists and 96.9 % of ENT-specialists were rated on at least one of the physician-rating websites. Significant differences were found in the distribution (i.e., percentage of listed or rated physicians) of the ratings according to the regional physician density on only one physician-rating website (pexample, dermatologist ratings were better in regions with a higher physician density compared to regions with a lower number of physicians (average rating: 2.16 vs. 2.67; p<0.001). Online ratings of dermatologists and ENT specialists hardly differ in terms of regional physician density. Physician-rating websites thus do not appear to be appropriate to mirror differences in the health service delivery structure. Our findings thus do not confirm the

  5. CARABID BEATLES AS INDICATORS REFLECTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIVER REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kędzior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate factors responsible for sustaining riverine communities in stream sections with various bank regulation systems. The research were conducted on Porebianka stream in the Polish Western Carpathians, where 10 different types of river regulations were chosen for the analysis (strong incision without alluvial deposits, redeposition with sand and gravel banks, concrete revetment walls along the banks, channel with banks lined with rip-rap and reference unmanaged cross- section. We conclude that the carabid beetles assemblages of the studied river sections respond mainly to hydraulic parameters of the stream. Elimination of frequent natural bank inundation (due to the regulations of the banks is the main factor responsible for the impoverishment and extinction of riverine communities.

  6. The cuticular hydrocarbons profiles in the stingless bee Melipona marginata reflect task-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Mateus, S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2010-07-01

    Members of social insect colonies employ a large variety of chemical signals during their life. Of these, cuticular hydrocarbons are of primary importance for social insects since they allow for the recognition of conspecifics, nestmates and even members of different castes. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the variation of the chemical profiles among workers of the stingless bee Melipona marginata, and (2) to investigate the dependence of the chemical profiles on the age and on the behavior of the studied individuals. The results showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers were composed of alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes that varied quantitatively and qualitatively according to function of workers in the colony. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  8. A workflow for sub-/seismic structure and deformation quantification of 3-D reflection seismic data sets across different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, C.M.; Lohr, T.; Oncken, O. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Tanner, D.C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). GZG; Endres, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)]|[TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Trappe, H.; Kukla, P. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The evolution of a sedimentary basin is mostly affected by deformation. Large-scale, subsurface deformation is typically identified by seismic data, sub-seismic small-scale fractures by well data. Between these two methods, we lack a deeper understanding of how deformation scales. We analysed a 3-D reflection seismic data set in the North German Basin, in order to determine the magnitude and distribution of deformation and its accumulation in space and time. A five-step approach is introduced for quantitative deformation and fracture prediction. An increased resolution of subtle tectonic lineaments is achieved by coherency processing, allowing to unravel the kinematics in the North German Basin from structural interpretation. Extensional events during basin initiation and later inversion are evident. 3-D retrodeformation shows major-strain magnitudes between 0-20% up to 1.3 km away from a fault trace, and variable deviations of associated extensional fractures. Good correlation of FMI data, strain distribution from retro-deformation and from geostatistic tools (see also Trappe et al., this volume) allows the validation of the results and makes the prediction of small-scale faults/fractures possible. The temporal component will be gained in the future by analogue models. The suggested workflow is applicable to reflection seismic surveys and yields in great detail both the tectonic history of a region as well as predictions for hydrocarbon plays or deep groundwater or geothermal reservoirs. (orig.)

  9. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascelli, Samantha; Fasulo, Daniel; Noy, Karin; Wittemberg, Gayle; Pignatelli, Sara; Piatelli, Gianluca; Cama, Armando; Garré, Maria Luisa; Capra, Valeria; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa; Raso, Alessandro; Mosci, Sofia; Nozza, Paolo; Biassoni, Roberto; Morana, Giovanni; Huber, Martin; Mircean, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l 1 l 2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs

  10. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yuyama, Ikuko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  12. Sunk cost and work ethic effects reflect suboptimal choice between different work requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    We investigated suboptimal choice between different work requirements in pigeons (Columba livia), namely the sunk cost effect, an irrational tendency to persist with an initial investment, despite the availability of a better option. Pigeons chose between two keys, one with a fixed work requirement to food of 20 pecks (left key), and the other with a work requirement to food which varied across conditions (center key). On some trials within each session, such choices were preceded by an investment of 35 pecks on the center key, whereas on others they were not. On choice trials preceded by the investment, the pigeons tended to stay and complete the schedule associated with the center key, even when the number of pecks to obtain reward was greater than for the concurrently available left key. This result indicates that pigeons, like humans, commit the sunk cost effect. With higher work requirements, this preference was extended to trials where there was no initial investment, so an overall preference for the key associated with more work was evident, consistent with the work ethic effect. We conclude that a more general work ethic effect is amplified by the effect of the prior investment, that is, the sunk cost effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-06-19

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  14. Modeling Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function of One-dimensional Random Rough Surfaces with the Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jhong Gu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a suite of programs that is capable of simulating the radiation properties of a random rough surface (RRS. The fundamental approach involves the generation, by fast Fourier transform (FFT built with rigorous finite difference time domain (FDTD, as the theoretical basis for the simulation of a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF of the RRS. The results are compared with the measurements and modeling of existing work to verify the feasibility of customized programming. It was found that the results of this study were a better match to the measurement data than those achieved in other modeling work.

  15. Different Phases of Earthquake Cycle Reflected in GPS Measured Crustal Deformations along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.; Klotz, J.

    2001-12-01

    largest ever recorded earthquake on the earth. To properly interpret given observations, we developed the fully \\textsc{3D} Andean Elastic Dislocation Model (AEDM), which is used to explain the dominant inter-seismic signal. The subtraction of the AEDM predicted deformation rates from the observations leads towards the "filtered" residual velocity field, that can be used to highlight, for example, the post-seismic deformation effects. Also, in the central section of the SAGA network, the residual velocity field indicates the existence of more long-term (i.e. geologic) deformations. In summary, the changing spatial-temporal pattern of GPS measured crustal deformation rates along the central and southern Andes is governed by the relative importance of different phases of earthquake deformation cycle.

  16. Application of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence method to the elemental analysis of brain tumors of different types and grades of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankosz, M.W.; Grzelak, M.; Ostachowicz, B.; Wandzilak, A.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Wrobel, P.; Radwanska, E.; Adamek, D.

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis may influence normal biochemical reactions leading to alterations in the elemental composition of the tissue. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) was applied to the elemental analysis of different brain tumors. The following elements were present in all the neoplastic tissues analyzed: K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The results of the analysis showed that the elemental composition of a relatively small fragment of tissue represents satisfactorily the biochemical “signature” of a cancer. On the basis of the element concentrations determined, it was possible to differentiate between some types of brain tumors. - Highlights: • Elemental composition represents the biochemical signature of brain cancer. • The element levels differentiate some types of brain tumors. • TXRF spectrometry is a useful tool for elemental trace analysis of brain cancer

  17. Anachronism in the writing of History: ¿Error or Possibility? Some reflections about the concept of time in Carlo Ginzburg, Marc Bloch and Georges Didi-Huberman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Chaves Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In his unfinished and posthumously published book Apologie pour l’histoire, Marc Bloch bestowed on future historians a seminal legacy of critical reflections on the concept of time as the object of historical analysis. During the last decades, the concept of time in History has experienced a renewed interest by professional historians, in particular in reference to the category of anachronism. The Italian historian Carlo Ginzburg and the French art historian Georges Didi-Huberman are among those engaged in this debate. This article offers a reading of two works by these historians with the purpose of underlying the fundamental influence that Marc Bloch’s ideas on time had in Ginzburg and Didi-Hubermans’ critical interventions.

  18. Worldwide distribution of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence instrumentation and its different fields of application: A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkämper, Reinhold, E-mail: reinhold.klockenkaemper@isas.de; Bohlen, Alex von

    2014-09-01

    A survey was carried out with users and manufacturers of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence instrumentation in order to demonstrate the worldwide distribution of TXRF equipment and the different fields of applications. In general, TXRF users come from universities and scientific institutes, from working places at synchrotron beam-lines, or laboratories in semiconductor fabs. TXRF instrumentation is distributed in more than 50 countries on six continents and is applied at about 200 institutes and laboratories. The number of running desktop instruments amounts to nearly 300 units. About 60 beamlines run working places dedicated to TXRF. About 300 floor-mounted instruments are estimated to be used in about 150 fabs of the semiconductor industry. In total, 13 different fields of applications could be registered statistically from three different aspects. - Highlights: • According to the survey world maps show the distribution of TXRF equipment. • Nearly 700 individual units are running actually in 57 countries of 6 continents. • Users work at 200 universities, 60 synchrotron-beamlines, and 150 semiconductor fabs. • 13 fields of applications (e.g. environmental, chemical) are evaluated statistically. • Manufacturers, conference members and authors lead to 3 different pie-charts.

  19. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  20. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  1. Does the myth of Phaethon reflect an impact? Revising the fall of Phaethon and considering a possible relation to the Chiemgau Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappenglock, B.; Rappenglock, M.

    In Greek Mythology there exists one story that has repeatedly been interpreted to describe the fall of a celestial body: the story of Phaethon, who undertakes a disastrous drive with the sun-chariot of his father Helios. First, the article presents the arguments given by ancient authors for interpreting this story as the reflection of a natural phenomenon. Then details given in the old descriptions of Phaethon's fall are compared with nowadays knowledge of impact phenomena. Furthermore the texts are examined for clues to the time and the location of the hypothesized impact. These considerations called Chiemgau Impact. The impact struck the south-east of Bavaria Germany at some time during the Celtic period and left an extended crater-strewnfield of about 100 craters. A conspicuous intersection between the tradition of the Phaethon story and the up to now known time-frame for the Chiemgau Impact gives new clues for dating the Chiemgau Impact to the time between 600 and 428 B.C.

  2. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  3. Classification and Discrimination of Different Fungal Diseases of Three Infection Levels on Peaches Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peaches are susceptible to infection from several postharvest diseases. In order to control disease and avoid potential health risks, it is important to identify suitable treatments for each disease type. In this study, the spectral and imaging information from hyperspectral reflectance (400~1000 nm was used to evaluate and classify three kinds of common peach disease. To reduce the large dimensionality of the hyperspectral imaging, principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyse each wavelength image as a whole, and the first principal component was selected to extract the imaging features. A total of 54 parameters were extracted as imaging features for one sample. Three decayed stages (slight, moderate and severe decayed peaches were considered for classification by deep belief network (DBN and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA in this study. The results showed that the DBN model has better classification results than the classification accuracy of the PLSDA model. The DBN model based on integrated information (494 features showed the highest classification results for the three diseases, with accuracies of 82.5%, 92.5%, and 100% for slightly-decayed, moderately-decayed and severely-decayed samples, respectively. The successive projections algorithm (SPA was used to select the optimal features from the integrated information; then, six optimal features were selected from a total of 494 features to establish the simple model. The SPA-PLSDA model showed better results which were more feasible for industrial application. The results showed that the hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique is feasible for detecting different kinds of diseased peaches, especially at the moderately- and severely-decayed levels.

  4. Preliminary Studies on the Reflectance Characteristics of graphene/SiO2 under Different Applied Voltages for Optical Modulation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, K. P.; Yam, F. K.; Abdalrheem, Raed; Ng, Y. Z.; Suhaimi, F. H. A.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    A preliminary study on the interband transition of graphene was done via reflectance spectra of graphene/SiO2 sample at various applied potential. Prior to that, Raman spectroscopy and four-point probe measurement was done on graphene/SiO2 sample. It was found that the sample consisted of monolayer graphene with sheet resistance around 402.32 Ω/□. Post-processing of the reflectance data lead to the plot of ratio of change in reflectance towards reflectance at 0 V (ΔR/R) against applied potential. From there, the ratio increases along with applied potential, indicative of higher absorption due to interband transition.

  5. Why the carrot is more effective than the stick: different dynamics of punishment memory and reward memory and its possible biological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mori, Yasuhiro; Hirashima, Daisuke; Nishino, Hiroshi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2009-10-01

    One of the most extensively debated topics in educational psychology is whether punishment or reward is more effective for producing short-term and long-term behavioral changes, and it has been proposed that the effect of punishment is less durable than the effect of reward. However, no conclusive evidence to support this proposal has been obtained in any animals. We recently found that punishment memory decayed much faster than reward memory in olfactory learning and visual pattern learning in crickets. We also found that neurotransmitters conveying punishment and reward signals differ in crickets: dopaminergic and octopaminergic neurons play critical roles in conveying punishment and reward signals, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether these features are general features of cricket learning or are specific to olfactory and visual pattern learning. We found that crickets have the capability of color learning and that their color learning has the same features. Based on our findings in crickets and those reported in other species of insects, we conclude that these two features are conserved in many forms of insect learning. In mammals, aminergic neurons are known to convey reward and punishment signals in learning of a variety of sensory stimuli. We propose that the faster decay of punishment memory than reward memory observed in insects and humans reflects different cellular and biochemical processes after activation of receptors for amines conveying punishment and reward signals. The possible adaptive significance of relatively limited durability of punishment memory is proposed.

  6. Benthic flux of dissolved organic matter from lake sediment at different redox conditions and the possible effects of biogeochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyang; Choi, Jung Hyun; Hur, Jin

    2014-09-15

    The benthic fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM) were studied for the sediment from an artificial lake, based on laboratory benthic chamber experiments. Conservative estimates for the benthic flux of DOC were 71 ± 142 and 51 ± 101 mg m(-2) day(-1) at hypoxic and oxic conditions, respectively. Two humic-like (C1 and C2), one tryptophan-like (C3), and one microbial humic-like (C4) components were identified from the samples using fluorescence excitation emission matrices and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). During the incubation period, C3 was removed while C4 was accumulated in the overlying water with no significant difference in the trends between the redox conditions. The humification index (HIX) increased with time. The combined results for C3, C4 and HIX suggested that microbial transformation may be an important process affecting the flux behaviors of DOM. In contrast, the overall accumulations of CDOM, C1, and C2 in the overlying water occurred only for the hypoxic condition, which was possibly explained by their enhanced photo-degradation and sorption to redox-sensitive minerals under the oxic condition. Our study demonstrated significant benthic flux of DOM in lake sediment and also the possible involvement of biogeochemical transformation in the processes, providing insight into carbon cycling in inland waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability and in vitro release profile of enalapril maleate from different commercially available tablets: possible therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Dione Marçal; dos Santos, Leandro Dias; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2008-08-05

    Stability of enalapril maleate formulations can be affected when the product is exposed to higher temperature and humidity, with the formation of two main degradation products: enalaprilat and a diketopiperazine derivative. In this work, stability and drug release profiles of 20 mg enalapril maleate tablets (reference, generic and similar products) were evaluated. After 180 days of the accelerated stability testing, most products did not exhibit the specified amount of drug. Additionally, drug release profiles were markedly different from that of the reference product, mainly due to drug degradation. Changes in drug concentration and drug release profile of enalapril formulations are strong indicators of a compromised bioavailability, with possible interferences on the therapeutic response for this drug.

  8. Effect of different materials of all-ceramic crowns on viability of fibroblasts and preliminary exploration of possible molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of different materials of all-ceramic crowns on viability of fibroblasts and the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods: Fibroblast cell lines L929 were cultured, extracting solution of diatomite ceramic, casting ceramic, heat-pressed ceramic, infiltrated ceramic and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain was prepared and used to process L929 cells, and then cell apoptosis, percentages of cell cycle as well as expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 were detected. Results: Cell apoptosis indexes, number of early apoptosis, number of aponecrosis, percentages of G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase cells as well as expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 of diatomite ceramic group, casting ceramic group, heat-pressed ceramic group and infiltrated ceramic group had no differences from those of control group; cell apoptosis indexes, number of early apoptosis, number of aponecrosis, percentages of G2 phase cells as well as expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 of diatomite ceramic group, casting ceramic group, heat-pressed ceramic group and infiltrated ceramic group were lower than those of Ni-Cr alloy porcelain group, and percentages of G1 phase and S phase cells as well as expression levels of Bcl-2 were significantly higher than those of Ni-Cr alloy porcelain group. Conclusion: The effect of different materials of all-ceramic crowns on viability of fibroblasts has no differences and is weaker than that of Ni-Cr alloy porcelain crown, and biocompatibility of diatomite ceramic is equivalent to that of casting ceramic, heat-pressed ceramic, infiltrated ceramic and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain; mechanisms of different materials of all-ceramic crowns to regulate cell viability include Bcl-2/Bax pathway and Caspase pathway.

  9. Chlorophyll-a Algorithms for Oligotrophic Oceans: A Novel Approach Based on Three-Band Reflectance Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Lee, Zhongping; Franz, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    A new empirical algorithm is proposed to estimate surface chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl) in the global ocean for Chl less than or equal to 0.25 milligrams per cubic meters (approximately 77% of the global ocean area). The algorithm is based on a color index (CI), defined as the difference between remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs), sr(sup -1) in the green and a reference formed linearly between R(sub rs) in the blue and red. For low Chl waters, in situ data showed a tighter (and therefore better) relationship between CI and Chl than between traditional band-ratios and Chl, which was further validated using global data collected concurrently by ship-borne and SeaWiFS satellite instruments. Model simulations showed that for low Chl waters, compared with the band-ratio algorithm, the CI-based algorithm (CIA) was more tolerant to changes in chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficient, and performed similarly for different relative contributions of non-phytoplankton absorption. Simulations using existing atmospheric correction approaches further demonstrated that the CIA was much less sensitive than band-ratio algorithms to various errors induced by instrument noise and imperfect atmospheric correction (including sun glint and whitecap corrections). Image and time-series analyses of SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua data also showed improved performance in terms of reduced image noise, more coherent spatial and temporal patterns, and consistency between the two sensors. The reduction in noise and other errors is particularly useful to improve the detection of various ocean features such as eddies. Preliminary tests over MERIS and CZCS data indicate that the new approach should be generally applicable to all existing and future ocean color instruments.

  10. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Ružica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific community till the end of the twentieth century. Investigations of albumin polymorphism in blood serum of native mountain horse were taken within a comprehensive reserch on morphologic, physiologic and genetic structure of this autochtonous ungulata breed. On the basis of the results obtained by electrophoretic separation of albumine types in native mountaneous horse blood serum, there were determined four albumine phenotypes: AA, AB, BB and BI which are inherited by three autosomal alleles AlA, Alb, All . The appearance of All allele in native mountaneous horse population points out to diluvial forest horse impact on process of microevolution of autochtonous native mountaneous horse. Occidental- specific albumin isoforms presence indicate the necessity of thorough study of evolution position and historic influence of different ancestors, and especially occidental horses on native mountain horse population in Serbia.

  11. Contribution of the french society of radiological protection to the current reflections on the possible improvement of the radiological risk management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, J.F.; Schieber, C.

    2000-01-01

    , critical group etc.). The Group investigates what are the indicators and tools actually used, by whom, what for, how they are used. etc. 4. Implementation of the radiological risk management system. The radiological protection system must draw clear distinctions between the different types of exposure situations and lay down corresponding modes of management, with appropriate indicators and tools. The Working Group looks for the improvements which could make the system simpler and thus easier to understand by both the professionals and the general public. For all these point, the Working Group formulates proposals which are presented for discussion. (author)

  12. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Flow-mediated dilation and peripheral arterial tonometry are disturbed in preeclampsia and reflect different aspects of endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaerts, Dominique; Faes, Ellen; Goovaerts, Inge; Stoop, Tibor; Cornette, Jerome; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Spaanderman, Marc; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Jacquemyn, Yves

    2017-11-01

    Endothelial function and arterial stiffness are known to be altered in preeclamptic pregnancies. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the best technique for assessing vascular function in pregnancy. In this study, we made a comprehensive evaluation of in vivo vascular function [including flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and arterial stiffness] in preeclamptic patients and compared them with normal pregnancies. In addition, we assessed the relation between vascular function and systemic inflammation. Fourteen patients with preeclampsia (PE) and 14 healthy pregnant controls were included. Endothelial function was determined by FMD and PAT and arterial stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and augmentation index. Systemic inflammation was assessed using mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The reactive hyperemia index, assessed using PAT, is decreased at the third trimester compared with the first trimester in a normal, uncomplicated pregnancy ( P = 0.001). Arterial stiffness is significantly higher in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P function, obtained by FMD, is deteriorated in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P = 0.015), whereas endothelial function assessment by PAT is improved in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P = 0.001). Systemic inflammation (MPV and NLR) increases during normal pregnancy. FMD and PAT are disturbed in PE. Endothelial function, assessed by FMD and PAT, shows distinct results. This may indicate that measurements with FMD and PAT reflect different aspects of endothelial function and that PAT should not be used as a substitute for FMD as a measure of endothelial function in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  15. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis

  16. Differences in Presentation, Management and Outcomes in Women and Men Presenting to an Emergency Department With Possible Cardiac Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Lorcan; H Greenslade, Jaimi; Parsonage, William; Hawkins, Tracey; Hammett, Christopher; Lam, Carolyn Sp; Knowlman, Thomas; Doig, Shaela; Cullen, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that female patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) experience delays in emergency department (ED) management and are less likely to receive guideline-based treatments and referrals for follow-up testing. Women are often found to have poorer clinical outcomes in comparison to men. This study aimed to assess current sex differences in the presentation, management and outcomes of patients with undifferentiated chest pain presenting to a tertiary ED. Data were analysed from two prospective studies conducted at a single Australian site between 2007 and 2014. Eligible patients were those of 18 years of age or older presenting with at least 5 minutes of chest pain or other symptoms for which the treating physician planned to investigate for possible ACS. Presenting symptoms, ED time measures, follow-up testing and outcomes, including 30-day ACS and mortality, were measured and compared between male and female patients. Of 2349 (60% men) patients presenting with chest pain, 153 men and 51 women were diagnosed with ACS within 30days . Presenting symptoms were similar in men and women with confirmed ACS. Time from symptom onset to ED presentation, time spent in the ED and total time in hospital were similar between the sexes. Male and female patients had similar rates of follow-up provocative testing. After adjustment for clinical factors, the odds of undergoing angiography were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.36-2.40) times higher for men than women. Of those undergoing coronary angiography within 30 days, a smaller proportion of women, compared to men, received revascularisation. Within 30 days, three (0.2%) male and one (0.1%) female patient died. Minimal sex differences were observed in the contemporary emergency management of patients presenting with suspected ACS. Thirty-day outcomes were similarly low in men and women despite lower rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation in women. Further research is required to replicate these results in different

  17. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  18. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  19. On the Meaning of Formative Measurement and How It Differs from Reflective Measurement: Comment on Howell, Breivik, and Wilcox (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    D. Howell, E. Breivik, and J. B. Wilcox (2007) have presented an important and interesting analysis of formative measurement and have recommended that researchers abandon such an approach in favor of reflective measurement. The author agrees with their recommendations but disagrees with some of the bases for their conclusions. He suggests that…

  20. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  1. The size control of silver nanocrystals with different polyols and its application to low-reflection coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keum Hwan; Park, O Ok [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sang Hyuk, E-mail: imromy@krict.re.kr, E-mail: ookpark@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 19 Singsungno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-28

    The size of silver nanocrystals in polyol synthesis can be simply controlled by tuning the viscosity of the reaction medium such as ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol. We found that a higher viscose medium (1,5-pentanediol) led to monodispersed smaller particles thanks to the slow addition of silver atoms into the nuclei. Size-controlled silver nanocrystals of 30 nm were obtained in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol to synthesize a low refractive index filler by coating with silica and subsequent etching of the silver core. The coated low-reflection layer from the hollow silica nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film can greatly reduce the reflection of the PET film from 10% to 2% over the entire visible region.

  2. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, climate change, and reduced visibility. Typically OC and EC concentrations are measured using thermal-optical methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) from samples collected on quartz filters. In this work, we estimate TOR OC and EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) filters using partial least square regression (PLSR) calibrated to TOR OC and EC measurements for a wide range of samples. The proposed method can be integrated with analysis of routinely collected PTFE filter samples that, in addition to OC and EC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the functional group composition of the organic aerosol. We have used the FT-IR absorbance spectra and TOR OC and EC concentrations collected in the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network (USA). We used 526 samples collected in 2011 at seven sites to calibrate the models, and more than 2000 samples collected in 2013 at 17 sites to test the models. Samples from six sites are present both in the calibration and test sets. The calibrations produce accurate predictions both for samples collected at the same six sites present in the calibration set (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.95 for OC and EC respectively), and for samples from 9 of the 11 sites not included in the calibration set (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.91 for OC and EC respectively). Samples collected at the other two sites require a different calibration model to achieve accurate predictions. We also propose a method to anticipate the prediction error; we calculate the squared Mahalanobis distance in the feature space (scores determined by PLSR) between new spectra and spectra in the calibration set. The squared Mahalanobis distance provides a crude method for assessing the

  3. Alteration of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine level during biologic therapy for psoriasis: Possibility as a marker reflecting favorable response to anti-interleukin-17A agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Takashi; Honma, Masaru; Iinuma, Shin; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2018-06-01

    Biologics show great efficacy in treating psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The high cost and side-effects of biologics, dose-reduction, elongation of administration interval and suspension are possible options. However, there has been no reliable biomarker we can use when we consider these moderations in therapy. This study was conducted to test the possibility of using serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level as an indicator for step down of biologic therapy. Serum TARC level was measured in 70 psoriatic patients at Asahikawa Medical University, and a correlation of TARC and severity of skin lesions was analyzed. Referring to serum TARC level, psoriatic patients can be divided into two groups. One is a population in which serum TARC level is positively correlated with severity of skin lesions, and the other is a population with low psoriatic severity and high TARC level. Serum TARC level was higher in the group that achieved PASI-clear with biologics than in the group which did not achieve PASI-clear. Among biologics, the group treated with secukinumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-17A agent, showed significantly higher TARC level compared with the group treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. In certain populations achieving PASI-clear, serum TARC level may be a potent marker reflecting better response to IL-17A inhibitors, and in this case step down of treatment for psoriasis is possible. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  5. [Reflection on the Differences and Similarities of Mental Health Care in Virginia and Taiwan: Geography, History, Culture, and Nurse Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chueh-Fen; Tung, Ching-Chuan; Ely, Linda

    2016-12-01

    Sponsored by the pilot overseas internships project of the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, the authors and ten undergraduate students from Taiwan visited several mental health facilities in Virginia for one month. These facilities included the Catawba State Hospital, Salem Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Carilion Saint Albans Behavioral Health (New River Valley Medical Center), Warm Hearth Village, Adult & Child Family Counseling private outpatient clinic, the Free Clinic of the New River Valley, New Life Clubhouse, and Self-Government Program for Assertive Community Treatment. In-depth dialogue and participation in nursing care under the supervision of registered nurses facilitated the authors' reflection on mental health care and the roles and functions of Taiwanese nurse practitioners. The present article adopts a macro view in order to compare the related issues between Taiwan and Virginia, including: geographic features, history, culture of health-seeking behavior, healthcare insurance, and the relationships among various professionals. How these issues relate to social-cultural background and how the overall healthcare environment impacts upon the roles of nurse practitioners in Taiwan are rarely discussed in literature. We expect that this cross-cultural contrast and reflection will elicit a better understanding of how these factors have shaped and affected the roles of Taiwanese nurse practitioners. Further, suggestions about how to improve the nursing profession in Taiwan are presented.

  6. FT-IR reflection spectra of single crystals: resolving phonons of different symmetry without using polarised radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METODIJA NAJDOSKI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR reflection spectra, asquired at nearnormal incidence, were recorded from single crystals belonging to six crystal systems: CsCr(SO42.12H2O (alum, cubic, K2CuCl2·2H2O (Mitscherlichite, tetragonal, CaCO3 (calcite, hexagonal, KHSO4 (mercallite, orthorhombic, CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum, monoclinic and CuSO4·5H2O (chalcantite, triclinic. The acquired IR reflection spectra were further transformed into absorption spectra, employing the Kramers-Kronig transformation. Except for the cubic alums, the spectra strongly depend on the crystal face from which they were recorded; this is a consequence of anisotropy. Phonons of a given symmetry (E-species, in tetragonal/hexagonal and B-species, in monoclinic crystals may be resolved without using a polariser. The spectrum may be simplified in the case of an orthorhombic crystal, as well. The longitudinal-optical (LO and transversal-optical (TO mode frequencies were calculated in the case of optically isotropic and the simplified spectra of optically uniaxial crystals.

  7. Estimates of leaf area index from spectral reflectance of wheat under different cultural practices and solar angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Yoshida, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of management practices and solar illumination angle on the leaf area index (LAI) was estimated from measurements of wheat canopy reflectance evaluated by two methods, a regression formula and an indirect technique. The date of planting and the time of irrigation in relation to the stage of plant growth were found to have significant effects on the development of leaves in spring wheat. A reduction in soil moisture adversely affected both the duration and magnitude of the maximum LAI for late planting dates. In general, water stress during vegetative stages resulted in a reduction in maximum LAI, while water stress during the reproductive period shortened the duration of green LAI in spring wheat. Canopy geometry and solar angle also affected the spectral properties of the canopies, and hence the estimated LAI. Increase in solar zenith angles resulted in a general increase in estimated LAI obtained from both methods.

  8. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  9. Evaluation of different estimating techniques to generate best possible total return on investing on individual stocks on Oslo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Larikka, Jyri Egil

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance My intension with this thesis is to present three different kinds of models to analyze stock market and to find good buy candidates. They use different methodology as the first is using pair-trading, the second is using technical analysis and the third is using regression analysis. The first model uses momentum strategy and adaptive market hypothesis in a pair trading context to dynamically generate good pairs of stocks based on their log return and correlatio...

  10. Auditory Evoked Potentials and Hand Preference in 6-Month-Old Infants: Possible Gender-Related Differences in Cerebral Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucard, Janet L.; Shucard, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal and musical stimuli were presented to infants in a study of the relations of evoked potential left-right amplitude asymmetries to gender and hand preference. There was a relation between asymmetry and hand preference, and for girls, between asymmetry and stimulus condition. Results suggest a gender difference in cerebral hemisphere…

  11. Viewing the Changing World of Educational Technology from a Different Perspective: Present Realities, Past Lessons, and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martie; George, Ann

    2017-01-01

    This review paper focuses on likely reasons for the rhetoric-reality gap in the use of educational information and communication technology. It is based on the assumption that the present challenges being experienced with educational ICT might be avoided in the future if we look at the current challenges from a different perspective, by revisiting…

  12. Antigenic differences between bovine viral diarrhea viruses and HoBi virus: Possible impacts on diagnosis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare antigenic differences between HoBi virus and BVDV strains that might impact on diagnostics and control. Eighteen non-cytopathic isolates of pestiviruses including the 5 genotypic groups (BVDV1a-c, BVDV2, BDV) and HoBi virus, were tested using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  13. Potential distribution of Podocnemis lewyana (Reptilia: Podocnemididae) and its possible fluctuation under different global climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Yusty, Carlos; Restrepo, Adriana; Paez, Vivian P

    2014-01-01

    We implemented a species distribution modelling approach to establish the potential distribution of Podocnemis lewyana, to explore the climatic factors that may influence the species' distribution and to evaluate possible changes in distribution under future climate scenarios. The distribution models predicted a continuous distribution from south to north along the Magdalena River, from Rivera and Palermo in the Department of Huila to the departments of Atlantico and Magdalena in the north. Temperature was the variable most influential in the distribution of P. lewyana; this species tends to be present in warm regions with low temperature variability. The distribution model predicted an increase in the geographic range of P. lewyana under climate change scenarios. However, taking into account the habitat preferences of this species and its strong association with water, this result should be treated with caution since the model considered only terrestrial climatic variables. Given the life history characteristics of this species (temperature dependent sex determination, high pivotal temperature and a very narrow transition range) and the negative effect of changes in hydrological regimes on embryo survival, expansion of the potential distribution of P. lewyana in the future does not mean that the species will not be affected by global climate change.

  14. Inclusive decays of the B meson and possible life-time difference between Bd0 and B± mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    1992-01-01

    We study branching ratios of the inclusive semileptonic decay and the inclusive anti ccanti s decay of the B meson in the spectator model, focusing on the life-time difference between B d 0 and B + mesons. In the case of τsub(B ± )/τsub(B d 0 )=1, it is impossible to get the branching ratio below 12% for B→eνX without going over 20% for B→anti ccanti s, which is unfavored by the inclusive K - decay of the B meson. It is found that the sizable life-time difference leads to the reasonable inclusive semileptonic decay rate and the inclusive anti ccanti s decay rate. (orig.)

  15. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  16. Characterization of different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for possible use in glucose-based biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Beden, Najat; Gorton, Lo [Lund University, Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund (Sweden); Leech, Donal [National University of Ireland Galway, School of Chemistry, Galway (Ireland); Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland [BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Wien (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    In this study, different flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) were characterized electrochemically after ''wiring'' them with an osmium redox polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine){sub 2}(PVI){sub 10}Cl]{sup +} on graphite electrodes. One tested FADGDH was that recently discovered in Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH), another was the recombinant form expressed in Pichia pastoris (rGcGDH), and the third was a commercially available glycosylated enzyme from Aspergillus sp. (AspGDH). The performance of the Os-polymer ''wired'' GDHs on graphite electrodes was tested with glucose as the substrate. Optimal operational conditions and analytical characteristics like sensitivity, linear ranges and current density of the different FADGDHs were determined. The performance of all three types of FADGDHs was studied at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The current densities measured at a 20 mM glucose concentration were 494 {+-} 17, 370 {+-} 24, and 389 {+-} 19 {mu}A cm{sup -2} for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. The sensitivities towards glucose were 2.16, 1.90, and 1.42 {mu}A mM{sup -1} for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. Additionally, deglycosylated rGcGDH (dgrGcGDH) was investigated to see whether the reduced glycosylation would have an effect, e.g., a higher current density, which was indeed found. GcGDH/Os-polymer modified electrodes were also used and investigated for their selectivity for a number of different sugars. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for possible use in glucose-based biosensors and biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Beden, Najat; Leech, Dónal; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo

    2012-02-01

    In this study, different flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) were characterized electrochemically after "wiring" them with an osmium redox polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(PVI)(10)Cl](+) on graphite electrodes. One tested FADGDH was that recently discovered in Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH), another was the recombinant form expressed in Pichia pastoris (rGcGDH), and the third was a commercially available glycosylated enzyme from Aspergillus sp. (AspGDH). The performance of the Os-polymer "wired" GDHs on graphite electrodes was tested with glucose as the substrate. Optimal operational conditions and analytical characteristics like sensitivity, linear ranges and current density of the different FADGDHs were determined. The performance of all three types of FADGDHs was studied at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The current densities measured at a 20 mM glucose concentration were 494 ± 17, 370 ± 24, and 389 ± 19 μA cm(-2) for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. The sensitivities towards glucose were 2.16, 1.90, and 1.42 μA mM(-1) for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. Additionally, deglycosylated rGcGDH (dgrGcGDH) was investigated to see whether the reduced glycosylation would have an effect, e.g., a higher current density, which was indeed found. GcGDH/Os-polymer modified electrodes were also used and investigated for their selectivity for a number of different sugars.

  18. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  19. Variation in prescribing for anxiety and depression: a reflection of health inequalities, cultural differences or variations in access to care?

    OpenAIRE

    Peters Jean; Grimsley Michael; Dibben Chris; Goyder Elizabeth; Blank Lindsay; Ellis Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There are large variations in mental health prescribing in UK populations. However the underlying reasons for these differences, which may be related to differences in prevalence, cultural expectations or practical difficulties in access to treatment, remain uncertain. Methods Linear modelling was used to investigate whether population characteristics or access to primary care account for variations in mental health prescribing across 39 deprived neighbourhoods. Results Th...

  20. Possibilities of introducing different functional circuits on top of a structural neuron triplet: Where do the gains lie?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franović, Igor; Miljković, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identify different types of functional circuits in structural triplets. ► The approach utilizes the properties of synapses with fast-threshold modulation. ► We observe correspondence between sequences in the time series and the triads. ► Triads are assigned roles with respect to synchronization. ► Regularization of bursting series is explained by classifying all the bursts. - Abstract: Instigated by the research on clusterization phenomena in complex neural networks, we study a triplet of bursting Rulkov map neurons connected via inhibitory synapses with delay. It is demonstrated how on a background of structural motif one can build different types of functional circuits. The approach is based on utilizing the properties of the chemical synapses, whose gating is modeled by the fast threshold modulation, in conjunction with the phase plane analysis, allowing the system state to be represented in terms of maps the neurons reside on. For both the dynamical configurations, monitoring the layout of active neurons, and the functional motifs, following the maps where the synchronized neurons lie, we establish a one-on-one correspondence between sequences in the time series and the triads, making up the subgraphs of the original graph. By introducing the appropriate sets of quantities, one obtains not only the distributions of triads as a function of synaptic parameters, but is also able to identify a distinct triad whose presence may be viewed as a signature of the burst synchronization process. In another setup, the regularization of burst cycles for an arbitrary neuron is explained by classifying all the bursts as long or short, with their fractions linked to the abundances of triads under variation of synaptic parameters.

  1. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  2. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences.

  3. Radiation-induced systemic and local bone tumors: Two types of late effects with possible different origins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.A.; Luz, A.; Linzner, U.

    1994-01-01

    Bone sarcomas may be induced throughout the skeleton (systemic) in mice by relatively low internal α-particle doses that are distributed over the whole skeleton. The induction of local (periosteal) bone sarcomas after paratibial deposition of insoluble radiocolloids required much higher doses, and in addition high energies of emitted particles. Paratibial deposition of α-particle-emitting radiocolloids of 227 Th and 228 Th resulted in formation of both local and systemic bone sarcomas. The latter were most probably induced by the released radium daughters of the thorium isotopes and were distributed about the skeleton. Paratibial injections with β-particle emitters 144 Ce+ 144 Pr (29 kBq per mouse) showed an incidence of local bone sarcomas of more than 80%. An estimation of the local effective doses led to values of more than 1000 Gy for the β-particle emitter 144 Ce and around 150 Gy for the thorium isotopes. Thus induction of local bone sarcomas required doses considerably greater than those needed for systemic bone sarcomas. The local induction of bone sarcomas has been reported for high-energy β particles using similar high doses of 144 Ce+ 144 Pr in rats and for external 90 Sr+ 90 Y irradiation in mice. We conclude that the processes involved in the induction of local and systemic bone sarcomas by radiation may be quite different. 35 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Sex Differences in Performance with the Hand and Arm in near and Far Space: A Possible Effect of Tool Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Sanders

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Using novel tasks, we tested two predictions from the hunter-gatherer hypothesis concerning sex differences in the motor control of hand and arm and in the visual processing of near and far space. In Study 1 we replicated earlier findings by demonstrating that women scored higher with the hand while men scored higher with the arm. Study 2 tested the motor and visual predictions concurrently and showed that the Muscle*Sex interaction, seen in Study 1, occurs in far as well as near space. However, we failed to confirm that women perform better with visual information from near and men from far space. Instead the relative performance of women and men was the same in far as it was in near space. Drawing on evidence from studies of selective visual neglect we suggest that this outcome arose because tool use causes far space to be re-mapped as near space. Finally, the selective visual neglect literature indicates that the processing of far and near space is located in the ventral and dorsal cortical streams, previously described as two “what”/“where” visual systems. We draw attention to their additional “there”/“here” functions that are sex dimorphic and, as we have shown, modulated by tool use.

  5. A time estimation task as a possible measure of emotions: difference depending on the nature of the stimulus used.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriane eGros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Time perception is fundamental for human experience. A topic which has attracted the attention of researchers since long time is how the stimulus sensory modality (e.g., images vs. sounds affects time judgments. However, so far, no study has directly compared the effect of two sensory modalities using emotional stimuli on time judgments.Methods: In the present two studies, healthy participants were asked to estimate the duration of a pure sound preceded by the presentation of odors vs. emotional videos as priming stimuli (implicit emotion-eliciting task. During the task, skin conductance (SC was measured as an index of arousal. Results: Olfactory stimuli resulted in an increase in SC and in a constant time overestimation. Video stimuli resulted in an increase SC (emotional arousal, which decreased linearly overtime. Critically, video stimuli resulted in an initial time underestimation, which shifted progressively towards a time overestimation. These results suggest that video stimuli recruited both arousal-related and attention-related mechanisms, and that the role played by these mechanisms changed overtime. Conclusions: These pilot studies highlight the importance of comparing the effect of different kinds on temporal estimation tasks, and suggests that odors are well suited to investigate arousal-related temporal distortions, while videos are ideal to investigate both arousal-related and attention-related mechanisms.

  6. New analyses of the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: do different treatments reflect different processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Gregory L; Callahan, Jennifer; Ruggero, Camilo J; Murrell, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether or not different therapies have distinct patterns of change, it is useful to investigate not only the end result of psychotherapy (outcome) but also the processes by which outcomes are attained. The present study subjected data from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program to survival analyses to examine whether the process of psychotherapy, as conceptualized by the phase model, differed between psychotherapy treatment approaches. Few differences in terms of progression through phases of psychotherapy were identified between cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy. Additionally, results indicate that phases of psychotherapy may not represent discrete, sequentially invariant processes.

  7. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processi...

  8. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken. PMID:28680412

  9. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health "first-person" (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The "take home message" of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the 'adoptee's' practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  10. Gender differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry during processing of vowels as reflected by the human brain magnetic response

    OpenAIRE

    Obleser, Jonas; Eulitz, Carsten; Lahiri, Aditi; Elbert, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A number of findings indicate gender differences in language-related functional hemispheric brain asymmetry. To test if such gender-specific laterality is already present at the level of vowel-processing, the auditory evoked magnetic field was recorded in healthy right-handed male and female participants in response to the German synthetic vowels [a], [e] and [i]. Female participants exhibited stronger N100m responses than male participants over the left hemisphere. This observation was highl...

  11. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  12. The Impact of Social and Cultural Difference in Relation to Job Loss and Financial Planning: Reflections on the Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abbott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on data collected as part of a research study which looks at how different social and cultural groups frame, and respond to, the risk of income and/or job loss. Writers like LASH, DOUGLAS and LUPTON have placed an emphasis on the importance of group membership and social categories in structuring response to different types of risk preferring to talk about "risk cultures" rather than "risk society". However, the writers acknowledge that there is little empirical research which explores this. As the first stage of our research, focus groups in two parts of the UK explored the relationship between risk and social difference with an emphasis on the risk of job or income loss. The groups were comprised of lesbian, gay and bisexual people; people from Black and Minority Ethnic backgrounds; Disabled people; and, people who actively practice a religion. Participants did not see strong links between their sexuality, race, or religion and their perceptions of, or responses to, risk. Income, and attitudinal factors were cited as being more important. Disabled people however were much more likely to make connections between being disabled and a range of barriers to responding to risky situations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601160

  13. Hits to the left, flops to the right: different emotions during listening to music are reflected in cortical lateralisation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schürmann, Kristian; Lim, Vanessa K; Parlitz, Dietrich

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms accompanying emotional valence judgements during listening to complex auditory stimuli, cortical direct current (dc)-electroencephalography (EEG) activation patterns were recorded from 16 right-handed students. Students listened to 160 short sequences taken from the repertoires of jazz, rock-pop, classical music and environmental sounds (each n=40). Emotional valence of the perceived stimuli were rated on a 5-step scale after each sequence. Brain activation patterns during listening revealed widespread bilateral fronto-temporal activation, but a highly significant lateralisation effect: positive emotional attributions were accompanied by an increase in left temporal activation, negative by a more bilateral pattern with preponderance of the right fronto-temporal cortex. Female participants demonstrated greater valence-related differences than males. No differences related to the four stimulus categories could be detected, suggesting that the actual auditory brain activation patterns were more determined by their affective emotional valence than by differences in acoustical "fine" structure. The results are consistent with a model of hemispheric specialisation concerning perceived positive or negative emotions proposed by Heilman [Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 9 (1997) 439].

  14. Do Individual Differences and Aging Effects in the Estimation of Geographical Slant Reflect Cognitive or Perceptual Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M. Dean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several individual differences including age have been suggested to affect the perception of slant. A cross-sectional study of outdoor hill estimation (N = 106 was analyzed using individual difference measures of age, experiential knowledge, fitness, personality traits, and sex. Of particular note, it was found that for participants who reported any experiential knowledge about slant, estimates decreased (i.e., became more accurate as conscientiousness increased, suggesting that more conscientious individuals were more deliberate about taking their experiential knowledge (rather than perception into account. Effects of fitness were limited to those without experiential knowledge, suggesting that they, too, may be cognitive rather than perceptual. The observed effects of age, which tended to produce lower, more accurate estimates of hill slant, provide more evidence that older adults do not see hills as steeper. The main effect of age was to lower slant estimates; such effects may be due to implicit experiential knowledge acquired over a lifetime. The results indicate the impact of cognitive, rather than perceptual factors on individual differences in slant estimation.

  15. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  16. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  17. Cultural differences are reflected in variables associated with carer burden in FTD: a comparison study between India and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Shailaja; Alladi, Suvarna; Chandrasekar, Kammammettu; Fathima, Safiya; M.O.'Connor, Claire; McKinnon, Colleen; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Mioshi, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    There is great need to understand variables behind carer burden, especially in FTD. Carer burden is a complex construct, and its factors are likely to vary depending on the type of dementia, carer characteristics and cultural background. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to compare profiles and severity of carer burden, depression, anxiety and stress in carers of FTD patients in India in comparison to Australia; to investigate which carer variables are associated with carer burden in each country. METHODS Data of 138 participants (69 dyads of carers-patients) from India and Australia (India, n=31; Australia, n=38). Carer burden was assessed with the short Zarit Burden Inventory; carer depression, anxiety and stress were measured with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress-21. Dementia severity was determined with the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS), and a range of demographic variables regarding the carer and patient were also obtained. RESULTS Overall, levels of carer burden were not significantly different across India and Australia, despite more hours delivering care and higher dementia severity in India. Variables associated with burden, however, differed between countries, with carer depression, anxiety and stress strongly associated with burden in India. By contrast, depression, stress, and dementia severity were associated with burden in Australia. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that variables associated with carer burden in FTD differ between cultures. Consequently, cultural considerations should be taken into account when planning for interventions to reduce burden. This study suggests that addressing carers' skills and coping mechanisms are likely to result in more efficacious outcomes than targeting patient symptoms alone. PMID:29213826

  18. Differences between hospitals in attainment of parathyroid hormone treatment targets in chronic kidney disease do not reflect differences in quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Mieke J; van Zuilen, Arjan D; van den Brand, Jan A J G; Blankestijn, Peter J; ten Dam, Marc A G J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2012-08-06

    Transparency in quality of care (QoC) is stimulated and hospitals are compared and judged on the basis of indicators of performance on specific treatment targets. In patients with chronic kidney disease, QoC differed significantly between hospitals. In this analysis we explored additional parameters to explain differences between centers in attainment of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment targets. Using MASTERPLAN baseline data, we selected one of the worst (center A) and one of the best (center B) performing hospitals. Differences between the two centers were analyzed from the year prior to start of the MASTERPLAN study until the baseline evaluation. Determinants of PTH were assessed. 101 patients from center A (median PTH 9.9 pmol/l, in 67 patients exceeding recommended levels) and 100 patients from center B (median PTH 6.5 pmol/l, in 34 patients exceeding recommended levels), were included. Analysis of clinical practice did not reveal differences in PTH management between the centers. Notably, hyperparathyroidism resulted in a change in therapy in less than 25% of patients. In multivariate analysis kidney transplant status, MDRD-4, and treatment center were independent predictors of PTH. However, when MDRD-6 (which accounts for serum urea and albumin) was used instead of MDRD-4, the center effect was reduced. Moreover, after calibration of the serum creatinine assays treatment center no longer influenced PTH. We show that differences in PTH control between centers are not explained by differences in treatment, but depend on incomparable patient populations and laboratory techniques. Therefore, results of hospital performance comparisons should be interpreted with great caution.

  19. Dynamics of cell proliferation and apoptosis reflect different life strategies in hydrothermal vent and cold seep vestimentiferan tubeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Bettina; Cary, S Craig; Bright, Monika

    2009-07-01

    Deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworms, which live in symbiosis with bacteria, exhibit different life strategies according to their habitat. At unstable and relatively short-lived hydrothermal vents, they grow extremely fast, whereas their close relatives at stable and long-persisting cold seeps grow slowly and live up to 300 years. Growth and age differences are thought to occur because of ecological and physiological adaptations. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation and death, which are closely linked to homeostasis, growth, and longevity, are unknown. Here, we show by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural cell cycle analyses that cell proliferation activities of the two species studied are higher than in any other characterized invertebrate, being only comparable with tumor and wound-healing processes. The slow growth in Lamellibrachia luymesi from cold seeps results from balanced activities of proliferation and apoptosis in the epidermis. In contrast, Riftia pachyptila from hydrothermal vents grows fast because apoptosis is down-regulated in this tissue. The symbiont-housing organ, the trophosome, exhibits a complex cell cycle and terminal differentiation pattern in both species, and growth is regulated by proliferation. These mechanisms have similarities to the up- and down-regulation of proliferation or apoptosis in various types of tumor, although they occur in healthy animals in this study, thus providing significant insights into the underlying mechanisms of growth and longevity.

  20. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  1. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monticone Massimiliano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting. We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type. Methods We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Results Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. Conclusions This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting. Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work

  2. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Massimiliano; Daga, Antonio; Candiani, Simona; Romeo, Francesco; Mirisola, Valentina; Viaggi, Silvia; Melloni, Ilaria; Pedemonte, Simona; Zona, Gianluigi; Giaretti, Walter; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2012-08-17

    Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma) experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting.We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type) or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type). We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting.Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work.

  3. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone, Massimiliano; Giaretti, Walter; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Daga, Antonio; Candiani, Simona; Romeo, Francesco; Mirisola, Valentina; Viaggi, Silvia; Melloni, Ilaria; Pedemonte, Simona; Zona, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma) experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting. We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type) or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type). We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting. Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work

  4. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  5. Variations of vessel diameter and δ13C in false rings of Arbutus unedo L. reflect different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; De Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Linke, Petra; Aronne, Giovanna; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Woody species in Mediterranean ecosystems form intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in tree rings in response to changes in environmental conditions, especially water availability. Dendrochronology, quantitative wood anatomy and high-resolution isotopic analysis (using a laser ablation technique) were used to characterize IADFs in Arbutus unedo shrubs grown on two sites with different water availability on the island of Elba (Italy). Our findings show that IADF characterization can provide information about the relationship between environmental factors and tree growth at the seasonal level. At the more xeric site, IADFs mainly located in the early and middle parts of the annual ring, showed a decrease in vessel size and an increase in δ(13) C as a result of drought deficit. Opposite trends were found at the more mesic site, with IADFs located at the end of the ring and associated with a lower δ(13) C. Moreover, at the first site, IADFs are induced by drought deficit, while at the second site IADFs are linked with the regrowth in the last part of the growing season triggered by favourable wet conditions. This combined approach is a promising way for dating problematic wood samples and interpreting the phenomena that trigger the formation of IADFs in the Mediterranean environment. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  6. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processing and discusses how this evidence relates to two opposing theoretical accounts of older adults’ positivity effect. The aging-brain model [Cacioppo et al. in: Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind. New York, Oxford University Press, 2011] proposes that older adults’ positivity effect is a consequence of age-related decline in the amygdala, whereas the cognitive control hypothesis [Kryla-Lighthall and Mather in: Handbook of Theories of Aging, ed 2. New York, Springer, 2009; Mather and Carstensen: Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9:496–502; Mather and Knight: Psychol Aging 2005;20:554–570] argues that the positivity effect is a result of older adults’ greater focus on regulating emotion. Based on evidence for structural and functional preservation of the amygdala in older adults and findings that older adults show greater prefrontal cortex activity than younger adults while engaging in emotion-processing tasks, we argue that the cognitive control hypothesis is a more likely explanation for older adults’ positivity effect than the aging-brain model. PMID:21691052

  7. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  8. Differences in the analyzing powers of p-d and n-d elastic scattering data as possible evidence of charge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahovic, B.; Soldi, A.

    1993-01-01

    The differences between the n-d and the p-d analyzing powers lend themselves to investigate Coulomb and charge symmetry breaking effects in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We examine these differences over a range of angles, bracketing the Λ y maximum around 120 degrees, for energies from 3 to 14 MeV. We conclude that a correction of the data to account for the slowing down of tile proton under the Coulomb affect does not account for these differences and this suggests that charge symmetry breaking effect are possibly responsible

  9. Comparing the sustainability of different action policy possibilities: application to the issue of both household survival and forest preservation in the corridor of Fianarantsoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C; Martin, S

    2013-10-01

    A sustainability issue for the rain forest in the corridor of Fianarantsoa (Madagascar) is to preserve the forest while ensuring the development of the local population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether the current situation is sustainable or not according to different action policy possibilities. We propose a general procedure based on viability analysis: Translation of sustainability issues into constraints on the system state; elaboration of a mathematical model of system evolution rules in the form of controlled dynamical system; computations of the viability kernels according to different action policy possibilities. Among control variables, we focus on monetary transfer. Without monetary transfer, we show that the current situation of the rain forest corridor is not sustainable in our mathematical modeling framework. We then estimate the minimal maximal amount per year necessary to make the current situation sustainable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  11. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  12. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  13. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  14. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  15. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-12-15

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  16. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Høg Mortensen

    Full Text Available Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM in Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling.Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5 were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers.The ECM remodelling was significantly different in UC compared to CD. The best biomarker combination to differentiate UC from CD and colonic CD was BGM and VICM (AUC = 0.98, P5mg/mL, correlation of Pro-C5 (r = 0.36 with CDAI was slightly improved compared to CRP (r = 0.27 corrected for the use of immunosuppressant. Furthermore, BGM and EL-NE biomarkers were highly associated with colon inflammation in CD patients.ECM fragments of tissue remodelling in IBD affect UC and CD differently, and may aid in differentiating IBD from IBS (EL-NE, BGM, Pro-C5, and UC from CD patients (BGM, VICM. Formation of type V collagen is related to the level of inflammation in CD and may reflect disease activity in CD.

  17. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  18. Label-Free and Real-Time Monitor of Binding and Dissociation Processes between Protein A and Swine IgG by Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li-Ping; Liu Shuang; Dai Jun; Lu Hui-Bin; Jin Kui-Juan; Yang Guo-Zhen; Wu Lin; Liu Guo-Zhen; Wei Han-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Life science has a need for detection methods that are label-free and real-time. In this paper, we have selected staphylococcal protein A (SPA) and swine immunoglobulin G (IgG), and monitor the bindings between SPA and swine IgG with different concentrations, as well as the dissociations of SPA-swine IgG complex in different pH values of phosphate buffer by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) in a label-free and real-time fashion. We obtain the ON and OFF reaction dynamic curves corresponding to the bindings and dissociations of SPA and swine IgG. Through our analysis of the experimental results, we have been able to obtain the damping coefficients and the dissociation time of SPA and swine IgG for different pH values of the phosphate buffer. The results prove that the OIRD technique is a competing method for monitoring the dynamic processes of biomolecule interaction and achieving the quantitative information of reaction kinetics. (general)

  19. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...... provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling. Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5) were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC...... patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM...

  20. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  1. Using dental and activity indicators in order to explore possible sex differences in an adult rural medieval population from Thebes (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dimitra Ermioni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the subsistence strategies of past populations; through their dietary and occupational patterns; could provide important information regarding social status and possible gender differences, especially in turbulent historical periods, as the one of the Crusader’s occupation in Greece (1204-1460 AD. Therefore, the human sample from Aghia Triada in Thebes (13th-14th c. AD serves as the ideal skeletal material. Diet was explored through two dental indicators; dental caries and tooth wear, while occupational stress was explored through three activity markers; osteoarthritis (OA, spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl’s nodes. The aims of the present study are to assess the dietary and activity patterns of the stated population and explore possible sex differentiations. A total of 126 teeth and 350 vertebrae have been examined. The entire population presents a caries rate of 16.7%, and males present a much higher caries frequency than females (25.5% males vs. 9.9% females. Furthermore, females present significantly higher rates of osteophytes than males, whereas no significant sex differences were found regarding facet remodeling and Schmorl’s nodes. Dental results confirm historical information of medieval Thebes having an agricultural economy and are also in agreement with isotopic data. In addition, our findings suggest very intense physical activity for both sexes, whereas the distribution of facet remodeling along the spine could indicate a possible gender division of labor. Our study proposes two positive correlations; between facet remodeling and osteophytes, and between Schmorl’s nodes and facet remodelling; as activity indicators in past or/and modern populations. Finally, we strongly encourage the inclusion of spinal facet remodelling in studies focusing on occupational stress.

  2. The Usage of xiǎojiě (小姐 in Contemporary Chinese: Synchronic Differences in Distribution and Possibilities for Diachronic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Fanzhu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available xiǎojiě ( 小姐, miss is a popular form of address in contemporary Chinese; generally speaking, it is defined as a title for “unmarried girl”. This form has multiple connotations,. Given recent changes in society, some think that, xiǎojiě (小姐 will become a widely-used form of address, while others think that young females will come to consider the title repulsive. None can have the final say, this is because the synchronic language differences are not only the result of the synchronic change but also possibly its sign. Since synchronic differences could not only be a result of diachronic change but also could herald further change, it is not clear what direction xiǎojiě ( 小姐 will take. In the language conflicts, When two language varieties conflict, the more common variety usually influences the less common. A field investigation in large cities throughout China thus allows us not only to draw A Distributional Map of Pragmatic Features of the Title xiǎojiě (小姐, but also enables us to see its diachronic possibilities.

  3. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  4. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  5. Effect of vital bleaching with solutions containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract as an additive on human enamel using reflectance spectrophotometer: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejai Vekaash, Chitra Janardhanan; Kumar Reddy, Tripuravaram Vinay; Venkatesh, Kondas Vijay

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the color change in human enamel bleached with three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, containing pineapple extract as an additive in two different timings, using reflectance spectrophotometer. The study aimed to investigate the bleaching efficacy on natural teeth using natural enzymes. Baseline color values of 10 randomly selected artificially stained incisors were obtained. The specimens were divided into three groups of 20 teeth each: Group 1 - 30% hydrogen peroxide, Group II - 20% hydrogen peroxide, and Group III - 10% hydrogen peroxide. One half of the tooth was bleached with hydrogen peroxide, and other was bleached with hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract for 20 min (Subgroup A) and 10 min (Subgroup B). The results were statistically analyzed using student's t -test. The mean ΔE values of Group IA (31.62 ± 0.9), Group IIA (29.85 ± 1.2), and Group IIIA (28.65 ± 1.2) showed statistically significant higher values when compared to the mean Δ E values of Group 1A (25.02 ± 1.2), Group IIA (22.86 ± 1.1), and Group IIIA (16.56 ± 1.1). Identical results were obtained in Subgroup B. The addition of pineapple extract to hydrogen peroxide resulted in effective bleaching.

  6. Naturally occurring stable isotopes reflect changes in protein turnover and growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles under different dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Perez, Miguel; Fernandez-Borras, Jaume; Ibarz, Antoni; Felip, Olga; Fontanillas, Ramon; Gutierrez, Joaquim; Blasco, Josefina

    2013-09-18

    Ideal nutritional conditions are crucial to sustainable aquaculture due to economic and environmental issues. Here we apply stable isotope analysis as an indicator of fish growth and feeding balance, to define the optimum diet for efficient growing conditions. Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with six isoenergetic diets differing in protein to lipid proportion (from 41/26 to 57/20). As protein intake increased, δ¹⁵N and Δδ¹⁵N of muscle and Δδ¹⁵N and Δδ¹³C of its protein fraction decreased, indicating lower protein turnover and higher protein deposition in muscle. This is reflected in the inverse relationship found between Δδ¹⁵N and growth rate, although no differences were observed in either parameter beyond the protein/lipid proportion 47/23. Principal component analysis (PCA) also signaled 47/23 diet as the pivotal point with the highest growing efficiency, with isotopic parameters having the highest discrimination load. Thus, muscle isotope composition, especially ¹⁵N, can be used to evaluate nutritional status in farmed fish.

  7. Using ICP and micro-PIXE to investigate possible differences in the mineral composition of genetically modified versus wild-type sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Cloete, K.; Mehlo, L.; Kossmann, J.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, possible differences in the mineral composition of transgenic versus non-transgenic sorghum grains were investigated using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); and, in-tissue elemental mapping by micro Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. ICP AES was used to analyse the bulk mineral content of the wholegrain flour derived from each genotype; whilst micro-PIXE was used to interrogate localised differences in mineral composition specific to certain areas of the grain, such as the bran layer and the central endosperm tissue. According to the results obtained, no significant difference in the average Fe, Zn or Ca content was found to differentiate the transgenic from the wild-type grain using ICP-AES. However, using micro-PIXE, a significant reduction in zinc could be detected in the bran layer of the transgenic grains relative to wild-type. Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, as a result of the small sample size used in this study, micro-PIXE has nonetheless proven itself as a useful technique for highlighting the possibility that there may be reduced levels of zinc accumulation in the bran layer of the transgenic grains. Given that the genetic modification targets proteins that are highly concentrated in certain parts of the bran tissue, it seems plausible that the reduced levels of zinc may be an unintended consequence of the silencing of kafirin proteins. Although no immediate health or nutritional concerns emerge from this preliminary finding, it is noted that zinc plays an important biological role within this part of the grain as a structural stabiliser and antioxidant factor. Further study is therefore needed to assess more definitively the extent of the apparent localised reduction in zinc in the transgenic grains and how this may affect other important grain quality characteristics.

  8. Total internal reflection effect on gyrotropic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchenko, Alexander G.; Glushchenko, Eugene P.; Zhukov, Sergey V.

    2018-02-01

    This article considers the physical features of total internal reflection at gyrotropic and isotropic interfaces for two cases: electrical gyrotropy (plasma) and magnetic gyrotropy (ferrite). It is shown that the plasma magnetization may lead to the formation of the total internal reflection effect, which does not occur in isotropic plasma. The threshold values of the magnetic field, which are necessary for the total internal reflection effect, are determined. The total internal reflection effect on a ferrite-dielectric interface for waves emanating from different angles is observed in various frequency ranges and magnetization fields. The study points out the possibility of changing the total internal reflection angle value in large limits due to a change in the external magnetic field magnitude. The calculation results of the total internal reflection angle dependence on the external magnetic field magnitude are presented. The formulas are elaborated for calculating the total internal reflection angles of different interfaces for gyrotropic and isotropic media. The generalized formulas are defined for calculating the Doppler effect in the gyrotropic media. The study demonstrates how the velocity of the media interface affects the limiting angle of total internal refection.

  9. Two different preparation techniques for trace element determination of single Daphnia specimen using total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelfl, S.; Mages, M.

    2000-01-01

    Bio accumulation gives first information about the bio-availability of elements in waters and becomes more and more important for the characterization of the water quality. The use of common analytical techniques like ICP-MS and AAS requires large quantities of biologic sample material. Single preparation for example of Daphnia, a common species for bio-test experiments, are hardly possible with these procedures. Therefore alternatively quantitative TXRF element determination of individually prepared Daphnia was developed. Two preparation techniques for single freshwater crustacean specimen from a eutrophic branch of the river Elbe in the 'Rothehorn Park', Magdeburg (Daphnia: dry weight: 10 - 50 μg individuum -1 ) had been tested: (1) Wet preparation: the single Daphnia specimen had been washed with 0.45 μm filtered lake water and put onto quartz sample carriers. After air drying, the body length were determined in order to calculate the dry weight according to previously established body lengths-dry weight relationships. (2) Dry preparation: after collection specimen were washed with 0.45 μm filtered lake water and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The individual lyophilisated dried Daphnia were weighted using an ultrafine micro-balance and put onto quartz sample carriers. After preparation, addition of some μl Gallium standard solution and air drying the individual Daphnia were digested at the quartz sample carriers with 10 μl HNO 3 on a hot plate and dried once more. Finally the element concentrations were determined using a EXTRA IIA total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. As a result of these investigations we can conclude that both, the 'dry' and 'wet' preparation method can be used for the element determination in small single crustaceans using TXRF spectrometry. It seems that the 'dry' method yields more precise results, but the wet method is easier to handle in field when samples cannot be fixed with liquid nitrogen. (author)

  10. Intralayer and interlayer spin-singlet pairing and energy gap functions with different possible symmetries in high-Tc layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.S.; Rajagopal, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Anisotropy and the wave-vector dependence of the energy gap function determine many important properties of a superconductor. Starting from first principles, we present here a complete analysis of possible symmetries of the superconducting gap function E g (k) at the Fermi surface in high-T c layered superconductors with either a simple orthorhombic or a tetragonal unit cell. This is done within the framework of Gorkov close-quote s mean-field theory of superconductivity in the so-called open-quotes layer representationclose quotes introduced by us earlier. For N conducting cuprate layers, J=1,2,hor-ellipsis,N, in each unit cell, the spin-singlet order parameters Δ JJ (k) can be expanded in terms of possible basis functions of all the irreducible representations relevant to layered crystals, which are obtained here. In layered materials, the symmetry is restricted to the translational lattice periodicity in the direction perpendicular to the layers and the residual point group and translational symmetries for the two-dimensional unit cell in each layer of the three-dimensional unit cell. We derive an exact general relation to determine different branches of the energy gap function E g (k) at the Fermi surface in terms of Δ JJ (k), which include both intralayer and interlayer order parameters. For N=2, we also obtain an exact expression for quasiparticle energies E p (k), p=1,2, in the superconducting state in the presence of intralayer and complex interlayer order parameters as well as complex tunneling matrix elements between the two layers in the unit cell, which need not be equivalent. The form of the possible basis functions are also listed in terms of cylindrical coordinates k t ,φ,k z to take advantage of the orthogonality of functions with respect to φ integrations. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Adult Empathy: Possible Gender Differences in Gene-Environment Architecture for Cognitive and Emotional Components in a Large Italian Twin Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccaceli, Virgilia; Fagnani, Corrado; Eisenberg, Nancy; Alessandri, Guido; Vitale, Augusto; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-04-15

    Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale frequently used with adults - the expression of cognitive (CE), emotional (EE), and social skills (SS) empathy - and to explore gender differences in the influences. Study participants were ~1,700 twins (18-65 years) enrolled in the Italian Twin Registry. Empathy was assessed with the Italian version of the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for which the three-factor structure (i.e., CE, EE, and SS) was confirmed. Twin correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs, and males and females were estimated for the total EQ and subscale scores, and univariate genetic model fitting was carried out. Women's empathy (i.e., total EQ as well as CE and EE subdimensions) was predominantly driven by genetic factors and individual experiences, whereas for males, no genetic contribution or important shared and individual environmental effects emerged. Although of large magnitude, the gender differences did not reach statistical significance. Age did not moderate empathy heritability in adulthood. Only for the SS subscale were genetic and environmental proportions of variance similar for men and women. This study suggests possible gender-specific innate and environmental influences on empathy and its cognitive and emotional components that need to be confirmed in future studies.

  12. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Real-Time, Label-Free Detection of Biomolecular Interactions in Sandwich Assays by the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in proteomics is to detect the real-time kinetics of diverse biomolecular interactions. Fluorescence, which requires extrinsic tags, is a commonly and widely used method because of its high convenience and sensitivity. However, in order to maintain the conformational and functional integrality of biomolecules, label-free detection methods are highly under demand. We have developed the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD technique for label-free, kinetic measurements of protein-biomolecule interactions. Incorporating the total internal refection geometry into the OI-RD technique, we are able to detect as low as 0.1% of a protein monolayer, and this sensitivity is comparable with other label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The unique advantage of OI-RD over SPR is no need for dielectric layers. Moreover, using a photodiode array as the detector enables multi-channel detection and also eliminates the over-time signal drift. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the OI-RD technique by measuring the kinetics of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions in sandwich assays.

  15. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  16. POLICY AND INSTITUTIONS: POSSIBLE JOINT THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Miyuki Hashizume

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss theoretically the concept of politics and the importance of its redefinition, discussing the different political interests from Brazilian population, throughout our history. It proposes to rescue the original and ethical meaning of Politics and to review and redefine it inside a new Ethical-aesthetic-political paradigm. We have come from Greek Antiquity to our current Democracy, so as to raise reflections about possibilities for political actions despite of the lack of political past without participation. The concept of instituting process and micropolitical (for Institutional Analysis allow us to understand the possibilities for different and creative acting beyond the control in place.

  17. Exploiting Performance of Different Low-Cost Sensors for Small Amplitude Oscillatory Motion Monitoring: Preliminary Comparisons in View of Possible Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of low amplitude oscillatory motion detection through different low-cost sensors: a LIS3LV02DQ MEMS accelerometer, a Microsoft Kinect v2 range camera, and a uBlox 6 GPS receiver. Several tests were performed using a one-direction vibrating table with different oscillation frequencies (in the range 1.5–3 Hz and small challenging amplitudes (0.02 m and 0.03 m. A Mikrotron EoSens high-resolution camera was used to give reference data. A dedicated software tool was developed to retrieve Kinect v2 results. The capabilities of the VADASE algorithm were employed to process uBlox 6 GPS receiver observations. In the investigated time interval (in the order of tens of seconds the results obtained indicate that displacements were detected with the resolution of fractions of millimeters with MEMS accelerometer and Kinect v2 and few millimeters with uBlox 6. MEMS accelerometer displays the lowest noise but a significant bias, whereas Kinect v2 and uBlox 6 appear more stable. The results suggest the possibility of sensor integration both for indoor (MEMS accelerometer + Kinect v2 and for outdoor (MEMS accelerometer + uBlox 6 applications and seem promising for structural monitoring applications.

  18. Iodine metabolism and thyroid functions in various species of domestic animals and poultry birds. I - Species difference in thyroid status as reflected by triiodothyronine 131I uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setia, M.S.; Parshad, Omkar; Varman, P.N.

    1974-01-01

    In vitro triiodothyronine- 131 I uptake, by red blood cells was studied in buffaloes, buffaloe calves, cross-bred calves, rams, goats, piglets and also in pure white leg horn and cross-bred birds. Results revealed that buffalo calves have the lowest uptake values, whereas piglets appeared to have the highest values as compared to other species. Distinct differences in the uptake of T 3 - 131 I by the erythrocytes were observed to exist within as well as amongst the species of farm animals and poultry birds studied. Cross-breds exhibited higher degree of T 3 - 131 I uptake as compared to pure-breds. This test offers promise where more tedious methods may not be possible for conducting the survey on the thyroid status and iodine metabolism on large population of live-stock. (author)

  19. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  20. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  1. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  2. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  3. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Projecting the potential evapotranspiration by coupling different formulations and input data reliabilities: The possible uncertainty source for climate change impacts on hydrological regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguang; Li, Changni; Xing, Wanqiu; Fu, Jianyu

    2017-12-01

    Representing atmospheric evaporating capability for a hypothetical reference surface, potential evapotranspiration (PET) determines the upper limit of actual evapotranspiration and is an important input to hydrological models. Due that present climate models do not give direct estimates of PET when simulating the hydrological response to future climate change, the PET must be estimated first and is subject to the uncertainty on account of many existing formulae and different input data reliabilities. Using four different PET estimation approaches, i.e., the more physically Penman (PN) equation with less reliable input variables, more empirical radiation-based Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation with relatively dependable downscaled data, the most simply temperature-based Hamon (HM) equation with the most reliable downscaled variable, and downscaling PET directly by the statistical downscaling model, this paper investigated the differences of runoff projection caused by the alternative PET methods by a well calibrated abcd monthly hydrological model. Three catchments, i.e., the Luanhe River Basin, the Source Region of the Yellow River and the Ganjiang River Basin, representing a large climatic diversity were chosen as examples to illustrate this issue. The results indicated that although similar monthly patterns of PET over the period 2021-2050 for each catchment were provided by the four methods, the magnitudes of PET were still slightly different, especially for spring and summer months in the Luanhe River Basin and the Source Region of the Yellow River with relatively dry climate feature. The apparent discrepancy in magnitude of change in future runoff and even the diverse change direction for summer months in the Luanhe River Basin and spring months in the Source Region of the Yellow River indicated that the PET method related uncertainty occurred, especially in the Luanhe River Basin and the Source Region of the Yellow River with smaller aridity index. Moreover, the

  5. Correlating non-linear properties with spectral states of RXTE data: possible observational evidences for four different accretion modes around compact objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwashina; Dhang, Prasun; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Ramadevi, M. C.; Bhattacharya, Debbijoy

    2018-05-01

    By analysing the time series of RXTE/PCA data, the non-linear variabilities of compact sources have been repeatedly established. Depending on the variation in temporal classes, compact sources exhibit different non-linear features. Sometimes they show low correlation/fractal dimension, but in other classes or intervals of time they exhibit stochastic nature. This could be because the accretion flow around a compact object is a non-linear general relativistic system involving magnetohydrodynamics. However, the more conventional way of addressing a compact source is the analysis of its spectral state. Therefore, the question arises: What is the connection of non-linearity to the underlying spectral properties of the flow when the non-linear properties are related to the associated transport mechanisms describing the geometry of the flow? This work is aimed at addressing this question. Based on the connection between observed spectral and non-linear (time series) properties of two X-ray binaries: GRS 1915+105 and Sco X-1, we attempt to diagnose the underlying accretion modes of the sources in terms of known accretion classes, namely, Keplerian disc, slim disc, advection dominated accretion flow and general advective accretion flow. We explore the possible transition of the sources from one accretion mode to others with time. We further argue that the accretion rate must play an important role in transition between these modes.

  6. Problems, possibilities and limitations of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in samples with different matrix composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, P.; Velichkov, S. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Velitchkova, N. [Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str., bl.24, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Havezov, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Daskalova, N., E-mail: das15482@svr.igic.bas.b [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-02-15

    The economic and geological importance of platinum group of elements has led to the development of analytical methods to quantify them in different types of samples. In the present paper the quantitative information for spectral interference in radial viewing 40.68 MHz inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in the presence of complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Ti as matrix constituents was obtained. The database was used for optimum line selections. By using the selected analysis lines the following detection limits in ng g{sup -1} were obtained: Pt 1700, Pd-1440, Rh-900. The reached detection limits determine the possibilities and limitation of the direct ICP-AES method in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in geological and environmental materials. The database for spectral interferences in the presence of aluminum can be used for the determination of platinum group of elements in car catalysts. The accuracy of the analytical results was experimentally demonstrated by two certified reference materials that were analyzed: SARM 7, Pt ore and recycled auto-catalyst certified reference material SRM 2556.

  7. Prevalence of possible drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral agents in different age groups in a section of the private health care sector setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katende-Kyenda, N L; Lubbe, M S; Serfontein, J H P; Truter, I

    2008-08-01

    The chronic nature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection requires lifelong highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) to continuously suppress HIV-1 viral replication, thus reducing morbidity and mortality. HAART is restricted by complex dosing, drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and toxicities. To determine the prevalence of possible DDIs between ARV drugs in different age groups in a section of the private primary health care sector in South Africa. A quantitative, retrospective drug utilization review was performed on 47 085 ARV prescriptions claimed through a national medicine claims database during 2006. Possible DDIs identified were classified according to a clinical significance rating as described by Tatro [Drug Interaction Facts 2005. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons (2005)]. The total number of patients who received prescriptions that were claimed through the medicine claims database was 275 424, of whom 25.11% were males, 28.28% were females and the gender of 46.61% patients was unknown. Of the total number of patients, 3.27% were HIV patients of which an average of 5.23 +/- 3.86 ARV prescriptions (n = 47 085) per patient were claimed for representing 4.73% of the total number of prescriptions claimed during the study period (N = 993 804). HIV patients received an average of 2.36 +/- 0.61 ARVs per prescription. Only 4.95% of the prescriptions had one ARV medicine item, 56.04% two, 37.10% three, 1.75% four and 6 years and 12 and 60 years with patients <40 years and < or =60 years having the highest number of DDIs and patients older than 60 years the lowest. The majority of DDIs between the ARVs presented in significance levels 2 and 4. The most important interactions were between: indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (n = 199); efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 65) and EFV and IDV (n = 60) all interacting at level 2. The importance of using drug utilization study as an identification tool to provide insight into the prescribing and

  8. Guided and Unguided Student Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Amanda; Wood, Laura; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Self-reflection is important metacognitive skill, enabling students to build coherence into their learning and embed content in a broader context. While various pedagogical techniques exist to encourage student reflection, little research has examined the differences between formally guided, partially guided and unguided reflections. This study focuses on student responses to online Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) from students in a first-semester non-physics class and, separately, a sophomore...

  9. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  10. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca Maltez, Heloisa [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Villanueva Tagle, Margarita [Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana (Cuba); Rosario Fernandez de la Campa, Maria del [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-09-21

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  11. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez, Heloisa França; Villanueva Tagle, Margarita; Fernández de la Campa, Maria del Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2009-09-21

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  12. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Maltez, Heloisa; Villanueva Tagle, Margarita; Rosario Fernandez de la Campa, Maria del; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  13. Biological characteristics of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for three consecutive generations under different temperatures: understanding the possible impact of global warming on a soybean pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D M; Hoffmann-Campo, C B; de Freitas Bueno, A; de Freitas Bueno, R C O; de Oliveira, M C N; Moscardi, F

    2012-06-01

    Climate changes can affect the distribution and intensity of insect infestations through direct effects on their life cycles. Experiments were carried out during three consecutive generations to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (25°C, 28°C, 31°C, 34°C and 37±1°C) on biological traits of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The insects were fed on artificial diet and reared in environmental chambers set at 14 h photophase. The developmental cycle slowed with the increase in the temperature, within the 25°C to 34°C range. Male and female longevities were reduced with an increase in temperature from 25°C to 28°C. Egg viability was highest at 25°C, and the sex ratio was not influenced by temperature, in the three generations. There was no interactive effect between development time and temperature on pupal weight. The results suggested that the increase in the temperature negatively impacted A. gemmatalis development inside the studied temperature range, indicating a possible future reduction of its occurrence on soybean crops, as a consequence of global warming, mainly considering its impact on tropical countries where this plant is cropped. A. gemmatalis was not able to adapt to higher temperatures in a three-generation interval for the studied temperature range. However, a gradual increase and a longer adaptation period may favor insect selection and consequently adaptation, and must be considered in future studies in this area. Moreover, it is important to consider that global warming might turn cold areas more suitable to A. gemmatalis outbreaks. Therefore, more than a future reduction of A. gemmatalis occurrence due to global warming, we might expect changes regarding its area of occurrence on a global perspective.

  14. Assessing phosphatidylethanol (PEth) levels reflecting different drinking habits in comparison to the alcohol use disorders identification test - C (AUDIT-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to monitoring problematic or harmful alcohol consumption, drinking experiments indicated the potential of phosphatidylethanols (PEth) in abstinence monitoring. To date, no profound evaluation of thresholds for the differentiation of abstinence from moderate drinking and for detection of excessive consumption based on PEth homologues exists. Investigations with a large group of healthy volunteers (n=300) were performed to establish PEth reference values reflecting different drinking habits. Blood samples were analyzed for PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 by online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Results were compared to AUDIT-C questionnaires, to the amounts of alcohol consumed during the two-weeks prior to blood sampling, and were statistically evaluated. PEth concentrations were significantly correlated with self-reported alcohol consumption (r>0.69) and with AUDIT-C scores (r>0.65). 4.0% of 300 volunteers reported abstinence (AUDIT-C score: 0), no PEth was detectable in their blood. PEth 16:0/18:1 concentrations below the limit of detection of 10.0ng/mL match with abstinence and light drinking habits (≤10g pure alcohol/day). However, some volunteers classified as "excessive alcohol consumers" had negative PEth results. In the group of volunteers classified as "moderate drinkers" (AUDIT-C score: 1-3 (women) and 1-4 (men)), 95% of the test persons had PEth 16:0/18:1 ranging from not detected to 112ng/mL, and PEth 16:0/18:2 ranging from not detected to 67.0ng/mL. Combination of self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT-C score showed that negative PEth results match with abstinence or light drinking. Moderate alcohol consumption resulted in PEth 16:0/18:1 from 0 to 112ng/mL and for PEth 16:0/18:2 ranged from 0 to 67.0ng/mL. Higher PEth concentrations indicated excessive alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  16. But do you think I'm cool? Developmental differences in striatal recruitment during direct and reflected social self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Kathryn F; Moore, William E; Merchant, Junaid S; Kahn, Lauren E; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2014-04-01

    The current fMRI study investigates the neural foundations of evaluating oneself and others during early adolescence and young adulthood. Eighteen early adolescents (ages 11-14, M=12.6) and 19 young adults (ages 22-31, M=25.6) evaluated whether academic, physical, and social traits described themselves directly (direct self-evaluations), described their best friend directly (direct other-evaluations), described themselves from their best friend's perspective (reflected self-evaluations), or in general could change over time (control malleability-evaluations). Compared to control evaluations, both adolescents and adults recruited cortical midline structures during direct and reflected self-evaluations, as well as during direct other-evaluations, converging with previous research. However, unique to this study was a significant three-way interaction between age group, evaluative perspective, and domain within bilateral ventral striatum. Region of interest analyses demonstrated a significant evaluative perspective by domain interaction within the adolescent sample only. Adolescents recruited greatest bilateral ventral striatum during reflected social self-evaluations, which was positively correlated with age and pubertal development. These findings suggest that reflected social self-evaluations, made from the inferred perspective of a close peer, may be especially self-relevant, salient, or rewarding to adolescent self-processing--particularly during the progression through adolescence - and this feature persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of water content in natural zeolites by reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Lopez P.; Desdin Garcia, V.; Freixas Lemus, V.; Dominguez Ley, O.; Csikai, G.

    1989-01-01

    Water content in natural zeolites collected from different site places in Cuba has been determined by neutron reflection method. Results show that it is possible to separate the minerals abundant in zeolite from the surrounding barren rocks. Water content of about 10% can be determined with 2-3% relative accuracy for different matrices, using 10 m measuring time

  18. [How to decide with precision, justice, and equity? Reflections on decision-making in the context of extreme prematurity. Part two: moving toward making the best possible decision: defining conditions for putting decisions into practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Tsatsaris, V; Moriette, G; Hirsch, E; Schmitz, T; Cabrol, D; Goffinet, F

    2007-05-01

    Extreme premature child's long-term prognostic is getting better and better known, and if a resuscitation procedure is possible at birth, it won't guarantee survival or a survival free of disability. Incertitude toward individual prognosis and outcome for those children remains considerable. In this field, we are at the frontier of medical knowledge and the answer to the question, "how to decide the ante and postnatal care" is crucial. This work is focused on this problematic of decision-making in the context of extreme prematurity. It attempts to deconstruct this concept and to explicit its stakes. Thus, with the support of the medical sources and of philosophical debates, we tried to build a decision-making procedure that complies with the ethical requirements of medical care, accuracy, justice and equity. This decision-making procedure is primarily concerned with the singularity of each decision situation and it intends to link it closely to the notions of rationality and responsibility.

  19. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    contained in intelligent actions that are difficult to explicate verbally, and theory of action, an attempt to describe the tacit knowledge based on observation and reflection (reflection. While knowledge is a dynamic action, the theories of action (descriptions of the operation and the strategies they use, rules, values and assumptions which we hold are always a static structure. They are practical checks that are back in action. These checks are nothing but an evaluation of our theory and action based on the action, and self-evaluation practitioners. It is believed that only in an ironic sense and not as a pedeutological truism active and dynamic teaching situation can be treated as a non-susceptible reflective thinking of teachers. Advocates of this view argue that this is so because the teacher is in the midst of an activity, and cannot make a ' 'step back' ' nor the first rationalization of the various alternative courses of action in the immediate moment, but he then reflects on the consequences of the different alternatives. And even though he thinks very carefully about how to act in each moment and the situation that continues, he eventually has to admit to himself that he must determine on something that he does or does not do. Thus, a teacher who works is in a way still a dogmatist who can think of a rich range of possible actions and activities, while it may seem that he can do only one thing at a time. Proponents of this concept of critical reflexivity used to broad explanations of his criticism that are often based on a single act of the court action, which may not always be the argument of generalization. Notwithstanding the aforementioned arguments, finding that the teacher is an active teaching situation that is too busy to think reflectively, it does not mean that the teaching sentenced to life is a blind impulsivity and a conduct routine. Teachers feel that they can continue to operate keenly and dedicatedly. When you are in the classroom, good teachers

  20. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  1. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Evidence in Practice section uses a standardized format enabling practitioners to share their experience of integrating research evidence into their practice. The final section of these brief articles asks the writers to reflect on their experience. Although it is not research, the individual reflection allies with what Schön (1983 called “reflection on action” and such reflections over time form a practical, tacit knowledge that we use to inform our work. Within this section of the journal, we hope readers will become more aware of how different types of evidence can be integrated into real‐world decision making. Not everything requires a full blown research study, and this section allows readers to see what other practitioners are doing, and in turn it should enable them to reflect upon what they are doing in their own practice. Being aware of situations where things may or may not have worked, and reflecting on the reasons why, brings together our sense of critical thought and practical experience that go a long way in filling the “librarian observed” and “professional judgements” parts of the EBLIP definition (Booth and Brice 2004. Acquiring professional knowledge does not end when we complete a graduate program, or have a certain number of years experience under our belts. It needs to be continually and consciously cultivated via reflection on our practice, our research, and simply what works and why. Research knowledge only takes us so far. People often ask me, “What do I do when there is no evidence? Or when the research evidence is weak?” Does this stop us from moving ahead? No. A decision still needs to be made. Evidence based practice is not only about acting when there is good evidence. Enhancing our professional judgments via a career built on analytical reflection, will provide knowledge that goes a long way towards making difficult decisions a little bit easier; even (or perhaps, especially in the cases when there is already a large body of

  2. About the possibility of use of different types of targets as a neutron source for subcritical nuclear reactor driven by particle beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, E.F.; Dorokhovich, S.L.; Chusov, I.A. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The schemes of jet gas and liquid targets as well as the gastargets with a solid phase dispersion are introduced to use to receive the neutrons admitted to a subcritical reactor core. The possible variants of target position in the reactor are considered, target characteristics are calculated. The authors pay a great attention to the estimation of radioactive products yield receiving due to the interaction of the beam with the target.

  3. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  4. The different effects of high-frequency stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell and core on food consumption are possibly associated with different neural responses in the lateral hypothalamic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, N; Wang, Y; Wang, X; He, Z; Zhang, M; Zhang, X; Pan, Y; Zhang, J; Qin, Z; Zhang, K

    2015-08-20

    Obesity may result from dysfunction of the reward system, especially in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). Based on this hypothesis, many researchers have tested the effect of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the Acb shell (Acb-Sh) and/or core (Acb-Co) on ingestive behaviors, but few studies have explored the possible mechanisms involved in the differences between the Acb-Sh and Acb-Co. The present study tested effects of HFS of the Acb-Sh and Acb-Co on high-fat food (HFF) consumption in rats after 24h of food deprivation. Microdialysis and electrophysiological experiments were carried out in awake rats to explore potential mechanisms. The results showed that the Acb-Sh decreased HFF consumption after food deprivation both during and post-HFS. However, HFS of the Acb-Co did not induce similar changes in food consumption. HFS of the Acb-Sh (Sh-HFS) induced an increase in GABA level in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) during both phases, whereas HFS of the Acb-Co (Co-HFS) did not exhibit similar effects. The electrophysiological experiment showed that nearly all the LHA neurons were inhibited by Sh-HFS, and the mean firing rate decreased significantly both during and post-HFS. In contrast, the mean firing rate of the LHA neurons did not exhibit clear changes during Co-HFS, although some individual neurons appeared to exhibit responses to Co-HFS. Considering all the data, we postulated that Sh-HFS, rather than Co-HFS, might inhibit palatable food consumption after food deprivation by decreasing the reward value of that food, which suggested that it might also disturb the process of developing obesity. The mechanisms involved in the different effects of Sh-HFS and Co-HFS on food consumption may be associated with different neural responses in the LHA. The Acb-Sh has abundant GABAergic projections to the LHA, whereas the Acb-Co has few or no GABAergic innervations to the LHA. Thus, neural activity in the LHA exhibits different responses to Sh-HFS and Co-HFS. Copyright

  5. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  6. Sign of the neutron-proton mass difference in an SU(2)xU(1) supersymmetric toy model: A possible scenario for solving the old puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.R.; Xu, G.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the idea that electromagnetism is responsible for mass differences within isotopic multiplets (e.g., pointlike neutron and proton or u and d quarks), we generalize an SU(2)xU(1) model in a toy field theory of vectors to a supersymmetric model and investigate the finite mass difference within the isotopic doublet. It is found that under soft-supersymmetry breaking, a positive n-p mass difference can be obtained under reasonable assumptions for the parameters involved

  7. Telemedicine. Possibilities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, H.; Meier, N.; Bick, U.

    1997-01-01

    Radiological teaching files on the Interent suffer from certain restrictions such as limited user interactivity. The Internet teaching project CONRAD (computer online network for radiological didactics) circumvents these restrictions by using a new database structure that also reflects the development of a diagnosis over time. The cases are presented in the Internet with different HTML-based teaching programs. To support interactivity, CONRAD offers the building of online learning groups over the Internet. (orig.) [de

  8. High-resolution wave-theory-based ultrasound reflection imaging using the split-step fourier and globally optimized fourier finite-difference methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie

    2013-10-29

    Methods for enhancing ultrasonic reflection imaging are taught utilizing a split-step Fourier propagator in which the reconstruction is based on recursive inward continuation of ultrasonic wavefields in the frequency-space and frequency-wave number domains. The inward continuation within each extrapolation interval consists of two steps. In the first step, a phase-shift term is applied to the data in the frequency-wave number domain for propagation in a reference medium. The second step consists of applying another phase-shift term to data in the frequency-space domain to approximately compensate for ultrasonic scattering effects of heterogeneities within the tissue being imaged (e.g., breast tissue). Results from various data input to the method indicate significant improvements are provided in both image quality and resolution.

  9. Developing Students' Reflections on the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices: History as a Provider of Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the…

  10. Reflections on Arab Spring in Nigeria: Constraints and Possibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the 2011 Arab spring that revealed to the whole world more about the legitimacy crisis, authoritarian rule, dynasty politics and bad governance in that region, this paper review the role of citizen in a revolution. In spite of the numerous advances in the Arab region, recent growth did not create enough jobs for the ...

  11. Toy models of crossed Andreev reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, R; Jirari, H; Peysson, S

    2003-01-01

    We propose toy models of crossed Andreev reflection in multiterminal hybrid structures containing out-of-equilibrium conductors. We apply the description to two possible experiments: (i) to a device containing a large quantum dot inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit, and (ii) to a device containing an Aharonov-Bohm loop inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit

  12. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Teemu; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK). PMID:29751560

  13. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Teemu; Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Nevalainen, Olli; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Viljanen, Niko; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-05-03

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK).

  14. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  15. Sex differences of anxiety disorders: Possible psychobiological causes - Diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en los trastornos de ansiedad: una aproximación psicobiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Arenas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are common in both men and women and are particularly disabling for the sufferer. Women of reproductive age are more vulnerable to developing these mental disorders than men; in fact their prevalence is 2-3 times higher among females than among males. Sex differences have also been reported in relation to the manifestation and expression of symptoms, the will to request medical or psychological assistance, the course of the disease, and even in the response to treatment. These sex differences may be attributable to multiple factors, such as genetic predisposition, anatomy, hormones and environment. However, very little is known about the risk factors for women with respect to developing anxiety disorders, and so the origins of sex differences in these disorders is an important topic of research. We consider that variations in stress reactivity may be one of the mechanisms underlying gender differences in anxiety disorders. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight data on the psychobiological factors that make women more prone to suffering anxiety disorders than men.

  16. Presentation of different possibilities for the cleaning of exhaust gases from waste incinerators; Darstellung verschiedener Moeglichkeiten zur Reinigung von Abgasen aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Christian [LAB GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    This contribution describes different methods of purification of exhaust gases from waste incinerators. The following technical procedures are considered: dry sorption procedure, quasi-dry procedure, wet scrubbing procedure, hybrid procedure. Subsequently, the author of this contribution reports on criteria for the selection of exhaust gas cleaning systems.

  17. Fungal communities in barren forest soil after amendment with different wood substrates and their possible effects on trees’, pathogens, insects and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers had been spread over the surface of barren forest soil before planting with Scots pine. The effects of the Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers on the abundance and diversity of culturable fungi were investigated. The amendments were aimed at increasing the soil suppressiveness to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. The classical soil-dilution method was chosen for qualitative and quantitative analyses of fungal communities in soils because of its proven reliability and consistency. The soil was inhabited by saprotrophic fungi from Ascomycota and Zygomycota, including species known to be potential antagonists of Armillaria or H. annosum (i.e. Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., Penicillium commune, P. daleae, P. janczewskii or stimulants of Armillaria (i.e. Pseudogymnoascus roseus, Trichocladium opacum. Eleven years after treatment, the abundance and diversity of fungi, the abundance of P. commune, and locally the abundance of P. janczewskii increased, while Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., and locally, P. daleae and T. opacum decreased. Amending the barren soil with organic matter does not guarantee effective, long-term suppressiveness of the sandy loam soil to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. Increased abundance of entomopathogenic and nematophagous species, 11 years after treatment, does suggest the long-term possibility of insect or nematode control in soil.

  18. Listening to Other Voices: A Description of Teacher Reflection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Examines reflective teaching, discussing the meaning of reflection; the origins of reflection; the popularity and importance of reflective teaching; different types of reflective teaching (technical reflection, deliberative reflection, personalistic reflection, critical reflection, and reflection-in and on-action); and how teacher educators can…

  19. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  20. Limited differences in fish and benthic communities and possible cascading effects inside and outside a protected marine area in Sagres (SW Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Fernández, C; Paulo, D; Serrão, E A; Engelen, A H

    2016-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a relatively recent fisheries management and conservation tool for conservation of marine ecosystems and serve as experimental grounds to assess trophic cascade effects in areas were fishing is restricted to some extent. A series of descriptive field studies were performed to assess fish and benthic communities between two areas within a newly established MPA in SW Portugal. We characterized benthic macroalgal composition and determined the size, density and biomass of the main benthic predatory and herbivorous fish species as well as the main benthic herbivorous invertebrates to assess indications of top-down control on the phytobenthic assemblages. Fish species were identical inside and outside the MPA, in both cases Sarpa salpa was the most abundant fish herbivore and Diplodus spp. accounted for the great majority of the benthic predators. However, size and biomass of D. spp. were higher inside than outside the MPA. The main herbivorous invertebrate was the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, which was smaller and predominantly showing a crevice-dwelling behaviour in the MPA. In addition, P. lividus size frequency distribution showed a unimodal pattern outside and a bimodal pattern inside the MPA. We found significant differences in the algal assemblages between inside and outside the MPA, with higher abundance of turf and foliose algae inside, and articulated calcareous and corticated macrophytes outside the MPA, but no differences in the invasive Asparagopsis spp. The obtained results show differences in predatory fish and benthic community structure, but not in species richness, inside and outside the MPA. We hypothesize these differences lead to variation in species interactions: directly through predation and indirectly via affecting sea urchins behavioural patterns, predators might drive changes in macroalgal assemblages via trophic cascade in the study area. However due to non-biological differences between the two areas it

  1. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta; Gonella, Elena; Crotti, Elena; Prosdocimi, Erica M.; Mazzetto, Fabio; Chouaia, Bessem; Callegari, Matteo; Mapelli, Francesca; Mandrioli, Mauro; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we

  2. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  3. Comparison of different treatment planning optimization methods for vaginal HDR brachytherapy with multichannel applicators: A reduction of the high doses to the vaginal mucosa is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Mauro; Cusumano, Davide; Giandini, Tommaso; Tenconi, Chiara; Mazzarella, Ester; Grisotto, Simone; Massari, Eleonora; Mazzeo, Davide; Cerrotta, Annamaria; Pappalardi, Brigida; Fallai, Carlo; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    A direct planning approach with multi-channel vaginal cylinders (MVCs) used for HDR brachytherapy of vaginal cancers is particularly challenging. Purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric performances of different forward and inverse methods used for the optimization of MVC-based vaginal treatments for endometrial cancer, with a particular attention to the definition of strategies useful to limit the high doses to the vaginal mucosa. Twelve postoperative vaginal HDR brachytherapy treatments performed with MVCs were considered. Plans were retrospectively optimized with three different methods: Dose Point Optimization followed by Graphical Optimization (DPO + GrO), Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing with two different class solutions as starting conditions (surflPSA and homogIPSA) and Hybrid Inverse Planning Optimization (HIPO). Several dosimetric parameters related to target coverage, hot spot extensions and sparing of organs at risk were analyzed to evaluate the quality of the achieved treatment plans. Dose homogeneity index (DHI), conformal index (COIN) and a further parameter quantifying the proportion of the central catheter loading with respect to the overall loading (i.e., the central catheter loading index: CCLI) were also quantified. The achieved PTV coverage parameters were highly correlated with each other but uncorrelated with the hot spot quantifiers. HomogIPSA and HIPO achieved higher DHIs and CCLIs and lower volumes of high doses than DPO + GrO and surflPSA. Within the investigated optimization methods, HIPO and homoglPSA showed the highest dose homogeneity to the target. In particular, homogIPSA resulted also the most effective in reducing hot spots to the vaginal mucosa. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in the Activities of Eight Enzymes from Ten Soil Fungi and Their Possible Influences on the Surface Structure, Functional Groups, and Element Composition of Soil Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3–4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C = O, COO- decreased by 11–60%, while P = O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9–22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11–49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

  5. Differences in the activities of eight enzymes from ten soil fungi and their possible influences on the surface structure, functional groups, and element composition of soil colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3-4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C = O, COO- decreased by 11-60%, while P = O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9-22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11-49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance.

  6. Water uptake in free films and coatings using the Brasher and Kingsbury equation: a possible explanation of the different values obtained by electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy and gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosgien Lacombre, C.; Bouvet, G.; Trinh, D.; Mallarino, S.; Touzain, S.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, the water uptake in organic coatings was measured by EIS and/or gravimetry but differences in water content values were found in almost all studies. The Brasher-Kingsbury equation used in the electrochemical analysis (EIS) is often criticized because elementary assumptions may be unvalid. The origin of the discrepancy between both methods is still of interest because many questions remain open and this study aims to provide new insights to these questions. In this work, free films and coatings of a model epoxy-amine system were immersed in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The water uptake in free films was evaluated using gravimetric measurements and EIS, using the Basher-Kingsbury equation. The mass of free-films used in the EIS tests was measured and compare to gravimetric measurements while the water uptake (EIS) in free films was compared to that obtained with coatings. It was found that the mass increase of free films tested with EIS was in agreement with gravimetric measurements but was always lower than the water uptake obtained by EIS. Moreover, the water uptake in free films (EIS) was different from that obtained with coatings. In all cases, it was found that the Basher-Kingsbury equation overestimated the water uptake. It appears that the differences between EIS and gravimetric measurements can be analyzed in terms of geometrical effects. Indeed, the swelling in free films and coatings can be monitored by DMA and SECM during ageing. Finally, by mixing the experimental swelling data and the Brasher-Kingsbury equation, the same value of water uptake was obtained by EIS and gravimetry for coatings.

  7. Faecal urobilinogen levels and pH of stools in population groups with different incidence of cancer of the colon, and their possible role in its aetiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S L

    1982-01-01

    Mean faecal urobilinogen levels and the pH of stools were both found to be higher in subjects from a population group at high risk of developing cancer of the colon than in subjects matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status from a low-risk population group. An alkaline reaction of the colon contents seems to have a tumorigenic effect by a direct action on the mucus of the mucous cells. An acidic reaction, on the other hand, appears to be protective. These differences are dependent on the ...

  8. Computed tomography in endocrine orbitopathy: Effects of different gantry tilt and patient positioning on measurements of eye muscle thickness, and possibilities for correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, A.; Hilbertz, T.; Mayr, B.; Lissner, J.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Thickening of eye muscles in endocrine orbitopathy can be demonstrated particularly impressively in coronary computed tomograms. However, when measuring the height and width of rectus eye muscles manifesting pathologic changes, the measurement is increased by a deviation from the coronary section plane; this is due to different tilting of the gantry. This often leads to an incorrect stage classification and makes objective observation of the course (e.g., under therapy) impossible. By converting the measured values into the actual extent of the muscles by means of the cosine set, appreciable changes in the pattern and frequency of affection of the rectus eye muscles were found in 121 patients examined. (orig.) [de

  9. What kinds of traffic forecasts are possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Based on metatheoretical considerations, this paper discusses which kinds of traffic forecasts are possible and which kinds are impossible to make with any reasonable degree of accuracy. It will be argued on ontological and epistemological grounds that it is inherently impossible to make exact......-called strategic, tactical and operational levels of traffic forecasting into three distinct methodological approaches reflecting the different degrees of openness/closure of the systems at hand: Scenario analyses at the strategic level; theoryinformed, mainly qualitative analyses supplemented with simple...

  10. PCDD/F contamination on surface soil in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: is it possible a different trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Mahmut Kemal

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on surface soils in the vicinity of the first hazardous waste incinerator of Turkey. In the study, 24 soil samples were taken from a 1625-m-radius circle whose center is the stack of the incinerator. This process was repeated 1 year later. Since the acquired average PCDD/F concentrations of the two sampling campaigns (0.05 and 0.02 ng WHO-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/kg) were meaningfully low compared to the related literatures, a new sampling campaign was carried out to control this inconsistency, but this time in a foreign laboratory (0.56 ng WHO-TEQ/kg). In the same period, eight gas samples were taken from the stack under different operational conditions of the facility. According to the evaluations of the findings, the geographical-meteorological data of the study area and the specific operational conditions of the facility corroborate the concentrations of the first and the second soil samplings rather than the third one. The major underlying reason for the inconsistency of the soil concentrations may be the fact that the data analysis procedures used by the laboratories are different. The author suggests a hypothesis which argues that the soils in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator may have significantly lower concentration levels than in related literatures.

  11. Reliability of reflectance measures in passive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva de André, Carmen Diva; Afonso de André, Paulo; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Carvalho de Oliveira, Regiani; Singer, Julio M.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of optical reflectance in passive filters impregnated with a reactive chemical solution may be transformed to ozone concentrations via a calibration curve and constitute a low cost alternative for environmental monitoring, mainly to estimate human exposure. Given the possibility of errors caused by exposure bias, it is common to consider sets of m filters exposed during a certain period to estimate the latent reflectance on n different sample occasions at a certain location. Mixed models with sample occasions as random effects are useful to analyze data obtained under such setups. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the mean of the m measurements is an indicator of the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates. Our objective is to determine m in order to obtain a pre-specified reliability of the estimates, taking possible outliers into account. To illustrate the procedure, we consider an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, University of São Paulo, Brazil (LPAE/FMUSP), where sets of m = 3 filters were exposed during 7 days on n = 9 different occasions at a certain location. The results show that the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates for each occasion obtained under homoskedasticity is km = 0.74. A residual analysis suggests that the within-occasion variance for two of the occasions should be different from the others. A refined model with two within-occasion variance components was considered, yielding km = 0.56 for these occasions and km = 0.87 for the remaining ones. To guarantee that all estimates have a reliability of at least 80% we require measurements on m = 10 filters on each occasion.

  12. Interaction between bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci species and strains and bovine mammary epithelial cells reflects differences in ecology and epidemiological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F N; Piepers, S; Della Libera, A M M P; Heinemann, M B; Cerqueira, M M O P; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria adherence seems to be an essential first stage for the internalization of bacteria into the cytoplasm of the host cell, which is considered an important virulence strategy enabling bacteria to occupy a microenvironment separated from host defense mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to explore the difference in the capacity of 4 bovine-associated staphylococci species or strains to adhere to and internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Three different isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were used: one strain of Staphylococcus fleurettii isolated from sawdust and considered an environmental opportunistic bacterium, and 2 dissimilar Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates, one cultured from a heifer's teat apex (Staph. chromogenes TA) and the other originating from a chronic intramammary infection (Staph. chromogenes IM). Also, one well-characterized strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) was used for comparison with a major mastitis pathogen. The CNS species and strains adhered to and internalized into MEC slower than did Staph. aureus. Still, we observed high variation in adhesion and internalization capacity among the different CNS, with Staph. chromogenes IM showing a greater ability to adhere to and internalize into MEC than the 2 CNS strains isolated from extramammary habitats. In conclusion, the 3 well-characterized bovine-associated CNS species and strains originating from distinct habitats showed clear differences in their capacity to adhere to and internalize into MEC. The observed differences might be related to their diversity in ecology and epidemiological behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Possible Different Rifting Mechanisms Between South and North Part of the Fenhe-Weihe Rift Zone Revealed by Shear Velocity Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an active intraplate continental rift, FWR plays an important role in accommodating the trans-tension in the Trans North China Craton (TNCO). Velocity field derived from GPS measurements reveals that the northern part of FWR is still under extension in N105°E direction at a rate of 4±2 mm/yr [Shen et al., 2000]. Actually, the FWR has been the most seismically active region in NCC. Bouguer gravity profile and seismic sounding lines [Xu and Ma, 1992] revealed a 2-3 km uplift of Moho depth beneath Taiyuan basin and 5-6 km beneath the Southwestern rift zone, those geophysical observations give clues to the un-evenly upwelling of the asthenosphere beneath the rift system and the different rifting process of the FWR. Therefore, studying the extension process of FWR is meaningful to understanding the NCC geodynamics associated with rifting tectonism. Using vertical continuous waveforms recorded during 2014 from CEarray, we construct a reliable and detailed 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure of FWR, using a Bayesian Monte-Carlo method to jointly interpret teleseismic P-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions [Shen et al., 2013]. In the upmost crust, FWR appear as awful low velocity anomaly zone (LVZ), while the Taihang and Lvliang mountain ranges are imaged as strong high velocity anomaly zones(HVZ). In the middle crust, the low velocity zones still keep their LVZ features Additionally, nearly the whole FWR appears as a linearly LVZ line separating Taihang Uplift and Lvliang Uplift, except beneath Shilingguan and Linshi blocks that separate the Xinxian, Taiyuan and Linfen Basins, consisting with the high seismicity there. The velocity of the lower crust beneath Taiyuan and Weihe Basin are relatively higher than the rest rift regions, we interpret them as the limited mafic underplating beneath the TNCO. From the lower crust to upper mantle, the Datong volcanic zone display robust low velocity features, though the lowest velocity

  14. Lambs Fed Fresh Winter Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.) Emit Less Methane than Those Fed Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Possible Mechanisms behind the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J.; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H.; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems. PMID:25803688

  15. Composition of Bacterial Assemblages in Different Components of Reed Warbler Nests and a Possible Role of Egg Incubation in Pathogen Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanja B Brandl

    Full Text Available Bacteria play a central role in animal health. Yet, little is known about the acquisition of bacteria and the extent to which bacteria are acquired from different environmental sources. For example, bird nests host diverse bacteria associated with the eggs, nestlings and nesting material, but previous research has typically focussed on only a limited number of nest components at a time. It therefore remains unknown to what extent bacteria are transmitted between these components. Using both molecular and culture techniques, we characterised nest-associated bacterial assemblages throughout the entire nesting cycle of reed warblers by sampling bacteria on eggs before and during incubation, within nestling faeces, and on the nesting material of post-breeding nests. We found that bacterial assemblages clustered by nest component. Yet some overlap existed between nest components, suggesting that bacterial transmission across components is likely to occur. Eggs and nestlings from the same nest harboured more similar bacteria than expected by chance, suggesting an influence of environment or genetics on bacterial assemblages. Bacterial loads were not lower on incubated eggs. Instead, incubation was associated with a change in the structure of assemblages, including a decrease in potentially-harmful Gram-negative bacteria. In addition we show for the first time, that incubation is associated with the complete extinction of harmful haemolytic bacteria. Overall, our study appears to be the first to demonstrate differences in bacterial assemblages between bird nest components. In addition, we highlight the complexity of nest bacterial assemblages and provide new insights into the benefits of incubation.

  16. Does the think-aloud protocol reflect thinking? Exploring functional neuroimaging differences with thinking (answering multiple choice questions) versus thinking aloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Artino, A.R.; Beckman, T.J.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Holmboe, E.; Schuwirth, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whether the think-aloud protocol is a valid measure of thinking remains uncertain. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential functional neuroanatomic differences between thinking (answering multiple-choice questions in real time) versus

  17. Concussion surveillance: do low concussion rates in the Qatar Professional Football League reflect a true difference or emphasize challenges in knowledge translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Targett, Steve; Holmich, Per; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    To investigate concussion epidemiology in the first football (soccer) division of Qatar. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division Football League of Qatar. All first team players were included at the beginning of each season. Daily collection of training and match exposure from August 2008 until April 2012 by club medical staff. Head injuries during training and match play were recorded on standardized injury cards. Injury incidence was calculated as number of injuries per hour exposed to risk and expressed as rate per 1000 hours. The incidence of concussions in professional club football in Qatar is 0.016 (0.000-0.033) per 1000 hours of exposure. The concussion incidence is only 25% of that in the previous European studies using the same time loss injury definition. This raises the possibility that concussions are underreported. Further research is necessary. In the meantime, concussion education of players, club medical, and support staff is warranted, in keeping with the Zurich concussion consensus call for the need for an increase in knowledge translation.

  18. Endogenous oscillations of electric potential difference in the cambial region of the pine stem. II. Possible involvement of the oscillations in xylogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Kurek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct and indirect interrelations between xylogenic processes and the endogenous electric potential difference (PD oscillations generated in the cambial region of isolated tissue blocks from pine trunks were investigated. The frequency of transient PD changes varied during the season and displayed three minima which were concurrent with periods of initiation and termination of cambial activity and with the time of transition from early- to late-wood production. The oscillations were damped by TIBA - an inhibitor of polar auxin transport and stimulated by IAA, but only when the hormone was supplied to the apical end of the tissue block. This suggests that the polar transport of auxin may be involved in generation of the transient PD changes. Results of 2-channel recordings in one tissue block suggest that a part of the recorded oscillations (10-25 % exhibit coordination in space and time: a wave-like pattern along the trunk axis is created by PD changes. The pattern might be a physical carrier of information coordinating processes of growth and differentiation in distant parts of the tree.

  19. Side differences in cerebrovascular accidents after cardiac surgery: a statistical analysis of neurologic symptoms and possible implications for anatomic mechanisms of aortic particle embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivie, Patrik; Edström, Cecilia; Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2005-03-01

    Aortic manipulation and particle embolization have been identified to cause cerebrovascular accidents in cardiac surgery. Recent data suggest that left-hemispheric cerebrovascular accident (right-sided symptoms) is more common, and this has been interpreted as being caused by aortic cannula stream jets. Our aim was to evaluate symptoms of cerebrovascular accident and side differences from a retrospective statistical analysis. During a 2-year period, 2641 consecutive cardiac surgery cases were analyzed. Patients positive for cerebrovascular accident were extracted from a database designed to monitor clinical symptoms. A protocol was used to confirm symptom data with the correct diagnosis in patient records. Patients were subdivided into 3 groups: control, immediate cerebrovascular accident, and delayed cerebrovascular accident. Among pooled patients, immediate and delayed cerebrovascular accidents were 3.0% and 0.9%, respectively. The expected predisposing factors behind immediate cerebrovascular accidents were significant, although the type of operation affected this search. Aortic quality was a strong predictor ( P cerebrovascular accident was unaffected by surgery group. Left-sided symptoms of immediate cerebrovascular accident were approximately twice as frequent ( P = .016) as on the contralateral side. This phenomenon was observed for pooled patients and for isolated coronary bypass procedures (n = 1882; P = .025). Immediate cerebrovascular accident and aortic calcifications are linked. The predominance of left-sided symptoms may suggest that aortic manipulation and anatomic mechanisms in the aortic arch are more likely to cause cerebrovascular accidents than effects from cannula stream jets.

  20. Comparison of PM10 concentrations and metal content in three different sites of the Venice Lagoon: an analysis of possible aerosol sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Daniele; Belosi, Franco; Gambaro, Andrea; Cesari, Daniela; Stortini, Angela Maria; Bove, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The Venice Lagoon is exposed to atmospheric pollutants from industrial activities, thermoelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, incinerator, domestic heating, ship traffic, glass factories and vehicular emissions on the mainland. In 2005, construction began on the mobile dams (MOSE), one dam for each channel connecting the lagoon to the Adriatic Sea as a barrier against high tide. These construction works could represent an additional source of pollutants. PM10 samples were taken on random days between 2007 and 2010 at three different sites: Punta Sabbioni, Chioggia and Malamocco, located near the respective dam construction worksites. Chemical analyses of V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb in PM10 samples were performed by Inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and results were used to identify the main aerosol sources. The correlation of measured data with meteorology, and source apportionment, failed to highlight a contribution specifically associated to the emissions of the MOSE construction works. The comparison of the measurements at the three sites showed a substantial homogeneity of metal concentrations in the area. Source apportionment with principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that a four principal factors model could describe the sources of metals in PM10. Three of them were assigned to specific sources in the area and one was characterised as a source of mixed origin (anthropogenic and crustal). A specific anthropogenic source of PM10 rich in Ni and Cr, active at the Chioggia site, was also identified.

  1. Study of L-aspartic acid for its possible use as a dosimeter in the interval of 3.4-20 kGy at different irradiation temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-López, Adriana; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Uribe, Roberto M.; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Certain commercial applications of radiation processing increase the efficiency of chemical reactions at low temperatures to decrease the free radicals in the bulk material and avoid the synergistic effects of heat. Such applications have motivated the search for a reliable, low-temperature dosimeter for use under the conditions of the irradiation process. For this purpose, polycrystalline samples of L-aspartic acid (2-aminobutanedioic acid) were irradiated with gamma rays at low temperatures and doses in the kiloGray range (3.4-64 kGy). The potential use of the aspartic acid system as a chemical dosimeter is based on the formation of stable free radicals when the amino acid is exposed to ionizing radiation. These radicals can be studied and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR). The response curves at different temperatures show that the intensity of the ESR spectra (the five characteristic lines) depends on the dose received. The response of the dosimeter increases with increasing temperature, and this relationship is linear up to 20 kGy at 298 K. The decay characteristics show that the change in the ESR signal over time is low and reproducible. In addition, the L-aspartic acid dosimeter is easy to handle and has low cost.

  2. Glucose tolerance in Papua New Guinea: ethnic differences, association with environmental and behavioural factors and the possible emergence of glucose intolerance in a highland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H; Finch, C; Collins, A; Koki, G; King, L F; Heywood, P; Zimmet, P

    1989-08-21

    That Melanesians of non-Austronesian genetic ancestry may be relatively resistant to glucose intolerance was supported by the results of a study of two semitraditional non-Austronesian villages in the Papua New Guinean highlands in 1983, in which an absence of diabetes and a high degree of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed. The second of this series of surveys was conducted in 1985 in three non-traditional communities: a periurban, non-Austronesian village in the highlands, and rural and periurban Austronesian villages in coastal locations. Although an absence of diabetes was demonstrated once again in the highlanders, these periurban subjects showed an unexpectedly high insulin response which may be a precursor of glucose intolerance. The notion that highland communities that are living in non-traditional circumstances in Papua New Guinea presently are in "metabolic transition" towards diabetes and other non-communicable diseases, if correct, is of importance to the public health of the nation. In the periurban, coastal-dwelling Austronesians, diabetes with severe hyperglycaemia was demonstrated, and there was some evidence of a secular trend towards increasing glucose intolerance. The two-hour plasma glucose concentrations were shown to be associated with obesity, modernity and Seventh-Day Adventist religious persuasion. However, important and unexplained differences in glucose tolerance remained between rural and periurban coastal dwellers after taking these factors into account.

  3. Inhibition of Erwinia chrysanthemi growth to different concentrations of folic acid: possible use of folic acid as bacteriostatic agent and fortifying of Solanum tuberosum potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcelo Correa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.

  4. Another Theory is Possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that dissident voices which attempt to theorise Europe differently and advocate another European trajectory have been largely excluded and left unheard in mainstream discussions over the past decade of scholarship and analysis. Dissident voices in European Union studies are tho...... theory, is possible – indeed, probable....

  5. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru

  6. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM...... remodelling was significantly different in UC compared to CD. The best biomarker combination to differentiate UC from CD and colonic CD was BGM and VICM (AUC = 0.98, P5mg/mL), correlation of Pro-C5 (r = 0.36) with CDAI was slightly improved compared to CRP (r = 0.27) corrected for the use of immunosuppressant....... Furthermore, BGM and EL-NE biomarkers were highly associated with colon inflammation in CD patients. ECM fragments of tissue remodelling in IBD affect UC and CD differently, and may aid in differentiating IBD from IBS (EL-NE, BGM, Pro-C5), and UC from CD patients (BGM, VICM). Formation of type V collagen...

  7. Different combinations of maternal and postnatal diet are reflected in changes of hepatic parenchyma and hepatic TNF-alpha expression in male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačarević, Željka Perić; Grgić, Anđela; Šnajder, Darija; Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Cvijanović, Olga; Blažičević, Valerija; Radić, Radivoje

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is related to increased TNF-alpha production in different tissues. TNF-alpha is connected to mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and also development of fatty infiltration of the liver. Also, postnatal change from normal to high-fat diet causes a significant increase in TNF-alpha serum levels. The aim of this research was to determine how maternal diet and switching male offspring to a different dietary regime after lactation influences rat liver. Ten female Sprague Dawley rats at nine weeks of age were randomly divided in two groups and fed either standard laboratory chow or high-fat diet during six weeks, and then mated with the same male subject. After birth and lactation male offspring from both groups were further divided into four subgroups depending on their subsequent diet. At 22 weeks of age, the animals were weighted, sacrificed and major organs were collected and weighted. Immunohistochemistry for TNF-alpha was performed on liver, and liver samples were analyzed for pathohistological changes. The group in which mothers were fed standard chow and offspring high-fat diet had the most pronounced changes: heaviest liver, poorest histopathological findings and strongest TNF-alpha immunohistochemical staining of liver parenchyma. High-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and switching to high-fat diet postnatally affects liver weight, histological structure and TNF-alpha expression in male offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Reflection sessions and triangular cooperation in "return" practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baard Johannessen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose for this qualitative study is to tighten the gap between the student teachers’ understanding of theory and practice.Reflection plenaries and returning practicum were explored; in an attempt to educate student teachers who are more equip to meet the future occupational challenges. The student teachers attend two instead of four different practicum schools during their practicums. Semi structured focus group interviews with a triangulation of data from headmasters, students, and teacher educators were gathered. The data was analyzed using inductive content analysis.The result reveals four categories, which influence student teachers` pedagogical insight through pre-service teaching practice: connections between theory and practical training, plenaries of reflections, pedagogical insight by understanding own role and possibilities for more time for pedagogical work in the classroom. Reflection plenaries enhances the students’ independence, level of reflection, and increase their ability to develop partnerships that are equal with their teacher educators and headmasters.

  9. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSES REVEAL DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS BETWEEN THE LIFE-CYCLE STAGES OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) AND REFLECT SPECIALIZATION TO DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; de Nooijer, Lennart J; Trimborn, Scarlett; de Vargas, Colomban; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    Coccolithophores, especially the abundant, cosmopolitan species Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. P. Mohler, are one of the main driving forces of the oceanic carbonate pump and contribute significantly to global carbon cycling, due to their ability to calcify. A recent study indicates that termination of diploid blooms by viral infection induces life-cycle transition, and speculation has arisen about the role of the haploid, noncalcifying stage in coccolithophore ecology. To explore gene expression patterns in both life-cycle stages, haploid and diploid cells of E. huxleyi (RCC 1217 and RCC 1216) were acclimated to limiting and saturating photon flux densities. Transcriptome analyses were performed to assess differential genomic expression related to different ploidy levels and acclimation light intensities. Analyses indicated that life-cycle stages exhibit different properties of regulating genome expression (e.g., pronounced gene activation and gene silencing in the diploid stage), proteome maintenance (e.g., increased turnover of proteins in the haploid stage), as well as metabolic processing (e.g., pronounced primary metabolism and motility in the haploid stage and calcification in the diploid stage). Furthermore, higher abundances of transcripts related to endocytotic and digestive machinery were observed in the diploid stage. A qualitative feeding experiment indicated that both life-cycle stages are capable of particle uptake (0.5 μm diameter) in late-stationary growth phase. Results showed that the two life-cycle stages represent functionally distinct entities that are evolutionarily shaped to thrive in the environment they typically inhabit. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Different temperature and cooling patterns at the blunt and sharp egg poles reflect the arrangement of eggs in an avian clutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav E; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is an energetically demanding process during which birds apply heat to their eggs to ensure embryonic development. Parent behaviours such as egg turning and exchanging the outer and central eggs in the nest cup affect the amount of heat lost to the environment from individual eggs. Little is known, however, about whether and how egg surface temperature and cooling rates vary among the different areas of an egg and how the arrangement of eggs within the clutch influences heat loss. We performed laboratory (using Japanese quail eggs) and field (with northern lapwing eggs) experiments using infrared imaging to assess the temperature and cooling patterns of heated eggs and clutches. We found that (i) the sharp poles of individual quail eggs warmed to a higher egg surface temperature than did the blunt poles, resulting in faster cooling at the sharp poles compared to the blunt poles; (ii) both quail and lapwing clutches with the sharp poles oriented towards the clutch centre (arranged clutches) maintained higher temperatures over the central part of the clutch than occurred in those clutches where most of the sharp egg poles were oriented towards the exterior (scattered clutches); and (iii) the arranged clutches of both quail and lapwing showed slower cooling rates at both the inner and outer clutch positions than did the respective parts of scattered clutches. Our results demonstrate that egg surface temperature and cooling rates differ between the sharp and blunt poles of the egg and that the orientation of individual eggs within the nest cup can significantly affect cooling of the clutch as a whole. We suggest that birds can arrange their eggs within the nest cup to optimise thermoregulation of the clutch.

  11. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen

    2001-05-01

    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  12. 'My heart belongs to daddy'. Some reflections on the difference between generations as the organiser of the triangular structure of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapisochin, G

    1999-08-01

    The author begins his paper with a historical review of the concept of the difference between generations, which is in his opinion a metaphorical transformation that underpins the three-dimensional functioning of the psychic apparatus by introducing a differentiating intergenerational space between subject and object. He postulates that at the point of intersection between the intersubjective and the intrapsychic the subject clings to the specific fragments of his parents' history that are consistent with a belief about himself and the oedipal couple in which intergenerational links are severed and infantile incestuous wishes are seen as fulfilled. Disavowal of this generation gap is considered to lead to failure of post-oedipal secondary identifications, resulting in disturbance of the triangular structuring of the mind and consequent impairment of the genesis of thought processes. These ideas are compared with related conceptions of other authors and illustrated, with an account of the associated transference/countertransference vicissitudes, by a clinical example of the constellation the author calls 'My heart belongs to daddy', which he sees as a way station in the negotiation of the female Oedipus complex.

  13. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  14. Distinct enzyme profiles in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis reflect heterogeneous causes with different outcomes after liver transplantation (OLT): a long-term documentation before and after OLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas; Neuhaus, Ruth; Klein, Reinhild; Leder, Korinna; Lobeck, Hartmut; Bechstein, Wolf-Otto; Müller, Andrea R; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Hopf, Uwe; Berg, Peter A; Neuhaus, Peter

    2002-09-27

    Sound information is lacking about the clinical presentation of cryptogenic cirrhosis and its outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Among 856 patients who have been transplanted at our center, 40 patients had no evidence of any known etiologies and were therefore defined as suffering from cryptogenic cirrhosis. Their median follow-up period before OLT was 78 months (range, 1-264), and after OLT 97 months (range, 1-132). Laboratory and histological data were evaluated according to features being compatible either with a toxic, hepatitic, or cholestatic condition. The clinical and histological findings differed specifically between these three groups. The toxic-like group (GGT 4-18 x upper limit of normal [ULN]) expressed significantly higher IgA levels, had histologically more often fatty liver changes, and risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis predominated (56% compared with 3% in the other groups, P=0.01). The hepatitic-like group (ALT 2-18 x ULN) showed histologically features of chronic hepatitis or hepatitic cirrhosis, and only among these patients a median International Autoimmune Hepatitis (IAH) score of 13 was found suggesting autoimmune hepatitis (AiH). In the cholestatic group (AP 2-8 x ULN) histology was compatible with a non-toxic inflammatory process but IAH score excluded AiH in all. After OLT, actuarial graft and patients survival was 90% at 5 years. Mild or moderate graft hepatitis occurred in 9 patients (23%) and was significantly associated with a pre-OLT IAH score >or= 10 (P =0.008). This study provides arguments that cryptogenic cirrhosis is a heterogeneous disease in which autoimmune mechanisms might be predominately involved and being responsible for recurrence of chronic liver disease observed in some instances after OLT.

  15. Oxygen consumption rates in hovering hummingbirds reflect substrate-dependent differences in P/O ratios: carbohydrate as a 'premium fuel'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Suarez, Raul K

    2007-06-01

    The stoichiometric relationship of ATP production to oxygen consumption, i.e. the P/O ratio, varies depending on the nature of the metabolic substrate used. The latest estimates reveal a P/O ratio approximately 15% higher when glucose is oxidized compared with fatty acid oxidation. Because the energy required to produce aerodynamic lift for hovering is independent of the metabolic fuel oxidized, we hypothesized that the rate of oxygen consumption, VO2, should decline as the respiratory quotient, RQ (VCO2/VO2), increases from 0.71 to 1.0 as hummingbirds transition from a fasted to a fed state. Here, we show that hovering VO2 values in rufous (Selasphorus rufus) and Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) are significantly greater when fats are metabolized (RQ=0.71) than when carbohydrates are used (RQ=1.0). Because hummingbirds gained mass during our experiments, making mass a confounding variable, we estimated VO2 per unit mechanical power output. Expressed in this way, the difference in VO2 when hummingbirds display an RQ=0.71 (fasted) and an RQ=1.0 (fed) is between 16 and 18%, depending on whether zero or perfect elastic energy storage is assumed. These values closely match theoretical expectations, indicating that a combination of mechanical power estimates and ;indirect calorimetry', i.e. the measurement of rates of gas exchange, enables precise estimates of ATP turnover and metabolic flux rates in vivo. The requirement for less oxygen when oxidizing carbohydrate suggests that carbohydrate oxidation may facilitate hovering flight in hummingbirds at high altitude.

  16. Evaluation of retro-reflective coating performance by reflectance and perceived relative brightness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luse, Kaiva; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis; Ozolins, Maris; Tukisa, Madara, E-mail: kaiva.luse@gmail.com [University of Latvia, Optometry and Vision Science Department, Kengaraga street 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Retro-reflective properties of six types and five different colors or retro-reflective materials were discussed in this paper. Reflectance optical indicatrix of samples was determined and compared to obtained psychophyisical data of perceived brightness of human observer. Microscopic structure of the retro-reflective active regions of RR's was studied. Statistically significant differences in reflectivity and brightness of various types and colors of RR's were found.

  17. Evaluation of retro-reflective coating performance by reflectance and perceived relative brightness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, Kaiva; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis; Ozolins, Maris; Tukisa, Madara

    2011-01-01

    Retro-reflective properties of six types and five different colors or retro-reflective materials were discussed in this paper. Reflectance optical indicatrix of samples was determined and compared to obtained psychophyisical data of perceived brightness of human observer. Microscopic structure of the retro-reflective active regions of RR's was studied. Statistically significant differences in reflectivity and brightness of various types and colors of RR's were found.

  18. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibrating crystals as possible neutron monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, A.D.; Popovici, M.

    1983-09-01

    The Bragg reflection of neutrons of vibratinq perfect crystals is considered. The additional possibilities offered by the Doppler effect for shaping neutron beams in the k-space are discussed. A simple model for computing the vibrating crystal reflectivity is proposed. (author)

  20. Guide on reflectivity data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Ku, Ja Seung; Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, Chang Hee; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Choi, Byung Hoon

    2004-09-01

    This report contains reduction and fitting process of neutron reflectivity data by REFLRED and REFLFIT in NIST. Because the detail of data reduction like BKG, footprint and data normalization was described, it will be useful to the user who has no experience in this field. Also, reflectivity and BKG of d-PS thin film were measured by HANARO neutron reflectometer. From these, the structure of d-PS thin film was analyzed with REFLRED and REFLFIT. Because the structure of thin film such as thickness, roughness and SLD was attained in the work, the possibility of data analysis with REFLRED and REFLFIT was certified

  1. Monitoring phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and mixed deciduous forests using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) at leaf and canopy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2016-12-01

    Evergreen conifers in boreal and temperate regions undergo strong seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperatures, which determines their phenology of high photosynthetic activity in the growing season and downregulation during the winter. Monitoring the timing of the transition between summer activity and winter downregulation in evergreens is difficult since this is a largely invisible process, unlike in deciduous trees that have a visible budding and a sequence of leaf unfolding in the spring and leaf abscission in the fall. The light-use efficiency (LUE) model estimates gross primary productivity (GPP) and may be parameterized using remotely sensed vegetation indices. Using spectral reflectance data, we derived the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of leaf "greenness", and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a proxy for chlorophyll:carotenoid ratios which is related to photosynthetic activity. To better understand the relationship between these vegetation indices and photosynthetic activity and to contrast this relationship between plant functional types, the phenology of NDVI, PRI and photosynthesis was monitored in an evergreen forest and a mixed deciduous forest at the leaf and canopy scale. Our data indicates that the LUE model can be parameterized by NDVI and PRI to track forest phenology. Differences in the sensitivity of PRI and NDVI will be discussed. These findings have implications to address the phenology of evergreen conifers by using PRI to complement NDVI in the LUE model, potentially improving model productivity estimates in northern hemisphere forests, that are dominated by conifers.

  2. Mexico's four economies reflect regional differences, challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Canas, Jesus; Gutierrez, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The economic potential of Mexico’s four regions is defined by their industrial makeup, income per capita and how much of the labor force operates outside the formal economy. Recent government reforms could promote growth and reduce regional inequality.

  3. Association equilibrium constants and populations of clusters (H2O)n(g) and (D2O)n(g): differences between isotopomers and a possible relation to isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Equilibrium constants of H 2 O(g) and D 2 O(g) associations to clusters (H 2 O) n (g) and (D 2 O) n (g) were calculated on the basis of the ab initio SCF CI MCY-B water-water pair potential. Populations of the components of equilibrium cluster mixtures were evaluated at various temperatures and pressures for both isotopomeric series. Differences between the H and D steam are pointed out and possible consequences are discussed. (author)

  4. [The Ability to Successfully Perform Different Kinds of Cognitive Activity Is Reflected in the Topological Features of Intracortical Interactions (Sex Differences in Boys and Girls Aged 5-6 Years)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasevich, E A; Tsitseroshin, M N

    2015-01-01

    We studied the correlation of intellectual development according to The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC test) with the spatial organization of resting EEG in 52 children aged 5-6 years. It was found that the patterns of interregional interactions of different parts of the cortex which correspond with the best performance in the subtests in boys (n = 23) and girls (n = 29) have significant topological differences. In girls, successful subtest performance positively correlated to a greater extent with interhemispheric interactions; in boys--long longitudinal rostral-caudal interactions between various regions of the cortex. The results showed that there are important gender differences in the spatial organization of brain activity associated with the performance of different cognitive activities in preschool children. The successful performance of various subtests by boys required considerable variability in the organization of spatial patterns of interregional interactions; on the contrary, the spatial structure of these patterns in girls was relatively invariable. Obviously, for the successful performance of various cognitive activities at this age in boys, the cortex need to form highly specialized organization of intracortical interactions, while in girls the brain uses relatively similar reorganization of interactions. The data suggest that 5-6-year-old boys and girls use different cognitive strategies when performing the same subtests of the WISC test.

  5. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  6. A Data-Driven Reflectance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Matusik, Wojciech; Pfister, Hanspeter; Brand, Matt; McMillan, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    We present a generative model for isotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) based on acquired reflectance data. Instead of using analytical reflectance models, we represent each BRDF as a dense set of measurements. This allows us to interpolate and extrapolate in the space of acquired BRDFs to create new BRDFs. We treat each acquired BRDF as a single high-dimensional vector taken from a space of all possible BRDFs. We apply both linear (subspace) and non-linear (manif...

  7. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  8. A Feminist Reflection on Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vargas Valente

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the past decade, citizenship has become one of the axes of feminist action and reflection in Latin America, and, at the same time, it is at the core of democratic concerns at the national levels and, as never before, at the global level. Citizenship constitutes an important pole in women's long fight for equality, lending new democratic content to feminist debates. It also is a meaningful axis for generating alliances among women and between women and other social groups, with the aim of broadening the limits of citizenship restrained by the manifold discriminations in our societies. Citizenship is a terrain of dispute between civil society and the state, and also within civil society itself. Feminist theorists of citizenship are adding complexity and contributing to a theory of citizenship by pointing to incongruities and weaknesses in the concept and practice of citizenship, recognizing that differences - not only gender-based ones- but among women themselves, may present possibilities and obstacles which need to be enhanced or neutralized.

  9. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  10. An Access Control Framework for Reflective Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Huang; Lian-Shan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Reflective middleware opens up the implementation details of middleware platform and applications at runtime for improving the adaptability of middleware-based systems. However, such openness brings new challenges to access control of the middleware-based systems.Some users can access the system via reflective entities, which sometimes cannot be protected by access control mechanisms of traditional middleware. To deliver high adaptability securely, reflective middleware should be equipped with proper access control mechanisms for potential access control holes induced by reflection. One reason of integrating these mechanisms in reflective middleware is that one goal of reflective middleware is to equip applications with reflection capabilities as transparent as possible. This paper studies how to design a reflective J2EE middlewarePKUAS with access control in mind. At first, a computation model of reflective system is built to identify all possible access control points induced by reflection. Then a set of access control mechanisms, including the wrapper of MBeans and a hierarchy of Java class loaders, are equipped for controlling the identified access control points. These mechanisms together with J2EE access control mechanism form the access control framework for PKUAS. The paper evaluates the security and the performance overheads of the framework in quality and quantity.

  11. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  12. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  13. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  14. A new possible biological interface model useful to narrate the artificial negative events by the radioactive contaminations and heavy-metals pollution of the soil and the atmosphere in different areas of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, P.; Boschi, A.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of environmental negative effects are associated to the pollution and radioactive contaminations of the soil and the atmosphere. Actually the C.I.S.A.M. (Interforces Centre for Studies and Military Applications) receives increasing commitments to control and to knowledge about the risks of the population and soldiers employed as stabilization or keeping peace force in large areas of different territories of Europe and other sites of the Planet. The aim of this work is focused to compare the contents of radionuclides on specific natural interfaces in different areas as residual radioactive contamination in addition to the other possible heavy-metals pollution. We used barks, lichens and symbiontic microalgae as interfaces with the atmospheric events of the Chernobyl, Balkan, and the Italian areas. The qualitative analysis of these biological matters showed the constant presence of Radiocesium, along with other radionuclides, of which we report the concentrations. Even if these observations are not completely new, nevertheless we can suppose that this approach could be a new possible interface model useful to narrate the sequence of the the artificial negative events due to the human activities and contemporarely an indirect valuation of different risks pointed to the protection of the exposed population

  15. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  16. How to succeed with ethics reflection groups in community healthcare? Professionals' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Heidi; Lillemoen, Lillian; Magelssen, Morten; Førde, Reidun; Pedersen, Reidar; Gjerberg, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare personnel in the municipal healthcare systems experience many ethical challenges in their everyday work. In Norway, 243 municipalities participated in a national ethics project, aimed to increase ethical competence in municipal healthcare services. In this study, we wanted to map out what participants in ethics reflection groups experienced as promoters or as barriers to successful reflection. To examine what the staff experience as promoters or as barriers to successful ethics reflection. The study has a qualitative design, where 56 participants in municipal healthcare participated in 10 different focus-group interviews. Ethical considerations: The data collection was based on the participants' informed consent and approved by the Data Protection Official of the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. The informants had different experiences from ethics reflection group. Nevertheless, we found that there were several factors that were consistently mentioned: competence, facilitator's role, ethics reflection groups organizing, and organizational support were all experienced as promoters and as a significant effect on ethics reflection groups. The absence of such factors would constitute important barriers to successful ethics reflection. The results are coincident with other studies, and indicate some conditions that may increase the possibility to succeed with ethics reflection groups. A systematic approach seems to be important, the systematics of the actual reflections, but also in the organization of ethics reflection group at the workplace. Community healthcare is characterized by organizational instabilities as many vacancies, high workloads, and lack of predictability. This can be a hinder for ethics reflection group. Both internal and external factors seem to influence the organization of ethics reflection group. The municipalities' instabilities challenging this work, and perceived as a clear inhibitor for the development. The participants

  17. Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John

    2018-02-01

    To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time-frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also

  18. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  19. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  20. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1, members of the TGF-beta superfamily and follistatin do not reflect different stages of dynapenia and sarcopenia in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marlene; Halper, Barbara; Oesen, Stefan; Franzke, Bernhard; Stuparits, Petra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Quittan, Michael; Ploder, Martin; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    There is a high need for blood-based biomarkers detecting age-related changes in muscular performance at an early stage. Therefore, we investigated whether serum levels of growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), activin A, myostatin, follistatin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would reflect age- and physical performance-related differences between young (22-28 years) and elderly (65-92 years) females. Isokinetic peak torque of knee extension (PTE) was measured in young females to obtain reference values for the discrimination of different stages of age-associated muscle weakness. Additionally, elderly women were screened for sarcopenia using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (low muscle mass in addition to low PTE and/or low walking speed). IGF-1 levels were higher and GDF-15 levels were lower in young females in comparison to the elderly (p sarcopenia in elderly women. However, due to the associations of IGF-1 and GDF-15 with correlates of muscle mass and function, these parameters remain promising candidates in a potential set of blood-based biomarkers to diagnose sarcopenia and/or dynapenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  2. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  3. Possible heterogeneity of centres of binding 1,8-ANS in molecules of oxygenated hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parul', D.A.; Bokut', S.B.; Milyutin, A.A.; Petrov, E.P.; Nemkovich, N.A.; Sobchuk, A.N.; Dzhagarov, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Forming of oxygenated hemoglobin is one of effects of ionizing radiation action on organism. It was revealed heterogeneity of centers of binding of 1,8-ANS in intact molecule of oxygenated hemoglobin. Two types of binding centers possible reflect the existence of two regions in protein molecule with different accessibility to molecules of water

  4. Exchange bias studied with polarized neutron reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velthuis, S. G. E. te

    2000-01-01

    The role of Polarized Neutron Reflectivity (PNR) for studying natural and synthetic exchange biased systems is illustrated. For a partially oxidized thin film of Co, cycling of the magnetic field causes a considerable reduction of the bias, which the onset of diffuse neutron scattering shows to be due to the loosening of the ferromagnetic domains. On the other hand, PNR measurements of a model exchange bias junction consisting of an n-layered Fe/Cr antiferromagnetic (AF) superlattice coupled with an m-layered Fe/Cr ferromagnetic (F) superlattice confirm the predicted collinear magnetization in the two superlattices. The two magnetized states of the F (along or opposite to the bias field) differ only in the relative orientation of the F and adjacent AF layer. The possibility of reading clearly the magnetic state at the interface pinpoints the commanding role that PNR is having in solving this intriguing problem

  5. Possible relationship between the Earth's rotation variations and geomagnetic field reversals over the past 510 Myr

    OpenAIRE

    Pacca, Igor G.; Frigo, Everton; Hartmann, Gelvam A.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's rotation can change as a result of several internal and external processes, each of which is at a different timescale. Here, we present some possible connections between the Earth's rotation variations and the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates over the past 120 Myr. In addition, we show the possible relationship between the geomagnetic field reversal frequency and the δ18O oscillations. Because the latter reflects the glacial and interglacial periods, we hypothesize that it can...

  6. Euclidean mirrors: enhanced vacuum decay from reflected instantons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ibrahim; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2018-05-01

    We study the tunnelling of virtual matter–antimatter pairs from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a spatially uniform, time-dependent electric background composed of a strong, slow field superimposed with a weak, rapid field. After analytic continuation to Euclidean spacetime, we obtain from the instanton equations two critical points. While one of them is the closing point of the instanton path, the other serves as an Euclidean mirror which reflects and squeezes the instanton. It is this reflection and shrinking which is responsible for an enormous enhancement of the vacuum pair production rate. We discuss how important features of two different mechanisms can be analysed and understood via such a rotation in the complex plane. (a) Consistent with previous studies, we first discuss the standard assisted mechanism with a static strong field and certain weak fields with a distinct pole structure in order to show that the reflection takes place exactly at the poles. We also discuss the effect of possible sub-cycle structures. We extend this reflection picture then to weak fields which have no poles present and illustrate the effective reflections with explicit examples. An additional field strength dependence for the rate occurs in such cases. We analytically compute the characteristic threshold for the assisted mechanism given by the critical combined Keldysh parameter. We discuss significant differences between these two types of fields. For various backgrounds, we present the contributing instantons and perform analytical computations for the corresponding rates treating both fields nonperturbatively. (b) In addition, we also study the case with a nonstatic strong field which gives rise to the assisted dynamical mechanism. For different strong field profiles we investigate the impact on the critical combined Keldysh parameter. As an explicit example, we analytically compute the rate by employing the exact reflection points. The validity of the predictions

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  8. Positronium reflection and positronium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Tang, S.; Khatri, R.; Roellig, L.O.; Viescas, A.J.; Berko, S.; Canter, K.F.; Lynn, K.G.; Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed specular reflection of positronium, Ps, and established that there is adequate intensity at higher energies to make further study worthwhile. The scattering appears to be restricted to the outermost surface with a mean free path of (0.75 ± 0.15)Angstrom for Ps in LiF(100). With a greater intensity Ps beam one should see higher order diffraction beams as the result of the periodicity of the surface. Ps diffraction thus offers the possibility of being a novel and valuable probe to study the outermost surface and to study adsorbents on it. Two methods for producing Ps beams are described. 29 refs., 11 figs

  9. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  10. The WHO Review of the Possible Nonspecific Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: World Health Organization recently reviewed the possible nonspecific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The results were considered inconsistent though most studies suggested deleterious effects. We examined whether inconsistencies in results reflected differences...... in effect of DTP or differences in the methodology used in different studies. METHODS: If children remain unvaccinated because they are frail or if children (including dead ones) with no information on vaccination status are classified as "unvaccinated," the mortality rate becomes unnaturally high among...

  11. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean

    1993-01-01

    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary

  12. A situated approach to VET students' reflection processes across boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the intersection between institutional requirements for reflection and students’ actual reflection initiatives in the social and health care education programmes. A situated perspective makes it possible to illuminate individuals’ commitment, curiosity a...... be enhanced. The paper adds to previous research on boundary crossing in vocational education and highlights the notion of visible reflection....

  13. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K

    1996-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  16. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  17. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    facilitators as well as for those who organize/implement ECR sessions. Awareness of space for different perspectives, including the possible medical advantage over the nursing perspective, could reduce the somewhat unilateral attention and contribute to an inter-professionally shared reflection.

  18. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  19. Asynchrony in visual consciousness and the possible involvement of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eMoutoussis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When subjects are asked to perceptually bind rapidly alternating colour and motion stimuli, the pairings they report are different from the ones actually occurring in physical reality. A possible explanation for this misbinding is that the time necessary for perception is different for different visual attributes. Such an explanation is in logical harmony with the fact that the visual brain is characterized by different, functionally specialized systems, with different processing times for each; this type of organization naturally leads to different perceptual times for the corresponding attributes. In the present review, the experimental findings supporting perceptual asynchrony are presented, together with the original theoretical explanation behind the phenomenon and its implication for visual consciousness. Alternative theoretical views and additional experimental facts concerning perceptual misbinding are also reviewed, with a particular emphasis given to the role of attention. With few exceptions, most theories converge on the idea that the observed misbinding reflects a difference in perception times, which is in turn due to differences in neuronal processing times for different attributes within the brain. These processing-time differences have been attributed to several different factors, attention included, with the possibility of co-existence between them.

  20. Information society and new learning possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Nunes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following communication starts with a reflection about the present society, linking it with the potential of using technology to support the training activity. Then, a brief reference about andragogy and the main characteristics of an adult learner is done. Follows some electronic learning possibilities and a report on the practical application of the “Student Response System” (SRS tool, illustrating the m-learning possibilities at the level of adult learning

  1. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  2. The Influence of Collaborative Reflection and Think-Aloud Protocols on Pre-Service Teachers' Reflection: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epler, Cory M.; Drape, Tiffany A.; Broyles, Thomas W.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine if there are differences in pre-service teachers' depth of reflection when using a written self-reflection form, a written self-reflection form and a think-aloud protocol, and collaborative reflection. Twenty-six pre-service teachers were randomly assigned to fourteen teaching teams. The…

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good

  4. Positive Stress and Reflective Practice Among Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Tikkamäki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While heavy stress loads seem an unavoidable aspect of entrepreneurship, the positive side of stress (often referred to as ‘eustress’ remains a neglected area of research. This paper contributes to entrepreneurship research by linking the research streams of eustress and reflective practice. As a tool for analysing and developing thoughts and actions, reflective practice plays an important role in the interpretative work essential to positive stress experiences. Following an overview of approaches to stress at work, eustress and reflective practice, the paper explores how entrepreneurs experience the role of positive stress and reflective practice in their work and describes the reflective tools utilized by entrepreneurs in promoting eustress. The research process was designed to support reflective dialogue among the 21 Finnish entrepreneurs from different fields who participated in the study, with results based mainly on qualitative interviews. Nine of the interviewed entrepreneurs also kept a positive stress diary, including a three-day physiological measurement analysing their heartbeat variability. The findings suggest that positive stress and reflective practice are intertwined in the experiences of entrepreneurs and illustrate the role of reflective practice as a crucial toolset for promoting positive stress, comprising six reflective tools: studying oneself, changing one’s point of view, putting things into perspective, harnessing a feeling of trust, regulating resources and engaging in dialogue. Individual reflective capabilities vary, and a theory-driven division of reflective practice into individual, social and contextual dimensions is considered useful in understanding those differences. The research offers a starting point for exploring how eustress and reflective practice affect the well-being of entrepreneurs

  5. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  6. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (R dI and R dI 0.5 ) and wave energy (R I and R I 0.5 ) as well as the measured pressure (R dP ) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, R dP , R dI 0.5 and R I 0.5 are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst R dI and R I provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the

  7. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  8. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  9. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  10. Evaluation of the algorithms for recovering reflectance from virtual digital camera response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gebejes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many new methods for quality control in graphic industry are proposed. All of these methodshave one in common – using digital camera as a capturing device and appropriate image processing method/algorithmto obtain desired information. With the development of new, more accurate sensors, digital cameras becameeven more dominant and the use of cameras as measuring device became more emphasized. The idea of using cameraas spectrophotometer is interesting because this kind of measurement would be more economical, faster, widelyavailable and it would provide a possibility of multiple colour capture with a single shot. This can be very usefulfor capturing colour targets for characterization of different properties of a print device. A lot of effort is put into enablingcommercial colour CCD cameras (3 acquisition channels to obtain enough of the information for reflectancerecovery. Unfortunately, RGB camera was not made with the idea of performing colour measurements but ratherfor producing an image that is visually pleasant for the observer. This somewhat complicates the task and seeks fora development of different algorithms that will estimate the reflectance information from the available RGB cameraresponses with minimal possible error. In this paper three different reflectance estimation algorithms are evaluated(Orthogonal projection,Wiener and optimized Wiener estimation, together with the method for reflectance approximationbased on principal component analysis (PCA. The aim was to perform reflectance estimation pixelwise and analyze the performance of some reflectance estimation algorithms locally, at some specific pixels in theimage, and globally, on the whole image. Performances of each algorithm were evaluated visually and numericallyby obtaining pixel wise colour difference and pixel wise difference of estimated reflectance to the original values. Itwas concluded that Wiener method gives the best reflectance estimation

  11. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  12. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  13. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  14. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  15. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  16. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  17. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  18. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  19. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  20. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  1. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  2. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  3. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  4. Da Educação inclusiva: das diferenças como possibilidades (da teoria à prática - Inclusive Education: the differences as possibilities (from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4512.2013n28p12   Detendo-se na questão que envolve a educação inclusiva, a investigação recorre à noção de diversidade para caracterizar um processo que se impõe como a afirmação do direito à diferença e demanda a adequabilidade das estruturas socioculturais no sentido de possibilitar o cumprimento da legislação que, não se restringindo ao âmbito da instituição escolar e do sistema educacional que as compõem, mas tendo-o como fundamento, converge para construir as condições necessárias para viabilizar a condição de cidadania para os portadores de deficiência, transtornos globais do desenvolvimento e altas habilidades ou superdotação, entre outros problemas que representam um grau de dificuldade no tocante à adaptação ao arcabouço social que afeta desde a relação de ensino e aprendizagem até o exercício da atividade profissional e requer não menos do que a descoberta, a utilização e a ampliação das suas potencialidades, tanto quanto, em suma, a emergência das suas aptidões. Inclusive Education: the differences as possibilities (from theory to practice Abstract   Dwelling on the issue involving inclusive education, research uses the notion of diversity to characterize a process that imposes itself as the affirmation of the right to difference and demand the suitability of the socio-cultural structures in order to allow compliance with the legislation, not restricted to the context of the school and educational system that compose them, but having it as the foundation converges to build the necessary conditions to enable the condition of citizenship for people with disabilities, pervasive developmental disorders and high ability or giftedness, among other problems that pose a difficulty in relation to adapting to the social framework that affects from the relation of teaching and learning to exercise the professional activity and requires no less than the discovery, use

  5. A reflection on feelings and the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Otniel E

    2009-12-01

    This reflection attends to Paul White's call in his introduction to this Focus section for a history of science that is informed by the history of emotions. It offers a succinct historical exemplification of the possibilities of studying the history of science in terms of the history of emotions. It draws on Raymond Williams's concept of "structure of feeling" in arguing for the emergence of an adrenaline structure of feeling during the early twentieth century. It provides a mosaic of different views of the immanence of the adrenaline structure of feeling in diverse scientific realms by broaching some of the major themes that appear in the individual essays in this Focus section.

  6. Out-of-School English and the possible effect it has on Second Language Acquisition : - a study on how students with different backgrounds acquire the English language outside of school

    OpenAIRE

    Fallkvist, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Second language acquisition is a field that has fascinated linguists for numerous years and is a topic that is very much connected to how English teachers in Sweden try to teach the English language to the students in their classrooms. In 2009 Sundqvist examined what possible effects extramural English could have on learners' oral proficiency and their vocabulary. In her study she found out that extramural English “is an independent variable and a possible path to progress in English” (Sundqv...

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  8. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  9. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  10. Euclidean mirrors. Enhanced vacuum decay from reflected instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-06-15

    We study the tunneling of virtual matter-antimatter pairs from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a spatially uniform temporal electric background composed of of a strong slow field superimposed with a weak rapid field. After analytic continuation to Euclidean spacetime we obtain from the instanton equations two critical points. While one of them is the closing point of the instanton path, the other serves as an Euclidean mirror which reflects and squeezes the instanton. It is this reflection and shrinking which is responsible for an enormous enhancement of the vacuum pair production rate. We discuss how important features of this mechanism can be analysed and understood via such a rotation in the complex plane. Consistent with previous studies, we consider certain examples where we apply weak fields with a distinct pole structure in order to show that the reflection takes place exactly at the poles. We also discuss the effect of possible sub-cycle structures. We extend this reflection picture to fields which have no poles present and illustrate the effective reflections with explicit examples. An additional field strength dependence for the rate occurs in such cases. We analytically compute the characteristic threshold for this mechanism given by the critical combined Keldysh parameter. We discuss significant differences between these two types of fields. For various backgrounds, we present the contributing instantons and perform analytical computations for the corresponding rates treating both fields nonperturbatively. The validity of the results is confirmed by numerical computations. Considering different profiles for the strong field, we also discuss its impact on the critical combined Keldysh parameter.

  11. Roughness-reflectance relationship of bare desert terrain: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoshany, M.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) in relation to surface roughness properties was conducted in arid land near Fowlers Gap Research Station, New South Wales, Australia. Such empirical study is necessary for investigating the possibility of determining terrain geomorphological parameters from bidirectional reflectance data. A new apparatus was developed to take accurate hemispherical directions radiance measurements (HDRM). A digitizer for three-dimensional in situ roughness measurements was also developed. More than 70 hemispherical data sets were collected for various illumination conditions and surface types of desert stony pavements and rocky terrain slopes. In general, it was found that most of the surfaces exhibited an anisotropic reflection, combining a major component of backscattering. The BRDF of different surface types in relation to their roughness properties as determined by the field digitizer were then examined. Results showed that sites that are considered to differ significantly from a geomorphological point of view would not necessarily form a different BRDF

  12. Microdosimetry: Reflections on Harald Rossi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This and twelve previous Symposia reflect the evolution of microdosimetry, a field of research that has determined major new developments in radiation research, radiation protection, and radiology during the past four decades. The concepts of microdosimetry and its techniques were developed almost single handedly by H.H. Rossi. This memorial lecture outlines some of the ideas and some of the work of Harald Rossi that led to microdosimetry. It describes its major impact on radiobiology and, especially, its impact on studies with fast neutrons and on risk assessment. Microdosimetry was primarily designed as a tool for the elucidation of basic mechanisms of radiation action, but it has found its most important applications in the dosimetric measurement techniques that have become indispensable in radiation protection and in the dosimetry for radiation therapy. The advances of molecular biology are now providing new possibilities for a quantitative application of microdosimetry to radiobiology along the lines that Harald Rossi defined. (author)

  13. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  14. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  15. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  16. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  17. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  18. Effects of Rocket Exhaust on Lunar Soil Reflectance Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Plescia, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    areas; this magnitude is the same, within uncertainty, for all sites, indicating a common process or combination of processes causing differences in reflectance properties of the regolith. Phase-ratio images and photometric data collected over a range of illumination geometries show that a greater separation in reflectance occurs between the HR-BZs and undisturbed areas with increasing phase angle and indicate that the HR-BZs are less backscattering than undisturbed areas. As working hypotheses, we consider the following possibilities to explain BZ reflectance phenomena: change in macroscopic roughness, microscopic modification of surface structure, redistribution of fines (excavation from LR-BZ and deposition in HR-BZ), change in compaction, contamination from fuel, and modification of maturity. The LR-BZ is affected by macroscopic disruption of the surface and increased shadowing. We infer that HR-BZ reflectance has been affected by scouring from particles entrained by exhaust gases with low-angle trajectories. Entrained particles with trajectories greater than a few degrees relative to horizontal travel well beyond the BZ boundary and do not contribute to BZ reflectance variations. Regolith particle interactions with surface soil within HR-BZs may destroy fine-scale surface structure (e.g., "fairy-castle") and decrease macroscopic roughness, contributing to a decrease in backscattering character within the HR-BZ.

  19. Paleostructure of the roof of the Shatlyk level of the Amudarya oil and gas province at different stages of the Alpian cycle of development and possible paths of migratory streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' yeva, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the position of the roofing surface of the Shatlyk level by the beginning of the middle Oligocene, middle Miocene, late Miocene and late Pliocene, and possible paths of migration at each stage are noted. The hypothesis is advanced that there are gas formations in traps of the Kulachkskiy and Andkhoyskiy swells.

  20. Near zero reflection by nanostructured anti-reflection coating design for Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fandi, Mohamed; Makableh, Yahia F.; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rabady, Rabi

    2018-05-01

    The nanostructure design of near zero reflection coating for Si substrates by using ZnO Nanoneedles (ZnONN) is performed and optimized for the visible spectral range. The design investigates the ZnONN tip to body ratio effect on the anti-reflection coating properties. Different tip to body ratios are used on Si substrates. Around zero reflection is achieved by the Nanoneedles structure design presented in this work, leading to minimal reflection losses from the Si surface. The current design evolves a solution to optical losses and surface contamination effects associated with Si solar cells.

  1. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  2. Researching critical reflection in management education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Critical reflection for professionals involves the ability to learn directly from their practice experience, so that they can improve their own work in an ongoing and flexible way. By examining the fundamental bases of what they do systematically, critical reflection can also function as a form...... to deal with change and critical reflection provides one method for being able to incorporate changes in a way which allows individuals to preserve a sense of what is fundamentally important to them as professionals. Since many different professionals work together in most organisations, research...... of education, management, health and social work....

  3. Reflections on 25 Years of Journal Editorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    These reflections range over some distinctive features of the journal Science & Education, they acknowledge in a limited way the many individuals who over the past 25 years have contributed to the success and reputation of the journal, they chart the beginnings of the journal, and they dwell on a few central concerns—clear writing and the contribution of HPS to teacher education. The reflections also revisit the much-debated and written-upon philosophical and pedagogical arguments occasioned by the rise and possible demise of constructivism in science education.

  4. Gravitational wave sources: reflections and echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard H.; Khanna, Gaurav

    2017-11-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves has generated interest in alternatives to the black hole interpretation of sources. A subset of such alternatives involves a prediction of gravitational wave ‘echoes’. We consider two aspects of possible echoes: first, general features of echoes coming from spacetime reflecting conditions. We find that the detailed nature of such echoes does not bear any clear relationship to quasi-normal frequencies. Second, we point out the pitfalls in the analysis of local reflecting ‘walls’ near the horizon of rapidly rotating black holes.

  5. Gravitational wave sources: reflections and echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard H; Khanna, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves has generated interest in alternatives to the black hole interpretation of sources. A subset of such alternatives involves a prediction of gravitational wave ‘echoes’. We consider two aspects of possible echoes: first, general features of echoes coming from spacetime reflecting conditions. We find that the detailed nature of such echoes does not bear any clear relationship to quasi-normal frequencies. Second, we point out the pitfalls in the analysis of local reflecting ‘walls’ near the horizon of rapidly rotating black holes. (paper)

  6. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself.

  7. Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of observed sky radiance and solar irradiance data from Oslo has been used together with a Gaussian slope distribution for the sea surface in order to estimate the reflected radiance. The spectral range studied is 405–650 nm, the solar zenith angles are in the range 37°–76°, and the wind speeds are up to 10 m s−1. The analysis of the results show that the reflected radiance has to be separated into three contributions: sky radiance and sun rays reflected at the foam-free surface and irradiance reflected by whitecaps and foam. It is then demonstrated that by using four input values, namely the downward irradiance, the sky radiance from the zenith, the solar zenith angle and the wind speed, it is possible to obtain by simple expressions estimates of the reflected radiance that only differ from the former calculated values by relative errors of less than 5%. The analysis also indicates that for the spectral range studied neither the water-leaving radiance nor the surface-reflected radiance can be disregarded relative to the other one in the Case 2 waters of the Oslofjord-Skagerrak area. The results form a first step towards the study of reflected radiance in viewing angles differing from the nadir direction.

  8. [Knowledge, strategies and ideologies of nursing: a reflection based on the Lopes' study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I G; Gomes, E L

    2001-01-01

    This paper makes a reflection on the knowledge and ideologies present in the nursing practice within a hospital context, based on theoretical references used by the sociologist Noemia da Glória Mendes Lopes in her MS dissertation in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1994. In this dissertation she analyzes the work of nurses within hospital contexts. The author observed that within the professional context of nursing there are many social practices of work indicating different strategies of valuing and revaluating the profession. It was concluded from this reflection that there are better possibilities of performing such strategies in specialized services than in medical clinic services.

  9. Identifying diffraction effects in measured reflectances

    OpenAIRE

    Holzschuch , Nicolas; Pacanowski , Romain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; There are two different physical models connecting the micro-geometry of a surface and its physical reflectance properties (BRDF). The first, Cook-Torrance, assumes geometrical optics: light is reflected and masked by the micro-facets. In this model, the BRDF depends on the probability distribution of micro-facets normals. The second, Church-Takacs, assumes diffraction by the micro-geometry. In this model, the BRDF depends on the power spectral distribution of the surf...

  10. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  11. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of uncertain parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is readily used for practical calculations. However, an alternative approach is offered by possibility theory making use of possibility distributions such as intervals and fuzzy intervals. This approach is well suited to represent lack of knowledge or imprecision......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  12. Towards the Possible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, S.

    2014-01-01

    Towards the Possible Film is a study in parallel universes – and the sparks that fly when worlds collide. As much of a projection into a far-off future as a flashback to a long-forgotten past, Dawood’s vivid 20-minute tableau combines the resonance of a mythic fable with the hallucinatory haziness of a waking dream. Emerging from the waves, as if transported from another dimension, two blue-skinned astronauts materialise on a red-rocked shoreline (Sidi Ifni in Southern Morocco). Blinking into...

  13. Future possibilities at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the ISOLDE facility at CERN is summarized and recently achieved target/ion-source and separator improvements are presented. New ion source principles being tested include multistep laser ionization, bunched surface ionization, and ECR ion source. The prospects for the high-resolution separator ISOLDE-3 are described. The possibilities of a new ISOLDE installation at the PS Booster at CERN are presented together with the planned features of the new facility. Add-on devices to improve the performance that are presently being discussed are an electrostatic sector field, an electron beam ion stripper, and a high voltage platform for energy boosting. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  14. TERAHERTZ REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SKIN DERMATITIS AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Strepitov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals withthe diagnostics possibility of dermatitis and morphological changes of human skin using terahertz frequency range equal to 2,0¸0,05 THz. Features of different types of human skin diseases occur in vivo over the entire frequency range, especially in the field of vibration: 2,0¸1,5 THz. They were caused by the backscattering on skin new formations in its upper layers. In terahertz reflection spectra spectral lines of different dermatitis, age spots, haematoma are well distinguishable. Terahertz radiation penetrates well through the medical bandages. At the same time in a single scan, lasting about one minute, the spectrum is processed not only of the bandages, but of different skin layers.

  15. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  16. A Garden of Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory.   Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...

  17. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  18. A Declarative Approach to Architectural Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2005-01-01

    which both creates runtime models of specific distributed architectures and allow for evaluation of AQL queries on these models. We illustrate the viability of the approach in two particular applications of such a model: constraint checking relative to an architectural style, and reasoning about certain......Recent research shows runtime architectural reflection is instrumental in, for instance, building adaptive and flexible systems or checking correspondence between design and implementation. Moreover, experience with computational reflection in various branches of computer science shows...... that the interface through which the meta-information of the running system is accessed, and possibly modified, lies at the heart of designing reflective systems. This paper proposes that such an interface should be like a database: accessed through queries expressed using the concepts with which architecture...

  19. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alos-Ferrer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present novel evidence on decision times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above. To this end, we measured decision times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias. All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question, shutting it down (creating a neutral question, or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question. For CRT questions, the differences in decision times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower, evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and decision times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used the mas controls in regression analysis.

  20. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Garagnani, Michele; Hügelschäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias). All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question), shutting it down (creating a neutral question), or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question). For CRT questions, the differences in response times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower), evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and response times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used them as controls in regression analysis.

  1. Reflections on Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    In this paper, I intend to make a first attempt to establish an analytical framework for my PhD thesis. It is a work-in-progress, in which I intend to explore the concept „foodscapes‟ and the possibilities of letting it function as a tool to bring forth the tension between the nutritional discourse...

  2. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  3. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  4. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  5. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  6. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  7. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  8. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  9. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  10. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  11. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  12. Reflecting on 80 years of excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, Ushma

    2004-01-01

    A small group of members of the American Society for Clinical Investigation began chatting in 1916 about the possibility of launching a new biomedical research journal. By October 1924, they managed to make the idea a reality with the publication of the first issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Our 80th birthday seems an appropriate time to reflect on the history of biomedical science as it has been played out on our pages. PMID:15489943

  13. Is Ocean Reflectance Acquired by Citizen Scientists Robust for Science Applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the dynamics of the productivity of ocean water and how it affects fisheries is essential for management. It requires data on proper spatial and temporal scales, which can be provided by operational ocean colour satellites. However, accurate productivity data from ocean colour imagery is only possible with proper validation of, for instance, the atmospheric correction applied to the images. In situ water reflectance data are of great value due to the requirements for validation and reflectance is traditionally measured with the Surface Acquisition System (SAS solar tracker system. Recently, an application for mobile devices, “HydroColor”, was developed to acquire water reflectance data. We examined the accuracy of the water reflectance measures acquired by HydroColor with the help of both trained and untrained citizens, under different environmental conditions. We used water reflectance data acquired by SAS solar tracker and by HydroColor onboard the BC ferry Queen of Oak Bay from July to September 2016. Monte Carlo permutation F tests were used to assess whether the differences between measurements collected by SAS solar tracker and HydroColor with citizens were significant. Results showed that citizen HydroColor measurements were accurate in red, green, and blue bands, as well as red/green and red/blue ratios under different environmental conditions. In addition, we found that a trained citizen obtained higher quality HydroColor data especially under clear skies at noon.

  14. ep possibility for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE is discussed in terms of cost, physics goals, count rate estimates, the detector requirements, and the possibility of producing intermediate bosons. The purpose of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE must be considered to be the study of e + p → e + x, e - p → νx, and e + p → anti νx. Other processes, such as W production, are less interesting for an ep ring than for a pp ring. However, there may be other new particles--such as leptonic quarks--that only turn up here. These processes are, however, exciting. In a 30 day run at L = 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 300 neutrino events are expected at q 2 > 5000 GeV 2 where the propagator is expected to be less than 1 / 4 . Thus the value of the mass in the propagator can be measured to 5%. The ep cross section would be measured over the momentum transfer range 1 2 2 ). This range is large enough that a logarithmic deviation from scaling can be distinguished easily from a power law approach to scaling

  15. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, Sofia [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Luisa, E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von [Institute for analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  16. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  17. Domestic work, consumption and intersectionality: agency possibilities in the trajectory of a (former domestic worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mourão Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the articulation of social categories of difference and intersectionalities from the analysis of a domestic worker trajectory, who is in transition to the profession of nursing assistant. I argue that, in the analyzed trajectory, the professional qualification and the possibility to consume some goods, before accessible only to middle and upper classes, were prominent in the search for agency, achievements facilitated by a favorable socio-economic context. Through an anthropological perspective, the purpose of the paper is to contribute to the debate on the articulation of categories such as gender, class and race, focusing on the agency possibilities in contexts marked by inequalities.

  18. Is it possible for knowledge-based planning to improve intensity modulated radiation therapy plan quality for planners with different planning experiences in left-sided breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Hu, Weigang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao; Lu, Saiquan; Li, Kaixuan; Yu, Gongyi

    2017-05-22

    Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost. The libraries were created on the RapidPlan TM . 6 planners with different planning experiences (2 beginner planners, 2 junior planners and 2 senior planners) generated manual and KBP optimized plans for additional 10 patients, similar to those included in the model libraries. The plan qualities were compared between manual and KBP plans. All plans were capable of achieving the prescription requirement. There were almost no statistically significant differences in terms of the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose conformality. It was demonstrated that the doses for most of organs-at-risk (OARs) were on average lower or equal in KBP plans compared to manual plans except for the senior planners, where the very small differences were not statistically significant. KBP data showed a systematic trend to have superior dose sparing at most parameters for the heart and ipsilateral lung. The observed decrease in the doses to these OARs could be achieved, particularly for the beginner and junior planners. Many differences were statistically significant. It is feasible to generate acceptable IMRT plans after implementing KBP for left-sided breast cancer. KBP helps to effectively improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of manual plans for less experienced planners without any manual intervention. KBP

  19. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  20. Zirconium microstructures: uncharted possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samajdar, I.; Kumar, Gulshan; Singh, Jaiveer; Lodh, Arijit; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    The 'conventional' Zirconium microstructures can be significantly extended with information on: (i) microtexture, (ii) residual stresses and (iii) local mechanical properties. Though these involve different tools, but a consolidated microstructure can be crated. This is the theme of this presentation. Examples of this consolidated picture will be made from deformation twinning, recovery-recrystallization, burst ductility and orientation versus solid solution hardening. (author)

  1. Reflections on the transformation of education for the knowledge age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene SCARDAMALIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New knowledge media provide new opportunities and means for addressing fundamental problems in education. But there are now so many designs for educational environments that choosing between them is difficult. Advancing the state of the art will require greater clarity regarding different possibilities and the ways in which designs reflect different underlying theoretical frameworks and research bases.  This article highlights a particular form of online environment, a knowledge building environment (KBE, and contrasts it with online environments designed more specifically for course delivery, computer-mediated projects, and distance learning. Although a KBE can be used for these purposes, its distinctive strengths emerge in contexts—educational and other—where the emphasis is on knowledge creation and sustained idea improvement.

  2. Information content in reflected signals during GPS Radio Occultation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Josep M.; Cardellach, Estel; Rodríguez, Hilda

    2018-04-01

    The possibility of extracting useful information about the state of the lower troposphere from the surface reflections that are often detected during GPS radio occultations (GPSRO) is explored. The clarity of the reflection is quantified, and can be related to properties of the surface and the low troposphere. The reflected signal is often clear enough to show good phase coherence, and can be tracked and processed as an extension of direct non-reflected GPSRO atmospheric profiles. A profile of bending angle vs. impact parameter can be obtained for these reflected signals, characterized by impact parameters that are below the apparent horizon, and that is a continuation at low altitude of the standard non-reflected bending angle profile. If there were no reflection, these would correspond to tangent altitudes below the local surface, and in particular below the local mean sea level. A forward operator is presented, for the evaluation of the bending angle of reflected GPSRO signals, given atmospheric properties as described by a numerical weather prediction system. The operator is an extension, at lower impact parameters, of standard bending angle operators, and reproduces both the direct and reflected sections of the measured profile. It can be applied to the assimilation of the reflected section of the profile as supplementary data to the direct section. Although the principle is also applicable over land, this paper is focused on ocean cases, where the topographic height of the reflecting surface, the sea level, is better known a priori.

  3. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  4. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  5. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  6. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taylor Webb

    Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  7. Reflections on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennings, M.

    1980-01-01

    The author first gives a general view of the present situation of the energy industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Starting from the facts that we need further industrial growth in our country and the energy demand will increase, although not as fast as it did in the past, Mr. Lennings pleads for a long-range energy policy which should be accepted by the majority of the nation. The predominant goal of such a long-range energy policy, he states, should be a supply guarantee, i.e. sufficient supplies at relatively favourable prices must be guaranteed with regard to the industrial growth and the high export dependence of the German industry. Mr. Lenning's thoughts centre at the possible exchange potential to reduce the use of petroleum. A 'leave the petroleum' policy can only be realised by increased capital investiment, states he. In this connection he closely deals with district heating, heat pumps, conversion plants, and coal beneficiation processes and proves that with a capital investment of appr. 91 billion DM fuel oil and gasoline of appr. 28 million tons could be saved. To do this, however, additional quantities of hard coal would be necessary. Result: nuclear energy must be extended as fast as possible so it can replace coal in the sphere of power generation. (orig./UA) [de

  8. O ensino de línguas para crianças no contexto educacional brasileiro: breves reflexões e possíveis provisões The teaching of children in the Brazilian educational context: brief reflections and possible provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Hilsdorf Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir acerca do ensino de línguas estrangeiras (LE para crianças. Respaldando-nos em princípios da teoria Sócio-cultural (Vygotsky, 1978 e do Comunicativismo (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005, voltados para o ensino de línguas (inglês para crianças (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002; entre outros, teceremos reflexões sobre a importância da aprendizagem de línguas na infância, sobre a relevância motivação e da qualidade das interações para um ensino cujo objetivo principal recai na formação integral do aluno, como também sobre o papel da gramática, da oralidade e da língua materna no processo. Serão também feitas considerações acerca da importância da formação (contínua do professor atuante nesse contexto e de possíveis procedimentos no ensino em pauta, quando serão apresentadas breves proposições orientadas pela noção bakhtiniana de gêneros.This article aims at discussing about the foreign language teaching to young learners, taking the principles of the Sociocultural Theory (Vygotksy, 1978 and of the Communicative Approach (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005 related to Primary English teaching (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002 as a theoretical references. Considerations about the importance of language learning in childhood will be made, as well as about the role of the grammar, oral language and mother tongue in the process. Likewise, the importance of Teacher Education will be briefly approached. This work is ended with the discussion about some possible procedures in the language teaching processes followed by a brief presentation of possible guidelines based on the bakhtinian notion of discourse genres.

  9. Reflections on collectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.

    1983-01-01

    Comments are made on papers presented to the International School of Nuclear Physics, Erice (1982) concerning collective bands and collectivity in nuclei. The importance of these collective modes of motion, the role of the Bohr-Mottelson model and the Interacting Boson Models (IBM-1 and IBM-2), and experimental evidence presented by a number of workers, are examined. The extensions of the models to take into account additional degrees of freedom both collective and non-collective, the discovery of new collective modes such as those corresponding to tri-axial shapes, and the possible existence of additional symmetries reported at the meeting, are discussed. Finally the importance is examined of relating the phenomenological models to a more fundamental underlying theory, which has been taken to be the nuclear shell model. (U.K.)

  10. Algorithmic Reflections on Choreography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ventura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, Pablo Ventura turned his attention to the choreography software Life Forms to find out whether the then-revolutionary new tool could lead to new possibilities of expression in contemporary dance. During the next 2 decades, he devised choreographic techniques and custom software to create dance works that highlight the operational logic of computers, accompanied by computer-generated dance and media elements. This article provides a firsthand account of how Ventura’s engagement with algorithmic concepts guided and transformed his choreographic practice. The text describes the methods that were developed to create computer-aided dance choreographies. Furthermore, the text illustrates how choreography techniques can be applied to correlate formal and aesthetic aspects of movement, music, and video. Finally, the text emphasizes how Ventura’s interest in the wider conceptual context has led him to explore with choreographic means fundamental issues concerning the characteristics of humans and machines and their increasingly profound interdependencies.

  11. Methods for quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectance measurements using an FTIR and a commercial integrating sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Hanssen, Leonard; Gonzalez, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Infrared integrating sphere measurements of solid samples are important in providing reference data for contact, standoff and remote sensing applications. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) we have developed protocols to measure both the directional-hemispherical ( and diffuse (d) reflectances of powders, liquids, and disks of powders and solid materials using a commercially available, matte gold-coated integrating sphere and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Detailed descriptions of the sphere alignment and its use for making these reflectance measurements are given. Diffuse reflectance values were found to be dependent on the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of the sample and the solid angle intercepted by the sphere’s specular exclusion port. To determine how well the sphere and protocols produce quantitative reflectance data, measurements were made of three diffuse and two specular standards prepared by the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA), LabSphere Infragold and Spectralon standards, hand-loaded sulfur and talc powder samples, and water. The five NIST standards behaved as expected: the three diffuse standards had a high degree of “diffuseness,” d/ = D > 0.9, whereas the two specular standards had D ≤ 0.03. The average absolute differences between the NIST and PNNL measurements of the NIST standards for both directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectances are on the order of 0.01 reflectance units. Other quantitative differences between the PNNL-measured and calibration (where available) or literature reflectance values for these standards and materials are given and the possible origins of discrepancies are discussed. Random uncertainties and estimates of systematic uncertainties are presented. Corrections necessary to provide better agreement between the PNNL reflectance values as measured for the NIST standards and the NIST reflectance values for these same standards are also

  12. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  13. Empathy, Self-Reflection, and Curriculum Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosseman, Suely; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Duke, Pamela M.; Mennin, Stewart; Rosenzweig, Steven; Novack, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale to 61 of 64 entering medical students who self-selected a problem-based learning curricular track and to 163 of 198 who self-selected a lecture-based track (response rates of 95.3% and 82.3%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences in mean…

  14. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  15. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  16. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  17. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  18. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  19. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  20. Present status and future possibilities of radioimmunoassay in animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karg, H.; Claus, R.; Hoffmann, B.; Schallenberger, E.; Schams, D.

    1976-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays and related isotope techniques have provided new possibilities in hormone analysis. Because of the new dimensions of sensitivity (nanogram and picogram range) it became possible to elucidate for many hormones their levels in peripheral blood plasma. Since some steps of the assay procedures could be automatized, and the evaluation computerized, the efficiency (for example, it is possible to run several thousand determinations weekly in one laboratory) can hardly be equalled by non-isotopic hormone analysis techniques. In animal husbandry the technique can be applied to mapping of physiological phenomena, diagnostic approaches in clinics, control of bio-techniques, residue studies of exogenous hormones, and attempts to use hormonal parameters as guide lines in connection with breeding programmes. The discovery that progesterone levels in milk reflect the corpus luteum function introduced far-reaching radioimmunoassay (RIA) application for fertility control under field conditions. With some other hormones, results of single determinations only allow limited interpretation because of different dynamics, for example releasing pattern, short-term (episodic, diurnal) and long-term (seasonal) variations and clearance properties. Furthermore, questions concerning the interactions between the actual plasma level of the hormone determined and the receptor sites in the target organ have to be solved. There are still gaps concerning the development of radioimmunoassays for important hormones. At present and in the foreseeable future of endocrinology in animal production, radioimmunoassays are indispensible. (author)

  1. Possibilidades e desafios da produção científica no campo da psicologia: algumas reflexões Las posibilidades y desafíos de la producción científica Reflections on the possibilities and challenges of scientific production in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilícia Witzler Antunes Ribeiro Palmieri

    2008-12-01

    comprensiones de la realidad. Así, el proceso de construcción del conocimiento organiza y asegura una mirada más compleja en los fenómenos psicológicos.Psychology scientific production indicates the existence of methodological and epistemological controversies. The emergency of new epistemological perspectives requires a discussion on the possibilities and the challenges of the knowledge construction process. Discussion ranges from the acknowledgement of subjectivity in the process of scientific investigation, which, in fact, underpins the overcoming of dichotomical trends in the understanding of Psi phenomena, and subverts the positivist organization of thought. Since new ways for knowledge building are suggested, new concepts are provided as subjectivity factors. The researcher's labor becomes closer to that of the bricoleur's. Implications in knowledge production are acknowledged and tension fields are created that facilitate a new understanding of the world. The process of knowledge construction organizes and assures a more complex glance on Psi phenomena.

  2. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  3. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  4. Reflecting on a Daughter's Bilingualism and disAbility Narratively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores societal perceptions of a child's disability and bilingualism through the author's observations and reflections. Drawing from the observations of the child in different public schools in the United States, the author shares how the child has been viewed differently and similarly by school personnel. By reflecting on different…

  5. Dioxin-induced retardation of development through a reduction in the expression of pituitary hormones and possible involvement of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor in this defect: A comparative study using two strains of mice with different sensitivities to dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tomoki; Taura, Junki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    We have previously revealed that treating pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces the expression of gonadotropins and growth hormone (GH) in the fetal and neonatal pituitary. A change in gonadotropin expression impairs the testicular expression of steroidogenic proteins in perinatal pups, and imprint defects in sexual behavior after reaching maturity. In this study, we examined whether TCDD also affects the expression of gonadotropin and GH in mice using C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains which express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) exhibiting a different affinity for TCDD. When pregnant C57BL/6J mice at gestational day (GD) 12 were given oral TCDD (0.2–20 μg/kg), all doses significantly attenuated the pituitary expression of gonadotropin mRNAs in fetuses at GD18. On the other hand, in DBA/2J mice, a much higher dose of TCDD (20 μg/kg) was needed to produce a significant attenuation. Such reduction in the C57BL/6J strain continued until at least postnatal day (PND) 4. In agreement with this, TCDD reduced the testicular expression of steroidogenic proteins in C57BL/6J neonates at PND2 and 4, although the same did not occur in the fetal testis and ovary. Furthermore, TCDD reduced the perinatal expression of GH, litter size and the body weight of newborn pups only in the C57BL/6J strain. These results suggest that 1) also in mice, maternal exposure to TCDD attenuates gonadotropin-regulated steroidogenesis and GH expression leading to the impairment of pup development and sexual immaturity; and 2) Ahr activation during the late fetal and early postnatal stages is required for these defects. - Highlights: • The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on mouse growth was studied. • TCDD reduced the levels of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone in perinatal pups. • Maternal exposure to TCDD also attenuated testicular steroidogenesis in pups. • The above effects of TCDD were more pronounced in C57BL/6J than in DBA/2J

  6. Dioxin-induced retardation of development through a reduction in the expression of pituitary hormones and possible involvement of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor in this defect: A comparative study using two strains of mice with different sensitivities to dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tomoki; Taura, Junki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki, E-mail: hyamada@phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    We have previously revealed that treating pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces the expression of gonadotropins and growth hormone (GH) in the fetal and neonatal pituitary. A change in gonadotropin expression impairs the testicular expression of steroidogenic proteins in perinatal pups, and imprint defects in sexual behavior after reaching maturity. In this study, we examined whether TCDD also affects the expression of gonadotropin and GH in mice using C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains which express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) exhibiting a different affinity for TCDD. When pregnant C57BL/6J mice at gestational day (GD) 12 were given oral TCDD (0.2–20 μg/kg), all doses significantly attenuated the pituitary expression of gonadotropin mRNAs in fetuses at GD18. On the other hand, in DBA/2J mice, a much higher dose of TCDD (20 μg/kg) was needed to produce a significant attenuation. Such reduction in the C57BL/6J strain continued until at least postnatal day (PND) 4. In agreement with this, TCDD reduced the testicular expression of steroidogenic proteins in C57BL/6J neonates at PND2 and 4, although the same did not occur in the fetal testis and ovary. Furthermore, TCDD reduced the perinatal expression of GH, litter size and the body weight of newborn pups only in the C57BL/6J strain. These results suggest that 1) also in mice, maternal exposure to TCDD attenuates gonadotropin-regulated steroidogenesis and GH expression leading to the impairment of pup development and sexual immaturity; and 2) Ahr activation during the late fetal and early postnatal stages is required for these defects. - Highlights: • The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on mouse growth was studied. • TCDD reduced the levels of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone in perinatal pups. • Maternal exposure to TCDD also attenuated testicular steroidogenesis in pups. • The above effects of TCDD were more pronounced in C57BL/6J than in DBA/2J

  7. Possible phthalates transport into plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils can be contaminated by high concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAE resulting from industrial and intensive agricultural activities. A plant receives water and substances (including pollutants from soil by means of rootage. Water solution received by the roots is distributed in particular by means of xylem. Reception by means of floem is not very considerable. Pollutants (including phthalates can be absorbed by roots either by diffusion by means of soil gas phase or soil liquid phase. Another possible way of pollutant entering into the plant is diffusion from atmosphere. Way of substance entering into the plant is decided by so called Henry constant as well as octanol-water partition coefficient. In case of phthalates, big differences between di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP reception and dioctyl phthalate reception were detected. For example, DBP can enter into the plant by means of gas as well as liquid phase while dioctyl phthalate only by gas phase.This publication summarizes fundamental knowledge on possible phthalates transport into plants.

  8. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  9. Sequential fitting-and-separating reflectance components for analytical bidirectional reflectance distribution function estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu; Yu, Chanki; Lee, Sang Wook

    2018-01-10

    We present a sequential fitting-and-separating algorithm for surface reflectance components that separates individual dominant reflectance components and simultaneously estimates the corresponding bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters from the separated reflectance values. We tackle the estimation of a Lafortune BRDF model, which combines a nonLambertian diffuse reflection and multiple specular reflectance components with a different specular lobe. Our proposed method infers the appropriate number of BRDF lobes and their parameters by separating and estimating each of the reflectance components using an interval analysis-based branch-and-bound method in conjunction with iterative K-ordered scale estimation. The focus of this paper is the estimation of the Lafortune BRDF model. Nevertheless, our proposed method can be applied to other analytical BRDF models such as the Cook-Torrance and Ward models. Experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method using isotropic materials from the Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MERL-MIT) BRDF database, and the results show that our method is superior to a conventional minimization algorithm.

  10. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  11. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  12. Reflections about the mathematics teachers' formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Freitas Mendes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings some reflections about the formation of the math teacher that made part of my marsters paper and that aimed to investigate the process of formation of the math teacher. The focus of this study incided at the contributions of teaching practice in the teacher's formation above the new paradigms of formation, as a professional development and as a reflexive teacher. These reflections, from the learning and teaching process and from the meaning of form a teacher analyse the crisis and the restructuration of the teacher's formation and conclude being necessary that in the graduation courses there's a character more practice to the pedagogical formation, making possible for the future teacher to develop attitudes of autonomy, reflexion and investigation

  13. Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, M B; Vote, D J; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine if reflectance measurements made in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were additive to reflectance measurements made in the visible region of the spectrum for predicting Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values. Eighty seven strip loins were collected following fabrication over 3d at a commercial beef processing facility from heifer carcasses with Slight or Traces marbling scores. Spectroscopic measurements were made at approximately 50h postmortem using a Hunter-Lab UltraScan. Subsequently, all strip loins were aged for 14d, cooked to an internal temperature of 70°C, and sheared to obtain WBSF values. Reflectance measurements obtained in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were correlated with WBSF values, however, these measurements were not additive to the predictive ability of reflectance measurements (R(2) values did not differ) made in the visible portion of the spectrum when the use of broad-band wavelength filters were simulated. It was therefore determined, that both the visible and near-infrared spectra measure reflectance and that both methods are acceptable methods of tenderness prediction.

  14. Future possibilities in migraine genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with and without aura (MA and MO, respectively) have a strong genetic basis. Different approaches using linkage-, candidate gene- and genome-wide association studies have been explored, yielding limited results. This may indicate that the genetic component in migraine is due to rare...... variants; capturing these will require more detailed sequencing in order to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing have been successful in finding genes in especially monogenic disorders. As the molecular genetics research progresses......, the technology will follow, rendering these approaches more applicable in the search for causative migraine genes in MO and MA. To date, no studies using NGS in migraine genetics have been published. In order to gain insight into the future possibilities of migraine genetics, we have looked at NGS studies...

  15. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  16. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  17. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines� interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  18. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines’ interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  19. Educating the Reflective Educator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mikkel; Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    , (2) managing digital and analogue design materials and (3) balancing different modes of teaching. This paper demonstrates how a combination of design theory, in-school practice and peer-to-peer learning created a framework towards educating design educators – a framework that allowed us......Design thinking and digital technologies are increasingly introduced in education to develop children’s design literacy. This shift demands a change in teachers’ mindsets, capabilities and approaches to design and technology as well as new teaching practices. This paper reports on a research......-based master's course developed to address and study the challenges that educators experience when teaching design in K-12 classes. We investigate three aspects that we argue are crucial when developing teachers' capability to teach design literacy to children: (1) ability to navigate a complex design process...

  20. Reminiscences, collaborations and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, T

    1994-02-01

    This is a personal account by a semi old-timer who completed his official term as a professor of plant biochemistry at Nagoya University in Japan in 1992. My university student life began soon after the World War II (1948). I shared the hardships of many in my age group, in that life was difficult during my college years. I was fortunate to have the opportunity of studying in the USA on a Fulbright scholarship first at Purdue University (1955-1956), and then at the University of California, Berkeley (1956-1957). My graduate study and postdoctoral training in the new world were vitally refreshing and stimulating, which gave me the impetus for becoming a natural scientist associated with academic institutions. Consciously and subconsciously I was impressed by the friendly and liberal atmosphere surrounding young students as well as senior scholars in the United States. But more importantly, I was inspired by the critical and competitive minds prevailing among these people.The appointment as a biochemist at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines (1962-1964) was the real start of my professional career. The work was continued upon my return to Nagoya to become a staff member of the Research Institute for Biochemical Regulation (1964-1992). Throughout the years, my major research interest has covered photosynthesis as a whole, involving photosynthetic CO2-fixation (RuBisCO), carbohydrate metabolism, e.g. starch biosynthesis and breakdown (α-amylase), and metabolic regulation, which are interrelated in the basic metabolism of plant cells.I shall briefly describe in this article highlights from my studies and discoveries made and I shall also discuss their possible significance in plant metabolism, with the hope that it does not contradict my sense of humility: They are (a) discovery of ADPG in plants and its role in starch biosynthesis; (b) structure-function relationship of RuBisCO proteins, in particular on heterologous recombination of