WorldWideScience

Sample records for possess protective factors

  1. The protection of possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection in disputes for the protection of possession can be attained through the following actions a for dispossession (interdictum recuperande possessionis and b with an action for the disturbance of possession (interdictum retinendae possessionis. The general feature of these disputes is that there is only discussion on the facts and not a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the dispute itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action for disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of the proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  2. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  3. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  4. LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROTECTION OF POSSESSION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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    Vojo Belovski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it will be discussed the legal significance and protection of possession in the Republic of Macedonia. Below it will be listed the kinds of possession, and finally the rules for possession termination will be explained. The possession is an indicator that the person who rules one item is also a right holder of that item. The possession itself occurs in two types specially authorized by a law and pure factual power behind which stands no right. The possession enjoys legal protection. Below in the paper it is processed the judicial protection of the possession which is given based on complaint for disturbance of possession and action to recover the possession. The important thing at the judicial protection is that the rulers’ protection is given to the last actual possession of the item, but it is not disputed the right of possession. Further in this paper it is included the protection of indirect possession where a complaint can be made by the indirect holder of the item, the judicial protection of possessory, possession protection of the heirs and permitted self – help for unauthorized harassment and revoking of the possession. With respect to the termination of the actual power of the item, listed and processed are the ways when the item failed, when the item was lost, when it is obvious that it won’t be returned, when the ruler had freely left it and when the item is not taken from him and the ruler hasn’t realized the right to possession.

  5. Silver Nanoparticles Complexed with Bovine Submaxillary Mucin Possess Strong Antibacterial Activity and Protect against Seedling Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovsky, Daria; Fadeev, Ludmila; Salam, Bolaji Babajide; Zelinger, Einat; Matan, Ofra; Inbar, Jacob; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Gozin, Michael; Burdman, Saul

    2018-02-15

    A simple method for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver (Ag) in a matrix of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) was reported previously by some of the authors of this study. Based on mucin characteristics such as long-lasting stability, water solubility, and surfactant and adhesive characteristics, we hypothesized that these compounds, named BSM-Ag NPs, may possess favorable properties as potent antimicrobial agents. The goal of this study was to assess whether BSM-Ag NPs possess antibacterial activity, focusing on important plant-pathogenic bacterial strains representing both Gram-negative ( Acidovorax and Xanthomonas ) and Gram-positive ( Clavibacter ) genera. Growth inhibition and bactericidal assays, as well as electron microscopic observations, demonstrate that BSM-Ag NPs, at relatively low concentrations of silver, exert strong antimicrobial effects. Moreover, we show that treatment of melon seeds with BSM-Ag NPs effectively prevents seed-to-seedling transmission of Acidovorax citrulli , one of the most threatening pathogens of cucurbit production worldwide. Overall, our findings demonstrate strong antimicrobial activity of BSM-Ag NPs and their potential application for reducing the spread and establishment of devastating bacterial plant diseases in agriculture. IMPORTANCE Bacterial plant diseases challenge agricultural production, and the means available to manage them are limited. Importantly, many plant-pathogenic bacteria have the ability to colonize seeds, and seed-to-seedling transmission is a critical route by which bacterial plant diseases spread to new regions and countries. The significance of our study resides in the following aspects: (i) the simplicity of the method of BSM-Ag NP synthesis, (ii) the advantageous chemical properties of BSM-Ag NPs, (iii) the strong antibacterial activity of BSM-Ag NPs at relatively low concentrations of silver, and (iv) the fact that, in contrast to most studies on the effects of metal NPs on plant pathogens

  6. Virulence factor genes possessing Enterococcus faecalis strains from rabbits and their sensitivity to enterocins

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    M. Pogány Simonová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of rabbit enterococci is limited, so in this study we tested the virulence factor genes in Enterococcus faecalis strains from rabbits. Moreover, their resistance/sensitivity to antibiotics and sensitivity to enterocins was also tested, with the aim of contributing to our enterocin spectra study and to indicate the possibility of enterocin application in prevention or contaminant elimination in rabbit husbandry. A total of 144 rabbit samples were treated using a standard microbiological method. Thirty-one pure colonies of the species Enterococcus faecalis were identified, using the MALDI-TOF identification system and confirmed using phenotyping, among which 15 strains were virulence factor gene absent. The gelE gene was the most detected (42%; however, the expression of gelatinase phenotype did not always correlate with the detection of gelE. Strains did not show ß-haemolysis and were mostly resistant to tested antibiotics, but sensitive to enterocins (Ent, mainly to Ents EK13=A (P, 2019 and Ent M. Rabbit E. faecalis strains displayed antibiotic resistant traits and the presence of expressed and silent virulence genes, but they showed high levels of sensitivity to natural antimicrobials-enterocins, which indicates the possible prevention of multidrug and virulent enterococcal contaminants by enterocins.

  7. Toward a Genotoxic Protection Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Demanneville, S.

    2000-01-01

    P53, a molecule normally expressed before mitosis, is considered as the 'guardian of the genome'. In the skin its level is normally very low (<3% of cells), detected by immunohistochemical methods. At least 50% of the keratinocytes express p53 protein, 24 h following a significant UV irradiation (2 SED). It is expected using sunscreens to reduce the expression of p53 in parallel with their ability to reduce the actinic erythema, the endpoint adopted to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens. P53 detection on biopsies performed on the buttocks of human volunteers was used to evaluate the genotoxic protecting factor (GPF) of several sunscreens with either high UVB filtration or high UVA filtration, characterised by various SPF (COLIPA) from 10 to 40. The p53 count in parallel with sunburn cell count were the parameters studied. In general, the GPF of the sunscreens was found below the proprietary SPF. If a genotoxic effect is shown in an increased p53 expression, this effect is still observed at a dose lower than the dose inducing the faintest actinic erythema. (author)

  8. Toward a Genotoxic Protection Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Demanneville, S

    2000-07-01

    P53, a molecule normally expressed before mitosis, is considered as the 'guardian of the genome'. In the skin its level is normally very low (<3% of cells), detected by immunohistochemical methods. At least 50% of the keratinocytes express p53 protein, 24 h following a significant UV irradiation (2 SED). It is expected using sunscreens to reduce the expression of p53 in parallel with their ability to reduce the actinic erythema, the endpoint adopted to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens. P53 detection on biopsies performed on the buttocks of human volunteers was used to evaluate the genotoxic protecting factor (GPF) of several sunscreens with either high UVB filtration or high UVA filtration, characterised by various SPF (COLIPA) from 10 to 40. The p53 count in parallel with sunburn cell count were the parameters studied. In general, the GPF of the sunscreens was found below the proprietary SPF. If a genotoxic effect is shown in an increased p53 expression, this effect is still observed at a dose lower than the dose inducing the faintest actinic erythema. (author)

  9. Trigger Factor and DnaK possess overlapping substrate pools and binding specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerling, Elke; Patzelt, Holger; Vorderwülbecke, Sonja; Rauch, Thomas; Kramer, Günter; Schaffitzel, Elke; Mogk, Axel; Schulze-Specking, Agnes; Langen, Hanno; Bukau, Bernd

    2003-03-01

    Ribosome-associated Trigger Factor (TF) and the DnaK chaperone system assist the folding of newly synthesized proteins in Escherichia coli. Here, we show that DnaK and TF share a common substrate pool in vivo. In TF-deficient cells, deltatig, depleted for DnaK and DnaJ the amount of aggregated proteins increases with increasing temperature, amounting to 10% of total soluble protein (approximately 340 protein species) at 37 degrees C. A similar population of proteins aggregated in DnaK depleted tig+ cells, albeit to a much lower extent. Ninety-four aggregated proteins isolated from DnaK- and DnaJ-depleted deltatig cells were identified by mass spectrometry and found to include essential cytosolic proteins. Four potential in vivo substrates were screened for chaperone binding sites using peptide libraries. Although TF and DnaK recognize different binding motifs, 77% of TF binding peptides also associated with DnaK. In the case of the nascent polypeptides TF and DnaK competed for binding, however, with competitive advantage for TF. In vivo, the loss of TF is compensated by the induction of the heat shock response and thus enhanced levels of DnaK. In summary, our results demonstrate that the co-operation of the two mechanistically distinct chaperones in protein folding is based on their overlap in substrate specificities.

  10. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the α-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor

  11. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  12. Impressic acid from Acanthopanax koreanum, possesses matrix metalloproteinase-13 down-regulating capacity and protects cartilage destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun; Min, Dong Suk; Yun, Han Eul; Kim, Kil Tae; Sun, Ya Nan; Dat, Le Duc; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2017-09-14

    Acanthopanax koreanum (Araliaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for enhancing vitality, rheumatism, and bone-related pains. But its activity on cartilage protection has not been known yet. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 has an important role in degrading cartilage materials under pathologic conditions such as arthritis. The present study was designed to find the inhibitory activity of impressic acid on MMP-13 expression and cartilage protective action. 70% ethanol extract of Acanthopanax koreanum leaves and impressic acid, a major constituent isolated from the same plant materials, were examined on MMP-13 down-regulating capacity in IL-1β-treated human chondrocyte cell line (SW1353) and rabbit cartilage explants. In IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells, impressic acid significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited MMP-13 expression at 0.5-10μM. Impressic acid was found to be able to inhibit MMP-13 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1/-2 (STAT-1/-2) and activation of c-Jun and c-Fos among the cellular signaling pathways involved. Further, impressic acid was found to inhibit the expression of MMP-13 mRNA (47.7% inhibition at 10μM), glycosaminoglycan release (42.2% reduction at 10μM) and proteoglycan loss in IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explants culture. In addition, a total of 21 lupane-type triterpenoids structurally-related to impressic acid were isolated from the same plant materials and their suppressive activities against MMP-13 expression were also examined. Among these derivatives, compounds 2, 3, 16, and 18 clearly down-regulated MMP-13 expression. However, impressic acid was more potent than these derivatives in down-regulating MMP-13 expression. Impressic acid, its related triterpenoids, and A. koreanum extract have potential as therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation by inhibiting matrix protein degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A histone-like protein of mycobacteria possesses ferritin superfamily protein-like activity and protects against DNA damage by Fenton reaction.

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    Masaki Takatsuka

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential metal for living organisms but its level must be strictly controlled in cells, because ferrous ion induces toxicity by generating highly active reactive oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, through the Fenton reaction. In addition, ferric ion shows low solubility under physiological conditions. To overcome these obstacles living organisms possess Ferritin superfamily proteins that are distributed in all three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These proteins minimize hydroxyl radical formation by ferroxidase activity that converts Fe(2+ into Fe(3+ and sequesters iron by storing it as a mineral inside a protein cage. In this study, we discovered that mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1, a histone-like protein, has similar activity to ferritin superfamily proteins. MDP1 prevented the Fenton reaction and protects DNA by the ferroxidase activity. The K(m values of the ferroxidase activity by MDP1 of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG-3007c, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv2986c, and Mycobacterium leprae (ML1683; ML-LBP were 0.292, 0.252, and 0.129 mM, respectively. Furthermore, one MDP1 molecule directly captured 81.4±19.1 iron atoms, suggesting the role of this protein in iron storage. This study describes for the first time a ferroxidase-iron storage protein outside of the ferritin superfamily proteins and the protective role of this bacterial protein from DNA damage.

  14. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy A; Neuhaus, John M; Chiong, Winston

    2016-02-01

    Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning.

  15. The water extract of Liuwei dihuang possesses multi-protective properties on neurons and muscle tissue against deficiency of survival motor neuron protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Liang, Wei-Fang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2017-10-15

    Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurodegeneration and muscle weakness. The effects of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurotoxicity and muscle atrophy were examined by using SMN-deficient NSC34 motor neuron-like cells and SMA-like mice, respectively. Inducible SMN-knockdown NSC34 motor neuron-like cells were used to mimic SMN-deficient condition. Doxycycline (1 µg/ml) was used to induce SMN deficiency in stable NSC34 cell line carrying SMN-specific shRNA. SMAΔ7 mice were used as a severe type of SMA mouse model. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Apoptotic cells and neurite length were observed by inverted microscope. Protein expressions were examined by western blots. Muscle strength of animals was evaluated by hind-limb suspension test. LWDH-WE significantly increased SMN protein level, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability of SMN-deficient NSC34 cells. LWDH-WE attenuated SMN deficiency-induced down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and up-regulation of cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, LWDH-WE prevented SMN deficiency-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth and activation of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/ Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK2)/ phospho

  16. Protective factors for adolescent violence against authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Jaureguizar, Joana; Bentler, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Both the family and school environments influence adolescents' violence, but there is little research focusing simultaneously on the two contexts. This study analyzed the role of positive family and classroom environments as protective factors for adolescents' violence against authority (parent abuse and teacher abuse) and the relations between antisocial behavior and child-to-parent violence or student-to-teacher violence. The sample comprised 687 Spanish students aged 12-16 years, who responded to the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Classroom Environment Scale (CES). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test our model of violent behavior towards authority based on Catalano and Hawkins' Social Developmental Model (1996). Perceived family cohesion and organization showed an inverse association with parent abuse, suggesting that a positive family environment was a protective factor for the development of violence against parents. Family and classroom environments had direct effects on adolescents' violence against authority, and antisocial behavior showed a mediating effect in this relationship. The model accounted for 81% of the variance in violence against authority. As family environment was a better predictor of violence against authority than school environment, intervention efforts to reduce rates of adolescent violence should focus on helping parents to increase family cohesion and to manage conflictive relationships with their children.

  17. Evaluation of Amyloid Protective Factors and Alzheimer Disease Neurodegeneration Protective Factors in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, Prashanthi; Knopman, David S; Lesnick, Timothy G; Przybelski, Scott A; Mielke, Michelle M; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Murray, Melissa E; Roberts, Rosebud O; Vassilaki, Maria; Lowe, Val J; Machulda, Mary M; Jones, David T; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R

    2017-06-01

    While amyloid and neurodegeneration are viewed together as Alzheimer disease pathophysiology (ADP), the factors that influence amyloid and AD-pattern neurodegeneration may be considerably different. Protection from these ADP factors may be important for aging without significant ADP. To identify the combined and independent protective factors for amyloid and AD-pattern neurodegeneration in a population-based sample and to test the hypothesis that "exceptional agers" with advanced ages do not have significant ADP because they have protective factors for amyloid and neurodegeneration. This cohort study conducted a prospective analysis of 942 elderly individuals (70-≥90 years) with magnetic resonance imaging and Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography scans enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study of cognitive aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We operationalized "exceptional aging" without ADP by considering individuals 85 years or older to be without significant evidence of ADP. We evaluated predictors including demographics, APOE, intellectual enrichment, midlife risk factors (physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), and the total number of late-life cardiac and metabolic conditions. We used multivariate linear regression models to identify the combined and independent protective factors for amyloid and AD-pattern neurodegeneration. Using a subsample of the cohort 85 years of age or older, we computed Cohen d-based effect size estimations to compare the quantitative strength of each predictor variable in their contribution with exceptional aging without ADP. The study participants included 423 (45%) women and the average age of participants was 79.7 (5.9) years. Apart from demographics and the APOE genotype, only midlife dyslipidemia was associated with amyloid deposition. Obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiac and metabolic conditions, but not

  18. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  19. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalika Biswas

    Full Text Available Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas and woody savannas (non-protected areas. The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  20. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  1. Computer automation for protection factor calculations of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farafat, M.A.Z.; Madian, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The protection factors of buildings are different according to the constructional and architectural specifications. Uk and USA performed a calculation using manual method to calculate the protection factor for any building which may protect the people in it from gamma rays and fall-out.The manual calculation method is very complex which is very difficult to use, for that reason the researchers simplify this method in proposed form which will be easy to understand and use. Also the researchers have designed a computer program ,in visual basic, to calculate the different protection factors for buildings. The program aims to provide the missing time in the calculation processes to calculate the protection in some spaces for any building through entering specifications data for any building .The program will modify the protection factor in very short time which will save the effort and time in comparison with the manual calculation.

  2. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  3. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  4. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as a modulator of NF-κB, on proliferation of hypoxia-induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC), and the probable mechanism. Methods: After exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2) for 5 days, cell proliferation and cell cycle of HREC were ...

  5. Smoking among American adolescents: a risk and protective factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scal, Peter; Ireland, Marjorie; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2003-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a substantial threat to the current and future health of America's youth. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk and protective factors for cigarette smoking among US adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used, comparing the responses of all non-smokers at Time 1 for their ability to predict the likelihood of smoking at Time 2, one year later. Data was stratified into four gender by grade group cohorts. Cross-cutting risk factors for smoking among all four cohorts were: using alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs; violence involvement; having had sex; having friends who smoke and learning problems. Having a higher grade point average and family connectedness were protective across all cohorts. Other gender and grade group specific risk and protective factors were identified. The estimated probability of initiating smoking decreased by 19.2% to 54.1% both in situations of high and low risk as the number of protective factors present increased. Of the factors that predict or protect against smoking some are influential across all gender and grade group cohorts studied, while others are specific to gender and developmental stage. Prevention efforts that target both the reduction of risk factors and enhancement of protective factors at the individual, family, peer group and community are likely to reduce the likelihood of smoking initiation.

  6. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  7. Investigating risk and protective factors to mainstream safety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies investigate manifest risk and protective factors within South African universities. ... More importantly, many of these students and staff personally .... more than half of the students could not operate the fire equipment, rendering the fire ...

  8. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  9. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  10. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lai, Hsiao-Jung; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2011-01-01

    : Suicide is the ninth leading cause of death in adolescents aged 15-19 years in Taiwan. Suicidal ideation is an important predictor of committing suicide among adolescents. : The aim of this study was to examine the important risk factors, the protective factors, and the role of protective factors on the relationship of risk factors to suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents aged 15-19 years. : By adopting a cross-sectional study, senior high school students (n = 577) aged 15-19 years in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, risk factors, protective factors, and suicidal ideation of the sample. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the important risk and protective factors and the interaction between risk and protective factors on suicidal ideation. : Nearly 18% (n = 101) of the participants reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. Gender (female; odds ratio [OR] = 4.23), life stress (OR = 1.03), depression (OR = 3.44), peer suicidal ideation (OR = 4.15), and bullying victimization (OR = 1.81) were important risk factors of suicidal ideation among the targeted sample. In addition, self-esteem (OR = 0.92) and emotional adaptation (OR = 0.88) were important protective factors of suicidal ideation. Self-esteem and emotional adaptation were not used to moderate the negative effects of life stress, depression, perceived peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. The final model explained 40.6% of the total variance in suicidal ideation and correctly predicted 86.1% of participants with suicidal ideation. : Suicidal ideation prevention programs should be targeted to female adolescents. School-based efforts that provide adolescents with self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills training, positive peer norms for life, coping skills for managing stress and depression, and antibullying programs

  11. A Content Analysis of Protective Factors within States' Antibullying Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lori M.; Brown, James R.; Weddle, Daniel B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    State lawmakers have responded to school bullying by crafting antibullying legislation. By July 2011, 47 states enacted such laws, though varied widely in content and scope. This study systematically evaluated each state's antibullying legislation by focusing on the inclusion of individual, parental, and systemic protective factors through…

  12. Risk and Protective Factors in Gifted Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated risk and protective factors associated with dyslexia and literacy development, both at the group and individual level, to gain more insight in underlying cognitive profiles and possibilities for compensation in high-IQ children. A sample of 73 Dutch primary school children included a dyslexic group, a gifted-dyslexic group,…

  13. Risk and protective factors in gifted children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, S.; de Bree, E.H.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Slot, E.M.; de Jong, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated risk and protective factors associated with dyslexia and literacy development, both at the group and individual level, to gain more insight in underlying cognitive profiles and possibilities for compensation in high-IQ children. A sample of 73 Dutch primary school children

  14. Psychosocial risk and protective factors associated with perpetration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drivers that cause men to perpetrate GBV and those that lead to HIV overlap ... Multiple risk and protective factors for GBV perpetration by males operate ... The participants were relatively young (median age 22 years); over half were ... with higher depression, higher anxiety, lower self-esteem and lower social support.

  15. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  16. A Systemic Approach to Implementing a Protective Factors Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Beverly; Jessup, Patricia; Moore, Marah

    2014-01-01

    The leadership team of the national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood ventured into the frontiers of deep change in social systems by funding four research projects. The purpose of the research projects was to learn about implementing a protective factors approach with the goal of reducing the likelihood of child abuse and neglect. In…

  17. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide in Patients with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is associated with a high risk for suicidal behavior. Up to 40% of persons with alcoholism attempt suicide at some time and 7% end their lives by committing suicide. Risk factors include being male, older than 50 years of age, living alone, being unemployed, poor social support, interpersonal losses, continued drinking, consumption of a greater amount of alcohol when drinking, a recent alcohol binge, previous alcohol treatment, a family history of alcoholism, a history of comorbid substance abuse (especially cocaine, a major depressive episode, serious medical illness, suicidal communication, and prior suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is especially frequent in patients with comorbid alcoholism and major depression. However, all patients with alcoholism should be evaluated for suicide risk. Understanding of risk and vulnerability to suicidal behavior in alcoholism still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. Knowledge of protective factors for suicide may help to prevent and/or predict suicidal behavior. Protective factors for suicide in alcoholism are quite varied and include an individual's biological and behavioral characteristics, as well as attributes of the environment and culture. Protective factors include effective clinical care for psychiatric (including alcoholism and drug abuse and physical disorders, easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for seeking help, restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide, strong connections to family and community support, skills in problem solving and conflict resolution, cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation. Future studies are necessary to determine which interventions may reduce suicidal behavior in alcoholism.

  18. Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Inventory [34]. Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress RTO-MP HFM-134 10 - 7 - Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento...17-37. [27] Miguel-Tobal, J. J. and Cano Vindel, A. (1986). Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad. Madrid: Tea Ediciones. (2ª Edic...Psychology, 56, 2, 267-283. [35] Cano Vindel, A. and Miguel-Tobal, J. J. (1992). Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento (IVA). Mimeo: Universidad

  19. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84 Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Fournier-Larente

    Full Text Available Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84, a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest.

  1. Bacteriophages encode factors required for protection in a symbiotic mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Hunter, Martha S; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-08-21

    Bacteriophages are known to carry key virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria, but their roles in symbiotic bacteria are less well understood. The heritable symbiont Hamiltonella defensa protects the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from attack by the parasitoid Aphidius ervi by killing developing wasp larvae. In a controlled genetic background, we show that a toxin-encoding bacteriophage is required to produce the protective phenotype. Phage loss occurs repeatedly in laboratory-held H. defensa-infected aphid clonal lines, resulting in increased susceptibility to parasitism in each instance. Our results show that these mobile genetic elements can endow a bacterial symbiont with benefits that extend to the animal host. Thus, phages vector ecologically important traits, such as defense against parasitoids, within and among symbiont and animal host lineages.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors Protect against Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kun Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a principal mediator of signal transduction in the cell, and disruption of its normal function (a mechanism known as ER stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. ER stress has been demonstrated to contribute to onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR by induction of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways. Recent studies have begun to describe the gene expression profile of ER stress-related genes in DR; moreover, genes that play a protective role against DR have been identified. P58IPK was determined to be able to reduce retinal vascular leakage under high glucose conditions, thus protecting retinal cells. It has also been found by our lab that ER-associated protein degradation factors exhibit significantly different expression patterns in rat retinas under sustained high glucose conditions. Future research based upon these collective genomic findings will contribute to our overall understanding of DR pathogenesis as well as identify potential therapeutic targets.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  4. Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Eloise; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-04-06

    Experiencing victimization in early life has been repeatedly shown to be associated with the emergence of psychotic symptoms in childhood. However, most victimized children do not develop psychotic symptoms and why this occurs is not fully understood. This study investigated which individual, family-level, and wider community characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic symptoms among children at risk for psychosis by virtue of their exposure to multiple victimization experiences (poly-victimization). Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of 2232 UK-born twins. Exposure to maltreatment, bullying and domestic violence prior to age 12 was determined from interviews with mothers, children, and observations by research workers at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Protective factors were measured at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Childhood poly-victimization was associated with age-12 psychotic symptoms (OR = 4.61, 95% CI 2.82-7.52), but the majority of poly-victimized children did not report symptoms (80.7%). Having a relatively high IQ, more positive atmosphere at home, and higher levels of neighborhood social cohesion were found to be protective against childhood psychotic symptoms among poly-victimized children and also in the whole sample. However, "protected" poly-victimized children displayed elevated levels of other mental health problems compared to nonvictimized children. Children's characteristics, family context, and the wider community were all found to protect children from developing early psychotic symptoms, even when they were victimized multiple times. These findings indicate targets for multilevel preventive interventions.

  5. Resilience in physically abused children: protective factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-04-27

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children's internalizing well-being, children's prosocial behavior, and caregivers' well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children's internalizing well-being and children's prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  6. Prosocial behavior as a protective factor for children's peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.

  7. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Associated to Peer School Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; López-García, J J

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between peer school victimization and some risk and protection factors and to compare the differences by role in victimization with those of non-involved bystanders. Our participants were 1,264 secondary students ( M = 14.41, SD = 1.43) who participated voluntarily, although an informed consent was requested. A logistic regression model (LR) was used in order to identify the victim's potential risks and protective factors related to non-involved bystanders. A multiple LR and a forward stepwise LR (Wald) were used. The results showed the variables related to the victim profile were: individual features (to be male, to be at the first cycle of compulsory Secondary Education and a few challenging behaviors), school environments (i.e., school adjustment), family environment (parental styles like authoritarianism) and social environment (i.e., friends who occasionally show a positive attitude toward drug consumption and easy access to drugs, access to drugs perceived as easy, rejection by peers or lack of social acceptance and social maladjustment). The results of the study will allow tackling prevention and intervention actions in schools, families, and social environment in order to improve coexistence at school and to assist the victimized students in the classroom.

  9. The only way is up: Risk factors, protective factors, and compensation in dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    van Viersen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that affects approximately 4-7% of primary school children and around 12% of secondary school students. Over the years, knowledge about identification, diagnosis, and intervention of dyslexia has become more advanced. Recent models of developmental disorders assume that dyslexia results from a complex interplay between risk and protective factors. However, research has so far mainly focused on risk factors for dyslexia. Important issues still exist r...

  10. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  11. Burnout Risk and Protection Factors in Certified Nursing Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez-Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Gázquez Linares, José Jesús Gázquez; Simón Márquez, María Del Mar; Martos Martínez, África

    2018-05-30

    Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal, and sociodemographic factors and burnout. The final study sample included 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD = 9.41). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information. To collect professional and employment information, we used the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that Burnout Syndrome is significantly and negatively related to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout. This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.

  12. Burnout Risk and Protection Factors in Certified Nursing Aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Molero Jurado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal, and sociodemographic factors and burnout. The final study sample included 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD = 9.41. To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information. To collect professional and employment information, we used the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that Burnout Syndrome is significantly and negatively related to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout. This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.

  13. Risk and protective factors, longitudinal research, and bullying prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M; Farrington, David P

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents the results from two systematic/meta-analytic reviews of longitudinal studies on the association of school bullying (perpetration and victimization) with adverse health and criminal outcomes later in life. Significant associations between the two predictors and the outcomes are found even after controlling for other major childhood risk factors that are measured before school bullying. The results indicate that effective antibullying programs should be encouraged. They could be viewed as a form of early crime prevention as well as an early form of public health promotion. The findings from a systematic/meta-analytic review on the effectiveness of antibullying programs are also presented. Overall, school-based antibullying programs are effective, leading to an average decrease in bullying of 20 to 23 percent and in victimization of 17 to 20 percent. The chapter emphasizes the lack of prospective longitudinal research in the area of school bullying, which does not allow examination of whether any given factor (individual, family,. or social) is a correlate, a predictor, or a possible cause for bullying. This has important implications for future antibullying initiatives, as well as implications for the refinement of theories of school bullying. It is necessary to extend the framework of the traditional risk-focused approach by incorporating the notion of resiliency and investigating possible protective factors against school bullying and its negative consequences. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Religiosity as a factor protecting against problem behaviour in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadomska Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the question, to what degree religiosity contributes, as a protecting factor against a broad category of socially deviant adolescent and youth behaviours. It also tests the hypothesis that gender plays a moderating role in the relationship between religiosity and problem behaviour. It employs a modified version of the Problem Behaviour Syndrome Measure (PBSM, in concert with Jessor and Jessor’s conceptual work. It also makes use of the Duke Religion Index (DUREL to assess religiosity. The empirical study deals with a representative group of 960 students of upper-secondary schools in the Lubelskie province, Poland. The results were analyzed using canonical analysis and ANOVA. The achievements of the article are twofold. First, it identifies significant correlations between the different levels of religiosity among youth, and the occurrence and intensification of problem behaviours, particularly in regard to organized activity. Organized and intrinsic religiosity play principal protective roles, while the impact of personal religious practices is less significant. Secondly, while analyzing the moderating role of gender in the relationship between religiosity and the intensity of problem behaviour, it was found that gender does not have a significant interactive impact. An affirmative conclusion was confirmed in only two instances.

  15. Obesity as a protective factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, C; Yáñez, M; Devoto, E; Sostin, C; Zeballos, L; Santos, J L

    1996-11-01

    Obesity is considered a protective factor for osteoporosis improving bone mass and maintaining higher levels of estrogen during menopause. To determine the association of obesity with bone mineral density (BMD), and its relationship with sex hormone levels. A case-control study in Caucasian obese and non obese postmenopausal women. 113 obese and 50 non-obese postmenopausal women. BMD (dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry) at cervical femur. Ward's triangle, proximal radius and lumbar spine. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, total estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHA-S) and testosterone. Mean BMD at femoral sites were significantly higher in obese women (femoral neck: 0.849 +/- 0.124 g/cm2 vs 0.753 +/- 0.095 g/cm2, P obese women and 0.849 +/- 0.137 g/cm2 in non obese, P obese women was observed. Although total estrogen were similar in both groups, in obese women, SHBG was lower (68.6 +/- 26.84 nmol/l vs. 85.1 +/- 31.18 nmol/l, P obese (77.2 +/- 50.4 Ul/ml vs. 49.4 +/- 24.1 Ul/ml, P obese women and suggest that obesity exerts protection due to a decreased SHBG thus increasing free sex steroids. Besides, hyperinsulinemia may produce a decline in the production of IGFBG-1, leading to an increase of IGF-1, that may stimulate the proliferation of osteoblasts.

  16. Terrorism, distress, and drinking: vulnerability and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Cloninger, Lea

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated effects of 9/11 on distress and drinking outcomes in individuals directly affected and indirectly affected across the United States. Fewer studies have addressed vulnerability and protective factors shown to moderate the effects of stress exposure. We report findings from a Midwestern workplace cohort study. Respondents to a 6 wave longitudinal mail survey completed questionnaires prior to September 11, 2001 and again in 2003 and 2005. Regression analyses encompassed measures of terrorism-related beliefs and fears, workplace stressors (sexual harassment, generalized abuse and low decision latitude), marital and parental status, and perceived social support in 2003, and distress and deleterious drinking outcomes in 2005. Analyses showed that terrorism-related fears significantly interacted with workplace stressors and interpersonal social relationships in predicting distress, drinking or both, controlling for pre-9/11 distress and drinking. Gender differences were also found. This article suggests that certain individuals may be at heightened risk for distressful reactions to and/or deleterious drinking resulting from terrorism-related issues and fears due to additional risk factors involving workplace stressors and inadequate interpersonal bonds. However, limitations of the study were noted and future research was recommended.

  17. The triply troubled teenager--chronic conditions associated with fewer protective factors and clustered risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Charlotte; Seidel, Carina; Tindberg, Ylva

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to measure protective factors and risk behaviour among adolescents with chronic conditions (CCs) and to evaluate the impact of protective factors on risk-taking. A population-based study of 7262 students aged 15 and 17 years old was performed in Sörmland, Sweden 2008 (response rate 82%). The questionnaire explored background factors, CCs, risk behaviours and protective factors. CCs were reported by 8%, while 58% had no health problems. Girls with CCs encompassed less individual protective factors, while boys with CCs tended to over-report all individual risk behaviours compared with healthy peers. Both boys and girls with CCs were more likely to report few protective factors and co-occurrence of risk behaviours. The adjOR for clustered health risk behaviours was 1.6 (1.0-2.5) in youths with CCs and ≥4 protective factors and 6.3 (3.6-10.9) in youths with CCs and 0-3 protective factors, as compared to healthy peers with ≥4 protective factors. Adolescents with CCs reported fewer protective factors and more risk behaviours than their healthy peers. The vulnerability of adolescents with CCs and few protective factors is important to acknowledge. Professionals should provide stronger protection for these adolescents, to prevent risky behaviour. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  19. Predictors of distress in hospital physicians: protective and vulnerability factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Martínez-Zaragoza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between protective and vulnerability factors affecting health (distréss in medical staff. Participants were 127 doctors from four public hospitals, who were administered the Occupational Stress in Health Professionals Inventory, the Ways of Coping Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Symptom Check-list-90 Revised Questionnaire, and the Flow Trait Scale-2. Following the methodology of Partial Least Squares modeling (PLS, an explanation is given for distréss in hospital physicians, where the avoidance coping strategy produces distréss directly (β = .296 and indirectly (β = .139 th rough its influence on the increase of burnout (β = .314, which in turn is increased by occupational stress (β = .209. Professional flow, measured by professional efficacy and flow, acts as a good protector against distréss (β = -.133, partly compensating the effects of the variables which have an increasing impact on an individual's distréss (GoF = .983. To sum up, when trying to predict a physician's distréss, four key elements should be considered: avoidance coping and its indirect effect through burnout on distréss; the burnout construct itself and professional flow.

  20. [Risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide in the Netherlands and Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, A; Kerkhof, A J F M; Molenberghs, G; van Audenhove, C

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate is 82% higher in the Flanders region of Belgium than in the Netherlands. To investigate to what extent Flanders and the Netherlands differ with regard to the risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide and attempted suicide. By means of a structured postal questionnaire, we collected data on the following topics from 2999 Flemish and Dutch people between 18 and 64 years: mental well-being and earlier attempts to commit suicide, the help they had received and their intention to seek help for psychological problems, awareness of the mental health care available, satisfaction with the help received, and attitudes to suicide. The incidence of psychological problems and suicidality did not differ significantly between Flanders and the Netherlands. Compared to Flemish people, Dutch people with psychological problems had received more psychological help and more often expressed the intention to seek help in the future. Furthermore, the Dutch were better informed about mental health care, and patient satisfaction was higher in the Netherlands. Compared to the Flemish people, the Dutch had more positive and understanding attitude to suicide. In general, risk factors for suicide were similar in the Netherlands and Flanders. However, the Dutch were characterised by more protective factors. We attempt to explain these differences and suggest ways of improving suicidal prevention policy.

  1. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables

  3. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems.

  4. Real-time monitoring of inflammation status in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B response element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaki, Haruka; Yoshimura, Takeshi [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Naohito, E-mail: n-aoki@bio.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation status in adipocytes can be monitored by the new assay system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only an aliquot of conditioned medium is required without cell lysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently. -- Abstract: We have established 3T3-L1 cells possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) response element. The 3T3-L1 cells named 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc could differentiate into adipocyte as comparably as parental 3T3-L1 cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-1{beta} induced GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes was also induced when cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages and was dramatically enhanced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. An NF-{kappa}B activation inhibitor BAY-11-7085 and an antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages. Finally, we found that rosemary-derived carnosic acid strongly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages and on the contrary up-regulated adiponectin secretion. Collectively, by using 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes, inflammation status can be monitored in real time and inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently.

  5. Assessing Protective Factors for Violence Risk in U.K. General Mental Health Services Using the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Alina; Brown, Andrew; Javaid, Syed Fahad; Khan, Fayyaz; Noblett, Steve; Omodunbi, Oladipupo; Sadiq, Khurram; Zaman, Wahid; Whittington, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Violence risk assessment and management are key tasks in mental health services and should be guided by validated instruments covering both risk and protective factors. This article is part of an international effort to validate the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF) for violence. The SAPROF, Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version (PCL-SV) were administered in a sample of 261 patients in U.K. forensic, general inpatient, and community mental health settings. There was significant variation between these groups on SAPROF scores with fewer protective factors in the forensic group. The prospective validity of the SAPROF for nonviolence in the general inpatient and community samples was moderate (area under the curve [AUC] = .60). Adoption of the SAPROF or similar instruments as a supplement to risk-focused assessments has the potential to improve awareness of protective factors and enhance therapeutic engagement in a range of mental health services.

  6. The qualified possession turn into ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  7. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of mice deficient in Rapgef2 and Rapgef6, a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases possessing the Ras/Rap-associating domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Satoko; Ikutomo, Junji; Edamatsu, Hironori; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Tohru

    2018-05-10

    Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology. Here, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to examine the effects of Rapgef2 or Rapgef6 deficiency on higher brain functions. Rapgef2-cKO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotypes. They showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the open-field tests as well as increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. They also exhibited increased sociability especially in novel environments. They showed defects in cognitive function as evidenced by reduced learning ability in the Barnes circular maze test and by impaired working memory in the T maze tests. In contrast, although Rapgef6 and Rapgef2 share similarities in biochemical roles, Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited mild behavioral abnormalities detected with a number of behavioral tests, such as hyperlocomotion phenotype in the open-field test and the social interaction test with a novel environment and working-memory defects in the T-maze test. In conclusion, although there were differences in their brain morphology and the magnitude of the behavioral abnormalities, Rapgef2-cKO mice and Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotype and working-memory defect, both of which could be recognized as schizophrenia-like behavior.

  8. Adolescent Religiousness as a Protective Factor against Pornography Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Steelman, Michael A.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Ridge, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mediators of relations between adolescent religiousness and pornography use. The sample consisted of 419 adolescents (ages 15-18 years; M age = 15.68, SD = 0.98; 56% male). It was hypothesized that religiousness (religious internalization and involvement) would protect adolescents from pornography use (accidental and…

  9. Risk Factors and Protective Factors for Lower-Extremity Running Injuries A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Fernandez-Villarejo, Marina

    2015-11-01

    A review of the scientific literature was performed 1) to identify studies describing the most common running injuries and their relation to the risk factors that produce them and 2) to search for potential and specific protective factors. Spanish and English biomedical search engines and databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Database Enfermería Fisioterapia Podología [ENFISPO], Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were queried (February 1 to November 30, 2013). A critical reading and assessment was then performed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Spanish tool. In total, 276 abstracts that contained the selected key words were found. Of those, 25 identified and analyzed articles were included in the results. Injuries result from inadequate interaction between the runner's biomechanics and external factors. This leads to an excessive accumulation of impact peak forces in certain structures that tends to cause overuse injuries. The main reasons are inadequate muscle stabilization and pronation. These vary depending on the runner's foot strike pattern, foot arch morphology, and sex. Specific measures of modification and control through running footwear are proposed.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 20 - Assigned Protection Factors for Respirators a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... internal dose due to inhalation may, in addition, present external exposure hazards at higher... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned Protection Factors for Respirators a A Appendix A..., App. A Appendix A to Part 20—Assigned Protection Factors for Respirators a Operating mode Assigned...

  11. Meditation as a Protective Factor Against Suicide In the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    prevention. Meditation is an alternative and non- pharmacological practice that has great promise as a protective factor against suicide and...prevention. Meditation is an alternative and non- pharmacological practice that has great promise as a protective factor against suicide and suicidal...CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ) show regional brain functioning in people with suicidal behaviors and those practicing meditation. Computed

  12. Is motivation for marathon a protective factor or a risk factor of injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, A; Radel, R; Ben Mahmoud, I; Massiera, B; Deroche, T; d'Arripe-Longueville, F

    2017-12-01

    This research investigated whether and how self-determined motivation predicts perceived susceptibility to injury during competition (marathon). Two correlational studies including 378 (Study 1) and 339 (Study 2) marathon runners were conducted. Participants filled out a questionnaire the day before the race measuring self-determined motivation, perceived susceptibilities to marathon-related injury and to keep running through pain, and control variables. Study 1 showed that self-determined motivation was negatively related to perceived susceptibility to marathon-related injury. Study 2 replicated this finding and showed that this relationship was partially mediated by perceived susceptibility to keep running through pain during the race. Moreover, results indicated that the predictive role of self-determination was mostly driven by controlled forms of motivation, and more particularly external regulation. These results suggest that self-determined motivation for sport is a protective factor of injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Effects of Protection on the Factor Content of Japanese and American Foreign Trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Staiger, Robert W; Deardorff, Alan V; Stern, Robert M

    1988-01-01

    Data on pre-Tokyo Round tariffs and ad valorem approximations of nontariff barriers are used in the Michigan Computational Model of World Production and Trade to calculate changes in commodity trade attributable to protection in Japan and the United States. Data on factor requirements in production are then used to calculate the factor contents of these computed changes in trade. Results indicate that Japanese protection is more distortionary of factor markets in Japan and the United States t...

  14. Barriers and Factors Affecting Personal Protective Equipment Usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    However compliance to it by HCWs has remained poor even in high-risk clinical situation. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the factors that influence a HCWs' decision to wear .... necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis, abscesses, urosepsis etc are admitted. Casualty, burns .... J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 Mar 1 ...

  15. Risk and Protective Factors for Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei-Chen; Griesler, Pamela; Schaffran, Christine; Kandel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background: We investigated the role of psychosocial and proximal contextual factors on nicotine dependence in adolescence. Methods: Data on a multiethnic cohort of 6th to 10th graders from the Chicago public schools were obtained from four household interviews conducted with adolescents over two years and one interview with mothers. Structural…

  16. Examining Suicide Protective Factors among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chuan; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Tran, Kimberly K.; Bonaparte, Taria S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the nascent literature on resilience and suicidality among Black Americans by examining factors that may predict less suicidal behavior among this population. The authors hypothesized that reasons for living, life satisfaction, and religious awareness would account for unique variance in suicidal…

  17. Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA), Hamadan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDI REYAHI KHORAM; VAHID NORISHARIKABAD

    2010-01-01

    Reyahi-Khoram M, Norisharikabad V (2011) Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA), Hamadan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 12: 216-221. Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA) located in Hamadan Province in Iran, it is a mountainous and plain area and proximal to Malayer Township. In 1991, the region was known as a protected area for increasing wild animals' population. This research has been conducted during 2001 through 2009. Plant and animal species of the region were i...

  18. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15 bluefish in, or harvested from, the EEZ unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a bluefish commercial permit or is issued a bluefish dealer permit. Persons aboard a vessel that...

  19. Cisplatin neuropathy. Risk factors, prognosis, and protection by WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollman, J.E.; Glover, D.J.; Hogan, W.M.; Furman, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study of patients receiving cis-diaminedichloroplatin II (DDP) was carried out to determine if risk factors could be identified related to the patient's living habits or past medical history that would predict in which patients DDP neuropathy might develop. Sixty-nine patients receiving six different combinations of chemotherapeutic agents, including DDP were examined. Twenty-eight of these patients received DDP in combination with the radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosporothioic acid (WR 2721). No risk factors were identified relating to personal habits or past medical history of the patients. However, patients receiving DDP (40 mg/m2) on 5 consecutive days had a significantly higher incidence of neuropathy. Patients receiving DDP in combination with WR 2721 had a significantly lower incidence of neuropathy, and the mean dose at onset was significantly higher than the mean dose at onset of neuropathy for all other groups. In addition, five of six patients who were available for long-term follow-up demonstrated nearly complete reversal of the signs and symptoms of neuropathy

  20. Protective and risk factors for toxocariasis in children from two different social classes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Leli, Flávia Noris Chagas; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Toxocara spp. antibodies in children from two different socioeconomic classes in the Presidente Prudente municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the protective and risk factors associated with toxocariasis. One hundred and twenty-six middle-class (MC) and 126 disadvantaged children (DC) were included in this study. Anti-Toxocara ELISA test was performed in order to evaluate seroprevalence. A survey was applied to the children's guardians/parents in order to analyze the protective and risk factors. The overall prevalence was 11.1%, and of 9.5% (12/126) and 12.7% (16/126) for MC and DC subgroups, respectively. Toxocara seropositivity was inversely proportional to the family income. A high household income was considered a protective factor for toxocariasis in the total population and in both MC and DC subgroups. Being a girl was considered a protective factor for the total population and for both subgroups. Whilst being an owner of cat was a risk factor for children belonging to the total and for both MC and DC subgroups, having dog was considered as a risk factor for only the MC. Epidemiologic protective/factor risks can be distinct depending on the strata of the same population. Thus, it is relevant to evaluate these factors independently for different socioeconomic classes in order to design future investigations and programs for preventing the infection of human beings by Toxocara spp. and other geohelminths.

  1. Haitian orphan population and protective factors against caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Rea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective In Haiti, families were torn apart and children were left orphans after the 2010 earthquake. In the aftermath of this natural disaster many children were relocated to orphanages across the country and adopted internationally. Years later these children find themselves catching up in growth physically, mentally and emotionally after an extremely traumatic event during a crucial time in their health development. Another important marker of development is the primary dentition and the presence of caries.  We report estimates of early childhood caries (ECC frequency, risk factors and quality of health among Haitian children. Methods Medical and dental professionals conducted a descriptive cross sectional study through the Pittsburgh Kids Foundation and their partnership with IDADEE children’s home, EBAC orphanage and New Vision Children’s home. Vital signs were taken and recorded to create a health/growth history for each child. Brief dental screenings were conducted and topical fluoride treatments were administered. Risk factors and quality of health information was obtained from discussions with the caregivers present. The children and caregivers were given oral hygiene education and supplies (i.e. toothbrushes, toothpaste, floss.  Results Physical exams and dental screenings were conducted on the 40 children ages 3-10 years of age living in the IDADEE children’s home. Two children had cavitated teeth. Eight children had teeth that were stained. Four children had evidence of dental trauma. 26 out of the 40 children had otherwise healthy dentition. Conclusion The IDADEE children’s home and New Vision Children’s home have hopes to expand their capacity with new construction scheduled to be finished in 2016. As more children enter these homes action is needed to educate caregivers on ways to identify high-risk children to prevent ECC and ways they can be treated before irreversible damage is done to the developing permanent

  2. Financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction. A relationship study by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu SELVAKUMAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make an attempt to study the relationship between the financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis. The main objectives of the study are to analyze the financial consumer protection in commercial banks, to examine the customer satisfaction of commercial banks and to identify the factors of financial consumer protection lead customer satisfaction. There are many research work carried out on financial consumer protection in financial literacy, but the identification of factors which lead the financial consumer protection and the relationship between financial consumer protection and the customer satisfaction is very important, Particularly for banks to improve its quality and increase the customer satisfaction. Therefore this study is carried out with the aim of identifying the factors of financial consumer protection and its influence on customer satisfaction. This study is both descriptive and analytical in nature. It covers both primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected from the customers of commercial banks using pre-tested interview schedule and the secondary data has been collected from standard books, journals, magazines, websites and so on.

  3. Guidance on the use of protective lead aprons in medical radiology protection efficiency and correction factors for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Workers in clinical radiology wear lead aprons when standing in the vicinity of a patient being exposed to x-rays. A lead apron protects the person's trunk against radiation scattered rom the patient. Our research is focused on two main issues: 1. How much protection does a lead apron provide, and what are the main factors that determine the protection efficiency 2. How can measured badge dose be translated into a realistic estimate of the effective dose, and how does this depend on dosemeter placement Using a model for x-ray shielding and dosimetry we calculated equivalent organ doses and personal depth dose HP(10) for various exposure conditions, x-ray energies and types of aprons that occur in clinical practice. We concluded that apron model and fit are often more important than lead thickness. In others, increasing lead thickness of a badly chosen apron will not provide better protection. For many fluoroscopy applications an apron of good model and fit need not be thicker than 0.5 mm of lead (equivalent). In case of intensive and frequent interventional work lead we advise higher lead thickness (0.35 mm), and preferably additional neck shielding for protection of the oesophagus and thyroid. A well chosen lead apron reduces effective dose by 75%up to 90%. We also concluded that the dosemeter badge should always be worn outside the apron, at mid front of collar or chest. In our view this dosemeter position enables reliable evaluation of effective dose from badge readings. As a standard practice we recommend translating measured badge dose to effective dose by dividing by a factor of five, provide that the worker wears a suitable lead apron. Finally, some research was done on the subject of the protective effect of lead aprons for the uterus, and the relation of uterus dose and badge dose. Use of a lead apron is found to reduce uterus dose by a factor of 5 to 10. Our study shows that in case of worker pregnancy, exposure of the unborn child may de adequately

  4. Resilience and protective factors among people with a history of child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Muzi; D'Arcy, Carl

    2018-05-01

    To provide an overview of resilience and protective factors associated with a better life following child maltreatment exposure, to compare protective factors across specific subtypes of maltreatment, and to explore existing issues in the current state of the literature. Electronic databases and grey literature up to October 2017 were systematically searched for English language with observational study designs for the research on resilience and childhood maltreatment. Systematic review and qualitative approaches were used to synthesize the results. Study quality and heterogeneity were also examined. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 247 papers being reviewed. A total of 85 articles met eligibility criteria of this review. Most of these studies had low or middle study quality. There were two subgroups of studies reviewed: (1) 11 studies examined whether resilience protected against the negative consequence of childhood maltreatment, and, (2) 75 studies explored what protective factor was associated with a kind of adaptive functioning. Although the conceptualization of resilience significantly varied from study to study, protective factors associated with resilience at individual, familial, and societal levels reduced the likelihood of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment. Negative consequences following childhood maltreatment can be prevented or moderated if protective factors are provided in time. Future research needs to address the conceptualization issue of resilience. Public and population mental health preventions should focus on early childhood and apply preventive strategies as early as possible. Cost-effective studies should be considered in the evaluation of resilience prevention program.

  5. Risk and protective factors associated with adolescent girls' substance use: Data from a nationwide Facebook sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Thom, Bridgette

    2016-01-01

    Despite overall reductions in teenage substance use, adolescent girls' rates of substance use remain unacceptably high. This article examines whether girls' substance use is associated with general risk and protective factors (goal setting, problem solving, refusal skills, peer use, and self-efficacy) and gender-specific risk and protective factors (communication style, coping skills, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression). Cross-sectional data were collected in 2013 via online surveys from a nationwide sample of adolescent girls (N = 788), aged 13 and 14 years, who were recruited through Facebook. In multivariate analyses, controlling for correlates of adolescent substance use, 11 of the 13 general and gender-specific risk and protective factors were consistently associated with past-month alcohol, cigarette, and other drug use in the expected direction; past-month marijuana use was associated with 8 of the 13 factors. Refusal skills, peer use, coping, and depressive mood were most consistently and strongly associated with substance use. Substance abuse prevention programs targeting adolescent girls should focus on such general risk and protective factors as problem solving, refusal skills, peer influences, and self-efficacy, as well as such gender-specific risk and protective factors as communication style, coping, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, and mood management.

  6. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  7. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Suicidal Ideation: A Multicampus, National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…

  8. POSSESSION, REVIEW FROM CULTURAL AND PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Possession is a culture related syndrome, commonly found in Indonesia including Bali. We can see this event in religion and cultural ceremony and at other times at school, home, and in society. This syndrome consist of temporary loss of self identification and environment awareness; in several events a person acts as if he/she was controlled by other being, magic force, spirit or ‘other forces’. There are still several different opinions about trance-possession, whether it is related to certain culture or is a part of mental disorder. DSM-IV-TR and PPDGJ-III defined trance-possession as mental disorder (dissociative for involuntary possession, if it is not a common activity, and if it is not a part of religion or cultural event. (MEDICINA 2012;43:37-40.

  9. Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-12-01

    A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research.

  10. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS ON TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND DRUGS IN ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the relation between risk and protective factor and substance use in adolescence, including tobacco use, drunkenness and consumption of illicit drugs. The sample included 3494 students, mean age 15 years old, in the 8th and 10th grades from the public school system, of primary and secondary schools in Portugal. Data collection was held within the HBSC (Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey from 2010. For the purpose of this specific study, the questionnaire includes questions about risk and protective behaviors and substance use, namely tobacco, drunkenness and illicit drug consumption. Results confirmed that adolescents with higher levels of protective factors seem to consume fewer substances and adolescents who present higher levels of risk factors are more likely to consume all the substances in the study. There were statistically significant differences for the majority of risk and protective behaviours regarding tobacco, drunkenness and illicit drugs. Although risk factors have a higher impact on substance use, the existence of protective factors seems to fade such impact.

  12. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  13. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  14. Parenting style risk and protective factor of the bullying phenomenon: Three studies in Andalusian teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ortiz, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In the last forty years, research on bullying has progressed considerably, producing a large body of scientific knowledge. The development of research in this field has permitted defining the nature of this violent phenomenon, determining its prevalence in different parts of the world, the consequences which could be suffered by those directly involved, and the risk or protective factors which can protect children from engaging in bullying, or promote their active participation...

  15. Decay Accelerating Factor (CD55) Protects Neuronal Cells from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Pavlakovic G, Isom GE: Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of cyanide: neurochemical, histological and behavioral characterization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol...provided the original work is properly cited. ResearchDecay accelerating factor (CD55) protects neuronal cells from chemical hypoxia-induced injury...deposition of C3a/C5a and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9) production. The present study investigates the ability of DAF to protect primary cultured

  16. Polyurethane Functional Coatings for Protection of Different Surfaces from Aggressive Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelyev, U.V., Markovska, L.A., Robota, L.P., Parkhomenko, N.I., and Savelyeva, O.O.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New polyurethane compositions (PC as multifunctional protective materials that can serve as coatings or binders or impregnating materials have been created. PC have high adhesion values and the PC-based materials are waterproof and resistant to aggressive biotic (abiotic and technogenic factors (biocorrosion, UV radiation, chemical agents. Putting active compounds into the polymer macrochain prolongs the protection functions of the materials. This is their advantage to existing materials.

  17. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  18. [Protective factors for preventing the use of drugs in the families of a Colombia locality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Núbia Medina; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the protective factors that prevent drug use in the families of children who attend Community Homes of Family Well-being in a small Colombian locality. This was a quantitative, descriptive, transversal study, with 256 families constituting the sample. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire throughout March and April 2007. Protective factors found included demonstrations of affection toward the children, playing with them and talking to them about things they like, open communication, decision making as a couple, flexibility of the nursing process, and establishment of rules. However, some risk factors were also found, such as consumption of legal drugs such as cigarettes and alcohol, and in a low percentage, consumption of illicit drugs. A high percentage of families consider that drug use must be prevented in the first years of life, by the parents. The protective factors found require reinforcement as they are not very strong, and the risk factors must be controlled to turn them into protective factors.

  19. Adaptation and validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors for the Portuguese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Cláudia Cristina Vieira Carvalho de Oliveira Ferreira; Araújo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vítor Manuel Costa Pereira; de Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri

    2014-01-01

    to adapt and validate the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF) for the Portuguese culture. This instrument assesses protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Studies addressing resilience are embedded within the salutogenic paradigm, i.e. it addresses protective factors of individuals or groups without underestimating risk factors or vulnerability. in order to assess the IFPF's linguistic and conceptual equivalence, the instrument was translated, retro-translated and the think-aloud protocol was used. We then verified the instrument's sensitiveness, reliability and validity of results to assess its psychometric characteristics. A factor analysis was performed of the principal components with varimax rotation of the scale's items and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each dimension. A total of 85 families with disabled children, selected through simple random sampling, self-administered the instrument. the IFPF presents psychometric characteristics that are appropriate for the Portuguese population (Cronbach's alpha = .90). the IFPF was adapted and validated for the Portuguese culture and is an instrument to be used in studies intended to assess protective factors of family resilience.

  20. Protective factors associated with fewer multiple problem behaviors among homeless/runaway youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher levels of problem solving and planning skills were strongly related to lower levels of multiple problem behaviors in homeless youth, suggesting both the positive impact of preexisting personal assets of these youth and important programmatic targets for further building their resilience and decreasing problem behaviors. Indirect relationships between the background factors of self-esteem and social support and multiple problem behaviors were significantly mediated through protective skills. The model suggests that helping youth enhance their skills in goal setting, decision making, and self-reliant coping could lessen a variety of problem behaviors commonly found among homeless youth.

  1. [Risk and protection factors related to the consumption of psychoactive substances in undergraduate nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Blanca Nivia; Plazas, Merideidy; Sanchez, Rafael; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to identify the frequency of risk and protection factors related to drug consumption among undergraduate nursing students. It is a cross-sectional study in which authors applied the instrument Risk and Protection Factors for the Consumption of Psychoactive Substances, validated for use with undergraduate nursing students. Data were analyzed through STATA 10. Three hundred and ninety students participated in the study. The domain "prejudice and appraisal", "social permissiveness and access to psychoactive substances", "social skills and self-control" are risk factors for drugs use in 100% of participants. "Spirituality" and "satisfaction with interpersonal relations" were predominant protective domains. Based on data, authors can conclude that the students did not consider the risks in alcohol and tobacco consumption, as they think it is normal and socially acceptable.

  2. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents

  3. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Allen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  4. Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light damage independently of hypoxia inducible transcription factors in rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Brigitte; Schori, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light-induced degeneration preserving retinal morphology and function. Although hypoxia inducible transcription factors 1 and 2 (HIF1, HIF2) are the main regulators of the hypoxic response, photoreceptor protection does not depend on HIF1 in rods. Here we used rod-specific Hif2a single and Hif1a;Hif2a double knockout mice to investigate the potential involvement of HIF2 in rods for protection after hypoxic preconditioning. To identify potential HIF2 target genes in rods we determined the retinal transcriptome of hypoxic control and rod-specific Hif2a knockouts by RNA sequencing. We show that rods do not need HIF2 for hypoxia-induced increased survival after light exposure. The transcriptomic analysis revealed a number of genes that are potentially regulated by HIF2 in rods; among those were Htra1, Timp3 and Hmox1, candidates that are interesting due to their connection to human degenerative diseases of the retina. We conclude that neither HIF1 nor HIF2 are required in photoreceptors for protection by hypoxic preconditioning. We hypothesize that HIF transcription factors may be needed in other cells to produce protective factors acting in a paracrine fashion on photoreceptor cells. Alternatively, hypoxic preconditioning induces a rod-intrinsic response that is independent of HIF transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk versus direct protective factors and youth violence: Seattle social development project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J David

    2012-08-01

    Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in 5th grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10-12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13-14 years and 15-18 years. Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13-14 years and 15-18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10-12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10-12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the measures and methods that were applied. Implications provide

  6. 19 CFR 7.2 - Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than Puerto Rico. 7.2 Section 7.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... NAVAL STATION § 7.2 Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico. (a) Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico are also American territory but, because those insular...

  7. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup

    2017-08-01

    The current systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining the risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Data included 15 peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family acculturation stress. At the societal level low socioeconomic status was identified as a risk factor. Cultural level risk factors included patriarchal beliefs. Positive parental coping strategies were a protective factor. An ecological analysis of the results suggests that family related violence in refugee families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related violence should not only include the individual, but the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pressure and protective factors influencing nursing students' self-esteem: A content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Gargari, Rahim Badri; Ghahramanian, Akram; Tabrizi, Faranak Jabbarzadeh; Keogh, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that the range of self-esteem in nursing students ranges from normal to low. It is hypothesized that different contextual factors could affect levels of self-esteem. The main aim of this study was to explore these factors from the viewpoint of Iranian nursing students using a qualitative approach. A qualitative content analysis study. Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, 2014. Fourteen student nurses and two qualified nurses. This study has been applied to various depths of interpretation. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. Fourteen student nurses and two qualified nurses were interviewed. Two main themes of the "pressure factors" with subthemes: low self-efficacy, sense of triviality, ineffective instructor-student interaction, low self-confidence and "protective factors" with subthemes: knowledge acquisition, mirror of valuability, professional autonomy, religious beliefs, and choosing the nursing field with interest was extracted in this study. Results showed that these themes have interaction with each other like a seesaw, as pressure factors decrease, the effect of protective factors on the self-esteem are increased. Nurse educators not only should try to improve the students' skills and knowledge, but should also try to enhance the protective factors and decrease pressure factors by enhancing the nursing students' feeling of being important, using participatory teaching methods, considering students' feedback, and attempting to improve facilities at the clinics are also recommended. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and distress in adult life: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ann; Flouri, Eirini; Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    2002-08-01

    To assess the relationship between risk and protective factors and the continuity of psychological problems from age 7 to age 33. Data on 5,591 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to track continuity and discontinuity between internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7, as assessed by the Rutter 'A' Health and Behaviour Checklist, and psychological distress at age 33, as assessed by the Malaise Inventory, controlling for risk and protective groupings present at age 7. There was no association between malaise in adulthood and internalizing problems in childhood. However, people who had externalizing problems in childhood were nearly twice as likely as those without such problems to have high Malaise scores in adulthood. A grouping of risk factors (police/probation experience by family, agency referral for difficulties in school, social services involvement, domestic tension) did not predict malaise in adulthood. Also a grouping of protective factors (outings with mother, father reads to child, good creative skills, good numeric skills) predicted that women were less likely to have high Malaise scores in adult life. Protective factors in childhood were strongly associated with lower Malaise scores in adulthood. Research on factors associated with discontinuity of psychological problems may prove fruitful.

  11. Risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-section-al population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.

  12. Risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use among Malaysian adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Muzafar Mohd; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use in Malaysian adolescents and young adults. Participants (n = 859; M age = 17.24 years, SD = 2.75 years, range = 13-25 years; 59% male) were recruited from secondary schools, technical colleges, a juvenile detention center and a national training center in Malaysia. A version of the Communities That Care survey validated for use in Malaysia (Razali & Kliewer, 2015) was used to assess study constructs. One in 6 adolescents and 1 in 3 young adults reported lifetime recreational and hard drug use, with greater use reported by males across all drug categories. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the strongest risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use. The overall pattern of findings was similar for recreational and hard drug use. Shared risk factors for lifetime recreational and hard drug use included early initiation of antisocial behavior, peer antisocial behavior, and peer reinforcement for engaging in antisocial behavior; shared protective factors included religious practices and opportunities for prosocial school involvement. Multiple group analyses comparing adolescents and young adults indicated that patterns of risk and protective factors predicting drug use differed across these age groups. There were fewer significant predictors of either recreational or hard drug use for young adults relative to adolescents. Results suggest that interventions should target multiple microsystems (e.g., peer groups, family systems, school environments) and be tailored to the developmental stage of the individual. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  14. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

  15. Descending with Angels: Jinn Possession, Islamic Exorcism, and Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    What is it like to be a Muslim possessed by a jinn spirit? How do you find refuge from madness and evil in a place like Denmark? In this book I explore some of the ways in which Muslims in the West have sought to protect themselves. Over several years I followed Muslim patients being treated.......” In the book I analyze how these broader social and political issues are paralleled in the invisible dynamics of jinn possession and psychosis, proposing new theoretical perspectives on religious and psychiatric healing as ritual practices for dealing with the invisible in human life....... hypervisible in public discourse through intensive state monitoring, surveillance, and media coverage. Yet their religion of Islam remains poorly understood and is frequently identified by politicians, commentators, and even healthcare specialists as the underlying invisible cause of “integration problems...

  16. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup

    2017-01-01

    and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family...... families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related...

  17. Antimicrobial Use: A Risk Factor or a Protective Factor for Acquiring Campylobacteriosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koningstein, Maike; Simonsen, Jacob; Helms, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Background. It is well acknowledged that the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals leads to antimicrobial drug resistance in foodborne bacteria such as Campylobacter; however, the role of human antimicrobial usage is much less investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify the odds...... with increased risk (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.8–3.5). This risk was higher for resistant isolates than for susceptible ones. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with macrolides may protect against Campylobacter infection for a limited period of time, possibly due to the antibacterial effects of the drug or its metabolites...

  18. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N?=?448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young?s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck De...

  19. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  20. Evaluation of the protection factor of half-masks with respirator fitting test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, M.; Ikezawa, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kokubu, M.

    1980-01-01

    A respirator fitting test apparatus has been developed to select half-masks of high performance and to estimate their protective ability. With the apparatus, the facepiece leakage was measured for six different half-masks worn by 40 volunteer subjects, under simulated working conditions of normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. A cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was fed into a test hood in which the subject wore a mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. It is hown that the protection factor (ratio of the concentration of test cloud outside the mask to that inside) for each mask varies widely with the subject and the working conditions, and that the protection factors roughly fit a lognormal distribution. The values characterizing the distributions of respective masks are given. (H.K.)

  1. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  2. Protective Factors as an Explanation for the "Paradox" of Black-White Differences in Heavy Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Zemore, Sarah E; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2018-04-02

    African Americans are generally known to have lower heavy drinking prevalence than Whites despite often greater individual and community risk factors. While it is supposed that their protective resources explain this "paradox," studies have not explicitly examined this. Assess the contribution of protective resources to Black-White differences in heavy drinking, and (secondarily) whether protective resources operate by reducing heavy drinking and/or increasing abstinence. Using data from the 2009-2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (N = 3,133 Whites and 1,040 Blacks ages 18+), we applied propensity score (PS) weighting to estimate racial differences in heavy drinking and abstinence under hypothetical conditions in which Whites are similar to Blacks in: (1) age and marital status; (2) socioeconomic position and unfair treatment; (3) neighborhood socioeconomic conditions and alcohol outlet density; and (4) protective resources (proscriptive religiosity, area-level religiosity, "drier" network drinking norms and patterns, and family social support). The Black-White gap in male and female drinkers' baseline heavy drinking increased after weighting adjustments for demographics. In women, this gap was reduced after weighting on disadvantage and eliminated after adjusting for protective resources. In men, adjustment for disadvantage increased the racial gap, and protective resources reduced it. Protective resources had a stronger effect on Black-White differences in men's abstinence than heavy drinking, but similar effects on these outcomes in women. Protective resources help explain Black-White differences in men's and particularly women's heavy drinking. Future research is needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and additional factors underlying racial differences in men's heavy drinking.

  3. Digital possessions after a romantic break up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herron, Daniel; Moncur, Wendy; van den Hoven, Elise

    2016-01-01

    With technology becoming more pervasive in everyday life, it is common for individuals to use digital media to support the enactment and maintenance of romantic relationships. Partners in a relationship may create digital possessions frequently. However, after a relationship ends, individuals

  4. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  6. Parent/Student Risk and Protective Factors in Understanding Early Adolescent's Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…

  7. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  8. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  9. Protective Factors against Distress for Caregivers of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca A.; Barry, Tammy D.

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience elevated distress. The current study examined potential protective factors against caregiver distress when child externalizing and internalizing behaviors are present: family resources, perceived social support, parenting efficacy, knowledge of ASD, and the agreement…

  10. Disordered eating behaviors among transgender youth: Probability profiles from risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-05-01

    Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  12. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  13. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  14. Risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories in older persons : Are these the same?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I.; Ranchor, A.V.; van Sonderen, E.; van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Sanderman, R.

    We examined whether risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories were the same in 1,765 Dutch older persons. We assessed disability in 1993 and reassessed it in 2001. For 2001 as compared with 1993, we distinguished three trajectory groups: substantially poorer, somewhat poorer,

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique versus Comorbid Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youths were surveyed when they were 10 years…

  16. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  17. Risk and Protective Factors in the Lives of Transgender/Gender Nonconforming Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Rider, G Nicole; Shea, Glynis; Coleman, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth may be at greatly increased risk of high-risk health behaviors compared with cisgender youth, but existing studies are limited by convenience samples and small numbers. This study uses a large school-based sample of adolescents to describe the prevalence of TGNC identity, associations with health risk behaviors and protective factors, and differences across birth-assigned sex. This study analyzes existing surveillance data provided by 9th and 11th grade students in Minnesota in 2016 (N = 81,885). Students who were transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, or unsure about their gender identity (TGNC) were compared with those who were not, using χ 2 and t-tests. Outcome measures included four domains of high-risk behaviors and experiences and four protective factors. The prevalence of TGNC identity was 2.7% (n = 2,168) and varied significantly across gender, race/ethnicity, and economic indicators. Involvement in all types of risk behaviors and experiences was significantly higher, and reports of four protective factors were significantly lower among TGNC than cisgender youth. For example, almost two-thirds (61.3%) of TGNC youth reported suicidal ideation, which is over three times higher than cisgender youth (20.0%, χ 2  = 1959.9, p < .001). Among TGNC youth, emotional distress and bullying experience were significantly more common among birth-assigned females than males. This research presents the first large-scale, population-based evidence of substantial health disparities for TGNC adolescents in the United States, highlighting numerous multilevel points of intervention through established protective factors. Health care providers are advised to act as allies by creating a safe space for young people, bolstering protective factors, and supporting their healthy development. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk and protective factors for development of colorectal polyps and cancer (Bulgarian experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzev, I; Mirchev, M; Manevska, B; Ivanova, I; Kaneva, M

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer takes third place among all malignancies in the Varna region. The present study aims to determine the typical and distinguishing risk and protective factors for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. 166 patients with large bowel polyps and 107 patients with colorectal cancer were questioned, examined endoscopically and histologically. Logistic regression analysis was used to find a possible correlation between alimentary habits, way of life, and risk for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. The latter have been used to define a strategy for their prevention. Our results showed that fried, preserved, and grilled meat, consumption of animal fats, sugar, and being overweight are positively associated with colorectal polyps. In contrast, consumption of fruit, vegetables, rye- and brown bread, green tea, vegetable food, yoghourt, vegetarian food, fish, lamb, hare, garlic, boiled food, and mineral water, have strong protective effect against large bowel polyps. We have confirmed the role of the well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer, and discovered an association between H. pylori infection, age, villous component in the adenomatous polyps, and family history for any neoplasia and large bowel carcinoma. We suggest the following protective factors for CRC: vegetarian food, plant oil, rural life, aspirin intake, legumes, fish, fruit and vegetable consumption. We observe a similarity between the risk factors for colorectal polyps and cancer formation. They act simultaneously and depend on genetic predisposition. A combination of endoscopic treatment and correction of the alimentary factors could be used as a means of cancer prevention.

  19. Workplace victimization risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Jason; Lattimore, Pamela K; Morgan, Jessica K; Hopkinson, Susan G; Jenkins, Linda; Cartwright, Joel

    2018-04-22

    Workplace victimization is a potential risk factor for suicidal behaviors (SB) among military personnel that has been largely overlooked. This paper examines both the impact of workplace victimization on reported SB and several potential protective factors associated with such suicidal behaviors in a large sample of active duty soldiers. A case-control study was conducted with 71 soldiers who reported SB in the past 12 months, each matched on sociodemographic characteristics to two others without reported suicidal behaviors. A multiple regression model was estimated to assess the effects of risk and protective factors while controlling for other variables. SB was associated with several aspects of victimization, mental health and substance abuse conditions, pain, impulsivity, stressors, negative life events, work-family conflict, active coping behaviors and positive military-related factors. Controlling for other variables, those with SB were more likely to have sought mental health or substance abuse services, to be depressed, anxious, impulsive, and less resilient than non-SB personnel. Study limitations included the use of retrospective self-report data, absence of some known SB predictors, and a population restricted to active duty Army personnel. SB among active duty personnel is associated with victimization since joining the military and is protected by resiliency. These findings suggest that in addition to the usual mental health factors, these additional predictors should be accounted for in SB intervention and prevention planning for active duty personnel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk and Protective Factors for Breast Cancer in Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Emi Inumaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of physical activity, body composition, and breastfeeding are closely related to health and are influenced by environmental, economic, and social factors. With the increase of sedentary lifestyle and overweight, many chronic diseases have also increased, including cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the knowledge of its risk and protective factors is important to the adoption of primary prevention strategies. We aimed to investigate some risk and protective factors for breast cancer among women from Midwest Brazil. It is a case-control study of outpatient basis, carried out with 93 breast cancer cases and 186 controls. Socioeconomic, gynecological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected, and odds ratios (ORs values were estimated (significance level, 5%; confidence interval (CI, 95%. Per capita income equal to or lower than 1/2 Brazilian minimum wage (OR=1.88; CI=1.06–3.29, residence in rural area (OR=4.93; CI=1.65–14.73, and presence of family history of breast cancer (OR=5.38; CI=1.46–19.93 are risk factors for breast cancer. In turn, physical activity (past 6 months (OR=0.23; CI=0.10–0.55 and leisure physical activity at 20 years old (OR=0.13; CI=0.03–0.54 are protective factors for the disease in women who live in Midwest of Brazil.

  1. Beta reduction factors for protective clothing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, G.L.; Gonzalez, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Beta reduction factors (f β ) for protective clothing (PC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been determined for a variety of protective clothing combinations. Data was collected to determine the experimental f β for several combinations of PCs under laboratory conditions. Radiation dose rates were measured with an open window Bicron reg-sign RSO-5 ion chamber for two distinct beta energy groups (E max = 1.218 x 10 -13 J(0.860 MeV) and 3.653 x 10 -13 J (2.280 MeV)). Data points determined, as the ratio of unattenuated (no PCs) to attenuated (PCs), were used to derive a set of equations using the Microsoft reg-sign Excel Linet function. Field comparison tests were then conducted to determine the validity of these beta reduction factors. The f β from the field tests were significantly less than the experimental f β , indicating that these factors will yield conservative results

  2. Protection by GDNF and other trophic factors against the dopamine-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Wayne A; Peters, Laura E; Harned, Michael E; Seroogy, Kim B

    2006-08-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administration to animals can result in long-lasting decreases in striatal dopamine (DA) content. It has previously been shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can reduce the DA-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of METH. However, there are several other trophic factors that are protective against dopaminergic toxins. Thus, the present experiments further investigated the protective effect of GDNF as well as the protective effects of several other trophic factors. Male Fischer-344 rats were given an intracerebral injection of trophic factor (2-10 microg) 1 day before METH (5 mg/kg, s.c., 4 injections at 2-h intervals). Seven days later DA levels in the striatum were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Initial experiments indicated that only intrastriatal GDNF, and not intranigral GDNF, was protective. Thereafter, all other trophic factors were administered into the striatum. Members of the GDNF family (GDNF, neurturin, and artemin) all provided significant protection against the DA-depleting effects of METH, with GDNF providing the greatest protection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, acidic fibroblast growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), heregulin beta1 (HRG-beta1), and amphiregulin (AR) provided no significant protection at the doses examined. These results suggest that the GDNF family of trophic factors can provide significant protection against the DA-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of METH.

  3. Enacted Stigma, Mental Health, and Protective Factors Among Transgender Youth in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F.; Peter, Tracey; Travers, Robb; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: We aimed to assess the Minority Stress Model which proposes that the stress of experiencing stigma leads to adverse mental health outcomes, but social supports (e.g., school and family connectedness) will reduce this negative effect. Methods: We measured stigma-related experiences, social supports, and mental health (self-injury, suicide, depression, and anxiety) among a sample of 923 Canadian transgender 14- to 25-year-old adolescents and young adults using a bilingual online survey. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the relationship between these risk and protective factors and dichotomous mental health outcomes among two separate age groups, 14- to 18-year-old and 19- to 25-year-old participants. Results: Experiences of discrimination, harassment, and violence (enacted stigma) were positively related to mental health problems and social support was negatively associated with mental health problems in all models among both age groups. Among 14–18 year olds, we examined school connectedness, family connectedness, and perception of friends caring separately, and family connectedness was always the strongest protective predictor in multivariate models. In all the mental health outcomes we examined, transgender youth reporting low levels of enacted stigma experiences and high levels of protective factors tended to report favorable mental health outcomes. Conversely, the majority of participants reporting high levels of enacted stigma and low levels of protective factors reported adverse mental health outcomes. Conclusion: While these findings are limited by nonprobability sampling procedures and potential additional unmeasured risk and protective factors, the results provide positive evidence for the Minority Stress Model in this population and affirm the need for policies and programs to support schools and families to support transgender youth. PMID:29279875

  4. Taking Possession: Rituals, Space and Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mara DeSilva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Europe authority over communities, both people and spaces, was visualized through ritual gestures and processions. Communities gathered to witness ceremonial entries that drew on accepted forms of gestures and speech identifying individuals and articulating their place in the urban power relationship. Ceremonial entries by rulers, ambassadors, bishops, and other office-holders drew on ritual acts projecting messages of possession in order to establish reputations of prestige and authority. This introductory essay draws on cultural anthropology and recent historiography to build a framework for understanding rituals of possession that went beyond the tradition triumphal entry to incorporate substitutes, new modes of prestigious display, and attend to conflicts. By “taking possession” of communities, offices, and spaces using accepted ritual forms, early moderns initiated conversations about authority and power that were far more flexible in their scope, practice, and participants than expected.

  5. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Organizational factors and reoccurrence protection on the JCO nuclear critical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi

    2000-01-01

    A nuclear critical accident formed at a nuclear fuel conversion factory in Tokai-mura on September, 1999 became gradually clear not to be a simple human error formed at a level of workmen but to be an organizational error or accident relating to various organizational factors. As a nuclear power facility adopts a depth protection system fundamentally, a large accident with serious danger would not form only by a single trouble and a human error and unless some factors overlaps. By reviewing recent serious accidents and troubles, all of them seem to have a keyword of 'organizational factor'. In the JCO accident, there are some organizational factors such as a climate deviating from a manual, insufficient and loose check against change of procedure, reduction of operators from a reason of profit priority, attitude on priority of working efficiency, and so forth, which are partially common to the Chernobyl accident. Recently, accidents and troubles impossible to make them a cause of simple human error by a person but to have to say an organizational error, have increased. This trend seems to depend upon not only complication and scale-up of technology system but also graduate change of social and management systems operating them. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to introduce a concept of depth protection (multiple protection) in order to keep its reliability and safety when complicating and scaling-up of system. (G.K.)

  7. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers' parenting practices in the postdeployment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S

    2015-08-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of postdeployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 postdeployed fathers who served in the National Guard/Reserves. Preintervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model assessing risk and protective factors for an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study using direct parent-child observations of fathers' parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Exploring Protective factors among homeless youth: the role of natural mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle T; Conger, Katherine J; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the presence and characteristics of natural mentors among 197 homeless youth and the association between natural mentoring relationships and youth functioning. Few studies have explored protective factors in the lives of homeless youth and how these may buffer against poor health outcomes. Relationships with natural mentors have been shown to have protective effects on adolescent functioning among the general adolescent population, and, thus, warrant further investigation with homeless youth. Results from this study revealed that 73.6% of homeless youth have natural mentoring relationships, split between kin and non-kin relationships. Having a natural mentor was associated with higher satisfaction with social support and fewer risky sexual behaviors. Findings suggest that natural mentors may play a protective role in the lives of homeless youth and should be considered an important source of social support that may enhance youth resilience.

  9. Cutting through form factors and cross sections of non-protected operators in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We study the form factors of the Konishi operator, the prime example of non-protected operators in N=4 SYM theory, via the on-shell unitarity method. Since the Konishi operator is not protected by supersymmetry, its form factors share many features with amplitudes in QCD, such as the occurrence of rational terms and of UV divergences that require renormalization. A subtle point is that this operator depends on the spacetime dimension. This requires a modification when calculating its form factors via the on-shell unitarity method. We derive a rigorous prescription that implements this modification to all loop orders and obtain the two-point form factor up to two-loop order and the three-point form factor to one-loop order. From these form factors, we construct an IR-finite cross-section-type quantity, namely the inclusive decay rate of the (off-shell) Konishi operator to any final (on-shell) state. Via the optical theorem, it is connected to the imaginary part of the two-point correlation function. We extract the Konishi anomalous dimension up to two-loop order from it.

  10. Traumatic Experience and Somatoform Dissociation Among Spirit Possession Practitioners in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Yvonne; Cardeña, Etzel; Reijman, Sophie; Haluza, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in African contexts have revealed a strong association between spirit possession and severe trauma, with inclusion into a possession cult serving at times a therapeutic function. Research on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic has so far not included quantitative studies of trauma and dissociation. This study evaluated demographic variables, somatoform dissociative symptoms, and potentially traumatizing events in the Dominican Republic with a group of Vodou practitioners that either do or do not experience spirit possession. Inter-group comparisons revealed that in contrast to non-possessed participants (n = 38), those experiencing spirit possession (n = 47) reported greater somatoform dissociation, more problems with sleep, and previous exposure to mortal danger such as assaults, accidents, or diseases. The two groups did not differ significantly in other types of trauma. The best predictor variable for group classification was somatoform dissociation, although those items could also reflect the experience of followers during a possession episode. A factor analysis across variables resulted in three factors: having to take responsibility early on in life and taking on a professional spiritual role; traumatic events and pain; and distress/dissociation. In comparison with the non-possessed individuals, the possessed ones did not seem to overall have a remarkably more severe story of trauma and seemed to derive economic gains from possession practice.

  11. Soluble factor(s) from bone marrow cells can rescue lethally irradiated mice by protecting endogenous hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhan, Yuxia; Burke, Kathleen A; Anderson, W French

    2005-04-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced myeloablation can be rescued via bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or administration of cytokines if given within 2 hours after radiation exposure. There is no evidence for the existence of soluble factors that can rescue an animal after a lethal dose of radiation when administered several hours postradiation. We established a system that could test the possibility for the existence of soluble factors that could be used more than 2 hours postirradiation to rescue animals. Animals with an implanted TheraCyte immunoisolation device (TID) received lethal-dose radiation and then normal bone marrow Lin- cells were loaded into the device (thereby preventing direct interaction between donor and recipient cells). Animal survival was evaluated and stem cell activity was tested with secondary bone marrow transplantation and flow cytometry analysis. Donor cell gene expression of five antiapoptotic cytokines was examined. Bone marrow Lin- cells rescued lethally irradiated animals via soluble factor(s). Bone marrow cells from the rescued animals can rescue and repopulate secondary lethally irradiated animals. Within the first 6 hours post-lethal-dose radiation, there is no significant change of gene expression of the known radioprotective factors TPO, SCF, IL-3, Flt-3 ligand, and SDF-1. Hematopoietic stem cells can be protected in lethally irradiated animals by soluble factors produced by bone marrow Lin- cells.

  12. Some individual psychological characteristics as protective or risk factors for occurrence of conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 30 pairs of siblings aged 12-18 years; one sibling with and one without conduct disorder in each pair. The aim of the study was to assess individual characteristics of those siblings, i.e. to determine differences in psychological characteristics of the siblings with regard to locus of control, stress coping strategies and frequency and structure of behavioral problems and emotions. The results suggested significant differences in individual characteristics of children with conduct disorder and their healthy siblings. These results mainly confirm previous results of foreign research on a sample of our population. Exception of findings was related to strategies for coping with stress: religious behavior that didn’t turn out as a protective factor and avoiding confrontation and withdrawal which are shown as a protective factor. These results suggest the importance of individual psychological characteristics for the occurrence of conduct disorders and have implications in therapy and in preventive work with adolescents.

  13. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gerg?; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M.; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with...

  14. Protective psychohygienic factors in the work of teachers at business academies

    OpenAIRE

    Křivánková, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the stress burden of teachers of economic subjects at business academies. The first part of the thesis focuses on what types of stress we distinguish, what are its manifestations and what effect it has on the health condition. The second part is focused on mental hygiene. Importance of interest in mental hygiene and techniques that may help teachers to maintain mental health. The practical part is focused on protective psychohygienic factors in the work of teac...

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in children with chronic illnesses: Predisposing and protecting factors

    OpenAIRE

    Koskivirta, Panu

    2011-01-01

    This thesis assesses clinical differences in patients with low and high vitamin D levels. The factors analyzed included the underlying disease, body size, age, ethnic background, use of vitamin D supplements and the season when the blood sample was taken. Fifty patients with the lowest and 50 patients with the highest vitamin D concentrations were selected from a cohort of 1351 chronically ill children and adolescents who had had their vitamin D status assessed at Children's Hospital. Protect...

  16. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  17. Religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family as factors protecting against deliberate self-harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kannan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deliberate self-harm (DSH ranges from behaviours aiming to communicate distress or relieve tension, but where suicide is not intended, to actual suicide. Not all individuals are prone to DSH, which suggests that there are factors that protect against it. Identifying these could play an important role in the management and prevention of DSH. Objectives. This study examined whether religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family serve as factors protecting against DSH in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Method. A cross-sectional comparative study assessed DSH patients consecutively admitted or directly referred to Queen Elizabeth General Hospital and Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang during the period December 2006 - April 2007. DSH patients (N=42 were matched with controls (N=42 for gender, age, religion, race, occupation and marital status. The DSH and control groups were compared using psychosocial tests that assess coping skills, religious beliefs and responsibility to family. Results. There were significant differences in religious beliefs (p=0.01 and responsibility to family (p=0.03 between the DSH patients and the control group. There were also significant differences in coping skills, DSH patients tending to use emotion-orientated coping (p=0.01 as opposed to task- and avoidance-orientated coping. Conclusion. Consistent with international studies, coping skills (i.e. task-orientated skills, religious beliefs and responsibility to family were more evident in patients who did not attempt DSH than in those who did. These findings imply that treating DSH should not start only at the point of contact. Protective factors such as religious beliefs, responsibility to family and coping strategies can be inculcated from a very young age. However, caution is required in generalising the results owing to limitations of the study. Further extensive research on religious and psychotherapeutic interventions and prospective studies on

  18. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. It is necessary to specify a place of this matter within the overall security system. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the rote of the human factor can be considered to be significant. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: political, social and economic, spiritual wealth and cultural factors and etc. In addition, a new problem suddenly appeared related to the safety and security of the energy complex, that is: uncontrolled processes such as: non-payment, debts on salary for several month period; all this factors effect negatively the level of safety and security. In this clear, that in such a difficult situation the role of an individual is increasing. Ignorance of the above factors or their non-objective (incomplete, partial ignorance) accounting (consideration) finally can lead to the negative and irremediable consequences. Thus, the content and the extent of the security of a society, in general, and every person, in particular, directly depend on the functioning of all society's structure, and, first of all, on the economic, social, political and legal structures. As a result, the physical protection system acquires a complex or comprehensive structure and I shall describe its specifics in the paper. (author)

  19. Sexual activity among Malaysian school-going adolescents: what are the risk and protective factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Awaluddin, S Maria; Ismail, Hasimah; Samad, Rahama; NikAbdRashid, NikRubiah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual activity among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey 2012 were analyzed. A total of 23 645 students aged 12 to 17 years responded using self-administered validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of reported ever-had sex was 8.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ever-had sex was positively significantly associated with ever-used drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.51-9.13), and to a lesser extent, ever-smoked (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.62-2.07) and ever-consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-2.53). Protective factors against ever-had sex were having a close friend (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81), parental bonding (aOR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.81), supportive peers (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.69-0.86), and parental connectedness (aOR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-0.99). Although the prevalence of sexual activity among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is relatively low, identifying the risk and protective factors is crucial toward developing an integrated multiple approach to preventing sexual-related problems. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. Striatal increase of neurotrophic factors as a mechanism of nicotine protection in experimental parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, R; Riva, M; Vaglini, F; Fornai, F; Racagni, G; Corsini, G U

    1997-01-01

    The repeated finding of an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of Parkinson's disease is one of the few consistent results in the epidemiology of this disorder. Among the innumerous substances that originate from tobacco smoke, nicotine is by far the most widely studied, and the most likely candidate for a protective effect against neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Nicotine is a natural alkaloid that has considerable stimulatory effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Its effects on the CNS are mediated by the activation of neuronal heteromeric acetylcholine-gated ion channel receptors (nAChR, also termed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). In the present study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of (-)nicotine in two animal models of parkinsonism: the diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC)-induced enhancement of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity in mice, and the methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in rats and mice. In parallel experiments, we found that (-)nicotine induces the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat striatum. As FGF-2 and BDNF have been reported to be neuroprotective for dopaminergic cells, our data indicate that the increase in neurotrophic factors is a possible mechanism by which (-)nicotine protects from experimental parkinsonisms. Moreover, they suggest that nAChR agonists could be of potential benefit in the progression of Parkinson's disease.

  1. [Consumption of licit and illicit drugs in students and the factors of protection and risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvicq, Carmen Gloria Fraile; Pereira, Náyade Riquelme; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the investigation were identify the population that consumes licit and illicit drugs among students of sixth primary, from municipal urban schools of Chiguayante, know the levels of risks and identify risks factors and protection. Descriptive, transversal, correlate study. The instrument applied to 301 students was the Dusy Abreviado. The variables were subjected to a statistic descriptive -- comparative analysis through the test of Chi -- Cuadrado de Pearson and ANOVA. There was 60% of the consumers of licit drugs, that began consumption between 8 and 11 years. The prevalence of use of tobacco and alcohol was 18.7% and 16.3% respectively. The 85% of men showed inclination to the consumption, from which 69% is between 11 and 12 years old. There are mainly abusers of licit drugs. The behaviours associated to the personal risk factor were the most relevant, the ones of protection were mainly associated with the micro-social protective factor. All subjects were submitted to different levels of risk.

  2. Secondary traumatic stress among domestic violence advocates: workplace risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Suzanne M; Goodman, Lisa A

    2009-11-01

    This study identified workplace factors associated with secondary traumatic stress (STS) in a sample of 148 domestic violence advocates working in diverse settings. Findings indicate that coworker support and quality clinical supervision are critical to emotional well-being and that an environment in which there is shared power-that is, respect for diversity, mutuality, and consensual decision making-provides better protection for advocates than more traditional, hierarchical organizational models. Furthermore, shared power emerged as the only workplace variable to significantly predict STS above and beyond individual factors. The discussion includes implications for practice and policy as well as directions for future research.

  3. Family obligation values as a protective and vulnerability factor among low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents' beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls.

  4. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  5. Physical activity and dark skin tone: protective factors against low bone mass in Mexican men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco-Muñoz, Nalleli; Jo, Talavera; Gerardo, Huitron-Bravo; Juan, Tamayo; Clark, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 268 Mexican men between the ages of 13 and 80 yr to evaluate the association of clinical factors related with bone mass. Men from high schools, universities, and retirement homes were invited to participate. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for L1-L4 and total hip. Factors related to bone mass were assessed by questionnaire and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Demographic factors (age, education, and occupation), clinical data (BMI, skin tone, previous fracture, history of osteoporosis [OP], and history of fractures), and lifestyle variables (diet, physical activity, sun exposure, and smoking) were evaluated. Physical activity (≥ 60 min/5 times a week) reduced the risk for low BMD for age, osteopenia, and OP at the spine and total hip (odds ratio [OR]: 0.276; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.099-0.769; p=0.014; and OR: 0.184; 95% CI: 0.04-0.849; p=0.03, respectively). Dark skin tone was a protective factor, decreasing the risk by up to 70%. In this population of healthy Mexican men (aged 13-80 yr), dark skin and physical activity were protective factors against low bone mass. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.

  7. The impact of family and peer protective factors on girls' violence perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Sieving, Renee E; Gower, Amy L

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls' violence involvement and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls' risk for violence. Data were obtained from 253 13-17-year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months after enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls' violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Family and Peer Protective Factors on Girls’ Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Gower, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls’ violence involvement, and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls’ risk for violence. Methods Data were obtained from 253 13–17 year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an A-CASI survey at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Results Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls’ violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Conclusions Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers. PMID:23299002

  9. Longer breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against development of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadauskaite-Kuehne, Vaiva; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Padaiga, Zilvinas; Jasinskiene, Edita; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    Early weaning diet, early introduction of breast milk substitution and cow's milk have been shown to increase the risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. It is also shown that older maternal age, maternal education, preeclampsia, prematurity, neonatal illness and neonatal icterus caused by blood group incompatibility, infections and stress might be risk factors for type 1 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether early nutrition is an independent risk factor for diabetes despite other life events. Data from 517 children (268 boys and 249 girls) in south-east of Sweden and 286 children (133 boys and 153 girls) in Lithuania in the age group of 0 to 15 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus were included into analysis. Three age- and sex-matched healthy controls were randomly selected. Response rate in control families in Sweden was 72.9% and in Lithuania 94.8%. Information was collected via questionnaires. Exclusive breastfeeding longer than five months (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.81) and total breastfeeding longer than 7 (0.56, 0.38-0.84) or 9 months (0.61, 0.38-0.84), breastfeeding substitution that started later than the third month (0.57, 0.33-0.98) among Swedish children 5 to 9 years old and later than the seventh month (0.24, 0.07-0.84) among all Swedish children is protective against diabetes when adjusted for all other above-listed risk factors. In Lithuania, exclusive breastfeeding longer than two months in the age group of 5 to 9 years is protective (0.58, 0.34-0.99) when adjusted for other factors. Longer exclusive and total breastfeeding appears as an independent protective factor against type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.

  11. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In our opinion, our contribution to the fight against the illicit turnover has to be focused on ensuring the safe keeping and integrity of nuclear material and radiation sources and on creating powerful and highly efficient physical protection systems. A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the role of the human factor can be considered to be significant. After having analyzed, even in a general way, the status of the affairs we can see: 1) the stage of designing and development of facilities is actually completed; 2) the existing concept of protection does not meet current requirements of the physical protection; 3) the next period is the operation when it is necessary to adapt with using capabilities available to the today requirements and to establish conditions under which the human factor could compensate technical backwardness; 4) the final stage is the ChNPP decommissioning, the Object Shelter problem. It is obvious that the ChNPP decommissioning process will increase acuteness of the problem related to the physical protection of this facility. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: 1) political factors: changes in the geopolitical situation caused by fundamental changes, formation of a national state based on a principle of democracy and law, etc.; 2) social and economic factors: difficulties originated during the period of transition towards the market economy, decrease in the standard of living; increase in the crime rate and criminalization of social relations and others; 3) spiritual wealth and cultural

  12. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  13. Personal, Familial, and Social Risk and Protective Factors of Tendency towards Substance Use among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jahanshahloo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.

  14. Protective effects of salivary factors in dental caries in diabetic patients of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N; Shahid, Syed M; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  15. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  16. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for postpartum depression in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Aisha; Tamim, Hani

    2011-04-01

    Limited research has been conducted in the United Arab Emirates in relation to postpartum depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk and protective factors of postpartum depression in women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. We carried out a prospective study in which we followed women from the second trimester of pregnancy until 4 months postpartum. Data were collected during the second and third trimesters and then at 2- and 4- months postpartum. The risk/protective factors that were investigated included: depression and anxiety during pregnancy, stressful life events, breastfeeding, employment status following delivery, religiosity, and socio-demographic variables. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (screening) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (diagnostic) were used as outcome variables. Using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (diagnostic), 10% of the 137 participants in the study were diagnosed with postpartum depression. The following variables were found to be predictive of postpartum depression: depression during pregnancy in both the second and third trimesters: number of children, religion, and use of formula for feeding. Several factors were of borderline significance including educational level of mother, lack of breastfeeding, personal stressful life events, and employment status following delivery. These risk factors are important as they indicate potential areas for early identification. Screening of pregnant women during pregnancy and in the postpartum phase would be important. This study forms the foundation for further research and development related to prevention and intervention for postpartum depression in this Arab context.

  17. Risk and protective factors for Parkinson's disease: a study in Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirdefeldt, Karin; Gatz, Margaret; Pawitan, Yudi; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown a protective effect of cigarette smoking on Parkinson's disease. However, criticism has been raised concerning confounding by genetic factors. We investigated the associations between Parkinson's disease and smoking, alcohol, coffee, area of living, and education in a co-twin control study. Because twins are matched for genetic and familial environmental factors, this design controls for confounding by these factors. We also examined control subjects unrelated to cases. Exposure information was taken from questionnaires answered in the 1960s and 1970s. Parkinson's disease cases were identified through the Swedish Inpatient Discharge Register (IDR) and the Cause of Death Register. In the unrelated control subject comparison, 476 Parkinson's disease cases and 2,380 control subjects were included. In the co-twin control comparison, 415 same-sex twin pairs were included. There was an inverse association between smoking and Parkinson's disease using unrelated control subjects and co-twin control cases. There was no association between Parkinson's disease and alcohol, coffee, or area of living. High educational level was associated with Parkinson's disease in the unrelated control subject comparison but not in the co-twin control comparison. We confirm the protective effect of smoking on Parkinson's disease and establish that the association is only partially explained by genetic and familial environmental factors.

  18. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  19. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Young-Nam [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon 382-751 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-07

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  20. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  1. Why do we lose protected areas? Factors influencing protected area downgrading, downsizing and degazettement in the tropics and subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, William S; Rao, Madhu; Mascia, Michael B; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are an essential tool for the conservation of biodiversity globally. Previous studies have focussed on the effectiveness of PAs and the design of optimal PA networks. However, not all PAs remain intact permanently; many PAs undergo downgrading, downsizing and/or degazettement (PADDD), a fact largely ignored until recently. The drivers of enacted PADDD events and the factors influencing its spatial occurrence are poorly understood, potentially undermining the efficacy of PAs and PA networks. Here we examine the spatial relationship between PADDD and economic, demographic and structural variables, using a 110-year data set of 342 enacted PADDD events across 44 countries in the tropics and subtropics. We find that the probability of an enacted PADDD event increases with the size of the PA and through a synergistic interaction between PA size and local population densities. Our results are robust to the under-reporting of enacted PADDD events that occur among smaller PAs and in regions with lower population density. We find an economic motive for PADDD events, given that the opportunity costs associated with larger PAs are higher, on average, than smaller PAs. Our findings suggest a need for conservation practitioners to better consider PA characteristics, as well as the social, economic and political context in which PAs are situated, to aid the creation of more efficient and sustainable PA networks. In particular, the dynamics of enacted PADDD events highlight the need to explicitly consider PA robustness as a core component of systematic conservation planning for PA networks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. What causes psychosis? An umbrella review of risk and protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radua, Joaquim; Ramella‐Cravaro, Valentina; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Phiphopthatsanee, Nacharin; Amir, Taha; Yenn Thoo, Hyi; Oliver, Dominic; Davies, Cathy; Morgan, Craig; McGuire, Philip; Murray, Robin M.; Fusar‐Poli, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Psychosis is a heterogeneous psychiatric condition for which a multitude of risk and protective factors have been suggested. This umbrella review aimed to classify the strength of evidence for the associations between each factor and psychotic disorders whilst controlling for several biases. The Web of Knowledge database was searched to identify systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of observational studies which examined associations between socio‐demographic, parental, perinatal, later factors or antecedents and psychotic disorders, and which included a comparison group of healthy controls, published from 1965 to January 31, 2017. The literature search and data extraction followed PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. The association between each factor and ICD or DSM diagnoses of non‐organic psychotic disorders was graded into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or non‐significant according to a standardized classification based on: number of psychotic cases, random‐effects p value, largest study 95% confidence interval, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction interval, small study effect, and excess significance bias. In order to assess evidence for temporality of association, we also conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to data from prospective studies. Fifty‐five meta‐analyses or systematic reviews were included in the umbrella review, corresponding to 683 individual studies and 170 putative risk or protective factors for psychotic disorders. Only the ultra‐high‐risk state for psychosis (odds ratio, OR=9.32, 95% CI: 4.91‐17.72) and Black‐Caribbean ethnicity in England (OR=4.87, 95% CI: 3.96‐6.00) showed convincing evidence of association. Six factors were highly suggestive (ethnic minority in low ethnic density area, second generation immigrants, trait anhedonia, premorbid IQ, minor physical anomalies, and olfactory identification ability), and nine were suggestive (urbanicity, ethnic minority in high ethnic density area

  3. Risk and protection factors for chronic non communicable diseases by telephone survey--VIGITEL-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Moura, Erly Catarina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio

    2011-09-01

    To describe the risk and protection factors for non communicable diseases with data from Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL) in 2009. The prevalence of main risk and protective factors was estimated in adults (>18 years old), by telephone surveys in a probabilistic sample of the population covered by landline telephones in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, stratified by gender, age and schooling. Data from 54,367 adults were collected. Smokers and former smokers represented 15.5 and 22% of Brazilian adults, respectively. Excess weight affected 46.6% of adults; 33% reported the consumption of meat with visible fat and reported 18.9% alcohol abuse. These factors were more prevalent among men and, in general, young adults and people with low schooling. The prevalence of physical activity in leisure was 18.8% (95%CI 17.4-20.1) among men and 11.3% (95%CI 10.6-12.0) among women. Physical inactivity affected 15.6% of population and increased with age. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in leisure time were more prevalent in men and women with 12 years of schooling or more. Hypertension diagnosis was reported by 21.1% (95%CI 19.6-22.5) of men, and 27.2% (95%CI 25.8-28.5) of women. Prevalence of diabetes was 5.8%. The results point to different health behavior according to gender, age and schooling of the population and reinforce the decreasing smoking trend and increasing overweight trend in Brazil.

  4. Sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to procedural factors in fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pasciak, Alexander S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The John P. and Katharine G. McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), used to quantify the protective value of radioprotective garments, to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the shape of the scattered x-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios, including interventional radiology and interventional cardiology (IC). Two clinical simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size, while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size, and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy (E{sub avg}) was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affect the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effect on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in IC, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusions: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle.

  5. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  6. Exploring violence exposure, stress, protective factors and behavioral problems among inner-city youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric; Weist, Mark D; Albus, Kathleen E

    2003-09-01

    This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11-18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure (witnessing, being a victim, knowing of victims) were correlated with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems for males and females. Total violence exposure predicted behavioral problems among participants, even after controlling for the effects of other risk, demographic and protective factors. Family support and self-concept moderated the influence of life stress and cumulative risk on problem behavior outcomes, but these protective variables did not significantly moderate violence exposure.

  7. Protective factors for HIV infection among Mexican American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2010-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential themes for inclusion in effective HIV prevention interventions for Mexican American men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors used a phenomenological design to explore the lived experiences of Mexican American MSM who had grown up in Dallas, Texas, regarding protective factors for HIV infection. A total of 20 30- to 60-year-old Mexican American MSM participated in semistructured interviews. During data analysis, the following themes concerning protective behaviors for HIV emerged: (a) accepting one's sexuality; (b) machismo; (c) being in love; (d) respect for family, self, and life; and (e) having HIV-living now. Strategies for potential inclusion in HIV prevention interventions geared toward Mexican American MSM were identified based on these themes. The recommendations encompass modification of behavioral interventions and related social policies.

  8. Rational Design and Synthesis of Efficient Sunscreens To Boost the Solar Protection Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losantos, Raúl; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Aguilera, José; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique; García-Iriepa, Cristina; Campos, Pedro J; Sampedro, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. We have rationally designed core moieties with increased photoprotective capacities and a new energy dissipation mechanism. Using these scaffolds, we have synthesized a series of compounds with tunable properties suitable for their use in sunscreens, and enhanced properties in terms of stability, light energy dissipation, and toxicity. Moreover, some representative compounds were included in final sunscreen formulations and a relevant solar protection factor boost was measured. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Socializing groups as protective factor against depression in elderly people. Barranquilla, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuesca-Molina, Rafael; Fierro Herrera, Norma; Molinares Sosa, Alexandra; Oviedo Martínez, Fernando; Polo Arjona, Yesid; Polo Cueto, José; Sierra Manrique, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The depression is a principal problem of public health. The principal aim of this study is to determine the role of the social groups as factor protective in elderly, to evaluate the agreement by American Psychiatric Association Criterions and Hamilton Depression test, and also to determine other socio-cultural risk factors associated with depressive syndrome in elderly. Cross-sectional survey. The sample consisted of 602 elderly people (eligible subjects) were men (223) and women (379) between 60 and 94 years (males and females), residents in the south-west of Barranquilla, Colombia. A previously tested, self answer questionnaire was used, therefore, we needed a report consent. Risk measures: Odds Ratio (OR-95% Confidence intervalue), Kappa test to agreement by the nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association and Hamilton test so, screening testing. The participation in social groups was a protector factor. (Odds Ratio = 0.5; 95% CI 0.34-0.73, p = 0.001). The rate 29.9% was obtained with prevalence of depression in elderly (21.4%-39.4%) affecting principally males (32.7%). The agreement by Kappa test = 0.63 was very important or good. Sensibility = 56.1% (48.5%-63.4%) Specificity = 0.93% (97.8%-99.8%) and Predictive Positive Value = 97.1% (91.2%-99.3%). This survey was to determine risk factors related to depression in elderly in anyway can be potentially modifiable. The familiar disfunction by moderate and serious, the lack as blindness and deafness, the loneliness, the housingness and low incomes were obtained with risk factors associated to depression. The participation in a social group is a protective factor to depression syndrome in elders. The nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association to allow the depressed patient exactly as sick even though is not necessary to screening because this test is low sensibility for used in a population elderly.

  10. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society."

  11. Related factors to workers' use of hearing protection device in knitting & ppinning factories of Yazd city based on Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barkhordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNoise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is an important occupational disorder. High percentage of workers in occupational environments did not use the hearing protection device against harmful noise. This study was carried out to study factors related to workers' use of Hearing protection Device in Knitting & spinning factories of Yazd city based on protection motivation theory.MethodsIn this cross-sectional analytical study 280 workers of the knitting & spinning factories of Yazd City who exposed to harmful noise (over 85dB selected among the three factories by cluster sampling. The data gathered via exclusive interviews with selected workers  using the questionnaire designed based on protection motivation theory and were analyzedResults42/5 percent of workers permanently used hearing protection devices, and 20/7 percent of workers never use.There was a significant correlation between the age of workers and the mean score components of PMT; perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy and protection motivation. There was also a significant correlation between the work experience and the mean score of PMT factors; perceived severity, perceived response efficacy and perceived vulnerability. Also there was a significant correlation between workers' education level and the mean score of perceived response efficacy and there was a significant correlation between protection motivation and the mean score components of PMT; perceived vulnerability, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, perceived costs and behaviorConclusionRegarding the significant correlations between the more constructs of PMT and protection motivation of workers for using hearing protective device, designing educational program based on PMT to increase hearing protection devices usage among workers is recommended.

  12. Glutamine's protection against cellular injury is dependent on heat shock factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Angela L; Dinges, Martin; Singleton, Kristen D; Odoms, Kelli; Wong, Hector R; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2006-06-01

    Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to protect cells, tissues, and whole organisms from stress and injury. Enhanced expression of heat shock protein (HSP) has been hypothesized to be responsible for this protection. To date, there are no clear mechanistic data confirming this relationship. This study tested the hypothesis that GLN-mediated activation of the HSP pathway via heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) is responsible for cellular protection. Wild-type HSF-1 (HSF-1(+/+)) and knockout (HSF-1(-/-)) mouse fibroblasts were used in all experiments. Cells were treated with GLN concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mM and exposed to heat stress injury in a concurrent treatment model. Cell viability was assayed with phenazine methosulfate plus tetrazolium salt, HSP-70, HSP-25, and nuclear HSF-1 expression via Western blot analysis, and HSF-1/heat shock element (HSE) binding via EMSA. GLN significantly attenuated heat-stress induced cell death in HSF-1(+/+) cells in a dose-dependent manner; however, the survival benefit of GLN was lost in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN led to a dose-dependent increase in HSP-70 and HSP-25 expression after heat stress. No inducible HSP expression was observed in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN increased unphosphorylated HSF-1 in the nucleus before heat stress. This was accompanied by a GLN-mediated increase in HSF-1/HSE binding and nuclear content of phosphorylated HSF-1 after heat stress. This is the first demonstration that GLN-mediated cellular protection after heat-stress injury is related to HSF-1 expression and cellular capacity to activate an HSP response. Furthermore, the mechanism of GLN-mediated protection against injury appears to involve an increase in nuclear HSF-1 content before stress and increased HSF-1 promoter binding and phosphorylation.

  13. Predicative possession in Medieval Slavic Bible translations Predicative Possession in Early Biblical Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia McAnallen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Proto-Slavic (LPS had an inventory of three constructions for expressing predicative possession. Using the earliest Slavic Bible translations from Old Church Slavic (OCS, and to a lesser degree Old Czech, a number of conclusions can be drawn about the status of predicative possession for LPS. The verb iměti ‘have’ was the most frequent and least syntactically and semantically restricted predicative possessive construction (PPC. Existential PPCs with a dative possessor appear primarily with kinship relations, abstract possessums, and in a number of other fixed construction types; existential PPCs with the possessor in an u + genitive prepositional phrase primarily appear with concrete and countable possessums. Both existential PPCs call for an animate, most often pronominal, possessor. The u + genitive was the rarest type of PPC in LPS, though it had undoubtedly grammaticalized as a PPC.

  14. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  15. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  16. Risk and protective factors of dissocial behavior in a probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral de la Rubia, José; Ortiz Morales, Humberto

    2012-07-01

    The aims of this study were to know risk and protective factors for dissocial behavior keeping in mind that the self-report of dissocial behavior is biased by the impression management. A probability sample of adolescents that lived in two neighborhoods with high indexes of gangs and offenses (112 male and 86 women) was collected. The 27-item Dissocial Behavior Scale (ECODI27; Pacheco & Moral, 2010), Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, version 6 (BIDR-6; Paulhus, 1991), Sensation Seeking Scale, form V (SSS-V; Zuckerman, Eysenck, & Eysenck, 1978), Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS; Barnes & Olson, 1982), 30-item Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS; Rathus, 1973), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983) and a social relationship questionnaire (SRQ) were applied. Binary logistic regression was used for the data analysis. A third of the participants showed dissocial behavior. Belonging to a gang in the school (schooled adolescents) or to a gang out of school and job (total sample) and desinhibition were risk factors; being woman, perspective taking and open communication with the father were protective factors. School-leaving was a differential aspect. We insisted on the need of intervention on these variables.

  17. The risk and protective factors in the development of childhood social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Le; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yi-Feng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to explore the change and associated risk and protective factors of social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed in a general primary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children in grades 3, 4, and 7. Children's social anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scales for Children (SASC) at three assessments. The overall prevalence of children's elevated social anxiety symptoms ranged from 15.2% to 16.4% across three assessments. Children's overall mean SASC scores were 5.6 (SD =3.7), 5.3 (SD =3.8), and 5.3 (SD =4.1) at three assessments, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, children's social anxiety symptom levels and change among different subgroups was not stable across 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age, severe family dysfunction, quality of life, positive coping, negative coping, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were predictive factors for childhood elevated social anxiety symptoms. The findings suggested that the overall social anxiety symptoms showed a relatively stable pattern over time. The identified risk and protective factors may provide scientific evidence for school, family, and health authorities to conduct necessary intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender and other factors associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Costa Meira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze whether sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data are associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work, according to gender.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006, using a random sample of 2,429 workers, aged between 18 and 65 years old, from residential sub-areas in Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. Questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data. Workers who reported that they worked in places where they needed to shout in order to be heard were considered to be exposed to noise. Exposed workers were asked whether they used hearing protection devices, and if so, how frequently. Analyses were conducted according to gender, with estimates made about prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices, prevalence ratios, and their respective 95% confidence intervals.RESULTS Twelve percent (12.3% of study subjects reported that they were exposed to noise while working. Prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices was 59.3% for men and 21.4% for women. Men from higher socioeconomic levels (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.14;1.90 and who had previous audiometric tests (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.15;1.88 were more likely to use hearing protection devices. For women, greater perceived safety was associated with the use of protection devices (PR = 2.92; 95%CI 1.34;6.34. This perception was specifically related to the presence of supervisors committed to safety (PR = 2.09; 95%CI 1.04;4.21, the existence of clear rules to prevent workplace injuries (PR = 2.81; 95%CI 1.41;5.59, and whether they were informed about workplace safety (PR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.23;4.76.CONCLUSIONS There is a gender bias regarding the use of hearing protection devices that is less favorable to women. The use of such devices among women is positively influenced by their perception of a safe workplace, suggesting that gender should be considered as a factor in hearing conservation programs.

  19. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear

  20. Economic factor environmental protection. Extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Blazejczak, Juergen [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Walz, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Innovations- und Systemforschung (FhG ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Within the bounds of a research project, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation. The stocktaking and evaluation of more important documents prove that despite the differences in the estimation of individual ranges an international consent insists according to central ecological challenges on global level. The consent covers the following target areas: Climate protection, preservation of the biological variety, water supply including waste water disposal and water protection, health protection. It is to be expected that in the next decades its validity will keep these ecological challenges although defusing or new environmental problems may result in single areas. It is to be expected that due to the world-wide economic development some emphasis of important ecological challenges will shift gradually to developing countries, in particular China and India.

  1. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  2. Associations Between Bullying Involvement, Protective Factors, and Mental Health Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla

    2017-08-17

    Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  4. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  5. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  6. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  7. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N.; Shahid, Syed M.; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups acc...

  8. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  9. Immobilized cells of Candida rugosa possessing fumarase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Zhone, L.

    1980-01-01

    Immobilized cells of C. rugosa that possessed fumarase activity were prepared by different methods; the most active immobilized cells were entrapped in polyacrylamide gels. The effects of pH temperature, and divalent cations on the fumarase activity of both immobilized and native cells were the same. Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ did not protect the immobilized enzyme against thermal inactivation. The activity of immobilized fumarase remained constant during 91 days of storage of 4-6 degrees. The immobilized cell column was used for the continuous production of L-malic acid from 1M fumarate at 30 degrees and pH 8.5. The immobilized column operated steadily for 2 months. Half life of the immobilized fumarase at 30 degrees was 95 days.

  10. Risk and protective factors for chronic diseases by telephone survey in capitals of Brazil, Vigitel 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Nardi, Antônio Carlos Figueiredo; Dos Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in Brazilian adult population in 2014 and investigate the associated sociodemographic factors. Analyses were performed based on data from telephone interviews (Vigitel 2014) on probabilistic samples of adult population (≥ 18 years old) from the capitals of the 26 Brazilian States and the Federal District, living in households with landline phones. Prevalence is presented by gender, age and educational level, and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) are estimated using Poisson Regression model. Among the 40.853 adults who were interviewed, 10.8% were smokers and 21.2% ex-smokers. Among the respondents, 16.5% reported alcohol abuse and 52.5% were overweight, factors that were more frequent among men. The prevalence of recommended intake of fruits and vegetables was 24%, intake of sweets was 18.1% and replacements of main meals for snacks was 16.2%, factors that were higher among women. Leisure time physical activity reached 35.3% and increased with the level of education. Hypertension was the most frequent disease achieving 24.8%, which was higher among women and increased with age. The results from Vigitel 2014 indicate that risk factors are, in general, more frequent among men, older adults and less educated individuals, characterizing the socioeconomic and cultural dimensions in determining chronic diseases.

  11. Risk and protective factors for childhood asthma: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Forno, Erick; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to summarize the principal findings on risk and protective factors for childhood asthma, we retrieved systematic reviews on these topics in children (ages 1 to 18 years), up to January 2016, through MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS and CDSR. Two hundred twenty seven studies were searched from databases. Among those, 41 systematic reviews (SRs) were included: 9 focused on prenatal factors, 5 on perinatal factors, and 27 on postnatal factors. Of these 41 SRs, 83% had good methodological quality, as determined by the AMSTAR tool. After reviewing all evidence, parental asthma, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke and prematurity (particularly very preterm birth) are well-established risk factors for childhood asthma. Current findings do suggest mild to moderate causal effects of certain modifiable behaviors or exposures during pregnancy (maternal weight gain or obesity, maternal use of antibiotics or paracetamol, and maternal stress), the perinatal period (birth by Caesarean delivery), or postnatal life (severe RSV infection, overweight or obesity, indoor exposure to mold or fungi, and outdoor air pollution) on childhood asthma, but this suggestive evidence must be confirmed in interventional studies or (if interventions are not feasible) well-designed prospective studies. PMID:27286779

  12. Risk and protective factors for spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Kimber, Kamille; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Doman, Darrin; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and often disabling voice disorder of unknown pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify possible endogenous and exogenous risk and protective factors uniquely associated with SD. Prospective, exploratory, case-control investigation. One hundred fifty patients with SD and 150 medical controls (MCs) were interviewed regarding their personal and family histories, environmental exposures, illnesses, injuries, voice use patterns, and general health using a previously vetted and validated epidemiologic questionnaire. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression analyses (α<0.15) identified several factors that significantly increased the likelihood of having SD. These factors included (1) a personal history of mumps, blepharospasm, tremor, intense occupational and avocational voice use, and a family history of voice disorders; (2) an immediate family history of meningitis, tremor, tics, cancer, and compulsive behaviors; and (3) an extended family history of tremor and cancer. SD is likely multifactorial in etiology, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Viral infections/exposures, along with intense voice use, may trigger the onset of SD in genetically predisposed individuals. Future studies should examine the interaction among genetic and environmental factors to determine the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of factor of hydrogen permeation reduction (PRF) for different protective coatings over vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasyev, S.; Kulsartov, T.; Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Smith, D.

    2002-01-01

    Selection of structural materials for liquid-metal system as well as for another system and constructions of nuclear energy plants must be carried out and based on specified demands depending on conditions of these materials functioning. Specific demand is its compatibility with liquid metals. Design of reactors with liquid-metal coolant (Li, PbLi 17 ) which reproduces tritium arise additional demand to structural materials. This demand is a creation of structural material or protective barrier with minimum acceptable value of tritium permeation through itself or with maximum permeation reduction factor (PRF). Vanadium and vanadium alloys are supposed to be use as a blanket structural material in such nuclear energy plants. Worked out at first stage of studies vanadium coatings should have stability of its characteristics at temperature 800 deg. C under influence of hydrogen. Given work shows the experimental results on testing of protective coatings over vanadium: glass-ceramic coating and CaO-base coating. PRF for every coating and its changes depending on thermo-capacity of vanadium sample with coating was determined by method of hydrogen permeation. The results of experiments would be used at the development of cooling loops of reactor core protection with liquid-metal coolant

  14. Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA, Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI KHORAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Norisharikabad V (2011 Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA, Hamadan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 12: 216-221. Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA located in Hamadan Province in Iran, it is a mountainous and plain area and proximal to Malayer Township. In 1991, the region was known as a protected area for increasing wild animals' population. This research has been conducted during 2001 through 2009. Plant and animal species of the region were identified and statistics of the population of animal flagship species were gathered. In this research, valid academic resources were used for identification of animal and plant species. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as main tool. The software used was Arc View (version 3.2a scale was 1/50,000. Due to cold mountainous climate, the region is covered by a wide diversity of trees, shrubs, grasses and herbs. There were 18 species of mammals as well as 75 bird species in LPA. Most abundant mammalian population belongs to wild sheep (558 animals and the second abundance was related to wild goat (515 animals. Also, the most abundant bird species belong to ortolans. Result of the present study showed that construction of connection roads in vicinity the region, establishment of factories inside and around the region, military garrison, unauthorized grazing, unlawful hunting, and Ahangaran mine and rail road have all exposed put LPA to serious threat and danger.

  15. The importance of the human factor in a physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.; Rocha, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A complete physical protection system gathers three elements: equipment's, guards and procedures. The integration of these three elements will guarantee the efficiency of the overall PPS in such a way that it can meet the objectives that were defined during its project: clear and precise procedures will rule the relation between the technical factor (equipments/ hardware and software) and the human factor (guards). The technical factor is easily adapted ad upgraded to continue meet the objectives of the PPS; however, the human factor presents some resistance, internal and external, concerning the performance of its function within the overall PPS. The objective of this paper is to show the importance of the human factor as an integrant part of the PPS of a nuclear facility. 1. Good relationship between guards and other employees in a facility; 2. the knowledge and acceptance of rules and procedures; 3. and the awareness of the needing to implement security measures, as well as the cooperation with these measures to avoid unauthorized nuclear material removal from the facility or sabotage with consequent radioactive release will guarantee the success of the human factor within the overall PPS. In countries where there is no recent record of terrorist activities, as in Brazil's case, these three key factors are particularly critical, once the concept of security culture is not present in those people's way of life. The target public of this survey are the employees, including the guards of the security force, of the CNAAA - Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - consisting of Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants. The tools used to came up with the conclusions of this work were two different kinds of questionnaires: a) one of the questionnaires was answered by the guards of the security force concerning their feelings or impressions about other employees' knowledge, acceptance and cooperation of/with the security measures applied on site, and their

  16. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4...

  17. Human Factors Support in the Design and Evaluation of the Reactor Protection System Cabinet Operator Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jung Woon

    2005-01-01

    A Korean project group, KNICS, is developing a new digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) and the developed system will be packaged into a cabinet with several racks. The cabinet of the RPS is used for the RPS function testing and monitoring by maintenance operators and is equipped with a flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability as a main user interface for the RPS operation. This paper describes the human factors activities involved in the development process of the RPS: conceptual design, design guidance, and evaluation. The activities include a functional requirements analysis and task analysis, user interface style guide for the RPS cabinet operator module (COM), and a human factors evaluation through an experiment and questionnaires

  18. Neighborhood disorder, individual protective factors, and the risk of adolescent delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Wilma J

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, violent and delinquent behaviors have been addressed by the criminal justice system, with the focus being secondary and tertiary interventions. During the last decade, the focus on violence as a public health issue has increased. The purpose of this research was to examine how individual protective factors for adolescent delinquency varied according to neighborhood quality. The researcher conducted a secondary data analysis, using data from the National Youth Survey A total of 1,621 adolescents comprised the sample. The majority of the respondents participated in some type of delinquent behavior, with more Blacks reporting participation in violent behaviors. There was a positive relationship between academic history and no participation in delinquent behavior. The regression model for violent delinquency accounted for 10% of the variance in the disordered neighborhoods. Primary prevention efforts, commonly used by public health nurses, should be aimed at eliminating risk factors such as those found in disordered neighborhoods.

  19. Mindfulness as a Protective Factor for the Burden of Caregivers of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Francesco; Phillips, Deborah; Bosma, Colin M; Reece, Andrew; Langer, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of people with severe chronic conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are at risk of developing depression and anxiety and reduced quality of life. Few studies have explored protective factors in this population and none investigated the role of mindfulness. The study aimed to examine the relationship between mindfulness and health-related outcomes in a population of ALS caregivers. We conducted an online survey with ALS caregivers, and again at 4-month follow-up, to assess mindfulness, burden, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. The associations between mindfulness and the other outcomes were evaluated both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Mindfulness correlated negatively with burden, depression, and anxiety and positively with quality of life, maintaining stability through time. Our results showed that mindfulness is positively related to quality of life and negatively related to level of burden. We suggest that this construct can represent a preventative factor toward the negative effects of caregiving. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Correlates of protection against human rotavirus disease and the factors influencing protection in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E; Desselberger, U

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide and are associated with high mortality predominately in low-income settings. The virus is classified into G and P serotypes and further into P genotypes based on differences in the surface-exposed proteins VP7 and VP4, respectively. Infection results in a variable level of protection from subsequent reinfection and disease. This protection is predominantly homotypic in some settings, whereas broader heterotypic protection is reported in other cohorts. Two antigenically distinct oral RV vaccines are licensed and are being rolled out widely, including in resource-poor setting, with funding provided by the GAVI alliance. First is a monovalent vaccine derived from a live-attenuated human RV strain, whereas the second is a pentavalent bovine-human reassortment vaccine. Both vaccines are highly efficacious in high-income settings, but greatly reduced levels of protection are reported in low-income countries. Here, the current challenges facing mucosal immunologists and vaccinologists aiming to define immunological correlates and to understand the variable levels of protection conferred by these vaccines in humans is considered. Such understanding is critical to maximize the public health impact of the current vaccines and also to the development of the next generation of RV vaccines, which are needed.

  1. Perceived interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: Is religious affiliation a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage, as well as those among peers who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group’s stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth’s resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  2. Risk and protective factors associated with cognitive decline in aging - a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Martins Foroni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7 from national journals and 90.3% (65 from international ones, and 26.3% (10 in the area of Neurology, 23.7% (9 Geriatrics and Aging, 13.2% (5 Epidemiology and Public Health, 10.5% (4 Psychiatry and the rest from magazines of different health issues. The longitudinal design was used in 51.3% (37 and the cross-sectional one, in 36.1% (26. About the data collection instruments, 48.6% (35 of the works used the Mini-Mental State Examination, 15.1% (11 used the Verbal Fluency Test, 12.5% (9 the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 9.7% (7 the Boston Naming Test and 13.8% (10 Geriatric Depression Scale. We identified relationships between cognition in aging and biological factors in 69.4% (50 of the researches. Some studies have indicated increased likelihood of cognitive impairment among elderly people with depressive symptoms and among smokers. Studies have shown a positive effect of education and participation in physical and social activities on cognition. Conclusions: Studies in the analyzed period specifically investigated the relationship between biological risk factors and cognitive decline. Little attention was given to linguistic changes and protective factors associated with aging.

  3. Prostate cancer: The main risk and protective factors-Epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjakly, Mawussi; Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Judes, Gaëlle; Pajon, Amaury; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    With 13 million new cases worldwide every year, prostate cancer is as a very real public health concern. Prostate cancer is common in over-50s men and the sixth-leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Like all cancers, prostate cancer is multifactorial - there are non-modifiable risk factors like heredity, ethnicity and geographic location, but also modifiable risk factors such as diet. Diet-cancer linkages have risen to prominence in the last few years, with accruing epidemiological data pointing to between-population incidence differentials in numerous cancers. Indeed, there are correlations between fat-rich diet and risk of hormone-dependent cancers like prostate cancer and breast cancer. Diet is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but certain micronutrients in specific diets are considered protective factors against prostate cancer. Examples include tomato lycopene, green tea epigallocatechin gallate, and soy phytoestrogens. These micronutrients are thought to exert cancer-protective effects via anti-oxidant pathways and inhibition of cell proliferation. Here, we focus in on the effects of phytoestrogens, and chiefly genistein and daidzein, which are the best-researched to date. Soy phytoestrogens are nonsteroid molecules whose structural similarity lends them the ability to mimic the effects of 17ß-estradiol. On top of anti-oxidant effects, there is evidence that soy phytoestrogens can modulate the epigenetic modifications found in prostate cancer. We also studied the impact of phytoestrogens on epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer, with special focus on DNA methylation, miRNA-mediated regulation and histone modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk and protective factors for non communicable diseases in the Belo Horizonte population: Vigitel 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Mara Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Non Communicable Diseases (NCD are the main causes of death in, having known, avoidable the Risk Factor (RF and susceptible to intervention. Objective: Identify the prevalence of RF and protection for NCD in the Belo Horizonte, 2008. Methodology: Data were analyzed from Vigitel, in Belo Horizonte, 2008. They are presented to the frequencies of RF according to gender, schooling, and calculated the p-value and the PR. Results: Men showed more frequencie in the following RF: higher consumption of meat and milk with fats, soft drinks, abusive consumption of alcohol, drive after drinking, ex-smokers. Men presented in relation to protective factors statistically significant differences in consumption of beans and leisure-time physical activity. Women had the highest frequencies in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, protection against ultraviolet radiation, self-assessment of health as poor, and declared more morbidities such as: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma and osteoporosis. Adults with low levels of education compared with high education (reference presented the following PR: smoke PR 2.09 (95%CI 1.43 - 3.05; consumption of 20 cigarettes and more PR 2.54 (95%CI 1.19 - 5.43; overweight PR 1.27 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.56; obesity PR 1.6 (95%CI 1.04 - 2.47; consumption of soft drinks PR 2,07 (95%CI 1.51 - 2.83; consumption of fruit and vegetable intake PR 0.53 (95%CI 0.40 - 0.72; consumption of beans PR 1.15 (95%CI 1.05 - 1.27; watch TV PR 1.33 (95%CI 1.00 - 1.77; driving after alcohol consumption PR 0.14 (95%CI 0.04 - 0.53; hypertension PR 1.75 (95%CI 1.37 - 2.24; diabetes PR 2.24 (95%CI 1.23 - 4.09. Conclusion: The telephone surveys are an important method to monitor the distribution of risk and protective factors in the population and to permit to orient health promotion programs and prevention.

  5. Resilience: Protective Factors for Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among African American Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Holden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need to carefully examine issues that may elevate one’s risk for mental illness and develop strategies to mitigate risk and cultivate resilience.  African Americans, specifically African American women (AAW, are disproportionately affected by mental illness, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.  Higher rates of PTSD among AAW may be explained by significant rates of trauma exposure.  Higher resiliency in individuals with mental illnesses is associated with better treatment response/outcomes.  An examination of two (2 promising psycho-educational curricula for AAW at risk for depression and PTSD supports consideration of resilience as a protective factor among this population.  Strengthening psychological resilience among diverse AAW at risk for depression and/or PTSD may serve as a protective factor for symptom severity.  Multidimensional prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate culturally-centered, gender-specific, and strengths-based (resilience models of care to help encourage mental health help-seeking and promotion of wellness for AAW.

  6. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, pHaiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  7. Problem-solving skills and hardiness as protective factors against stress in Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2014-02-01

    Nursing is a stressful occupation, even when compared with other health professions; therefore, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the protective factors that can help reduce stress among nurses. The present study sought to investigate the associations among problem-solving skills and hardiness with perceived stress in nurses. The participants, 252 nurses from six private hospitals in Tehran, completed the Personal Views Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Problem-Solving Inventory. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and answer the research hypotheses. As expected, greater hardiness was associated with low levels of perceived stress, and nurses low in perceived stress were more likely to be considered approachable, have a style that relied on their own sense of internal personal control, and demonstrate effective problem-solving confidence. These findings reinforce the importance of hardiness and problem-solving skills as protective factors against perceived stress among nurses, and could be important in training future nurses so that hardiness ability and problem-solving skills can be imparted, allowing nurses to have more ability to control their perceived stress.

  8. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Difficulty Controlling Violent Behavior in National Guard and Reserve Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Violent behavior is an important problem for military service members and veterans. A representative cohort of U.S. Reserve and National Guard personnel ( N = 1,293) were interviewed to assess self-reported problems controlling violent behavior, deployment traumas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and social support. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors. Problems controlling violent behavior were uncommon among male (3.3%) and female (1.7%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) showed associations between violent behavior and deployment traumas (aPR = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.34, 2.08]), PTSD (aPR = 9.95, 95% CI = [5.09, 19.48]), and PTSD symptom severity (aPR for each additional PTSD symptom = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.06, 1.09]). Social support was associated with lower prevalence of violent behavior (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = [0.52, 0.76]). The association between violent behavior and alcohol abuse was not statistically significant (aPR = 1.94, 95% CI = [0.92, 4.09]). Results were consistent when the population was restricted to personnel who had deployed to a war zone. Problems controlling violent behavior were less common in this cohort than has been documented in other studies. Associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors are consistent with prior research.

  10. [What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J

    2018-06-01

    What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion Objectives: This study analyzes the implications of today's highly altered maternal parenting behaviors on children's development and psychological health. The relationship between maternal parenting behaviors (support, psychological control, and anxious monitoring) and delayed identity development or identity diffusion as well as internalizing or externalizing symptomatology was investigated in a sample of 732 youths (301 adolescents, 351 young adults, and 80 patients). Cluster analysis identified two types of maternal parenting behaviors: authoritative maternal behavior and dysfunctionalmaternal behavior. As expected, patients exhibited a high degree of dysfunctional maternal parenting behavior (low support, high psychological control), delayed identity development as well as elevated identity diffusion and symptomatology.Authoritative maternal parenting emerged as a protective factor in the prediction of identity diffusion and symptomatology.All three groups described a high degree of anxious maternal monitoring. The implications of changed maternal parenting behaviors on identity diffusion and symptomatology are discussed in light of societal changes and changing criteria of personality disorders in the new DSM-5.

  11. Dynamic regulation of canonical TGFβ signalling by endothelial transcription factor ERG protects from liver fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufton, Neil P; Peghaire, Claire R; Osuna-Almagro, Lourdes; Raimondi, Claudio; Kalna, Viktoria; Chuahan, Abhishek; Webb, Gwilym; Yang, Youwen; Birdsey, Graeme M; Lalor, Patricia; Mason, Justin C; Adams, David H; Randi, Anna M

    2017-10-12

    The role of the endothelium in protecting from chronic liver disease and TGFβ-mediated fibrosis remains unclear. Here we describe how the endothelial transcription factor ETS-related gene (ERG) promotes liver homoeostasis by controlling canonical TGFβ-SMAD signalling, driving the SMAD1 pathway while repressing SMAD3 activity. Molecular analysis shows that ERG binds to SMAD3, restricting its access to DNA. Ablation of ERG expression results in endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and spontaneous liver fibrogenesis in EC-specific constitutive hemi-deficient (Erg cEC-Het ) and inducible homozygous deficient mice (Erg iEC-KO ), in a SMAD3-dependent manner. Acute administration of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 )-induced fibrogenesis in an ERG-dependent manner in mice. Decreased ERG expression also correlates with EndMT in tissues from patients with end-stage liver fibrosis. These studies identify a pathogenic mechanism where loss of ERG causes endothelial-dependent liver fibrogenesis via regulation of SMAD2/3. Moreover, ERG represents a promising candidate biomarker for assessing EndMT in liver disease.The transcription factor ERG is key to endothelial lineage specification and vascular homeostasis. Here the authors show that ERG balances TGFβ signalling through the SMAD1 and SMAD3 pathways, protecting the endothelium from endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and consequent liver fibrosis in mice via a SMAD3-dependent mechanism.

  12. Development of a new version of the Vehicle Protection Factor Code (VPF3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Terrance J.

    1990-10-01

    The Vehicle Protection Factor (VPF) Code is an engineering tool for estimating radiation protection afforded by armoured vehicles and other structures exposed to neutron and gamma ray radiation from fission, thermonuclear, and fusion sources. A number of suggestions for modifications have been offered by users of early versions of the code. These include: implementing some of the more advanced features of the air transport rating code, ATR5, used to perform the air over ground radiation transport analyses; allowing the ability to study specific vehicle orientations within the free field; implementing an adjoint transport scheme to reduce the number of transport runs required; investigating the possibility of accelerating the transport scheme; and upgrading the computer automated design (CAD) package used by VPF. The generation of radiation free field fluences for infinite air geometries as required for aircraft analysis can be accomplished by using ATR with the air over ground correction factors disabled. Analysis of the effects of fallout bearing debris clouds on aircraft will require additional modelling of VPF.

  13. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  14. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use Among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Ghasemi, Mahmood; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, Mosharafeh

    2018-01-09

    Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016. A questionnaire about tobacco use based on protection motivation theory was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. The questionnaire included the demographic information, the constructs of theory, and tobacco use behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test the associations between the constructs with intention and tobacco use. The variables of perceived vulnerability (β = 0/137, P theory provides a useful framework for investigating factors of tobacco use among male students. Future tobacco prevention interventions should focus on increasing the vulnerability and fear, decreasing intrinsic reward, and improving self-efficacy to reduce tobacco use.

  15. Cannabis use in adolescents: the impact of risk and protective factors and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, David; Gross, Samantha; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Strang, John

    2005-11-01

    The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14-16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers.

  16. A review of protective factors and causal mechanisms that enhance the mental health of Indigenous Circumpolar youth

    OpenAIRE

    Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Ford, James D.; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ross, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Study design A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed English-language research was conducted to systematically examine the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Methods This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-An...

  17. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetrat...

  18. Female youth who sexually coerce: prevalence, risk, and protective factors in two national high school surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and

  19. Cultural buffering as a protective factor against electronic cigarette use among Hispanic emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Nok; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Burner, Elizabeth; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-12-01

    Hispanics in the U.S. historically use tobacco at lower rates than other racial and ethnic groups. Cultural buffering, the process by which aspects of traditional Hispanic culture delay the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, is believed to be a protective factor against tobacco use. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new tobacco product that have not been extensively studied, and it is unknown if cultural factors that protect against tobacco use will buffer against e-cigarette use among the Hispanic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department (ED) in a safety-net hospital in 2014. Patients visiting the ED participated in a survey assessing demographics and substance use. Cultural buffering was operationalized as participants' primary language spoken at home. Multivariate logistic regression and generalized estimating equations examined the association between Hispanic cultural buffering and e-cigarette ever-use. Of the 1476 Hispanic ED patients (age: 46.6M±14.5SD, 49.3% male), 7.6% reported e-cigarette ever-use and 11.1% reported current combustible cigarette use. In adjusted models, Spanish speakers were half as likely to report e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.34-0.84, p=0.007), compared with English speakers. Combustible cigarette use remained the most significant factor associated with e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 9.28, 95% C.I.:7.44-11.56, pcigarette ever-use at higher rates than Spanish speakers (28.2% vs. 5.9%, pcigarette ever-use, especially in higher-income neighborhoods. These results support research on culturally-sensitive prevention programs for new and emerging tobacco products in Hispanic communities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: 1 To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; 2 To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills for health; 3 To identify predictor variables of happiness; and 4 To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14-16 years old. The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…, fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic, high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal. Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  1. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness; and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14–16 years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  2. School Protective Factors and Substance Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents in California Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Esqueda, Monica Christina; Gilreath, Tamika D

    2017-06-01

    The majority of studies examining substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have focused on a wide array of risk factors (e.g., victimization). Few studies have explored the protective role of schools. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature and inform programs aimed at reducing substance use among LGB youth. More specifically, this study explores the extent to which school connectedness and support from teachers and other adults at school are associated with substance use among LGB youth in school and within the past 30 days. A secondary analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) was conducted to examine associations between school protective factors (i.e., school connectedness and adult support) and substance use among LGB youth, above and beyond a key risk factor, school victimization. The study outcomes were past 30-day and in-school use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, prescription pain medication, and other illegal drugs. Overall, school connectedness and school adult support were associated with lower odds of substance use. For example, higher levels of school connectedness were associated with 22% decreased odds of past 30-day inhalant use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.86), and 25% decreased odds of past 30-day prescription pain medication use (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69-0.82). Higher levels of adult support in school were also associated with 17% decreased odds of marijuana use on school property in the past 30 days (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77-0.91). The results indicate a need for substance use prevention programs that integrate school connectedness and adult support in school.

  3. Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Awatif Ali

    2006-01-01

    We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)

  4. Astrocyte Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Protects Synapses against Aβ Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Luan Pereira; Tortelli, Vanessa; Matias, Isadora; Morgado, Juliana; Bérgamo Araujo, Ana Paula; Melo, Helen M; Seixas da Silva, Gisele S; Alves-Leon, Soniza V; de Souza, Jorge M; Ferreira, Sergio T; De Felice, Fernanda G; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2017-07-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, increasingly attributed to neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Although the impact of AβOs on neurons has been extensively studied, only recently have the possible effects of AβOs on astrocytes begun to be investigated. Given the key roles of astrocytes in synapse formation, plasticity, and function, we sought to investigate the impact of AβOs on astrocytes, and to determine whether this impact is related to the deleterious actions of AβOs on synapses. We found that AβOs interact with astrocytes, cause astrocyte activation and trigger abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species, which is accompanied by impairment of astrocyte neuroprotective potential in vitro We further show that both murine and human astrocyte conditioned media (CM) increase synapse density, reduce AβOs binding, and prevent AβO-induced synapse loss in cultured hippocampal neurons. Both a neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) antibody and siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGF-β1, previously identified as an important synaptogenic factor secreted by astrocytes, abrogated the protective action of astrocyte CM against AβO-induced synapse loss. Notably, TGF-β1 prevented hippocampal dendritic spine loss and memory impairment in mice that received an intracerebroventricular infusion of AβOs. Results suggest that astrocyte-derived TGF-β1 is part of an endogenous mechanism that protects synapses against AβOs. By demonstrating that AβOs decrease astrocyte ability to protect synapses, our results unravel a new mechanism underlying the synaptotoxic action of AβOs in AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, mainly attributed to synaptotoxicity of the amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Here, we investigated the impact of AβOs in astrocytes, a less known subject. We show that astrocytes prevent synapse loss induced by A

  5. Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to

  6. Prevalência e fatores associados a porte de arma e envolvimento em agressão física entre adolescentes de 15 a 18 anos: estudo de base populacional Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Azevedo da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados a porte de arma e envolvimento em agressão física entre adolescentes de 15 a 18 anos na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional com uma amostra representativa de 960 adolescentes entre 15 e 18 anos, residentes na cidade de Pelotas. Sortearam-se, aleatoriamente, 90 setores censitários a partir dos 448 da cidade, e foram visitados 86 domicílios de cada setor. Para análise estatística utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson. A prevalência dos comportamentos estudados na presente amostra foi de 22,8% para participação em brigas com agressão física e 9,6% para porte de armas nos últimos 12 meses. Conclui-se que jovens do sexo masculino que utilizam álcool e/ou drogas ilícitas e apresentam transtornos psiquiátricos menores mostraram maior probabilidade de portar armas e de envolverem-se em brigas com agressão física.This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960 in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  7. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  8. Precollege Sexual Violence Perpetration and Associated Risk and Protective Factors Among Male College Freshmen in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Laura F; Swartout, Kevin M; Swahn, Monica H; Bellis, Alexandra L; Carney, Jhetari; Vagi, Kevin J; Lokey, Colby

    2018-03-01

    Sexual violence (SV) perpetration on college campuses is a serious and prevalent public health issue in the U.S. In response, incoming male freshmen are mandated to receive SV prevention programming. To provide a more effective response, however, we need to understand the SV behaviors of male freshmen before they arrive on campus and the associated factors that contribute to risk and that afford protection, areas that have received limited attention. Male freshmen (N = 1,133) across 30 selected 4-year colleges and universities throughout the state of Georgia were recruited for a longitudinal study on SV perpetration. Levels of precollege SV as well as a range of covariates were assessed at baseline. Self-reported SV perpetrators were compared with nonperpetrators on demographic and hypothesized covariates deemed either risk or protective; then risk and protective models were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Weighted analyses revealed that 19.3% self-reported perpetrating SV before college. Before starting college, young men who reported more sexual media consumption, heavy episodic drinking, hypermasculine beliefs, and peers who endorsed SV were more likely to have a history of SV perpetration at college matriculation. Alternatively, men with more knowledge of effective sexual consent and stronger family functioning were less likely to arrive to college with an SV perpetration history. A significant proportion of incoming male freshmen have perpetrated SV previously. Colleges and universities need to assess incoming freshmen for risk behaviors and negative beliefs and to offer both primary and secondary preventions to more effectively reduce further perpetration. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with personal protection equipment use and hand hygiene among hemodialysis staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Gayle; Weber, David J; Miller, William C; Wurtzel, Heather; Alter, Miriam J

    2006-04-01

    Because exposure to blood by health care workers is frequent during hemodialysis, gloves are required for all contact with patients and their equipment, followed by hand hygiene. In this study, we investigated factors associated with performing these practices as recommended. Staff members from a sample of 45 US hemodialysis facilities were surveyed using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors independently associated with reporting increased compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices during patient care were identified with multivariate modeling. Of 605 eligible staff members, 420 (69%) responded: registered nurses, 41%; dialysis technicians, 51%; and licensed practical nurses, 8%. Only 35% reported that dialysis patients were at risk for bloodborne virus infections, and only 36% reported always following recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices. Independent factors associated with more frequent compliance were being a technician (versus a registered nurse) and reporting always doing what was needed to protect themselves from infection. Compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices by hemodialysis staff was low. The rationale for infection control practices specific to the hemodialysis setting was poorly understood by all staff. Infection control training should be tailored to this setting and should address misconceptions.

  10. Grit: A Potential Protective Factor Against Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Lourdes R; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Chung, Paul J; Dosanjh, Kulwant K; Wong, Mitchell D

    2016-04-01

    Grit, defined as "working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress," is strongly associated with academic achievement and life success and may also be associated with health outcomes and behaviors. We examined predictors of grit, and the association between grit and health behaviors among at-risk Latino adolescents. We analyzed baseline survey data collected in 2013-2014 from a sample of 1270 9th graders in low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles. We examined factors associated with grit and whether grit is associated with substance use and delinquent behaviors, controlling for adolescent and parent sociodemographic factors. In a sample of mostly Latino adolescents (89.5%), compared to those with low grit, those with high grit had significantly lower odds of alcohol use in the last 30 days (odds ratio 0.30, P authoritative parenting style, parental employment, and high self-efficacy scores. Grit may be an important candidate protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective, restorative, and therapeutic properties of recombinant colony-stimulating factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmadge, J.E.; Tribble, H.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Schneider, M.A.; Castelli, P.; Black, P.L.; Abe, F.

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of mice with recombinant murine (rM) colony-stimulating factor-granulocyte-macrophage (CSF-gm) or recombinant human (rH) CSF-g provides partial protection from the lethal effects of ionizing radiation or the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CTX). In addition, these agents can significantly prolong survival if administered following lethal doses of irradiation or CTX. To induce protective activity, cytokines were injected 20 hours before lethal irradiation or CTX administration. To accelerate recovery from lethal irradiation, the cytokines must be administered shortly following irradiation, and the induction of maximal levels of activity is dependent on chronic administration. In contrast, because of their longer half-lives, accelerated recovery from alkylating agents requires a delay of at least 24 to 48 hours to allow complete clearance of CTX before administration of a CSF. Studies quantitating peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cellularity as well as colony-forming units per culture (CFU-C) frequency and CFU-C per femur revealed a significant correlation between these parameters and the ability to survive lethal irradiation

  12. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Mediated Protection Against C. trachomatis In Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Koundinya Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chambers, James P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    We have comprehensively demonstrated using the mouse model that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burden, genital tract pathology and preserves fertility following intravaginal genital chlamydial challenge. In the present report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of rCPAF immunization in guinea pigs, a second animal model for genital chlamydial infection. Using a vaccination strategy similar to the mouse model, we intranasally immunized female guinea pigs with rCPAF plus CpG deoxynucleotides (CpG; as an adjuvant), and challenged intravaginally with C. trachomatis serovar D (CT-D). Immunization with rCPAF/CpG significantly reduced vaginal CT-D shedding and induced resolution of infection by day 24, compared to day 33 in CpG alone treated and challenged animals. Immunization induced robust anti-rCPAF serum IgG 2 weeks following the last immunization, and was sustained at a high level 4 weeks post challenge. Upregulation of antigen specific IFN-γ gene expression was observed in rCPAF/CpG vaccinated splenocytes. Importantly, a significant reduction in inflammation in the genital tissue in rCPAF/CpG-immunized guinea pigs compared to CpG-immunized animals was observed. Taken together, this study provides evidence of the protective efficacy of rCPAF as a vaccine candidate in a second animal model of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:27990018

  13. Significance of categorization and the modeling of age related factors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among brazilian university students: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Brazilian university students. METHODS: This manuscript is part of the "First Nationwide Survey on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs among College Students in the 27 Brazilian State Capitals". In this study, 12,595 university students were divided into two groups according to their attendance at religious services: frequent attenders (FR; 39.1% and non-frequent attenders (NFR; 60.8%. Subsequently, we analyzed their responses to a structured, anonymous questionnaire on drug use and other behaviors. Individual multivariate logistic regression models tested the association between religiosity and drug use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and at least one illicit drug. RESULTS: Drug use over the last 30 days was higher among NFR students even after controlling for demographic variables. NFR students were more likely to use alcohol OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 2.08-3.06, tobacco (2.83; 2.09-3.83, marijuana (2.09; 1.39-3.11 and at least one illicit drug (1.42; 1.12-1.79 compared to FR students. CONCLUSION: Religiosity was found to be a strongly protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students. However, more studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which religiosity exerts this protective influence.

  15. [Obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology: is high body weight a protective factor for various chronic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Rieder, A

    2010-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of disease and death in the general population. However, in people with various conditions (old age, wasting diseases, heart diseases or renal dialysis) overweight and obesity are associated with a higher survival rate. The terms "reverse epidemiology" or "obesity paradox" have been suggested to describe this finding. However, it still remains uncertain, whether this phenomenon is attributable to a real protective effect of high body fat mass. Methodological problems in studies suggesting an obesity paradox such as survivor bias, selection bias, lead time bias or, in meta analyses, publication bias and confounders have been discussed. These cannot, however, entirely explain the observed phenomenon. Biological models, examining possible explanations for the protective effect of high body mass, for instance, in wasting diseases and elderly patients, have also been produced. In particular high inflammation markers combined with malnutrition predict a high mortality rate among patients with various medical conditions: overweight and obesity could counter these effects. Possible implications for clinical and public health recommendations regarding weight management and nutrition are issues for future research. In elderly subjects and patients with a poor prognosis the impact of weight management on quality of life should also be taken into account.

  16. Evaluation of protection factors of a breath-responsive-powered air-purifying respirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masahiro; Nojima, Shun; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Shishido, Nobuhito; Sakai, Toshiya; Umehara, Takashi; Shimizu, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    It is essential to wear an air-purifying respirator in the radiation works in a contaminated atmosphere. A breath-responsive-powered air-purifying respirator (BR-PAPR) has been recently developed. However, no research has yet been conducted to determine the protection factor (PF) of the BR-PAPR in actual workplaces. In this study, the PFs of the BR-PAPR were measured by a man-test apparatus and compared with those of a non-powered full face mask. The PFs were measured under three different situations; normal wearing condition, clogging the filter and leaving a gap between the face and the mask. Under these situations, it was found that the PFs of the BR-PAPR are higher than those of the non-powered full face mask. PFs greater than 4,000 were obtained for 95% of the subjects who wear the BR-PAPR, and PFs over 6,667, the upper limit of the man-test apparatus, were obtained for 49% of them. The questionnaire survey was conducted for workers. The results showed that the workers feel a reduced burden when they wear the BR-PAPR. The results of this study showed high protection performance and operation efficiency of the BR-PAPR. (author)

  17. Possession States: Approaches to Clinical Evaluation and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. McCormick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The fields of anthropology and sociology have produced a large quantity of literature on possession states, physicians however rarely report on such phenomena. As a result clinical description of possession states has suffered, even though these states may be more common and less deviant than supposed. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV may include specific criteria for possession disorders. The authors briefly review Western notions about possession and kindred states and present guidelines for evaluation and classification.

  18. Possession Zone as a Performance Indicator in Football. The Game of the Best Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Casal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Possession time in football has been widely discussed in research but few studies have analyzed the importance of the field area in which possession occurs. The objective of this study was to identify the existence of significant differences in the field zone of ball possession between successful and unsuccessful teams and to acknowledge if the match status modulates the possession model. To this end, 2,284 attacks were analyzed corresponding to the matches in the final phase of the UEFA Euro 2016 France, recording possession time and field zone in which possession occurred. Video recordings of matches were analyzed and coded post-event using notational analysis. We have found that successful offensive game patterns are different from unsuccessful ones. Specifically, field zone in which major possession occurs changes significantly between successful and unsuccessful teams (x2 = 15.72, p < 0.05 and through Welch’s T significant differences were detected in possession time between successful and unsuccessful teams (H = 24.289, p < 0.001. The former are characterized by longer possession times, preferably in the middle offensive zone, on the other hand, unsuccessful teams have shorter possession times and preferably on the middle defensive zone. Logistic regression also allowed us to identify that greater possession in the middle offensive zone is a good indicator of success in the offensive game, allowing us to predict a greater chance of victory in the match. Specifically, every time the teams achieve possession in the middle offensive zone, the chance of winning the match will increase 1.72 times and, the probability of winning the match making longer possessions in the middle offensive zone is 44.25%. Applying the Kruskal–Wallis test we have also been able to verify how match status modulates the teams possession time, specifically, when teams are winning they have longer possessions x2 = 92.628, p = 0.011. Results obtained are expected to

  19. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Kasahara-Kiritani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging.

  20. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Nemes, Bogdan; Mars Bitenc, Urša; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-12-15

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging.

  1. Experiments for the validation of computer codes uses to assess the protection factors afforded by dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.; Kerlau, G.

    1988-09-01

    Two experimental campaigns were carried out to verify: 1) the method of assessing the mean kerma in a household used in the computer code BILL calculating the protection factor afforded by dwellings; 2) in what conditions the kerma calculated in cubic meshes of a given size (code PIECE) agreed with TLD measurements. To that purpose, a house was built near the caesium 137 source of the Ecosystem irradiator located at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center. During the first campaign, four experiments with different house characteristics were conducted. Some 50 TLSs locations describing the inhabitable volume were defined in order to obtain the mean kerma. 16 locations were considered outside the house. During the second campaign a cobalt 60 source was installed on the side. Only five measurement locations were defined, each with 6 TLDs. The results of dosimetric measurements are presented and compared with the calculations of the two computer codes. The effects of wall heterogeneity were also studied [fr

  2. Protective Effects of Female Reproductive Factors on Lauren Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Mi; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeeyun; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Jae J; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung; Choi, Min Gew

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer shows a male predominance that might be explained by protective effects from estrogens in females. Two Lauren classification histological subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, have distinct carcinogeneses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of sex hormone on female gastric cancer according to Lauren classification. We reviewed medical records for and administered questionnaires, surveying reproductive and hormonal factors, to 758 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Samsung Medical Center from May 2012 to November 2014. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between females and males. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer was compared between females subgroups, consist of premenopausal women and three groups of postmenopausal women (five-year intervals after menopause), and males. The association between reproductive factors and intestinal-type gastric cancer was analyzed by multivariate models for the female group. In total, 227 females (29.9%) and 531 males (70.9%) were included in the analysis. Undifferentiated adenocarcinoma and diffuse-type histology were more frequent in female patients than male patients. While 221 (41.6%) male patients had intestinal-type gastric cancer, no premenopausal female patient had this type of gastric cancer. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer increased with time after menopause, and was similar to males after 10 years from menopause. Parity was associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer in menopausal women. These findings support that female sex hormones might be protective against intestinal-type gastric cancer. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  3. Robustness of a Neural Network Model for Power Peak Factor Estimation in Protection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents results of robustness verification of artificial neural network correlations that improve the real time prediction of the power peak factor for reactor protection systems. The input variables considered in the correlation are those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial power differences obtained from measured ex-core detectors, and the position of control rods. The correlations, based on radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, estimate the power peak factor, without faulty signals, with average errors between 0.13%, 0.19% and 0.15%, and maximum relative error of 2.35%. The robustness verification was performed for three different neural network correlations. The results show that they are robust against signal degradation, producing results with faulty signals with a maximum error of 6.90%. The average error associated to faulty signals for the MLP network is about half of that of the RBF network, and the maximum error is about 1% smaller. These results demonstrate that MLP neural network correlation is more robust than the RBF neural network correlation. The results also show that the input variables present redundant information. The axial power difference signals compensate the faulty signal for the position of a given control rod, and improves the results by about 10%. The results show that the errors in the power peak factor estimation by these neural network correlations, even in faulty conditions, are smaller than the current PWR schemes which may have uncertainties as high as 8%. Considering the maximum relative error of 2.35%, these neural network correlations would allow decreasing the power peak factor safety margin by about 5%. Such a reduction could be used for operating the reactor with a higher power level or with more flexibility. The neural network correlation has to meet requirements of high integrity software that performs safety grade actions. It is shown that the

  4. The possibilities of suicide prevention in adolescents. A holistic approach to protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2013-03-01

    There is no other such complex physical, biological, somatic, mental, psychological, psychiatric, cultural, social and spiritual phenomenon and general public health problem, so much unexplained, meaningless, so tragic, painful, and unreasonable, so difficult, contradictory and mystified like suicide. In spite of the several already identified background factors, we do not and we can not know the real reasons behind suicide, because suicide is multi-causal, and can never be traced back to one single cause, but there are always many biological, psychological-psychiatric, historical, social and cultural factors involved in its development. However, the strongest suicide risk factor is an unrecognized and untreated mental disorder. Suicide among young people is one of the most serious public health problems. In Hungary 1395 young people lost their lives due to suicide in the 24> age group between 2000-2010, 1150 males and 245 females. According to epidemiological studies, 24.7% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of behaviour-, conduct- or other psychiatric disorders. Among adolescents (aged 15-24) suicide was the first leading cause of death in 2010. Despite great advances in the psychopharmacology and psychotherapy of mental disorders, suicides persist as a major cause of mortality, especially among the 15-24-year old population. Victims of suicide are not healthy individuals. They always suffer from psychiatric or mental, physical or somatic, cultural (social, historical, mythological) and spiritual disorders. The author tries to classify suicide protective and risk factors according to physical-biological, mental-psychological, cultural-social, and spiritual aspects. However, it must be remembered that these factors are not necessarily present in each and every case and may vary from one country to another, one person to another, depending on cultural, political, (spiritual) and economical features. Risk and protective factors can occur (1) at the

  5. A study of the influence of protective factors as a resource to African American males in traditional batterers' interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norma Gray

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between protective factors and the responses of African American males in traditional batterers' interventions. African American male batterers have been viewed as responding poorly to batterers' interventions and were reported in the literature as at risk for dropout and treatment failure. This research proposed that there were culturally related protective factors that enhanced traditional interventions for African American males, increasing their potential for changing abusive behaviors. This within-group study used secondary data to examine the influence of protective factors on the responses of 268 active duty Navy African American males. They were a sub-sample of 861 males randomly assigned to one of four different interventions for batterers. The interventions included a cognitive behavioral men's group, couple's group, safety and stabilization group, and a control group. Each of their cases had been officially substantiated by the Navy for assault of their spouses. The measures for the protective factors of religion, self-esteem, and family support were drawn from the original study's self-report measurement tool. The results of the statistical analyses were found to be significant. The protective factors performed as social controls for reducing certain types of abusive behaviors. Little research has been conducted on the influence of cultural factors on batterers intervention outcome for African Americans. This study established a strong support for further research.

  6. Measuring lifetime stress exposure and protective factors in life course research on racial inequality and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer; Jacquez, Farrah; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in better understanding how social factors contribute to racial disparities in health, including birth outcomes. A recent emphasis in this context has been on identifying the effects of stress exposure and protective factors experienced over the entire lifetime. Yet despite repeated calls for a life course approach to research on this topic, very few studies have actually assessed how stressors and protective factors occurring over women's lives relate to birth outcomes. We discuss this issue here by describing how challenges in the measurement of lifetime stress exposure and protective factors have prevented researchers from developing an empirically-based life course perspective on health. First, we summarize prevailing views on racial inequality and birth outcomes; second, we discuss measurement challenges that exist in this context; and finally, we describe both new tools and needed tools for assessing lifetime stress exposure and suggest opportunities for integrating information on stress exposure and psychosocial protective factors. We conclude that more studies are needed that integrate information about lifetime stress exposures and the protective factors that promote resilience against such exposures to inform policy and practice recommendations to reduce racial disparities in birth outcomes.

  7. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  8. The Relationship between Bullying Victimization and School Avoidance: An Examination of Direct Associations, Protective Influences, and Aggravating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…

  9. Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynskey, M T; Fergusson, D M

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18. Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New Zealand children studied from birth to the age of 18 on (a) exposure to CSA; (b) patterns of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties at age 18 years; (c) factors that may have influenced responses to CSA including characteristics of the abuse, parental bonding, parental characteristics, and adolescent peer affiliations. Just over 10% of the cohort reported CSA. Those reporting CSA were at increased risks of a range of difficulties at age 18 (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, other substance abuse/dependence, post sexual abuse trauma, attempted suicide). However, not all of those exposed to CSA developed difficulties and approximately a quarter of those exposed to CSA did not meet criteria for any adjustment difficulty. Further analysis suggested that the extent of adjustment difficulties in those exposed to CSA was influenced by two additional factors: (a) the extent of affiliations with delinquent or substance using peers in adolescence; and (b) the extent of paternal care or support in childhood. The findings of this study suggest that while young people exposed to CSA are at increased risks of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties in young adulthood, not all individuals exposed to CSA will develop adjustment difficulties. Important factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young people experiencing CSA appear to be the nature and quality of peer and family relationships.

  10. Risk and Protective Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death During Leisure Activities in the Mountains: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Annually, more than 100 million tourists with widely varying health and fitness status are attracted by the mountainous areas around the world. Whereas mountaineering activities may contribute to the well established beneficial effects of regular exercise, for certain individuals these activities are also associated with a relatively high risk of death. This manuscript presents an updated overview of risk and protective factors for sudden cardiac death during leisure activities in the mountains. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been proven to be the most frequent cause of non traumatic death in males aged over 34 years, e.g. during mountain hiking, cross country skiing or downhill skiing. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and, in particular, prior myocardial infarction, are the most important risk factors for SCD, predominantly relevant in downhill skiers. The unusual physical exertion on the first day at altitude, the late morning hours and the prolonged abstinence from food and fluid intake during exercise at altitude are most important triggers. Acute hypoxia may represent a trigger for SCD on the one hand but might also evoke beneficial effects by preconditioning on the other hand. The identification of high-risk subjects and SCD triggers, evidence-based therapy of treatable risk factors, the appropriate individual preparation by physical training, and considering behavioural aspects, especially at the beginning of the physically active altitude sojourn will help to prevent SCD and increase the health benefits generated by mountaineering activities. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A developmental study of heavy episodic drinking among college students: the role of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Costa, Frances M; Krueger, Patrick M; Turbin, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in heavy episodic drinking, and (2) to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on heavy episodic drinking. Random- and fixed-effects maximum likelihood regression analyses were used to examine data from a three-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected in fall of 2002, spring of 2003, and spring of 2004 from college students (N=975; 548 men) who were first-semester freshmen at Wave 1. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for substantial variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings held for both genders and were consistent across the three separate waves of data. Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking were social and individual controls protection (e.g., parental sanctions for transgression and attitudinal intolerance of deviance, respectively); models risk (peer models for substance use); behavioral protection (attendance at religious services); and behavioral risk (cigarette smoking and marijuana use). Changes in controls protection, models risk, and opportunity risk were associated with change in heavy episodic drinking. An explanatory model based on both psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors was effective in accounting for variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking. A useful heuristic was demonstrated through the articulation of models, controls, support, opportunity, and vulnerability to characterize the social context, and of controls, vulnerability, and other behaviors to characterize individuals.

  12. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  13. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment--sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Olwenn V; Martin, Scholze; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  14. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor protects human endothelial cells against advanced glycation end products-induced apoposis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yijun; Wang Jiahe; Zhang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form by a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and biological proteins, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed AGEs effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an anti-apoptotic factor for endothelial cells, prevents AGEs-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of HGF. Treatment of HUVECs with AGEs changed cell morphology, decreased cell viability, and induced DNA fragmentation, leading to apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced by AGEs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGEs markedly elevated Bax and decreased NF-κB, but not Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, AGEs significantly inhibited cell growth through a pro-apoptotic action involving caspase-3 and -9 activations in HUVECs. Most importantly, pretreatment with HGF protected against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. HGF significantly promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB, while decreasing the activities of caspase-3 and -9 without affecting Bax level. Our data suggest that AGEs induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. HGF effectively attenuate AGEs-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These findings provide new perspectives in the role of HGF in cardiovascular disease

  16. Purification and Phytotoxic Analysis of Botrytis cinerea Virulence Factors: New Avenues for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Davis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus infecting over 230 plant species worldwide. This highly adaptable pathogen can afflict agricultural products from seed to storage, causing significant economic losses and instability in the food supply. Small protein virulence factors secreted by B. cinerea during infection play an important role in initiation and spread of disease. BcSnod1 was found to be abundantly expressed upon exposure to media containing strawberry extract. From sequence similarity, BcSnod2 was also identified and both were recognized as members of the Ceratoplatanin family of small phytotoxic proteins. Recombinant BcSnod1 was shown to have a phytotoxic effect and play an important role in pathogenicity while the role of BcSnod2 remains less clear. Both bacterial and yeast production systems are reported, though the bacterial protein is less toxic and mostly unfolded relative to that made in yeast. Compared to BcSnod1, recombinant bacterial BcSnod2 shows similar, but delayed phytotoxicity on tomato leaves. Further studies of these critical virulence factors and their inhibition promise to provide new avenues for crop protection.

  17. Risk and protection factors for women’s health in the prevention of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the risk and protection factors for women who access health services for the realization of preventive screening for cervical cancer. Quantitative study conducted with 51 women in Teresina-PI, Brazil, in August 2013. The semi-structured form caught the variables of interest and the data were analyzed by the SPSS. Of the women, 72.5% were aged 25-39 years, 66.7% were married, and 55.0% accessed the service for prevention. With regard to the risk factors, 41.2% were overweight, 19.6% obese, and 72.5% were sedentary. Regarding the access to health services, 78.5% sought care in the past year. The cervical cancer screening program should be discussed in the sociocultural context, which will promote understanding and adherence to the recommendations of take the exam periodically. For this purpose, we recommend conducting immediate and effective measures to improve the viability of public policies for women’s health.

  18. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  19. Latino cultural values as protective factors against sexual risks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L

    2014-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective versus risk factors for self-objectification in different age and gender cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollero Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of objectification and self-objectification have been widely investigated, but few studies have examined factors that may predict self-objectification. This research intends to assess the protective versus risk role of sociodemographic and physical characteristics (age, BMI, psychosocial variables (self-esteem; self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, and social factors (influence of family and friends; internalization of media standards on self-objectification in men and women. The selfobjectification was assessed with two subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Body Shame and Body Surveillance. Participants were 812 Italian adults of different age cohorts (age range 21–60 years; 50.7% females recruited via a quota sampling method. Two regression models separately for males and females were performed. Results showed that mass media influence was the strongest predictor for body surveillance and body shame in both men and women, whereas gender-related patterns emerged for physical, psychological, and relational variables with age as moderator.

  1. Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.T.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Ramsaev, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

  2. Insulation Coordination of Arcing Horns on HVDC Electrode Lines: Protection Performance Evaluation, Influence Factors and Improvement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arcing horns are widely used in high voltage overhead lines to protect insulator strings from being destroyed by the free burning arcs caused by lightening faults. In this paper, we focus on the insulation coordination of arcing horns on the electrode lines of a 5000 MW, ±800 kV high voltage direct current (HVDC system. The protection performance of arcing horns are determined by the characteristics of not only the external system but also the fault arc. Therefore, the behaviors and characteristics of long free burning arcs are investigated by the experiments at first. In order to evaluate the protection performance of arcing horns, the static stability criterion U-I characteristic method is introduced. The influence factors on the protection performance of arcing horns are analyzed theoretically. Finally, the improvement methods for the protection performance of arcing horns are proposed, and the diversified configuration strategy of arcing horns is recommended for cost saving.

  3. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Joanna; Viner, Russell M; Coen, Pietro G; Stuart, James M; Zambon, Maria; Peckham, Catherine; Booth, Clare; Klein, Nigel; Kaczmarski, Ed; Booy, Robert

    2006-02-25

    To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents. Prospective, population based, matched cohort study with controls matched for age and sex in 1:1 matching. Controls were sought from the general practitioner. Six contiguous regions of England, which represent some 65% of the country's population. 15-19 year olds with meningococcal disease recruited at hospital admission in six regions (representing 65% of the population of England) from January 1999 to June 2000, and their matched controls. Blood samples and pernasal and throat swabs were taken from case patients at admission to hospital and from cases and matched controls at interview. Data on potential risk factors were gathered by confidential interview. Data were analysed by using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. 144 case control pairs were recruited (74 male (51%); median age 17.6). 114 cases (79%) were confirmed microbiologically. Significant independent risk factors for meningococcal disease were history of preceding illness (matched odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 5.9), intimate kissing with multiple partners (3.7, 1.7 to 8.1), being a university student (3.4, 1.2 to 10) and preterm birth (3.7, 1.0 to 13.5). Religious observance (0.09, 0.02 to 0.6) and meningococcal vaccination (0.12, 0.04 to 0.4) were associated with protection. Activities and events increasing risk for meningococcal disease in adolescence are different from in childhood. Students are at higher risk. Altering personal behaviours could moderate the risk. However, the development of further effective meningococcal vaccines remains a key public health priority.

  4. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Joanna; Viner, Russell M; Coen, Pietro G; Stuart, James M; Zambon, Maria; Peckham, Catherine; Booth, Clare; Klein, Nigel; Kaczmarski, Ed; Booy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents. Design Prospective, population based, matched cohort study with controls matched for age and sex in 1:1 matching. Controls were sought from the general practitioner. Setting Six contiguous regions of England, which represent some 65% of the country's population. Participants 15-19 year olds with meningococcal disease recruited at hospital admission in six regions (representing 65% of the population of England) from January 1999 to June 2000, and their matched controls. Methods Blood samples and pernasal and throat swabs were taken from case patients at admission to hospital and from cases and matched controls at interview. Data on potential risk factors were gathered by confidential interview. Data were analysed by using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results 144 case control pairs were recruited (74 male (51%); median age 17.6). 114 cases (79%) were confirmed microbiologically. Significant independent risk factors for meningococcal disease were history of preceding illness (matched odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 5.9), intimate kissing with multiple partners (3.7, 1.7 to 8.1), being a university student (3.4, 1.2 to 10) and preterm birth (3.7, 1.0 to 13.5). Religious observance (0.09, 0.02 to 0.6) and meningococcal vaccination (0.12, 0.04 to 0.4) were associated with protection. Conclusions Activities and events increasing risk for meningococcal disease in adolescence are different from in childhood. Students are at higher risk. Altering personal behaviours could moderate the risk. However, the development of further effective meningococcal vaccines remains a key public health priority. PMID:16473859

  5. NF-κB Protects NKT Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1-induced Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Gordy, Laura E; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Stanic, Aleksandar K; Hill, Timothy M; Boothby, Mark R; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-11-15

    Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes with immunoregulatory properties. NKT cell survival during development requires signal processing by activated RelA/NF-κB. Nonetheless, the upstream signal(s) integrated by NF-κB in developing NKT cells remains incompletely defined. We show that the introgression of Bcl-x L -coding Bcl2l1 transgene into NF-κB signalling-deficient IκBΔN transgenic mouse rescues NKT cell development and differentiation in this mouse model. We reasoned that NF-κB activation was protecting developing NKT cells from death signals emanating either from high affinity agonist recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) or from a death receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) or Fas. Surprisingly, the single and combined deficiency in PKC-θ or CARMA-1-the two signal transducers at the NKT TCR proximal signalling node-only partially recapitulated the NKT cell deficiency observed in IκBΔN tg mouse. Accordingly, introgression of the Bcl2l1 transgene into PKC-θ null mouse failed to rescue NKT cell development. Instead, TNFR1-deficiency, but not the Fas-deficiency, rescued NKT cell development in IκBΔN tg mice. Consistent with this finding, treatment of thymocytes with an antagonist of the inhibitor of κB kinase -which blocks downstream NF-κB activation- sensitized NKT cells to TNF-α-induced cell death in vitro. Hence, we conclude that signal integration by NF-κB protects developing NKT cells from death signals emanating from TNFR1, but not from the NKT TCR or Fas.

  6. Continued Bullying Victimization from Childhood to Young Adulthood: a Longitudinal Study of Mediating and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Poulin, François

    2018-01-01

    Bullying in schools has severe consequences for victims' adjustment. It is unclear, however, whether victims of school bullying continue to be victimized in other contexts during adulthood. Mediating processes through which peer victimization in school increases the risk of revictimization in adulthood, as well as protective factors, also need to be explored. This study examined 1) the longitudinal association between peer victimization in school and victimization at work during young adulthood, 2) the predictive link of reactive and proactive aggression and anxious-withdrawn behavior in childhood with victimization in school and at the workplace, 3) the potential mediating role of depression symptoms, and 4) the potential protective effect of friendship support. The study included 251 participants (61% females) followed from age 12 to age 22. Participants reported about their victimization in school from ages 12 to 17 and their workplace victimization at age 22. They also reported about their depression-related thoughts and feelings and about friendship support. Teachers rated reactive and proactive aggression and anxiety-withdrawal at age 12. Structural equation modeling revealed that anxiety-withdrawal at age 12 predicted peer victimization in school, which in turn predicted later victimization at work. The latter association was partially mediated by increased depression symptoms. However, friendship support counteracted (via a main effect) the link between school victimization and subsequent depression symptoms. Bullying victims may benefit from interventions aimed at reducing depression symptoms and fostering social skills to establish supportive friendships to help avoid the generation of new interpersonal stress such as workplace victimization in adulthood.

  7. Gamma radiation and gamma ray protection factors of ships in various situations of radioactive fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, E.H.; Holst, T.

    1975-01-01

    In this report the development of methods of evaluating gamma ray protection factors (GSF) of ships for various situations of radioactive fall-out is described. The joining calculations of gamma ray protection factors are performed by the newly developed computer procedure GASUFA. These protection factors determine - in connection with a measured gamma radiation dose at a given detector point - the gamma radiation in different compartments of the ships. The computer program GASUFA is able to perform calculations considering the dependence of energy, place and time for the following situations: - the ship is under a radioactive cloud without fall-out; - the ship is under a radioactive cloud with fall-out; - the ship is contaminated by radioactive fall-out; - the clean or decontaminated ship is going through a zone, which is contaminated by radioactive fall-out; - the ship and the surrounding water surface are contaminated by radioactive fall-out. (orig.) [de

  8. Estimation of Hydrogen-Exchange Protection Factors from MD Simulation Based on Amide Hydrogen Bonding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Hee; Venable, John D.; Steckler, Caitlin; Cellitti, Susan E.; Lesley, Scott A.; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) studies have provided critical insight into our understanding of protein folding, structure and dynamics. More recently, Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) has become a widely applicable tool for HX studies. The interpretation of the wealth of data generated by HX-MS experiments as well as other HX methods would greatly benefit from the availability of exchange predictions derived from structures or models for comparison with experiment. Most reported computational HX modeling studies have employed solvent-accessible-surface-area based metrics in attempts to interpret HX data on the basis of structures or models. In this study, a computational HX-MS prediction method based on classification of the amide hydrogen bonding modes mimicking the local unfolding model is demonstrated. Analysis of the NH bonding configurations from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation snapshots is used to determine partitioning over bonded and non-bonded NH states and is directly mapped into a protection factor (PF) using a logistics growth function. Predicted PFs are then used for calculating deuteration values of peptides and compared with experimental data. Hydrogen exchange MS data for Fatty acid synthase thioesterase (FAS-TE) collected for a range of pHs and temperatures was used for detailed evaluation of the approach. High correlation between prediction and experiment for observable fragment peptides is observed in the FAS-TE and additional benchmarking systems that included various apo/holo proteins for which literature data were available. In addition, it is shown that HX modeling can improve experimental resolution through decomposition of in-exchange curves into rate classes, which correlate with prediction from MD. Successful rate class decompositions provide further evidence that the presented approach captures the underlying physical processes correctly at the single residue level. This assessment is further strengthened in a comparison of

  9. The possession law suit, caused by forbidden immissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. The real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being impoded through the immission of execive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat noise, tremors etc. The property ownership whose is affected by immission exceeding the set limits, has the right to request a stop of immisions which exceeded the allowed volume of immissions. In article author describes various kinds of immissions. The general feature of this law suit is that there is only discussion on the facts and not for a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the disputes itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action of disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  10. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  11. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Milkovic, Dj.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  12. Risk and protective factors of internet addiction: a meta-analysis of empirical studies in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction.

  13. Risk and Protective Factors of Internet Addiction: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoon Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Results The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. Conclusion The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction. PMID:25323910

  14. Review of empirical studies on impact of religion, religiosity and spirituality as protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Salgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the empirical researches supporting the positive impact of religion, religiosity and spirituality as protective factors in various areas of human life. An analysis of each variable is performed individually and collectively. Among the conclusions of this work, researches show that they help people to have more self-esteem, are a source of strength and hope, are associated with greater satisfaction with life and spiritual well-being and increase the capacity for forgiveness. They provide emotional and social support, promote prosocial values, are associated with less use and abuse of drugs and less tendency to smoke. They help to have better physical and psychological health, contribute to prevention and help to speed recovery and promote tolerance to diseases. They help to decrease depression, anxiety, blood pressure and stress. They contribute to a better adaptation, help to cope with the disease and fear of death. Finally, they help to better deal with disability condition associated with chronic disease.

  15. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  16. Social skills: a factor of protection against eating disorders in adolescentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunian, Laura Giron; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature on the relationship between eating disorders and social skills in adolescents. A search was made on the Medline, SciELO and Lilacs databases, for items combining the terms 'eating disorders', 'anorexia nervosa', 'bulimia nervosa' and 'food behavior', with the terms 'social psychology' and 'social isolation', and with the keywords 'social competence', 'social skill' and 'interpersonal relations'. The following were included: studies on adolescents; in Portuguese, English and Spanish; published in the years 2007 through 2012. The search resulted in 63 articles, and 50 were included in this review. The majority of the studies were made in Brazil and the United States. Of the total, 43 were original articles. The studies aimed to understand how emotional state could influence the establishment of eating disorders, interpersonal relationships and peer relationship. The articles also discussed the influence of the media and of society in this process. Based on the analysis of the studies, it was observed that the greater an adolescent's repertory of social skills, the greater his or her factor of protection against the development of eating disorders.

  17. Risk and protective factors for mental health at a youth mass gathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Saeri, Alexander K; Radke, Helena R M; Walter, Zoe C; Crimston, Daniel; Ferris, Laura J

    2018-05-11

    Mass gatherings are well-documented for their public health risks; however, little research has examined their impact on mental health or focused on young people specifically. This study explores risk and protective factors for mental health at mass gatherings, with a particular focus on characterising attendees with high levels of psychological distress and risk taking. Data collection was conducted in situ at "Schoolies", an annual informal week-long mass gathering of approximately 30,000 Australian school leavers. Participants were 812 attendees of Schoolies on the Gold Coast in 2015 or 2016 (74% aged 17 years old). In both years, attendee mental health was found to be significantly better than population norms for their age peers. Identification with the mass gathering predicted better mental health, and this relationship became stronger across the course of the mass gathering. Attendees with high levels of psychological distress were more likely to be male, socially isolated, impulsive, and in a friendship group where risk taking was normative. Mass gatherings may have a net benefit for attendee mental health, especially for those attendees who are subjectively committed to the event. However, a vulnerable subgroup of attendees requires targeted mental health support.

  18. Is beta-thalassemia trait a protective factor against ischemic cerebrovascular accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Borhani Haghighi, Afshin; Yazdani, Maryam; Raisi, Hamideh; Giti, Rahil; Namazee, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we sought to determine the association between beta-thalassemia trait and ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA). In acase-control study, 148 patients with thromboembolic cerebrovascular events were evaluated for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and beta-thalassemia trait. A total of 156 age- and sex-matched patients with no cardiac or cerebrovascular diseases, serving as the control group, were also investigated for the above-mentioned risk factors. We found that 6.1% of patients with ischemic CVA and 12.2% of the control group had beta-thalassemia trait (P = .066). In male patients, the negative association between ischemic CVA and presence of beta-thalassemia trait was significant (P = .008). In patients, the prevalence of hypertension was also significantly different between those with and without beta-thalassemia trait (P = .01); those with beta-thalassemia trait had a lower mean blood pressure than those without the trait. beta-Thalassemia trait may have a protective effect against ischemic CVA that might be caused by the lower arterial blood pressure observed in those with this trait.

  19. [Breastfeeding as a protective factor against overweight and obesity among pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, M Catalina; Cerda, L Jaime; Terrazas, M Claudia; Cano, C Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overweight and obesity among children have significantly increased in Chile. To assess the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children. A case-control study was conducted in 2011 on pediatric patients treated in a private Chilean healthcare center (San Joaquin Medical Center, Catholic University). Gender, age, weight, height, nutritional diagnosis, type of feeding during the first 6 months of life, socioeconomic status, parental education and obesity, television viewing, and kindergarten attendance were analyzed. A total of 209 patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom were male, and 60.3% were predominantly breastfed for the first 6 months of life. More than half (51.7%) were eutrophic, 29.7% were overweight, and 18.6% obese. The patients were between the ages of 2 and 3 years 11 months. The crude Odds Ratio of breast-feeding versus formula during the first 6 months of life in patients with normal weight versus overweight children was 0.442 (95% CI 0.204-0.961). It was found that predominantly breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life acted as a protective factor against malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children treated in this private medical center. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Psychosocial Development of 5-year-old Children with Hearing Loss: Risks and protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa YC; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Study Sample Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardised assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). Results On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. Conclusion The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. . The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development. PMID:27541363

  1. Is family sense of coherence a protective factor against the obesogenic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Musaad, Salma; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2016-04-01

    Despite greater risk for poor nutrition, inactivity, and overweight, some low-income children are able to maintain a healthy weight. We explore if a strong family sense of coherence (FSOC) acts as a protective factor against childhood obesity for low-income preschool children. Families with a strong FSOC view challenges as predictable, understandable, worthy of engaging, and surmountable. Data were collected from 321 low-income mothers and their preschool children in five states between March 2011 and May 2013. FSOC was assessed using the Family Sense of Coherence Scale. A 16-item checklist was used to assess practicing healthy child behaviors (fruit and vegetable consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals) and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (sweetened beverage and fast food consumption, energy dense snack availability, and screen time). Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from measured height and weight. FSOC was significantly associated with practicing healthy child behaviors (β = 0.32, p importance of family functioning in predicting health behaviors around food consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  3. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Relation to Possible Food-Related Risk and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory health outcomes are among the top five causes of child morbidity and mortality around the world. We aimed to investigate possible food-related risk and protective factors for respiratory health outcomes in children. Structured questionnaires completed by primary caregivers of 10-year old children were used to collect information on demographics, socio-economic status, house characteristics and child respiratory health status. Upper (URIs) and Lower (LRIs) respiratory illnesses comprised hay fever, and wheezing, asthma and bronchitis, respectively. Eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, 648 retrieved and 420 completed in full (52.5% response rate). The hay fever 6-month prevalence was 22.4% and wheezing had the highest 6-month prevalence among the LRIs (13.8%). The majority of children ate vegetables (75.5%), fruit (69.3%) and chicken or fish (81.7%) regularly. Nearly half of the children (45.5%) regularly ate processed food. Eating processed food regularly was statistical significantly associated with wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.38-5.08), hay fever (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09-2.64) and bronchitis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-2.56). The study found an association between regular consumption of processed foods and wheeze, hay fever and bronchitis among 10 year old children. The regular consumption of processed food plays a role in adverse respiratory health effects among children and healthy eating is emphasized.

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Targeting Can Protect against Arthritis with Low Sensitization to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmellat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α blockade is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and other inflammatory diseases, but in patients, it is associated with reduced resistance to the infectious agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, among others. Our goal was to model infection and arthritis in mice and to compare etanercept, a currently used anti-TNF-α inhibitor, to an anti-TNF-α vaccine. We developed a murine surrogate of the TNF-α kinoid and produced an anti-murine TNF-α vaccine (TNFKi composed of keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugated to TNF-α, which resulted in anti-TNF-α antibody production in mice. We also used etanercept (a soluble receptor of TNF commonly used to treat RA as a control of TNF neutralization. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, TNFKi protected against inflammation similar to etanercept. In a mouse model of acute L. monocytogenes infection, all TNFKi-treated mice showed cleared bacterial infection and survived, whereas etanercept-treated mice showed large liver granulomas and quickly died. Moreover, TNFKi mice infected with the virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis showed resistance to infection, in contrast with etanercept-treated mice or controls. Depending on the TNF-α blockade strategy, treating arthritis with a TNF-α inhibitor could result in a different profile of infection suceptibility. Our TNFKi vaccine allowed for a better remaining host defense than did etanercept.

  5. Emotional labour demands in enabling education: A qualitative exploration of the unique challenges and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Crawford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in enabling programs bring richness, diversity, and complexity to the teaching and learning environment. They are often from under-represented backgrounds, have experienced educational disadvantage or disruption, belong to multiple equity groups, and face academic and non-academic challenges, including mental ill-health. This pilot study explored academic staff experiences in teaching and supporting students in enabling programs. Using a collaborative autoethnographical approach, four members of a multi-institutional research group wrote first-person reflections in response to guiding questions. From generative and reflective discussions, different themes arose. A major theme was the high ‘emotional labour demands’ of teaching a vulnerable cohort, with both positive and negative effects on staff. Other major themes included: the diversity of emotional responses and coping strategies; the complex, sometimes contradictory, role of the enabling educator; the importance of communities of care and support; and the impact of witnessing students’ transformations. Within these themes, the challenges, rewards, and protective factors, which mitigate stress among enabling educators, were identified.

  6. Taste perception: Risk factor or protection for dependents during drug use cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in appetite and, consequently, in body weight, evidenced in the majority of addicts under treatment, may be related to taste, since heavy drug use can lead to changes in taste buds. This study aimed to investigate the association between taste perception and nutritional status of drug addicts under treatment. The study was conducted in two therapeutic communities in the municipality of Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, with 39 male addicts over 18 years old. Primary data on weight and height were collected for assessment of nutritional status, and a taste acuity test was applied; also, secondary data were collected on age, length of stay, types of drugs used, and age of drug use onset, from the addicts’ records. It was possible to observe that 56.5% of dependents were at nutritional risk for being overweight. Taste acuity significantly differed for the basic tastes evaluated (p= 0.014, being higher for salty (94.9%, followed by sweet (89.7%, acid (79.5%, and bitter (38, 5% tastes, but it was not associated with the study variables. We conclude that the drug use cessation can have a similar effect to that of caloric deprivation on the taste acuity of dependents, interfering on excessive weight gain. However, it is suggested that the improvement of taste perception be oriented in the therapeutic setting, so that it becomes, in these conditions, a protection factor for dependents, strengthening them to overcome their condition of vulnerability.

  7. Factors influencing the end of the service life of protective gloves used in car repair shops: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilia, Irzmańska; Agnieszka, Stefko; Katarzyna, Dyńska-Kukulska

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an end-of-service-life study on 2 kinds of protective gloves designed for workplaces in which workers are exposed to mineral oils and mechanical factors. The authors developed their own end-of-service-life study method that takes into account factors occurring during real-life use of protective gloves. The examined gloves were subjected to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors. The objective of the study was to compare the protective in new gloves subjected to a laboratory simulation test and in gloves used at workplaces in car repair shops. A further goal was to design a glove assessment procedure that would ensure comprehensive analysis of the actual level of performance provided by gloves exposed to selected chemical and mechanical factors as well as subjected to the influence of temperature and humidity, mechanical damage, and chemical degradation of material. The results lead to the conclusion that simultaneous exposure of protective gloves to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors significantly decreases their performance levels. Furthermore, similar performance levels were obtained for gloves subjected to laboratory simulation tests and for those used in the workplace.

  8. Direct and Interaction Effects of Co-Existing Familial Risk Factors and Protective Factors Associated with Internet Addiction among Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Cheng, Kit-man; Law, Rita W.; Tse, Vincent W. S.; Lau, Mason M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is prevalent among adolescents and imposes a serious public health threat. Familial risk and protective factors may co-exist and interact with each other to determine IA. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 9,618 Secondary 1 to 4 students in Hong Kong, China. About 16% of the surveyed students were classified as…

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board's Survey of Sexual Harassment: The Fit of a Three-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Margaret S.; Hope, Kathryn G.

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 1,070 federal employees, 575 undergraduates and 575 graduate students, faculty, and staff uncovered some weaknesses in the Merit Systems Protection Board's sexual harassment survey instrument. This type of survey does not adequately measure sexual coercion or quid pro quo forms of harassment. (SK)

  10. Factors of risk and protection/resilience in adolescent scholar bullying. Longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández de Frutos, Teodoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of risk, protection and resilience have gained widespread acceptance in recent years, as the university community, to a large extent, consider that they offer a satisfactory explanation as to why some adolescents fail to survive in a hostile environment while others cope adequately, almost as if they were immunized against the difficulties they encounter in the course of their lives. Applying these theories to adolescent harassment could explain why certain youth fall victim to it and others do not, despite sharing the same life variables: age, sex, school structure, family structure, residential area, mass media and so on. This longitudinal analysis examines the risks and resilience associated with the social environment, using Bronfenbrenner’s version, taking into account that resilience is not necessarily due to individual personality conditioning or other significant factors, as some theories hold. Rather, it argues that environmental factors may also be responsible for increasing or reducing its effects. Given that some experts use this concept in a manner that leads to confusion, understanding adolescent bullying to be aggressive behavior on an individual level, it is necessary to highlight that it is understood here to be a multidimensional concept. It is a single variable which includes individual aggression, collective aggression, individual and collective victimization. This will avoid the misunderstanding arising from a holistic and undifferentiated use of the term. It also takes into account that the aggressor as well as the victim is also exposed, although to a lesser degree, to risks, protection and resilience.Las teorías del riesgo, protección/resiliencia han surgido con fuerza en los últimos años porque explican satisfactoriamente, en opinión de una por parte significativa de la comunidad universitaria, porque algunos adolescentes se hunden en un medio ambiente hostil, mientras que otros sobreviven sin que parezca

  11. Risk and Protective Factors for Family Violence among Low-Income Fathers: Implications for Violence Prevention and Fatherhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  12. Protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol and drug use disorders: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Wlodarczyk

    Full Text Available Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD. For that purpose, the PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through January 2017. All the identified publications were screened using previously developed inclusion criteria. The search yielded 3,402 articles. Eleven of these publications (2003-2013 met the criteria for inclusion in the present review. Information on the studies was extracted using an extraction form. A narrative analysis was performed, and the methodological quality was examined using a checklist based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The research identified familial, parental, child-related and biological factors that influenced mental health outcomes in affected children (N = 1,376, age range = 1-20 years. Overall, protective mental health factors are understudied in this target group. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and employed a cross-sectional design. A comparison of the included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicated consistent results related to a secure parent-child attachment. Based on the current state of the research, no causal conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of protective factors can be drawn. To develop effective prevention programs, further longitudinal studies and studies assessing the interactions between

  13. Evaluation of protection factors provided by full-face masks using man-test method at workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yukio; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ikezawa, Yoshio.

    1994-01-01

    From a practical angle of view to estimate the protection factors (PFs) provided by full-face masks, a number of protection factors were measured with a man-test apparatus just before the wearers started to do radiation work in radiation controlled area. PFs of the total number of 2,279 cases were measured under five simulated working conditions. The measured PFs were widely distributed from 2.3 to 6,700. About 95% of workers obtained PFs more than 50, and about 64% showed much higher PFs more than 1,000 due to good fitting. In the case of some persons, the measured PFs irregularly varied and changed to a large degree. This method is a reliable technique that has been confirmed to protect unexpected internal exposure. From the results obtained, the method should be necessary to provide a better mask and higher PF for each worker. (author)

  14. Aggressive behavior, protective factors and academic achievement at students inside and outside the system of institutional care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretić Edita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a questionnaire, which included two measuring instruments: Check-list of advantages and Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. The children who live in institutional care showed a higher incidence of aggressive behavior, compared with children who are out of institutional care. Children placed in institutional care have less protective factors for the prevention of behavioral disorders, worse general school success, as well as poorer success in Nature/ Biology, compared to non-institutional children. A negative and statistically significant relationship was found between the incidence of aggressive behaviors and protective factors in the prevention of conduct disorder, as well as between the incidence of aggressive behavior and overall school success. A significant positive correlation was found between the protective factors and success in the English language. The results indicate the necessity to consider alternative forms of care for children without parental care, in close cooperation of all relevant institutions and individuals who take care for children.

  15. Spirituality/Religiosity, Life Satisfaction, and Life Meaning as Protective Factors for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Whitlock, Janis; Mease, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may protect or insulate people from engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). College students (N = 14,385) from 8 universities participated in a web-based survey. Results of bivariate correlations and multiple regression revealed that spirituality/religiosity, life satisfaction, and life…

  16. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  17. Role of hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons in the protective effects of heat shock factor 1 on working memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Peng; Xiongzhao Zhu; Ming Cheng; Xiangyi Chen; Shuqiao Yao

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that heat shock factor 1 exerts endogenous protective effects on working memory under conditions of chronic psychological stress. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined the protective factors affecting working memory in heat shock transcription factor 1 gene knockout mice. The results indicated that the number of correct T maze alternations decreased following mild chronic psychological stress in knockout mice. This change was accompanied by a decrease in neurogenesis and an increase in neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The number of correct T maze alternations was positively correlated with neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus, and negatively correlated with neuronal apoptosis. In wild type mice, no significant difference was detected in the number of correct T maze alternations or neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results indicate that the heat shock factor 1 gene has an endogenous protective role in working memory during mild chronic psychological stress associated with dentate gyrus neuronal apoptosis.Moreover, dentate gyrus neurogenesis appears to participate in the protective mechanism.

  18. Protective Factors, Coping Appraisals, and Social Barriers Predict Mental Health Following Community Violence: A Prospective Test of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Felix, Erika D; Benight, Charles C; Jones, Russell T

    2017-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory of posttraumatic adaptation in the context of mass violence, hypothesizing that pre-event protective factors (general self-efficacy and perceived social support) would reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression severity through boosting post-event coping self-efficacy appraisals (mediator). We qualified hypotheses by predicting that post-event social support barriers would disrupt (moderate) the health-promoting indirect effects of pre-event protective factors. With a prospective longitudinal sample, we employed path models with bootstrapping resampling to test hypotheses. Participants included 70 university students (71.4% female; 40.0% White; 34.3% Asian; 14.3% Hispanic) enrolled during a mass violence event who completed surveys one year pre-event and 5-6 months post-event. Results revealed significant large effects in predicting coping self-efficacy (mastery model, R 2 = .34; enabling model, R 2 = .36), PTSS (mastery model, R 2 = .35; enabling model, R 2 = .41), and depression severity (mastery model, R 2 = .43; enabling model, R 2 = .46). Overall findings supported study hypotheses, showing that at low levels of post-event social support barriers, pre-event protective factors reduced distress severity through boosting coping self-efficacy. However, as post-event social support barriers increased, the indirect, distress-reducing effects of pre-event protective factors were reduced to nonsignificance. Study implications focus on preventative and responsive intervention. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  20. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  1. The state of immunological reactivity and nonspecific protection factor (lysozyme in children with reactive arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Savvo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. An improvement of diagnostics and prognostication of ReA clinical course in children on the base of studying the immunological reactivity and non-specific protection factor (lysozyme.Materials and methods. Examination of children took place in the municipal children’s cardiorheumatologic department of MHPI “Kharkov municipal children’s clinical hospital № 24" and municipal children’s polyclinic of the Kharkov city (№ 1, 2, 7, 12, 13, 14, 23.40 children with ReA underwent immunological examinations, detection of sIgA in the saliva and lysozyme in the blood serum in acute period and in 9–12 months after the beginning of disease. 19 children (47,5 % – 2–6 years old, 21 children (52,5 %. – 7–14 years old. Boys – 22 (55,0 %, girls – 18 (45,0 %. The mean age of children in group was 7,2±0,32. The control group included 32 healthy children. The mean age of children in group was 7,4±0,54.The ReA diagnosis was set according to the order of Ukrainian MHP of 19.07.2005 № 362 “Protocol of diagnostics and treatment of disease of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue in children ICD-D М00-М25 arthropathies”.Immunological examinations included the study of indices of cellular, humoral, monocytic-phagocytic links of immunity, content of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, detection of sIgA and index of nonspecific protection factor (lysozyme.Assessment of results of researches was carried out using STATISTICА program for Windows (version 10.0, Microsoft Excel 2012, MATLAB 2015a.Results. In the ReA acute period in children was observed depression of T-system on the background of activation of immunity B-system as the reliable decrease of СD8, СD25 and increase of СD21. There was revealed an increase of IL-6, increase of phagocytic number, spontaneous NBT-test and spontaneous neutrophils activity index.The sIgA level reliably exceeded the standard. At determination of lysozyme the blood serum of patients with ReA in acute

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC AND LABOUR FORCE AGEING – RISK FACTORS FOR THE SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people’s social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees, both of them having an important impact on social protection.

  3. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  4. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  5. A review of protective factors and causal mechanisms that enhance the mental health of Indigenous Circumpolar youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Joanna Petrasek; Ford, James D; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Ross, Nancy A

    2013-12-09

    To review the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed English-language research was conducted to systematically examine the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, with elements of a realist review. From 160 records identified in the initial search of 3 databases, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for full review. Data were extracted using a codebook to organize and synthesize relevant information from the articles. More than 40 protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels were identified as enhancing Indigenous youth mental health. These included practicing and holding traditional knowledge and skills, the desire to be useful and to contribute meaningfully to one's community, having positive role models, and believing in one's self. Broadly, protective factors at the family and community levels were identified as positively creating and impacting one's social environment, which interacts with factors at the individual level to enhance resilience. An emphasis on the roles of cultural and land-based activities, history, and language, as well as on the importance of social and family supports, also emerged throughout the literature. More than 40 protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels were identified as enhancing Indigenous youth mental health. These included practicing and holding traditional knowledge and skills, the desire to be useful and to contribute meaningfully to one's community, having positive role models, and believing in one's self. Broadly, protective factors at the family and community levels were identified as positively creating and impacting one's social

  6. [Protection from chronic diseases and the prevalence of risk factors in Brazilian state capitals--main results from Vigitel 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; de Sá, Naiza Nayla Bandeira; de Moura, Lenildo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    To describe protection from chronic diseases and the prevalence of risk factors with data from a telephone survey in 2010. Telephone interviews in a random sample of adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District with residential landline telephones. The prevalence of these factors was stratified by sex, age and level of education. High prevalence of soft drink consumption (28.1%), fatty meat consumption (34.2%), and alcohol abuse (18%) and low fruit and vegetable intake (18%) and leisure time physical activity (15%) was verified. Approximately half the population was overweight and reported no sun protection practices. Physical inactivity and smoking afflicted almost 15% of adults. In general, risk factors were more prevalent in men, predominantly young adults with lower education levels. The results revealed differing health behavior according to socio-demographic variables. These variables should be taken into consideration in health promotion campaigns.

  7. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Risk factors and protective factors associated with incident or increase of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyun Feng

    Full Text Available Frailty is one of the greatest challenges facing our aging population, as it can lead to adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization, and mortality. However, the factors that are associated with frailty are poorly understood. We performed a systematic review of longitudinal studies in order to identify the sociodemographic, physical, biological, lifestyle-related, and psychological risk or protective factors that are associated with frailty among community-dwelling older adults.A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases in order to identify studies that assessed the factors associated with of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: Embase, Medline Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane, PsychINFO Ovid, CINAHL EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar. Studies were selected if they included a longitudinal design, focused on community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years and older, and used a tool to assess frailty. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Quality of Reporting of Observational Longitudinal Research checklist.Twenty-three studies were included. Significant associations were reported between the following types of factors and frailty: sociodemographic factors (7/7 studies, physical factors (5/6 studies, biological factors (5/7 studies, lifestyle factors (11/13 studies, and psychological factors (7/8 studies. Significant sociodemographic factors included older age, ethnic background, neighborhood, and access to private insurance or Medicare; significant physical factors included obesity and activities of daily living (ADL functional status; significant biological factors included serum uric acid; significant lifestyle factors included a higher Diet Quality Index International (DQI score, higher fruit/vegetable consumption and higher tertile of all measures of habitual dietary resveratrol exposure; significant psychological factors included depressive symptoms.A broad range of

  9. Occupational risk factors for skin cancer and the availability of sun protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Linda; Ofenloch, Robert; Surber, Christian; Diepgen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Germany implemented a new occupational disease "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV radiation (UVR)" into the German ordinance on occupational diseases. Since primary prevention is very important, the aim of this study was to assess the provision of sun protection measures by the employers in vocational school students for outdoor professions. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the availability of sun protection measures at German workplaces and the risk of occupational sunburn by surveying 245 vocational school students working in outdoor occupations. More than 40 % of the students did not receive any sun protection measures by their employer, and 34.5 % of the students got sunburned during work. Working in the shade was a protective factor for occupational sunburn but was merely available for 23.7 % of the outdoor workers. Our study reveals a strong need for effective sun protection measures, including both administrative controls like education and personal protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

  10. [The study on behaviour of protective equipment utilization of workers exposed to benzene and factors based on Planned Behavior Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C D; Zhang, W M; Fu, Y K; Ma, H Y

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate and predict the behavioral intention and mode of the protective equipment utilization selection of the workers who used Benzene, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was applied to establish the behavioral model to enhance the theoretical foundation for long-term intervention. Methods: Questionnaires were used to survey the 707 workers, and all the behaviors of using protective equipment were investigated. Evaluate the relationships between each variable and obtain the influence affects by structural equation model. Results: The investigation showed that 38.47% of the total workers (272 cases) used whole body protection, 13.58% used partially, and 16.69% didn't use any body protection. There were significant difference between the varying degrees in the four dimensions (behavioral attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, and behavioral intention) (Pbehavior control was the most important influencing factor, subjective norm, positive attitude, negative attitude were the other three respects in sequence. The path co-efficient were 0.600、0.215、0.141 and 0.046 respectively. Conclusion: The study show that the theory of planned behavior can effectively explain the behavioral intention and behavior of protective equipment utilization. Therefore, combining the subjective initiative of individuals with the supervision of enterprises, In order to effectively enhance the protective equipment utilization of benzene workers.

  11. Factors of health in the protection against death and cardiovascular disease among adults with subclinical atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention traditionally emphasizes risk-factor control, recent evidence also supports the promotion of "health-factors" associated with cardiovascular wellness. However, whether such health-factors exist among adults with advanced subclinical atherosclerosis is un...

  12. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Domestic Preparedness Program: Sarin Vapor Challenge and Corn Oil Protection Factor (PF) Testing of Commercial Air-Purifying Negative Pressure Respirators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Lee

    2003-01-01

    ...) corn-oil protection factor determinations of NPR systems using human subjects. Results indicate that cartridges provide adequate resistance to GB breakthrough against high-concentration challenges...

  14. Development and evaluation of the McKnight Risk Factor Survey for assessing potential risk and protective factors for disordered eating in preadolescent and adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, C M; Renger, R; Sharpe, T; Crago, M; McKnight, K M; Gray, N; Bryson, S; Estes, L S; Parnaby, O G; Killen, J; Taylor, C B

    1999-03-01

    To describe the development, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-III (MRFS-III). The MRFS-III was designed to assess a number of potential risk and protective factors for the development of disordered eating in preadolescent and adolescent girls. Several versions of the MRFS were pilot tested before the MRFS-III was administered to a sample of 651 4th through 12th- grade girls to establish its psychometric properties. Most of the test-retest reliability coefficients of individual items on the MRFS-III were r > .40. Alpha coefficients for each risk and protective factor domain on the MRFS-III were also computed. The majority of these coefficients were r > .60. High convergent validity coefficients were obtained for specific items on the MRFS-III and measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and weight concerns (Weight Concerns Scale). The test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the MRFS-III suggest that it is a useful new instrument to assess potential risk and protective factors for the development of disordered eating in preadolescent and adolescent girls.

  15. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Madewell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF” (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016 [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25, Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10, Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24, and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R. Keywords: Scale of Protective Factors, Resilience Scale, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Emerging adulthood, Confirmatory factor analysis

  16. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of arme...... that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk.......The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed...... conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed...

  17. Factoring economic costs into conservation planning may not improve agreement over priorities for protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Jackson, Heather B; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Clark, Melissa; Fargione, Joseph E; Iacona, Gwenllian D; Kim, Taeyoung; Larson, Eric R; Minney, Thomas; Sutton, Nathan A

    2017-12-21

    Conservation organizations must redouble efforts to protect habitat given continuing biodiversity declines. Prioritization of future areas for protection is hampered by disagreements over what the ecological targets of conservation should be. Here we test the claim that such disagreements will become less important as conservation moves away from prioritizing areas for protection based only on ecological considerations and accounts for varying costs of protection using return-on-investment (ROI) methods. We combine a simulation approach with a case study of forests in the eastern United States, paying particular attention to how covariation between ecological benefits and economic costs influences agreement levels. For many conservation goals, agreement over spatial priorities improves with ROI methods. However, we also show that a reliance on ROI-based prioritization can sometimes exacerbate disagreements over priorities. As such, accounting for costs in conservation planning does not enable society to sidestep careful consideration of the ecological goals of conservation.

  18. Accumulation of selenium in different wheat genotypes and its protective role against various abiotic stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Özge; Ozdemir, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    Plant-based foods play a critical role in covering daily requirements of human beings for energy and minerals, especially in the developing world. Most of the nutritional compounds existing in cereal grains are the major protective agents against different chronic diseases. One particular compound with high protective effect against different diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is selenium (Se). It is widely believed that some forms of selenium (Se) are among the most effectiv...

  19. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  20. Protective factors for mental health and well-being in a changing climate: Perspectives from Inuit youth in Nunatsiavut, Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ford, James D; Shiwak, Inez; Wood, Michele

    2015-09-01

    The Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid changes in climatic conditions, with implications for Inuit communities widely documented. Youth have been identified as an at-risk population, with likely impacts on mental health and well-being. This study identifies and characterizes youth-specific protective factors that enhance well-being in light of a rapidly changing climate, and examines how climatic and environmental change challenges these. In-depth conversational interviews were conducted with youth aged 15-25 from the five communities of the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, Canada: Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet. Five key protective factors were identified as enhancing their mental health and well-being: being on the land; connecting to Inuit culture; strong communities; relationships with family and friends; and staying busy. Changing sea ice and weather conditions were widely reported to be compromising these protective factors by reducing access to the land, and increasing the danger of land-based activities. This study contributes to existing work on Northern climate change adaptation by identifying factors that enhance youth resilience and, if incorporated into adaptation strategies, may contribute to creating successful and effective adaptation responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  2. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  3. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, Michael B.; Kane, Jave; Nasstrom, John; Homann, Steve; Pobanz, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  4. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle V. Porche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900 in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest.

  5. New radiation protection concept as important safety factor of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a method for non destructive testing of homogeneity of various materials based on different absorption of radiation in different material. X and γ radiation are the most often used. Detrimental effects of radiation are observed since its discovery. In order to prevent harmful effects of radiation without unduly limitations of its use, International Commission on Radiological Protection in collaboration with International Atomic Energy Agency have developed International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No 115, adopted in 1996. based on ICRP recommendations from 1991. Besides a lot of changes in radiation protection concept and philosophy, decrement of annual dose limits for occupational exposure from 50 to 20 mSv. (author)

  6. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, E; Tulloch, A I T; Possingham, H P; Strange, N; Wilson, K A

    2016-03-30

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk.

  7. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment... figuring your net earnings from self-employment, the term possession of the United States shall be deemed...

  8. Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

    1988-11-01

    Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.

  9. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  10. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    government operating costs, increases government spending for wages and ... revenues by plundering revenue generating agencies such as tax collection, ..... a) the assets under the ownership or possession of himself and his family; and.

  12. Protective Factors for Youth Exposed to Violence in Their Communities: A Review of Family, School, and Community Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Lavi, Iris; Douglas, Laura; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive investigation of the pattern and strength of findings in the literature regarding the environmental moderators of the relationship between exposure to community violence and mental health among children and adolescents. Twenty-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in our analysis of family, school, and community variables as moderators. Dependent variables included internalizing (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder) and externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, substance use). Effect sizes for the interactions of exposure to violence and potential moderators were summarized by their patterns of protective processes. The majority of studies in the literature examined family characteristics as moderators of the exposure to violence-symptom relationship, rather than school- or community-level factors. Our results indicated more consistent patterns for (a) close family relationships and social support for internalizing symptoms and (b) close family relationships for externalizing symptoms. Overall, the most common type of protective pattern was protective-stabilizing, in which youth with higher levels of the environmental attribute demonstrate relative stability in mental health despite exposure to violence. We found no consistent evidence that parental monitoring-a dimension inversely associated with exposure to violence in prior studies-moderated the relationship between exposure to violence and symptoms. The study emphasizes the importance of strengthening family support for young people's exposure to community violence; more research is needed to provide a solid evidence base for the role of school and community-level protective factors for youth exposed to violence.

  13. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed.

  14. The Factors That Influence and Protect Against Power Imbalance in Covert Bullying Among Preadolescent Children at School: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen J; Burns, Sharyn K; Kendall, Garth E; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the perceptions of preadolescent children (ages 9-11) regarding factors that influence and protect against power imbalance associated with covert aggression and bullying are explored. In aggression research, the term covert has been typically used to describe relational, indirect, and social acts of aggression that are hidden. These behaviors contrast with overt physical and verbal aggression. Children have previously conveyed their belief that covert aggression is harmful because adults do not see it even though children, themselves, are aware. We used focus groups to explore children's understanding of covert aggression and to identify children's experience and perception of adult support in relation to bullying. Thematic analysis supported the definition of covert aggression as that which is intentionally hidden from adults. Friendship, social exclusion, and secret from teacher were identified as factors that influence power imbalance, while support from friends and adult support protected against power imbalance.

  15. Aggressive behavior, protective factors and academic achievement at students inside and outside the system of institutional care

    OpenAIRE

    Maretić Edita; Sindik Joško

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors) in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a qu...

  16. Risk and protective factors for the development of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: results of the longitudinal BELLA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Otto, Christiane; Kriston, Levente; Patalay, Praveetha; Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Mental health problems in children and adolescents are frequent, with a high risk of persistence into adulthood. Therefore, the investigation of determinants of onset and course of mental health problems is of high importance. The present paper investigates the impact of protective and risk factors on the development of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KIGGS). Based on the first three measurement points of the BELLA study (covering a period of 2 years), the present analysis focused on children and adolescents aged 11-17 years at baseline (n = 1,643; 50.6 % female). A longitudinal growth modelling approach was used. Mental health problems in parents (parent-reports) predicted depressive symptoms in children and adolescents (self-reports) as well as the development of these symptoms over time. Further, child-reported protective factors of self-efficacy, positive family climate and social support were associated with less depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, positive changes in protective factors were associated with the development of less depressive symptoms over time. Finally, family climate and social support moderated the detrimental influence of parental psychopathology on child's depressive symptoms. The addressed determinants for the development of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents are highly relevant for prevention and intervention strategies. Future research should investigate specific risk and protective factors focusing in detail on further mental health disorders and their development in children and adolescents.

  17. Risk and protective factors for bullying victimization among AIDS-affected and vulnerable children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2010-10-01

    To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, streetchildren, and child-headed households. Using standardized scales, children reported on bullying victimization, psychological problems, and potential risk and protective factors at individual, peer, family, and community levels. 34% of children reported bullying victimization. Bullied children showed higher levels of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress, as well as higher levels of clinical-level disorder. Risk factors for being bullied were being a victim of physical or sexual abuse or domestic violence at home, living in a high-violence community, and experiencing AIDS-related stigma (independent of sociodemographic cofactors and child psychological disorder). Protective factors were sibling support and support from friends, although findings suggest that friendship groups may also be sources of bullying for AIDS-affected children. Bullying is an independent and important risk factor in child psychological distress in South Africa. Children victimized at home or in the community are more likely to be bullied, suggesting a cycle of violence. Those working with children in Southern Africa should be alert to risk of bullying, especially among abused or AIDS-affected children. Interventions combating community violence and AIDS-related stigma may have additional positive impacts on bullying, and promotion of peer and sibling support may reduce bullying victimization among high-risk children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroxin treatment protects against white matter injury in the immature brain via brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pi-Lien; Huang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Tu, Dom-Gene; Chang, Ying-Chao

    2013-08-01

    Low level of thyroid hormone is a strong independent risk factor for white matter (WM) injury, a major cause of cerebral palsy, in preterm infants. Thyroxin upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor during development. We hypothesized that thyroxin protected against preoligodendrocyte apoptosis and WM injury in the immature brain via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Postpartum (P) day-7 male rat pups were exposed to hypoxic ischemia (HI) and intraperitoneally injected with thyroxin (T4; 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or normal saline immediately after HI at P9 and P11. WM damage was analyzed for myelin formation, axonal injury, astrogliosis, and preoligodendrocyte apoptosis. Neurotrophic factor expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Neuromotor functions were measured using open-field locomotion (P11 and P21), inclined plane climbing (P11), and beam walking (P21). Intracerebroventricular injection of TrkB-Fc or systemic administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was performed. On P11, the HI group had significantly lower blood T4 levels than the controls. The HI group showed ventriculomegaly and marked reduction of myelin basic protein immunoreactivities in the WM. T4 (1 mg/kg) treatment after HI markedly attenuated axonal injury, astrocytosis, and microgliosis, and increased preoligodendrocyte survival. In addition, T4 treatment significantly increased myelination and selectively upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the WM, and improved neuromotor deficits after HI. The protective effect of T4 on WM myelination and neuromotor performance after HI was significantly attenuated by TrkB-Fc. Systemic 7,8-dihydroxyflavone treatment ameliorated hypomyelination after HI injury. T4 protects against WM injury at both pathological and functional levels via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling in the immature brain.

  19. The mental health of married immigrant women in South Korea and its risk and protective factors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeeun; Park, Subin

    2018-02-01

    Married immigrant women in South Korea undergo a wide array of psychosocial challenges in the process of adapting to a new culture and marriage with a Korean husband. For an integrative understanding of women's mental health status and to determine the key risk and protective factors, we systematically reviewed empirical articles about the mental health of married immigrant women. We searched and reviewed articles from nine online databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, KoreaMed and RISS, which were published up until January 2017. We identified 38 quantitative studies that examined psychiatric symptoms and pertinent factors for this population. The relative risks of psychiatric symptoms among married immigrant women varied across diverse samples. We summarized the associated factors existing prior to and after marriage migration that may moderate their mental health consequences. We identified five key risk factors: acculturative stress, country of origin, family stress, domestic violence and extended family structure, and two protective factors: social support and marriage satisfaction, which were consistently supported by the included studies. With the paucity of prospective studies, longitudinal research is needed that addresses the long-term processes of married immigrant women's psychological adaptation and the underlying risk and protective factors at diverse settlement phases. Furthermore, we suggest that future research should focus on how women's personal attributes interact with macro-level, socio-cultural contexts, including familial relationship and the community social-support system. Future evidence-based policy and interventions should comprehensively address married immigrant women's socio-cultural, economic and mental health needs.

  20. Growth differentiation factor 15 deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by attenuating CCR2-mediated macrophage chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, S.C.A.; Bermúdez, B.; Bot, I.; Koenen, R.R.; Bot, M.; Kavelaars, A.; de Waard, V.; Heijnen, C.J.; Muriana, F.J.G.; Weber, C.; van Berkel, T.J.C.; Kuiper, J.; Lee, S.J.; Abia, R.; Biessen, E.A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 is a member of the transforming growth factor. (TGF-beta) superfamily, which operates in acute phase responses through a currently unknown receptor. Elevated GDF-15 serum levels were recently identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. We show

  1. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Guillen Vicente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment.

  2. [The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact.

  3. Gratitude is associated with greater levels of protective factors and lower levels of risks in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L; Sly, Kaye

    2013-10-01

    The literature suggests gratitude is associated with positive youth development. The current study examined the relationship between gratitude and protective/risk factors among African American youth. Adolescents (N = 389; 50.4% males) ages 12-14 completed measures of gratitude (moral affect and life-orientation), protective factors (e.g., academic and activity engagement, family relationship), and high-risk behaviors (e.g., sexual attitudes and behaviors, drug/alcohol use). Results indicated greater moral affect gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with greater academic interest, better academic performance, and more extra-curricular activity engagement. Greater moral affect and life-orientation gratitude both significantly correlated with positive family relationship. Greater life-orientation gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with abstinence from sexual intimacy, sexual intercourse, likelihood of engaging in sex during primary school, and abstinence from drug/alcohol use. The findings suggest that moral affect gratitude may enhance protective factors while life-orientation gratitude may buffer against high-risk behaviors among African American youth. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of protective factors on resilience of grandparent carers fostering orphans and non-orphans in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaka-Mutepfa, Magen; Mpofu, Elias; Cumming, Robert

    2015-04-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of protective factors, health, and well-being on resilience of grandparents fostering orphans. Data were collected from grandparents (N = 327; M age = 62.4; SD = 11.2) in Zimbabwe using a survey instrument comprising the Resilience Scale and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression, predicting resilience from demographics, personal and social assets, health, and well-being. Protective factors associated with resilience were personal assets (high self-esteem, problem-solving skills, and mastery) and social assets (social networks and spirituality). Grandparents with higher coping skills, younger age, and high socioeconomic status (SES) had superior personal competences for resilience than peers with lower self-rated personal attributes. Grandparents with good physical and mental health had higher resilience profiles. Positive emotions and good health experienced by resilient grandparent carers function as protective factors to reduce the magnitude of adversity to individuals and assist them to cope well with caregiving. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Resilience and social support as protective factors against abuse of patients with dementia: A study on family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Lídia; Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Ruisoto, Pablo; Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Ramos, Francisco; Rivera-Navarro, Jesús

    2018-05-24

    Scientific literature has identified different vulnerability factors associated to abuse in people with dementia (PWD), but little is known about the psychosocial protective variables against abuse. The main objective of this study is to investigate a set of caregiver and patient factors linked to abuse-related behavior of PWD. A total of 326 primary and family caregivers, residents of the Castilla and León community (Spain), were evaluated. All participants filled out a standardized protocol, which assessed the sociodemographic characteristics, patient and care-related variables, as well as the perceived burden, resilience, and social support. Abuse-related behavior was evaluated using the Caregiver Abuse Screen. Results show that the severity of cognitive impairment and behavior disorders of PWD, a greater number of caregiving hours, a worse previous relationship with the caregiver, and perceived burden are positively related with abuse. However, resilience and social support showed a negative relationship with Caregiver Abuse Screen scores, suggesting a protective effect on abuse, even after controlling the effect of a number of covariates. Indeed, resilience was the only variable that remained significant after including the effect of burden. This paper states the role of burden in abuse of PWD, while resilience and social support are abuse protective factors. These variables should be considered in future guidelines for the prevention of abuse against PWD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Harm Reduction for Cannabis: Factor Analysis of a Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Kathleen S.; Wright, Bruce R.; Maarhuis, Patricia L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of a measure of cannabis-specific Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS), which assesses ways in which students may reduce cannabis-related risk. Participants: Respondents to the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (N = 580) during Spring 2015. Methods:…

  7. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application. METHODS: Seven areas were marked on the back of 24 volunteers. One area was phototested ...

  8. The quest for cross protective factors of Haemophilus parasuis using 2-D gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In swine, Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) infection causes polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis. A range of virulent to nonvirulent strains exists between and within the 15 serovars. Because of this, the pathogenicity and subsequent protection from H. parasuis disease has yet to be elucidated...

  9. Risk and protective factors associated with being a victim of aggression in the health sector. Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Parmigiani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: aggression against healthcare workers is an alarming issue worldwide. However, there is lack of data on psychological vulnerability factors (such as personality traits, attachment style which can constitute a risk or a protective factor for being a victim of an episode of violence in the health sector. Methods/design: the present protocol is a cross-sectional study on prevalence and characteristics of violent episodes experienced by nursing students in the clinical setting. Its aim is to identify risk and protective factors for becoming a victim of verbal and/or physical aggression among healthcare workers. Participants will undergo an intensive battery of psychometric tests, dealing with episodes of aggression in the previous year, attachment style, personality traits, perceived stress, health related quality of life and job strain. Conclusions: the findings derived from this study may be of value in identifying vulnerability factors in experiencing an episode of aggression in the health sector. In this respect, it is a step towards the development of valid training and support focused on health workers, aimed at teaching them how to modulate and manage their vulnerability factors in an efficient way.

  10. Connecting the Dots: State Health Department Approaches to Addressing Shared Risk and Protective Factors Across Multiple Forms of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Myers, Lindsey; Kuehl, Tomei; Bauman, Alice; Hertz, Marci

    2018-01-01

    Violence takes many forms, including intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child abuse and neglect, bullying, suicidal behavior, and elder abuse and neglect. These forms of violence are interconnected and often share the same root causes. They can also co-occur together in families and communities and can happen at the same time or at different stages of life. Often, due to a variety of factors, separate, “siloed” approaches are used to address each form of violence. However, understanding and implementing approaches that prevent and address the overlapping root causes of violence (risk factors) and promote factors that increase the resilience of people and communities (protective factors) can help practitioners more effectively and efficiently use limited resources to prevent multiple forms of violence and save lives. This article presents approaches used by 2 state health departments, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, to integrate a shared risk and protective factor approach into their violence prevention work and identifies key lessons learned that may serve to inform crosscutting violence prevention efforts in other states. PMID:29189502

  11. Connecting the Dots: State Health Department Approaches to Addressing Shared Risk and Protective Factors Across Multiple Forms of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Myers, Lindsey; Kuehl, Tomei; Bauman, Alice; Hertz, Marci

    Violence takes many forms, including intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child abuse and neglect, bullying, suicidal behavior, and elder abuse and neglect. These forms of violence are interconnected and often share the same root causes. They can also co-occur together in families and communities and can happen at the same time or at different stages of life. Often, due to a variety of factors, separate, "siloed" approaches are used to address each form of violence. However, understanding and implementing approaches that prevent and address the overlapping root causes of violence (risk factors) and promote factors that increase the resilience of people and communities (protective factors) can help practitioners more effectively and efficiently use limited resources to prevent multiple forms of violence and save lives. This article presents approaches used by 2 state health departments, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, to integrate a shared risk and protective factor approach into their violence prevention work and identifies key lessons learned that may serve to inform crosscutting violence prevention efforts in other states.

  12. Does possession of assets increase women's participation in reproductive decision-making? Perceptions of Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeje, Joachim C; Oshi, Sarah N; Oshi, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a population-based, descriptive questionnaire survey, the objective of which was to elicit the perceptions of women in south-eastern Nigeria on whether possession of economic/household assets by women enhanced their capacity to negotiate reproductive issues with their husbands. The findings show that the respondents believed that possession of economic/household assets by women in their communities might not necessarily increase their negotiation power in their reproductive decision-making. Other factors tend to attenuate the effects of women's possession of economic/household assets on their reproductive bargaining power. Notable among these may be social norms that implicitly arrogate control of the assets owned by the conjugal couple to the man, even when they are bought by the women. Planners of reproductive health intervention projects, policy-makers and researchers need to be aware of such sociocultural specific phenomena, which do not fit with widely held international beliefs.

  13. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers from 1990 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejdesgaard, Bo Andersen; Zøllner, Lilian; Jensen, Børge Frank; Jørgensen, Hans-Ole; Kähler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to identify risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers. Research on suicide among Danish veterans has only been conducted to a limited degree. The method applied was a questionnaire survey administered to a population of 1,264 Danish soldiers deployed from 1990 to 2009. The data were analyzed using backward logistic regression modeling in SAS 9.2. In the logistic regression analysis, the following were significant risk factors for suicidal ideation: drug abuse, a poor financial situation before deployment, a heavy workload and/or repatriation during deployment, and attending a poor athletic and recreation program after deployment. Significant protective factors against suicidal ideation were support from friends at home during deployment and appreciation by the general population after deployment. Significant risk factors for suicide attempts were an unhappy childhood and pointless tasks during deployment. No significant protective factors against suicide attempts were identified. On the basis of the results presented in this study, intervention against suicidal behavior would benefit from screening for certain childhood issues, drug abuse, and poor financial situation before deployment. During deployment, measures should be taken to minimize the amount of meaningless tasks and heavy workloads. At the same time, efficient ways of communicating with home should be ensured. After deployment, good athletic and recreation programs should be warranted for all military personnel-including repatriated soldiers. Finally, priority should be given to ensure public appreciation of what deployed soldiers accomplish. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. [Phrenic nerve stimulation protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction through myogenic regulatory factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, G H; Chen, M; Zhan, W F; Hu, B; Zhang, H X

    2018-02-12

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of electrical stimulation of phrenic nerve on diaphragmatic function during mechanical ventilation. Methods: Forty healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group (BC), spontaneous breathing group (SB), electrical stimulation group (ES), mechanical ventilation group (MV), and electrical stimulation and mechanical ventilation group (MS). The rats in each group were treated for 18 h except for the BC group. After treatment, the diaphragm muscle tissue was obtained and the diaphragm contractility including peak-to-peak value(Vpp) and maximum rate of contraction(+ dT/dt max) were measured. Expression of MyoD and myogenin were detected. Results: Except for the ES and the MS groups, there was a significant difference for peak-to-peak value (Vpp) between each 2 groups ( P mechanical ventilation induced diaphragmatic function damage, and therefore plays a protective effect on the diaphragm.

  15. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO 2 Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  16. Critical Factors for the Transition from Chromate to Chromate-Free Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-15

    ascorbate, glutathione, and L-cystine that lead to DNA damage [15, 16]. One mechanistic hypothesis for Cr6+-induced DNA damage entails a Fenton -type...to damage of DNA [17]. Alternative mechanisms to the Fenton -type interaction have been proposed by Lay et al. [18], who suggest that the DNA...underlying 2024-T3 core in maintenance operations where grinding-out of cosmetic corrosion surfaces is routine. Corrosion protection of the 2024-T3

  17. Factors that influence the realization of the constitutional – legal protection

    OpenAIRE

    Safet Emruli

    2018-01-01

    The constitutional justice system represents the main actor of the establishment and the harmonious functioning of true democracy, because it implies the spirit of the constitution, where the rules of democracy, rule of law and the protection of the rights and freedoms of the citizens are envisaged, is respected and implemented in real life. The constitutional justice, in fact, represents the key segment that guarantees the vitality and efficiency of the judicial order. As such, it emerged as...

  18. Understanding Factors that Influence Protective Glove Use among Automotive Spray Painters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4–5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4–5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6–8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4–5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the users’ difficulty to distinguish between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints; most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

  19. Fractalkine (CX3CL1, a new factor protecting β-cells against TNFα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that human islets express and secrete CX3CL1 and CX3CL1 impacts them by decreasing glucagon secretion without affecting insulin secretion. Moreover, CX3CL1 decreases basal apoptosis of human β-cells. We further demonstrate that CX3CL1 protects β-cells from the adverse effects of TNFα on their function by restoring the expression and phosphorylation of key proteins of the insulin secretion pathway.

  20. Maintaining Traditions: A Qualitative Study of Early Childhood Caries Risk and Protective Factors in an Indigenous Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ana; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Hargrave, Anita; Funsch, Elizabeth; Hoeft, Kristin S

    2017-08-11

    In lower middle-income economies (LMIE), the nutrition transition from traditional diets to sugary foods and beverages has contributed to widespread early childhood dental caries. This qualitative study explores perceived risk and protective factors, and overall experiences of early childhood nutrition and oral health in indigenous Ecuadorian families participating in a community-based oral health and nutrition intervention. Dental exams of 698 children age 6 months through 6 years determined each child's caries burden. A convenience sample of 18 "outlier" families was identified: low-caries children with ≤2 carious teeth vs. high-caries children with ≥10 carious teeth. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with parents/caregivers explored the child's diet, dental habits, and family factors related to nutrition and oral health. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed using grounded theory. In the high-caries families, proximity to highway and stores, consumption of processed-food, and low parental monitoring of child behavior were identified as risk factors for ECC (early childhood caries). In the low-caries families, protective factors included harvesting and consuming food from the family farm, remote geography, and greater parental monitoring of child behavior. The study results suggest that maintaining traditional family farms and authoritative parenting to avoid processed foods/drinks and ensure tooth brushing could improve early childhood nutrition and oral health.

  1. Risk Factor Knowledge, Perceived Threat, and Protective Health Behaviors: Implications for Type 2 Diabetes Control in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Bonnar, Kelly K; Black, David R; Coster, Daniel C

    2018-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how perceived threat of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is shaped by risk factor knowledge and promotes the engagement of protective health behaviors among rural adults. Methods Participants (N = 252) completed a cross-sectional mixed-mode survey. Chi-squared analyses were computed to examine differences in perceived threat by demographic factors and knowledge of T2D risk factors. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between T2D perceived threat and engagement in physical activity and health screenings. Results Perceived threat and knowledge of T2D risk factors were high. Perceived susceptibility was significantly higher among women, whites, and respondents with high body mass index (BMI). Respondents reporting physical activity most/almost every day had low perceived susceptibility to T2D. Perceived severity was significantly higher among respondents with high BMI. Blood cholesterol and glucose screenings were associated with greater T2D perceived susceptibility and severity. Higher BMI was associated with receiving a blood glucose screening. Conclusion Health education specialists and researchers should further explore the implications of using audience segmented fear appeal messages to promote T2D control through protective health behaviors.

  2. Possessive Pronouns in European Portuguese and Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring European Portuguese (EP data into light, showing that, in spite of the lack of morphological evidence, the syntactic behaviour of possessives, across EP dialects, shows evidences for a tripartite possessive system (Cardinaletti, 1998; Cardinaletti & Starke, 1999. It will be argued that the syntactic position of possessives parallels the positions assumed for EP sentential subjects in non interrogative contexts: [Spec, AgrsP], [Spec, TP] and [Spec, VP]. As a matter of fact, depending on their syntactic properties and assuming, as null hypothesis, that the nominal head moves to Numb'º', possessives may occur in [Spec, AgrsNP], [Spec, NumbP] and [Spec, NP]. Furthermore, would it be so, this dialectal variation would be useful in order to understand the changes that have occurred in other romance languages in previous stages. It might be the case that the loss of weak possessive forms (“mien” in French parallels, among other things, the lack of sentential subjects in [Spec, TP].

  3. The goalkeeper influence on ball possession effectiveness in futsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Vila Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which variables were the best predictors of success in futsal ball possession when controlling for space and task related indicators, situational variables and the participation of the goalkeeper as a regular field player or not (5 vs. 4 or 4 vs. 4. The sample consisted of 326 situations of ball possession corresponding to 31 matches played by a team from the Spanish Futsal League during the 2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 seasons. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from 10 ordered categorical variables were used. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, the highest ball possession effectiveness was achieved when the goalkeeper participated as a regular field player (p<0.01, the duration of the ball possession was less than 10 s (p<0.01, the ball possession ended in the penalty area (p<0.01 and the defensive pressure was low (p<0.01. The information obtained on the relative effectiveness of offensive playing tactics can be used to improve team’s goal-scoring and goal preventing abilities.

  4. The novel role of platelet-activating factor in protecting mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor (PAF has been long believed to be associated with many pathophysiological processes during septic shock. Here we present novel activities for PAF in protecting mice against LPS-mediated endotoxic shock. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vivo PAF treatment immediately after LPS challenge markedly improved the survival rate against mortality from endotoxic shock. Administration of PAF prominently attenuated LPS-induced organ injury, including profound hypotension, excessive polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, and severe multiple organ failure. In addition, PAF treatment protects against LPS-induced lymphocytes apoptosis. These protective effects of PAF was correlated with significantly decreases in the production of the inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma, while increasing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that PAF may protect mice against endotoxic shock via a complex mechanism involving modulation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators.

  5. Congenital factor XI and factor VII deficiencies assure an apparent opposite protection against arterial or venous thrombosis: An intriguing observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, A; Peroni, E; Girolami, B; Ferrari, S; Lombardi, A M

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and type of thrombotic events reported in patients with congenital factor XI (FXI) or factor VII (FVII) deficiency. Data on all patients with congenital FXI or FVII deficiency and a thrombotic event were gathered by means of a time unlimited PubMed search carried out in June 2014 and in February 2015. Appropriate keywords including the medical subject headings were used in both instances. Side tables were also consulted and cross-checking of the references was carried out to avoid omissions. The thrombosis event had to be proven by objective methods. Forty-three patients with FXI deficiency had arterial thrombosis and only eight had venous thrombosis. On the contrary, only five patients with FVII deficiency had arterial thrombosis whereas 31 patients had venous thrombosis. The arterial/venous ratios were 5.37 and 0.17 for FXI or FVII, respectively. Arterial thrombosis is frequent in FXI deficiency whereas venous thrombosis is rare. The reverse is true for FVII deficiency. The significance of these findings is discussed especially in view of the recent use of synthetic anti-FXI compounds in the prophylaxis of post-orthopedic surgery of venous thrombosis complications.

  6. High serum uric acid levels are a protective factor against unfavourable neurological functional outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fang; Li, Jiao-Xing; Sun, Xun-Sha; Lai, Rong; Sheng, Wen-Li

    2018-05-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid levels at the onset and prognostic outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Methods We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 1166 patients with ischaemic stroke who were hospitalized in our centre during August 2008 to November 2012. Correlations of serum uric acid levels and prognostic outcomes were analysed. Results Men had higher serum uric acid levels and better neurological functional outcomes compared with women. There was a strong negative correlation between serum uric acid levels and unfavourable neurological functional outcomes. Generalized estimated equation analysis showed that a higher serum uric acid level (>237 µmol/L) was a protective factor for neurological functional outcome in male, but not female, patients. Among five trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification subtypes, only patients with the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype had a significant protective effect of serum uric acid levels on neurological outcome. Conclusions Our study shows that high serum uric acid levels are a significant protective factor in men and in the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype in patients with ischaemic stroke. This is helpful for determining the prognostic value of serum uric acid levels for neurological outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.

  7. Genetic and environmental overlap between borderline personality disorder traits and psychopathy: evidence for promotive effects of factor 2 and protective effects of factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E; Bornovalova, M A; Patrick, C J

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported strong genetic and environmental overlap between antisocial-externalizing (factor 2; F2) features of psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) tendencies. However, this line of research has yet to examine etiological associations of affective-interpersonal (factor 1, F1) features of psychopathy with BPD tendencies. The current study investigated differential phenotypic and genetic overlap of psychopathy factors 1 and 2 with BPD tendencies in a sample of over 250 male and female community-recruited adult twin pairs. Consistent with previous research, biometric analyses revealed strong genetic and non-shared environmental correlations of F2 with BPD tendencies, suggesting that common genetic and non-shared environmental factors contribute to both phenotypes. In contrast, negative genetic and non-shared environmental correlations were observed between F1 and BPD tendencies, indicating that the genetic factors underlying F1 serve as protective factors against BPD. No gender differences emerged in the analyses. These findings provide further insight into associations of psychopathic features - F1 as well as F2 - and BPD tendencies. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed, along with how psychopathic traits may differentially influence the manifestation of BPD tendencies.

  8. Differences in risk and protective factors for workplace aggression between male and female clinical medical practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Danny J

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in prevalence, as well as risk and protective factors, for exposure to workplace aggression between male and female clinicians in Australian medical practice settings. Methods In a cross-sectional, self-report study in the third wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life survey (2010-11), 16327 medical practitioners were sampled, with 9449 (57.9%) respondents working in clinical practice. Using backward stepwise elimination, parsimonious logistic regression models were developed for exposure to aggression from external (patients, patients' relatives or carers and others) and internal (co-workers) sources in the previous 12 months. Results Overall, greater proportions of female than male clinicians experienced aggression from external (Pworkplace aggression between male and female clinicians, including in relation to state and rural location, need to be considered in the development and implementation of efforts to prevent and minimise workplace aggression in medical practice settings. What is known about the topic? Workplace aggression is prevalent in clinical medical settings, but there are conflicting reports about sex-based differences in the extent of exposure, and little evidence on differences in risk and protective factors for exposure to workplace aggression. What does this paper add? Differences in workplace aggression exposure rates between male and female clinicians are highlighted, including when stratified by doctor type. New evidence is reported on differences and similarities in key personal, professional and work-related factors associated with exposure to external and internal aggression. What are the implications for practitioners? In developing strategies for the prevention and minimisation of workplace aggression, consideration must be given to differences between male and female clinicians, including with regard to personality, age and professional

  9. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR GASTRIC METAPLASIA AND CANCER: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco

    2015-09-01

    worldwide, stomach cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer, with 952 000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Ecuador currently holds the 15th place of countries with the highest incidence of stomach cancer for both sexes. the objective of this study was to evaluate risk and protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia. a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador. Cases were defined as patients with histological confirmation of gastric cancer (N = 60) or incomplete gastric metaplasia (N = 53). Controls were defined as patients free of gastric cancer or premalignant lesions (N = 144). All participants were personally interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect data about dietary habits, lifestyle and medical history. risk factors significantly associated to the presence of gastric cancer/metaplasia were the consumption of reheated foods at least 3 times per week (AOR: 4.57; CI: 2.2 - 9.5) and adding salt to more than 50% of foods (AOR: 1.32; CI: 1.04 - 1.67). Protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia were the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (AOR: 0.39; CI 0.19 - 0.83), age less than 58 years old (AOR: 0.38; CI: 0.18 - 0.79) and have received treatment for H. Pylori infection (AOR: 0.33; CI: 0.16 - 0.71). this study reports for the first time, the risk and protective factors associated with gastric cancer and metaplasia in Ecuador. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. A conceptual model of psychosocial risk and protective factors for excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Herring, Sharon J; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Gale, Janette

    2013-02-01

    nearly half of all women exceed the guideline recommended pregnancy weight gain for their Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is correlated positively with postpartum weight retention and is a predictor of long-term, higher BMI in mothers and their children. Psychosocial factors are generally not targeted in GWG behaviour change interventions, however, multifactorial, conceptual models that include these factors, may be useful in determining the pathways that contribute to excessive GWG. We propose a conceptual model, underpinned by health behaviour change theory, which outlines the psychosocial determinants of GWG, including the role of motivation and self-efficacy towards healthy behaviours. This model is based on a review of the existing literature in this area. there is increasing evidence to show that psychosocial factors, such as increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, lower self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, are associated with excessive GWG. What is less known is how these factors might lead to excessive GWG. Our conceptual model proposes a pathway of factors that affect GWG, and may be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions impact on weight management during pregnancy. This involves tracking the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors, including body image concerns, motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours, confidence in adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours for the purposes of weight management, and actual behaviour changes. health-care providers may improve weight gain outcomes in pregnancy if they assess and address psychosocial factors in pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Satisfaction with life of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a study of possible protection and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, Ana; Presentacion-Herrero, M Jesús; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló, Belén

    2011-03-01

    Positive psychology has boosted interest about the study of factors of adjustment, among which is included satisfaction with life. To analyze the relationship between satisfaction with life of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents with behavioral risk and protective variables, and to determine the predictive power of these variables. 56 parents and their children with ADHD filled out questionnaires of satisfaction with life, self-concept, sense of coherence, success attributes and behavioral rating scales. Behavioral problems have a significant negative relationship with satisfaction with life perceived by parents and by children while the relationships with the self-concept and success attributes have a positive value. The most predictive factors were social problems, oppositional behavior, self-concept, self-awareness and social support. The identification of factors that put at risk or enhance satisfaction with life of people with ADHD will improve the functionality of evaluation and intervention processes.

  12. An investigation of bergmounds as analogs to erosion control factors on protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    Included in several of the final disposal strategies proposed in the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (DOE-RL 1986a) is design of a protective barrier to isolate the underlying waste sites from the environment. The conceptual protective barrier design requires a fine-grained sediment to retain precipitation near the top of the barrier where evapotranspiration can recycle the moisture back into the atmosphere. The design incorporates gravel into the topsoil as one way to reduce its erosion. Information is needed to determine the optimal ratio of gravel to topsoil needed to reduce erosion without significantly reducing evapotranspiration, and its effect on erosion. Bergmounds are mounds with a gravelly surface that were formed about 13,000 years ago and represent natural analogs to the topsoil portion of the protective barrier. The primary goal of this study was to identify characteristics of bergmounds and the effects of these characteristics, especially the gravelly surface, on the amount and rate of erosion. A secondary goal was to apply a technique normally used to estimate vegetation cover to measure percent gravel cover, and to compare this technique with particle size distribution based on weight percent. Four bergmounds were investigated for this study, two in a windy site and two in a more sheltered site. Each bergmound was sampled in eight locations. Two methods were used to estimate the amount of surface gravel: the ocular point-intercept method which estimates the percent gravel cover, and sieved samples of the surface sediments which measure the percent gravel by weight. Holes were dug at each bergmound's eight sampling sites to examine and sample the subsurface sediments

  13. Socio-Structural Barriers, Protective Factors, and HIV Risk Among Central-Asian Female Migrants in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zabrocki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to build formative knowledge on socio-structural barriers, protective factors, and HIV sexual risk amongst Central-Asian female migrants in Moscow. Methods: Data collection included ethnographic interviews in Moscow with a purposive sample of 30 unmarried female migrants, 15 from Kyrgyzstan and 15 from Tajikistan. Results: Study participants reported difficulties with acquiring documents for legal status, financial insecurity, discrimination, sexual harassment, and lack of support. Based on analysis of the cases, one pathway linked lack of legal documentation and instrumental support with elevated sexual risk. Another pathways linked traditional cultural attitudes with both no and moderate sexual risk. Conclusion: Future HIV prevention efforts with Central Asian female migrants in Moscow should be multilevel and include: increasing HIV and prevention knowledge and skills, promoting condom use with regular partners, identifying and supporting cultural attitudes that protect against HIV sexual risk behaviors, facilitating legal status, building community support, and increasing economic options.

  14. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbag, M Alison; Pedersen, Nancy L; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13-0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.

  15. Protective and compensatory factors mitigating the influence of deviant friends on delinquent behaviours during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Vitaro, Frank; Wanner, Brigitte; Brendgen, Mara

    2007-02-01

    This study examined factors that could moderate or compensate the link between exposure to deviant friends and delinquent behaviours in a sample of 265 early adolescents. The putative moderating or compensatory factors referred to the behavioural domain (i.e. novelty seeking, harm avoidance), the biological domain (i.e. physical maturation), the sociofamily domain (i.e. sociofamily adversity, parental practices), the school domain (i.e. academic performance), and the social domain (i.e. peer acceptance). A series of regression analyses showed that novelty seeking and puberty status moderated the link between friends' self-reported delinquency and participants' self-reported delinquency. In addition, all the factors except peer acceptance also had main effects that, cumulatively, reduced the association between friends' delinquency and self-rated delinquency through compensatory main effects. These results are discussed in light of the differential roles of moderating and of compensatory factors.

  16. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv......Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described...... it was withdrawn. After cessation of CNTF treatment, inflammation and symptoms returned to control levels. However, slight but significantly higher numbers of oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells, axons, and neurons were observed in mice that had been treated with high concentrations of CNTF. Our results show...

  17. A review of protective factors and causal mechanisms that enhance the mental health of Indigenous Circumpolar youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Petrasek MacDonald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . To review the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Study design . A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed English-language research was conducted to systematically examine the protective factors and causal mechanisms which promote and enhance Indigenous youth mental health in the Circumpolar North. Methods . This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines, with elements of a realist review. From 160 records identified in the initial search of 3 databases, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for full review. Data were extracted using a codebook to organize and synthesize relevant information from the articles. Results . More than 40 protective factors at the individual, family, and community levels were identified as enhancing Indigenous youth mental health. These included practicing and holding traditional knowledge and skills, the desire to be useful and to contribute meaningfully to one's community, having positive role models, and believing in one's self. Broadly, protective factors at the family and community levels were identified as positively creating and impacting one's social environment, which interacts with factors at the individual level to enhance resilience. An emphasis on the roles of cultural and land-based activities, history, and language, as well as on the importance of social and family supports, also emerged throughout the literature. Conclusions . Healthy communities and families foster and support youth who are resilient to mental health challenges and able to adapt and cope with multiple stressors, be they social, economic, or environmental. Creating opportunities and environments where youth can successfully navigate challenges and enhance their resilience can in turn contribute to fostering healthy Circumpolar communities. Looking at the

  18. Risk and protective factors for relapse among individuals with schizophrenia: a qualitative study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariah, Adellah E; Outwater, Anne H; Malima, Khadija I Y

    2014-08-30

    Relapse in people with schizophrenia is a major challenge for mental health service providers in Tanzania and other countries. Approximately 10% of people with schizophrenia are re-admitted due to relapse at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) Psychiatric Unit each month. Relapse brings about negative effects and it results in a huge burden to patients, their families, the mental health sector and the country's economy. So far no study has been done to address relapse in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to explore perspectives on risk and protective factors influencing relapse of people with schizophrenia and their caregivers attending Muhimbili National Hospital Psychiatric Out-patient Department, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative study was conducted, involving in-depth interviews of seven people with schizophrenia who are out-patients and their seven family caregivers at MNH. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select participants for the study. Audio recorded in-depth interviews in Swahili language were conducted with all study participants. The recorded information was transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 9 computer assisted qualitative data analysis software. Personal risk and protective factors for relapse, environmental risk and protective factors for relapse and suggestions to reduce relapse were the main themes that emerged from this study. People with schizophrenia and their caregivers (all of whom were relatives) perceived non adherence to antipsychotic medication as a leading risk factor of relapse; other risks included poor family support, stressful life events and substance use. Family support, adherence to antipsychotic medication, employment and religion were viewed as protective factors. Participants suggested strengthening mental health psycho-education sessions and community home visits conducted by mental health nurses to help reduce relapse. Other suggestions included strengthening the nurse-patient therapeutic relationship in

  19. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reasons for living and hope as the protective factors against suicidality in Chinese patients with depression: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingwei; Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiang; Cai, Taisheng

    2016-07-20

    The risk factors of suicidal ideation and attempts have been discussed in many researches. Few studies have examined reasons for living and hope as protective factors against suicide in a clinical population. It is unclear if these factors help to reduce suicide rates in patients with depression. The study aimed to assess the role of reasons for living and hope in the identification and reduction of suicidality and explore the influence of reasons for living or hope in the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts. Patients with depression (N = 115) completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Reasons for Living Inventory, and Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. There were significant correlations among depression, hope, total reasons for living, and suicidal ideation and attempts. Further, after controlling for depression, reasons for living and hope had significant main effects on suicidal ideation. Hope also had a significant predictive effect in the transition of suicidal ideation to suicide attempt. We concluded that reasons for living and hope may protect against suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with depression. Especially hope could reduce the possibility of suicide attempt.

  1. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and PTSD symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model predicting an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study utilizing direct parent-child observations of father’s parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for viral exposure in rural dogs around protected areas of the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; de Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria; Soriano-Araújo, Amanda; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia; Passamani, Marcelo

    2016-01-28

    Despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological features and the risk factors involved in pathogen exposure of dogs that live in human/wildlife interfaces and actually contacts wildlife. Through a cross-sectional serological approach and questionnaire survey, we assessed the prevalence along with individual and environment-associated risk factors for four important viral diseases of rural dogs living in households around six Atlantic Forest fragments in southeast Brazil. Widespread exposure to canine parvovirus (97%), canine distemper virus (15%) and canine adenovirus (27%) was detected, but none for canine coronavirus. Dogs from small private reserves were more exposed to parvovirus and canine distemper virus than those from larger state parks. Exposure was associated with dog sex and age, lack of health care and the number of people in the households. Remarkably, factors linked to free-ranging behaviour of dogs were associated with the exposure for all pathogens detected. According to identified associations, reducing viral pathogen exposure in dogs will require inhibiting dog's movements and access to nearby forests and villages and improving veterinary assistance. Promoting dog vaccination and population control through sterilization around protected areas is also necessary. The study provides support for preventive management actions aimed to protect the health of rural dogs, and consequently of Atlantic Forest's wild carnivores.

  3. Future Directions in Research on Racism-Related Stress and Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-01-01

    Research on racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors represents an important enterprise for optimizing the mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth. However, there has been a relative dearth of work on these factors in the clinical psychology research literature, and more work is needed in outlets such as these. To this end, the current article adopts a developmental psychopathology framework and uses recent empirical findings to outline our current understanding of racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors (i.e., racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) for African American youth. We then provide nine recommendations-across basic, applied, and broader/cross-cutting research lines-that we prioritize as essential to advancing the future scientific investigation of this crucial research agenda. Within and across these recommendations, we issue a charge to researchers and clinicians alike, with the ultimate goal of alleviating the negative mental health impact that racism-related stress can have on the well-being and mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth.

  4. Educational and emotional health outcomes in adolescence following maltreatment in early childhood: A population-based study of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambati, Nisreen; Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan

    2018-07-01

    Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years. 1118 (8.0%) children were emotionally maltreated and 375 (2.7%) were physically maltreated before the age of 5. There were too few cases of sexual abuse to be considered. Positive outcomes were operationalized as achieving 5 or more grade A*-C GCSE exam grades at 16 years and scores above the cohort median on the self-report Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and Bachmann Self-Esteem Scale at 17.5 years. The associations of individual, family and community covariates with successful adaptation to the adversity of maltreatment were investigated using logistic regression. School related factors, including engagement in extracurricular activities, satisfaction with school and not being bullied were the most important in facilitating resilience in educational attainment, self-esteem and wellbeing. Good communication and social skills was the most protective individual trait. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that family factors were associated with resilience to maltreatment. School-based interventions are recommended to promote positive adaptation following parental maltreatment. Future research should evaluate outcomes across the life-course to understand whether the protective influences of school persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  6. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  7. Protective factors of suicidal ideation in 50 Women From Prison: “Villa Cristina”-Armenia-Quindío (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a form of death that constitutes a major health problem. This paper aims at determining the protective factors of suicide in 50 women deprived of liberty, the prison "Villa Cristina" in Armenia, Quindio, to this end, we used a descriptive-quantitative model of cross section. The results of the climb "Reasons for Living Inventory ¨ (RFL, show a prevalence of 20% in the survival and coping skills, 19% in family responsibility and concern for children, as well, fear suicide (12%, social disapproval (12% and moral objections (18%.

  8. Experimentally Induced Gluten Enteropathy and Protective Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor in Artificially Fed Neonatal Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Renata; Kofroňová, Olga; Tučková, Ludmila; Kozáková, Hana; Cebra, J. J.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2003), s. 96-104 ISSN 0277-2116 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/1370; GA ČR GA310/00/1373; GA ČR GA303/01/1380; GA ČR GA310/01/0933; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR IBS5020203; GA AV ČR IAA5020101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : epidermal growth factor * celiac disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.402, year: 2003

  9. [The limitation of glucose catabolism as a factor in protection during hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbello, A T; Vishvtseva, V V; Denisenko, P P; Safonova, A F; Dobrokhotova, E G

    1995-01-01

    Violuric acid was first shown to have antihypoxic and antioxidative properties, to exert protective action in sodium nitrite-induced hemic hypoxia. Hepatic glucose and glucogen levels increased, the activity of glucose-6- phosphodihydrogenase enhanced, while that of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase decreased, the content of cAMP restored, whereas cGMP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels decreased to a greater extent. The action of violuric acid was especially evident at the ultrastructural level-the ultrastructure of brush receptor elements in anoxia in the presence of violuric acid's action retained all the features characteristic for intact animals, which was accompanied by a significant accumulation of glycogen in the neuroplasm.

  10. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  11. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  12. Licenses for possessing and applying radioactive sources, materials, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial and governmental institutions have been licensed by Dutch authorities to possess and apply radioactive sources, materials, etc. A summary is given and the list is subdivided into a number of sections such as radioactive sources, radioactive materials, X-ray equipment and technetium-generators

  13. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504 Section 308.504 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.504 Definition of territories and...

  14. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  15. An Examination of the Protective Factors That Facilitate Motivation and Educational Attainment among Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 400,000 foster youth. The state of California accounts for approximately 20% percent of youth placed in the foster care system. As a whole, this population is exposed to a multitude of risk factors while placed in the foster care system and as they emancipate. Re-victimization is not uncommon as youth…

  16. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  17. Career motivation and burnout among medical students in Hungary - could altruism be a protection factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Birkás, Emma; Sándor, Imola

    2016-07-18

    Burnout is a major issue among medical students. Its general characteristics are loss of interest in study and lack of motivation. A study of the phenomenon must extend beyond the university environment and personality factors to consider whether career choice has a role in the occurrence of burnout. Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, using a 12-item career motivation list compiled from published research results and a pilot study. We measured burnout by the validated Hungarian version of MBI-SS. The most significant career choice factor was altruistic motivation, followed by extrinsic motivations: gaining a degree, finding a job, accessing career opportunities. Lack of altruism was found to be a major risk factor, in addition to the traditional risk factors, for cynicism and reduced academic efficacy. Our study confirmed the influence of gender differences on both career choice motivations and burnout. The structure of career motivation is a major issue in the transformation of the medical profession. Since altruism is a prominent motivation for many women studying medicine, their entry into the profession in increasing numbers may reinforce its traditional character and act against the present trend of deprofessionalization.

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to Depressive Symptoms in Vietnamese American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Mary

    2011-01-01

    With the demographic shifts the United States faces, understanding the contributing factors to mental well-being among minority college students is crucial. This study examines the roles of parental and peer attachment, intergenerational conflict, and perceived racial discrimination on depressive symptoms while also analyzing the mediational role…

  19. Microglia protect neurons against ischemia by synthesis of tumor necrosis factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Babcock, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Microglia and infiltrating leukocytes are considered major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a crucial player in cerebral ischemia and brain inflammation. We have identified a neuroprotective role for microglial-derived TNF in cerebral ischemia in mice. We show that cortical...

  20. Gender Differences in Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David

    2013-01-01

    The correlates and predictors of suicidal ideation were examined in 303 male and 691 female undergraduates. Results indicated that hopelessness predicted suicidal ideation in both samples; however, depression was found to be a significant suicide risk factor only in women. In contrast, alcohol-related problems and social support from family…

  1. Relationship of Social Network to Protective Factors in Suicide and Alcohol Use Disorder Intervention for Rural Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Philip

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide and alcohol use disorders are significant Alaska Native health disparities, yet there is limited understanding of protection and no studies about social network factors in protection in this or other populations. The Qungasvik intervention enhances protective factors from suicide and alcohol use disorders through activities grounded in Yupik cultural practices and values. Identification of social network factors associated with protection within the cultural context of these tight, close knit, and high density rural Yupik Alaska Native communities in southwest Alaska can help identify effective prevention strategies for suicide and alcohol use disorder risk. Using data from ego-centered social network and protective factors from suicide and alcohol use disorders surveys with 50 Yupik adolescents, we provide descriptive data on structural and network composition variables, identify key network variables that explain major proportions of the variance in a four principal component structure of these network variables, and demonstrate the utility of these key network variables as predictors of family and community protective factors from suicide and alcohol use disorder risk. Connections to adults and connections to elders, but not peer connections, emerged as predictors of family and community level protection, suggesting these network factors as important intervention targets for intervention.

  2. Composite protective lifestyle factors and risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2017-02-28

    Incidence of gastric cancer is the highest in Eastern Asia. Multiple modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified as risk factors for gastric cancer. However, their aggregated effect on the risk of gastric cancer has not been examined among populations with high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. A study was conducted to examine the association between multiple lifestyle factors together and the risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63 257 men and women between 45 and 74 years enroled during 1993-1998. Composite score of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, dietary pattern, and sodium intake at baseline was assessed with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of gastric adenocarcinoma using Cox regression method. Higher healthy composite lifestyle scores were significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a dose-dependent manner. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total, cardia, and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma for the highest (score 5) vs lowest composite score (score 0/1/2) were 0.42 (0.31-0.57), 0.22 (0.10-0.47), and 0.55 (0.39-0.78), respectively (all P trend <0.001). These lifestyles together accounted for 48% of total gastric adenocarcinoma cases in the study population. The inverse association was observed in both genders, and remained after exclusion of first 5 years of follow-up. The inverse association between the aggregated healthy lifestyle factors and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma is in dose-dependent manner in this highly H. pylori-exposed population. These lifestyle factors together may account for up to half of disease burden in this study population.

  3. Understanding Factors Associated with Singaporean Adolescents' Intention to Adopt Privacy Protection Behavior Using an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Lwin, May O; Yee, Andrew Z H; Lee, Edmund W J

    2017-09-01

    Using an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explores how the original TPB variables (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), personality traits, privacy concern, past privacy protection behaviors (PPBs), as well as parental mediation strategies relate to adolescents' intention to engage in privacy protection measures. We administered a cross-sectional survey to a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 4,920) in Singapore. The sample comprised 50.5 percent females and 49.5 percent males with age ranging from 13 to 21 years (M = 14.73). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the proposed extended TPB model received partial support. Subjective norms, among the TPB and other factors, have the strongest relationship with adolescents' intention to engage in PPBs on social network sites. Adolescents' privacy concern and their past PPBs are more important in influencing their future PPB compared with personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion. Adolescents whose parents have engaged in regulated parental mediation are more likely to protect their privacy on SNSs compared with adolescents whose parents have adopted active mediation style.

  4. Family obligation values and family assistance behaviors: protective and risk factors for Mexican-American adolescents' substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent substance use is one of today's most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family.

  5. Family Obligation Values and Family Assistance Behaviors: Protective and Risk Factors for Mexican-American Adolescents’ Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is one of today’s most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family. PMID:23532598

  6. Factors affecting anastomotic leak after colorectal anastomosis in patients without protective stoma in tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Chawla, T.; Zaidi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors associated with clinically significant anastomotic leak in patients having undergone large intestinal anastomosis. Method: The retrospective study at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, comprised data between January 2000 and March 2010, related to patients who underwent colorectal anastomosis. Demographic details of the patients, as well as preop, intraop and postop risk factors were recorded. Anastomotic leak was identified as per the defined criteria. Outcome of patients was recorded as postop hospital stay and mortality. Univariate and Multivariate analyses were applied to identify risk factors for anastomotic leakage. Results: Among the total 127 patients in the study, anastomotic leak occurred in 19 (15%) patients (Group 1), while there was no clinical leak in 108 (85%) patients (Group 2). Univariate analysis showed 8 factors to be affecting the anastomotic leak: operation time (p=0.003), intraoperative blood loss (p=0.006), intraoperative blood transfusion (p=0.013), indication of surgery malignancy vs. benign (p=0.049), type of surgery elective vs. emergency (p=0.037), intraop use of vasopressor (p=0.019), segment of bowel anastomosed left side vs. right side (p=0.012), and drain placement vs. no drain placed (p=0.035). Preop immunosuppressive therapy was borderline significant (p=0.089). Multivariate analysis showed that left vs. right sided anastomosis (p=0.068), blood transfusion >2 pack cells (p=0.028), smoker vs. non-smoker (p=0.049), elective vs. emergency surgery (p=0.012) were the independent risk factors which significantly affected the outcome of bowel anastomosis. Mortality rate was 15.79% (n=3/19) in Group 1, while it was 1.85% (n=2/108) in Group 2 (p=0.02). The postop hospital stay was 15+-5.44 days in Group 1, while it was 7.51+-4.04 days in Group 2 (p>0.001). Conclusion: In colorectal anastomotic surgeries temporary diversion stoma formation needs to be considered on the basis of risk factors to

  7. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly V Ruggles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  8. The impact of social and organizational factors on workers' use of personal protective equipment: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Grøgaard, Jens B; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne

    2005-08-01

    On the basis of the job demands-control-support model by Karasek and Theorell, we investigated how social and organizational factors influence workers' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1420 workers in 203 motor vehicle-repair garages. Multilevel modeling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Social and management support correlated positively with PPE use at the worker level. Low demands measured at the garage level and having a health and safety management system at the garage also correlated with active use of PPE. An interaction effect between social support and garage-level demands was observed. In addition to health information and provision of PPE, focusing on social and organizational factors seems necessary to get more workers to comply with the instructions on PPE use.

  9. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects mice during respiratory virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Hermesh

    Full Text Available A burst in the production of pro-inflammatory molecules characterizes the beginning of the host response to infection. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors work in concert to control pathogen replication and activate innate and adaptive immune responses. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF mobilizes and activates hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow, and it has been shown to mediate the generation of effective immunity against bacterial and fungal infections. G-CSF is produced at high levels in the lungs during infection with influenza and parainfluenza viruses, but its role during these infections is unknown. Here we show that during infection of mice with a non-lethal dose of influenza or Sendai virus, G-CSF promotes the accumulation of activated Ly6G+ granulocytes that control the extent of the lung pro-inflammatory response. Remarkably, these G-CSF-mediated effects facilitate viral clearance and sustain mouse survival.

  10. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Joanna; Viner, Russell M; Coen, Pietro G; Stuart, James M; Zambon, Maria; Peckham, Catherine; Booth, Clare; Klein, Nigel; Kaczmarski, Ed; Booy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents. Design: Prospective, population based, matched cohort study with controls matched for age and sex in 1:1 matching. Controls were sought from the general practitioner. Setting: Six contiguous regions of England, which represent some 65% of the country’s population. Participants: 15-19 year olds with meningococcal disease recruited at hospital admission in six regions (repr...

  11. Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination.

  12. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  13. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  14. Non-radiological factors and decision making on the radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, A.

    2002-01-01

    'Non-radiological factors' can cover both physical and non-physical issues. As far as physical issues are concerned, the appropriate course is not to forget that radioactive substances have to be considered in the same way as other substances in respect of their non-radioactive properties. 'Damage to amenities' and 'interference with legitimate uses of the sea' are long-standing descriptions of the non-physical aspects of marine pollution and degradation. A framework for a taxonomy of the interests involved in such aspects is suggested, using the three dimensions of the degree of linkage to the marine environment, the nature of the interaction with the marine environment, and the economic nature of the interest concerned. Questions of remoteness also arise. A multi-dimensional analysis of the risks to the interests concerned is suggested. The dimension of 'public response' is particularly significant for the non-physical aspects of marine pollution and degradation. This dimension is complex, being influenced by 'fright factors' and subject to media amplification. These influences can include special local economic circumstances and past experiences. Finally, the process for integrating physical and non-physical factors is examined. Early consideration is recommended of how to achieve a transparent presentation of the issues and the way in which decisions are to be taken. (author)

  15. The importance of family factors to protect against substance use related problems among Mexican heritage and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopak, Albert M; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the ability of family cohesion, parental control, and parent-child attachment to prevent adolescents with a history of drug or alcohol use from experiencing subsequent problems related to their use. Data came from Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and included Mexican heritage and White adolescents who reported alcohol use (n = 4894, 25% prevalence) or any other drug use (n = 2875, 14% prevalence) in their lifetime. Logistic regression results indicate greater parent-child attachment predicted lower risk of experiencing drug use problems (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98) while stronger family cohesion predicted lower odds of experiencing drug- (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.97) or alcohol-related (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.65-0.84) problems. Parental control was also negatively associated with odds of problems related to drug use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-0.99) or alcohol use (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99). Results also indicated family cohesion was the only protective factor for Mexican heritage youth while family cohesion and parent-child attachment were protective among White youth. Parental control protected White female adolescents from drug use problems more than males. Mexican heritage male adolescents experienced more protection from drug problems compared to females. Findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to emphasize parent-child attachment for White youth and family cohesion for both Mexican-heritage and White youth to decrease adolescent substance users' drug- and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Importance of Family Factors to Protect Against Substance Use Related Problems among Mexican Heritage and White Youth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopak, Albert M.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study examined the ability of family cohesion, parental control, and parent-child attachment to prevent adolescents with a history of drug or alcohol use from experiencing subsequent problems related to their use. METHODS Data came from Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and included Mexican heritage and White adolescents who reported alcohol use (n = 4,894, 25% prevalence) or any other drug use (n = 2,875, 14% prevalence) in their lifetime. RESULTS Logistic regression results indicate greater parent-child attachment predicted lower risk of experiencing drug use problems (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77 – 0.98) while stronger family cohesion predicted lower odds of experiencing drug- (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70 – 0.97) or alcohol-related (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.65 – 0.84) problems. Parental control was also negatively associated with odds of problems related to drug use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 – 0.99) or alcohol use (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 – 0.99). Results also indicated family cohesion was the only protective factor for Mexican heritage youth while family cohesion and parent-child attachment were protective among White youth. Parental control protected White female adolescents from drug use problems more than males. Mexican heritage male adolescents experienced more protection from drug problems compared to females. CONCLUSION Findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to emphasize parent-child attachment for White youth and family cohesion for both Mexican-heritage and White youth to decrease adolescent substance users’ drug- and alcohol-related problems. PMID:22222253

  17. Parenting styles as a tobacco-use protective factor among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondowski, Cláudia S; Bedendo, André; Zuquetto, Carla; Locatelli, Danilo P; Opaleye, Emérita S; Noto, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use (previous month and frequent use), parenting styles and parental smoking behavior in a sample of high school students. Participants were recruited from public and private high schools from 27 Brazilian state capitals (N = 17,246). The overall prevalence of tobacco use in life was 25.2%; 15.3% in the previous year; 8.6% in the previous month; and 3.2% for frequent use. Tobacco use by the parents was reported by 28.6% of the students. Regarding parenting styles, 39.2% were classified as negligent, 33.3% authoritative, 15.6% as indulgent and 11.9% authoritarian. Compared to adolescents with authoritative parents, those with negligent or indulgent parents were more prone to report tobacco use during the last month or frequent use. This study showed an association between parenting styles and tobacco use by high school students. Authoritative parents were associated with protection from frequent and previous month tobacco use among adolescents.

  18. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  19. Patterns of Bullying and Sexual Harassment: Connections with Parents and Teachers as Direct Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer L; Gower, Amy L; Rudi, Jessie H; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-11-01

    Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age  = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.

  20. Risk and protective factors in children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, T M; McGuinness, J P; Dyer, J G

    2000-01-01

    The former Soviet Union (including the present independent republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, and Georgia) is the leading source of children adopted from overseas by persons in the United States (US Department of State, 1998). This study sought to (a) characterize the current social, academic, and conduct competencies of 6- to 9-year-old children adopted from the former Soviet Union who have resided in the United States for at least 2 years and (b) evaluate both risks and protective influences of adoptive families and their relationships to competence via a structural equation model. Telephone interviews and a postal survey of children were drawn from a US community sample of 105 children. Measures included (a) Child Behavior Checklist, (b) Teacher Report Form, (c) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, (c) Family Environment Scale, and (d) demographic information. Many children had experienced abuse, abandonment, or neglect between birth and entry to the institution. Their mean birth weight was 2637 g, and alcohol abuse by the birth mother was common (41%). Although the children scored below average in competence, adoptive family environments were positive and served as buffers between the risks experienced by the children and the subsequent development of competence within the adoptive family. Children's abilities ranged from severely challenged to developmentally normal. The high rate of fetal alcohol exposure in the children may portend future challenges for families.

  1. The protective effect of platelet released growth factors and bone augmentation (Bio-Oss®) on ethanol impaired osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Tillman; Hock, Jennifer Vanessa Phi; Lethaus, Bernd; Kweider, Nisreen; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Drescher, Wolf; Jahr, Holger; Lippross, Sebastian; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh

    2017-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a known limiting factor for bone healing. One promising strategy to improve bone augmentation techniques with Bio-Oss ® in oral and maxillofacial surgery might be the supportive application of platelet-concentrated biomaterials as platelet-released growth factor (PRGF). To address this matter, we performed an in vitro study investigating the protective effects of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® in ethanol (EtOH) treated osteoblasts. The SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line, with and without EtOH pretreatment was used. The cell viability, proliferation and alkali phosphatase activity (ALP) after application of 0%, 5% and 10% PRGF and Bio-Oss ® were assessed. The application of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® in EtOH impaired osteoblasts showed a significant beneficial influence increasing the viability of the osteoblasts in cell culture. The synergistic effect of Bio-Oss ® and 5% PRGF on the proliferation of osteoblasts was also demonstrated. Bio-Oss ® only in combination with PRGF increases the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in EtOH pretreated cells. These results indicate that the simultaneous application of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® inhibits EtOH induced bone healing impairment. Furthermore, in the cells, PRGF induced a protective mechanism which might promote bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Drugs and Mental Health Problems among the Roma: Protective Factors Promoted by the Iglesia Evangélica Filadelfia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelen Amador López

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High incidences of drug consumption and mental health problems are found among the Roma population in Spain, a reality that remains understudied. Past studies have indicated the positive role played by the Iglesia Evangélica Filadelfia (IEF in promoting rehabilitation and prevention of these practices. Objective: In this article, authors analyze in which ways the IEF favors processes of drug rehabilitation and mental health recovery as well as the prevention of these problems among its Roma members. Methods: A communicative qualitative approach was developed. It was communicative because new knowledge was created by dialogically contrasting the existing state of the art with study participants. It was qualitative because everyday life stories were collected, gathering the experiences, perceptions and interpretations of Roma people who are actively involved in three different IEF churches based in Barcelona. Results: This article identifies these protective factors: anti-drug discourse, a supportive environment, new social relations, role model status, the promotion of interactions, the revaluation of oneself, spiritual activities and the improvement of the feeling of belonging and the creation of meaning. Conclusion: The present research contributes new evidence to the current understanding of the role played by the IEF in improving Roma health status and how the identified protective factors can contribute to rehabilitation and recovery from such problems in other contexts.

  3. Drugs and Mental Health Problems among the Roma: Protective Factors Promoted by the Iglesia Evangélica Filadelfia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jelen Amador; García, Ramón Flecha; Martí, Teresa Sordé

    2018-02-14

    Background: High incidences of drug consumption and mental health problems are found among the Roma population in Spain, a reality that remains understudied. Past studies have indicated the positive role played by the Iglesia Evangélica Filadelfia (IEF) in promoting rehabilitation and prevention of these practices. Objective: In this article, authors analyze in which ways the IEF favors processes of drug rehabilitation and mental health recovery as well as the prevention of these problems among its Roma members. Methods: A communicative qualitative approach was developed. It was communicative because new knowledge was created by dialogically contrasting the existing state of the art with study participants. It was qualitative because everyday life stories were collected, gathering the experiences, perceptions and interpretations of Roma people who are actively involved in three different IEF churches based in Barcelona. Results: This article identifies these protective factors: anti-drug discourse, a supportive environment, new social relations, role model status, the promotion of interactions, the revaluation of oneself, spiritual activities and the improvement of the feeling of belonging and the creation of meaning. Conclusion: The present research contributes new evidence to the current understanding of the role played by the IEF in improving Roma health status and how the identified protective factors can contribute to rehabilitation and recovery from such problems in other contexts.

  4. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 7: Role Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Prevention, Protection, and Repair, Subproject: Role of Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury, are as follows: Species Rat(Albino Wistar), Number Allowed...

  5. MutY DNA Glycosylase Protects Cells From Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, An Hue Vy; Han, Se Hee; Kim, Joon; Grasso, Francesca; Kim, In San; Han, Ye Sun

    2017-07-01

    Numerous studies have implied that mutY DNA glycosylase (MYH) is involved in the repair of post-replicative mispairs and plays a critical role in the base excision repair pathway. Recent in vitro studies have shown that MYH interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD), a key effector protein of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) signaling. The association between MYH and TRADD is reversed during tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis, and enhanced during TNF-α-induced survival. After investigating the role of MYH interacts with various proteins following TNF-α stimulation, here, we focus on MYH and TRADD interaction functions in necroptosis and its effects to related proteins. We report that the level of the MYH and TRADD complex was also reduced during necroptosis induced by TNF-α and zVAD-fmk. In particular, we also found that MYH is a biologically important necrosis suppressor. Under combined TNF-α and zVAD-fmk treatment, MYH-deficient cells were induced to enter the necroptosis pathway but primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were not. Necroptosis in the absence of MYH proceeds via the inactivation of caspase-8, followed by an increase in the formation of the kinase receptor- interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-RIP3 complex. Our results suggested that MYH, which interacts with TRADD, inhibits TNF-α necroptotic signaling. Therefore, MYH inactivation is essential for necroptosis via the downregulation of caspase-8. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1827-1838, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Complement factor H binds malondialdehyde epitopes and protects from oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weismann, David; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lauer, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    peroxidation product that accumulates in many pathophysiological processes, including AMD. Here we identify complement factor H (CFH) as a major MDA-binding protein that can block both the uptake of MDA-modified proteins by macrophages and MDA-induced proinflammatory effects in vivo in mice. The CFH...... polymorphism H402, which is strongly associated with AMD, markedly reduces the ability of CFH to bind MDA, indicating a causal link to disease aetiology. Our findings provide important mechanistic insights into innate immune responses to oxidative stress, which may be exploited in the prevention of and therapy...

  7. Risk and protective factors associated with being bullied on school property compared with cyberbullied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We identified bullying victimization (bullied on school property versus cyberbullied by selected demographic, personal characteristic, and behavior variables. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on adolescents (n = 13,583 completing the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS in grades 9 through 12. Results Being bullied on school property in the past 12 months was significantly more common in females than males, in earlier school grades, and in Whites and other racial groups compared with Blacks and Hispanics. Being bullied on school property generally decreased with later school grades, but cyberbullying in the past 12 months remained constant. Being bullied on school property or cyberbullied was significantly positively associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma. The association was greatest with having mental health problems. Cyberbullying was generally more strongly associated with these conditions and behaviors. Protective behaviors against bullying victimization included eating breakfast every day, being physically active, and playing on sports teams. Those experiencing victimization on school property and cyberbullying were significantly more likely to experience mental health problems compared with just one of these types of bullying or neither. Conclusions Cyberbullying victimization is generally more strongly associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma than bullying victimization on school property. However, because bullying on school property is more common in grades 9–11, this form of bullying has a greater burden on these conditions and behaviors in these school grades.

  8. Human Milk Feeding as a Protective Factor for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Shukla, Vivek V; John, Denny; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Studies have suggested that human milk feeding decreases the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); however, conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to pool currently available data on incidence of ROP in infants fed human milk versus formula. Medline, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched for articles published through February 2015. Longitudinal studies comparing the incidence of ROP in infants who were fed human milk and formula were selected. Studies involving donor milk were not included. Two independent reviewers conducted the searches and extracted data. Meta-analysis used odds ratios (ORs), and subgroup analyses were performed. Five studies with 2208 preterm infants were included. Searches including various proportions of human milk versus formula, any-stage ROP, and severe ROP were defined to pool data for analyses. For any-stage ROP, the ORs (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: exclusive human milk versus any formula, 0.29 (0.12 to 0.72); mainly human milk versus mainly formula, 0.51 (0.26 to 1.03); any human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.54 (0.15 to 1.96); and exclusive human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.25 (0.13 to 0.49). For severe ROP, they were 0.11 (0.04 to 0.30), 0.16 (0.06 to 0.43), 0.42 (0.08 to 2.18), and 0.10 (0.04 to 0.29), respectively. Prospective randomized studies being impossible because of ethical issues, we chose observational studies for analysis. A few studies involving subgroup analyses presented high heterogeneity. Based on current limited evidence, in very preterm newborns, human milk feeding potentially plays a protective role in preventing any-stage ROP and severe ROP. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Histone H2AX is a critical factor for cellular protection against DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, J A; Zhao, M; Su, Y; Narayan, G; Geard, C R; Balajee, A S

    2008-09-25

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is a dose-dependent suppressor of oncogenic chromosome translocations. H2AX participates in DNA double-strand break repair, but its role in other DNA repair pathways is not known. In this study, role of H2AX in cellular response to alkylation DNA damage was investigated. Cellular sensitivity to two monofunctional alkylating agents (methyl methane sulfonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)) was dependent on H2AX dosage, and H2AX null cells were more sensitive than heterozygous cells. In contrast to wild-type cells, H2AX-deficient cells displayed extensive apoptotic death due to a lack of cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase. Lack of G(2)/M checkpoint in H2AX null cells correlated well with increased mitotic irregularities involving anaphase bridges and gross chromosomal instability. Observation of elevated poly(ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) cleavage suggests that MNNG-induced apoptosis occurs by PARP-1-dependent manner in H2AX-deficient cells. Consistent with this, increased activities of PARP and poly(ADP) ribose (PAR) polymer synthesis were detected in both H2AX heterozygous and null cells. Further, we demonstrate that the increased PAR synthesis and apoptotic death induced by MNNG in H2AX-deficient cells are due to impaired activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Collectively, our novel study demonstrates that H2AX, similar to PARP-1, confers cellular protection against alkylation-induced DNA damage. Therefore, targeting either PARP-1 or histone H2AX may provide an effective way of maximizing the chemotherapeutic value of alkylating agents for cancer treatment.

  10. Risk and protective factors associated with being bullied on school property compared with cyberbullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hanson, Carl L

    2016-02-12

    We identified bullying victimization (bullied on school property versus cyberbullied) by selected demographic, personal characteristic, and behavior variables. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on adolescents (n = 13,583) completing the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) in grades 9 through 12. Being bullied on school property in the past 12 months was significantly more common in females than males, in earlier school grades, and in Whites and other racial groups compared with Blacks and Hispanics. Being bullied on school property generally decreased with later school grades, but cyberbullying in the past 12 months remained constant. Being bullied on school property or cyberbullied was significantly positively associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma. The association was greatest with having mental health problems. Cyberbullying was generally more strongly associated with these conditions and behaviors. Protective behaviors against bullying victimization included eating breakfast every day, being physically active, and playing on sports teams. Those experiencing victimization on school property and cyberbullying were significantly more likely to experience mental health problems compared with just one of these types of bullying or neither. Cyberbullying victimization is generally more strongly associated with mental health problems, substance use, being overweight, playing video games for 3 or more hours per day, and having asthma than bullying victimization on school property. However, because bullying on school property is more common in grades 9-11, this form of bullying has a greater burden on these conditions and behaviors in these school grades.

  11. Arsenicosis: Is it a Protective or Predisposing Factor for Mental Illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devosri Sen Sen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic arsenic poisoning (Arsenicosis is a global health risk, and it has been reported to improve the fitness, especially in altitudinal sickness in therapeutic dose. Scarcity of systematic study on psychiatric co-morbidities in Arsenicosis motivated us to conduct this research. The aim of this study was to estimate the co-morbid psychiatric disorders in patients with arsenicosis and to examine whether natural arsenic exposure and toxicity is protective or detrimental for mental health.Method: Out of 1477 arsenicosis patients aged 18 to 65 years, 1169 were finally assessed after excluding those who were disinclined to participate or those who had any organ failure or prior psychiatric disorder in themselves or their first-degree relatives. We applied General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS to screen psychiatric symptoms. Finally, 191 patients with BPRS score > 30 were structurally interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN.Results: Of the 1169 participants in our study, 18.99 % of the arsenicosis patients had psychiatric ailments. Common psychiatric manifestations were depression (8.47%, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (4.61%, adjustment disorder in the form of mixed anxiety and depressive reaction, and brief depressive reaction (2.22%, and suicidal attempts (1.53%.Conclusion: Considering the higher prevalence of psychiatric ailments in arsenicosis compared to general population of the same territory, it is necessary to screen psychological disorders in them. Conducting studies with control groups to further evaluate the impact of arsenicosis on mental health is warranted.

  12. The Reasons for Living Scale-Military Version: Assessing Protective Factors Against Suicide in a Military Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Anne-Marie; Lande, R Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Military suicide rates have been rising over the past decade and continue to challenge military treatment facilities. Assessing suicide risk and improving treatments are a large part of the mission for clinicians who work with uniformed service members. This study attempts to expand the toolkit of military suicide prevention by focusing on protective factors over risk factors. In 1983, Marsha Linehan published a checklist called the Reasons for Living Scale, which asked subjects to check the reasons they choose to continue living, rather than choosing suicide. The authors of this article hypothesized that military service members may have different or additional reasons to live which may relate to their military service. They created a new version of Linehan's inventory by adding protective factors related to military life. The purpose of these additions was to make the inventory more acceptable and relevant to the military population, as well as to identify whether these items constitute a separate subscale as distinguished from previously identified factors. A commonly used assessment tool, the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) designed by Marsha Linehan, was expanded to offer items geared to the military population. The RFL presents users with a list of items which may be reasons to not commit suicide (e.g., "I have a responsibility and commitment to my family"). The authors used focus groups of staff and patients in a military psychiatric partial hospitalization program to identify military-centric reasons to live. This process yielded 20 distinct items which were added to Linehan's original list of 48. This expanded list became the Reasons for Living-Military Version. A sample of 200 patients in the military partial hospitalization program completed the inventory at time of or close to admission. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Walter Reed National Military Center for adhering to ethical principles related to pursuing research

  13. IBMX protects human proximal tubular epithelial cells from hypoxic stress through suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Arif Ul; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Musarrat Ansary, Tuba; Rahman, Asadur; Shibayama, Yuki; Nakano, Daisuke; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2017-09-15

    Hypoxia predisposes renal fibrosis. This study was conducted to identify novel approaches to ameliorate the pathogenic effect of hypoxia. Using human proximal tubular epithelial cells we showed that a pan-phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) dose and time dependently downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) mRNA expression, which was further augmented by addition of a transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D. IBMX also increased the cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. Luciferase assay showed that blocking of protein kinase A (PKA) using H89 reduced, while 8-Br-cAMP agonized the repression of HIF-1α promoter activity in hypoxic condition. Deletion of cAMP response element binding sites from the HIF-1α promoter abrogated the effect of IBMX. Western blot and immunofluorescent study confirmed that the CoCl 2 induced increased HIF-1α protein in whole cell lysate and in nucleus was reduced by the IBMX. Through this process, IBMX attenuated both CoCl 2 and hypoxia induced mRNA expressions of two pro-fibrogenic factors, platelet-derived growth factor B and lysyl oxidase. Moreover, IBMX reduced production of a mesenchymal transformation factor, β-catenin; as well as protected against hypoxia induced cell-death. Taken together, our study showed novel evidence that the PDE inhibitor IBMX can downregulate the transcription of HIF-1α, and thus may attenuate hypoxia induced renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential impact of internet addiction and protective psychosocial factors onto depression among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents - direct, mediation and moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Mason M C

    2016-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a risk factor while some psychosocial factors can be protective against depression among adolescents. Mechanisms of IA onto depression in terms of mediations and moderations involving protective factors are unknown and were investigated in this study. A representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students (n=9518). Among males and females, prevalence of depression at moderate or severe level (CES-D≥21) was 38.36% and 46.13%, and that of IA (CIAS>63) was 17.64% and 14.01%, respectively. Adjusted for socio-demographics, depression was positively associated with IA [males: adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=4.22, 95% CI=3.61-4.94; females: AOR=4.79, 95% CI=3.91-5.87] and negatively associated with psychosocial factors including self-esteem, positive affect, family support, and self-efficacy (males: AOR=0.76-0.94; females: AOR=0.72-0.92, pmoderations, IA also reduced magnitude of protective effects of self-efficacy and family support among males and that of positive affect among both sexes against depression. The high IA prevalence contributes to increased risk of prevalent depression through its direct effect, mediation (reduced level of protective factors) and moderation (reduced magnitude of protective effects) effects. Understanding to mechanisms between IA and depression through protective factors is enhanced. Screening and interventions for IA and depression are warranted, and should cultivate protective factors, and unlink negative impact of IA onto levels and effects of protective factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibition protects from noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMurillo-Cuesta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-ß as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss, we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-ß1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-ß1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-ß1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  17. Social-environmental factors and protective sexual behavior among sex workers: the Encontros intervention in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Donini, Angela; Díaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2010-04-01

    We sought to determine the association of social-environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social-environmental factors were not associated with STIs. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment.

  18. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  19. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Symptoms of Anxiety and Associated Risk and Protective Factors in Young Asian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents’ level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent–child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers’ ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children’s anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children. PMID:22410755

  1. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Leonurine protects against tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; Pan, Lilong; Wang, Xianli; Gong, Qihai; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2012-05-01

    Leonurine, a bioactive alkaloid compound in Herba leonuri, has various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that leonurine was able to attenuate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) activation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and inflammatory mediators expression were detected by Western blot or enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB p65 translocation were measured by immunofluorescence, endothelial cell-monocyte interaction was detected by microscope. Leonurine inhibited U937 cells adhesion to TNF-α-activated HUVEC in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with leonurine blocked TNF-α-induced mRNA and protein expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), cyclooxygenase-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells. In addition, leonurine attenuated TNF-α-induced intracellular ROS production in HUVEC. Furthermore, leonurine also suppressed the TNF-α-activated p38 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation. Subsequently, reduced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding activity were also observed. Our results demonstrated for the first time that the anti-inflammatory properties of leonurine in endothelial cells, at least in part, through suppression of NF-κB activation, which may have a potential therapeutic use for inflammatory vascular diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of possession on legality of mortgage registered on a building under construction: With case law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicković Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the subject of a mortgage to buildings under construction is a considerable step forward in regulating mortgages. It is not possible to register ownership rights on buildings under construction. A person acquiring ownership does not have the possibility to protect his rights. Acquiring ownership rights to a building under construction is tied to possession. This is detrimental to the principle of publicity which in turn erodes the principle of reliance. Validity of the mortgage is tied to the possession over the mortgaged real estate at the time of its registration. Such position of the courts challenges the very essence of mortgage.

  4. Tissue factor expression by myeloid cells contributes to protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Tripathi, Deepak; Tucker, Torry; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana; Welch, Elwyn; Raghunath, Anjana; Jeffers, Ann; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Schechter, Melissa E; Andrade, Bruno B; Mackman, Nizel; Idell, Steven; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by activating coagulation. TF is also expressed by monocytes/macrophages as part of the innate immune response to infections. In the current study, we determined the role of TF expressed by myeloid cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection by using mice lacking the TF gene in myeloid cells (TF(Δ) ) and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that during M. tb infection, a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells was associated with reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced arginase 1 (Arg1) expression, enhanced IL-10 production and reduced apoptosis in infected macrophages, which augmented M. tb growth. Our results demonstrate that a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells promotes M2-like phenotype in M .tb infected macrophages. A deficiency in TF expression by myeloid cells was also associated with reduced fibrin deposition and increased matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mediated inflammation in M. tb infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that TF expressed by myeloid cells has newly recognized abilities to polarize macrophages and to regulate M. tb growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-1 protects preimplantation embryos from anti-developmental actions of menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, James I; Pontes, Eduardo; Hansen, Peter James

    2009-11-01

    Menadione is a naphthoquinone used as a vitamin K source in animal feed that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause apoptosis. Here, we examined whether menadione reduces development of preimplantation bovine embryos in a ROS-dependent process and tested the hypothesis that actions of menadione would be reduced by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Menadione caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the proportion of embryos that became blastocysts. All concentrations tested (1, 2.5, and 5.0 microM) inhibited development. Treatment with 100 ng/ml IGF-1 reduced the magnitude of the anti-developmental effects of the two lowest menadione concentrations. Menadione also caused a concentration-dependent increase in the percent of cells positive for the TUNEL reaction. The response was lower for IGF-1-treated embryos. The effects of menadione were mediated by ROS because (1) the anti-developmental effect of menadione was blocked by the antioxidants dithiothreitol and Trolox and (2) menadione caused an increase in ROS generation. Treatment with IGF-1 did not reduce ROS formation in menadione-treated embryos. In conclusion, concentrations of menadione as low as 1.0 muM can compromise development of bovine preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage of development in a ROS-dependent mechanism. Anti-developmental actions of menadione can be blocked by IGF-1 through effects downstream of ROS generation.

  6. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Has a Protective Role in the Host Response to Endotoxic Shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joly

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF 6, a member of the IRF family, is essential for epidermal and orofacial embryonic development. Irf6 is strongly expressed in keratinocytes, in which it regulates epidermal proliferation, differentiation, and migration. A recent role for Irf6 in Toll-like receptor 2-dependent chemokine gene expression was also reported in an epithelial cell line. However, a function for Irf6 in innate immune cells was not previously reported. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of Irf6 in bone marrow-derived neutrophils and macrophages. We show here, using a conditional knockout of Irf6 in lysosymeM expressing cells, that Irf6 is required for resistance to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. In addition, Irf6-deficient bone marrow-derived neutrophils exhibited increased chemotactic index and velocity compared with wild-type cells in vitro. TLR4-specific KC and IL6 secretions were upregulated in Irf6-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. These cells also exhibited an increased level of phosphorylated IkBa. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for Irf6 in the resistance to endotoxic shock due to NFk-B-mediated alteration of cytokine production.

  7. Factors influencing the oxidation of cysteamine and other thiols: implications for hyperthermic sensitization and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaglow, J.E.; Issels, R.W.; Gerweck, L.E.; Varnes, M.E.; Jacobson, B.; Mittchell, J.B.; Russo, A.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the factors influencing the oxygen uptake and peroxide formation for cysteamine (MEA) and other thiols in serum-supplemented modified McCoy's 5A, a well-known medium used to cultivate a variety of cells in vitro, have been studied. The oxidation of MEA and cysteine in modified McCoy's 5A has been compared with that in Ham's F-12, MEM, and phosphate-buffered saline. The ability to produce peroxide is dependent upon the temperature, the concentration of thiol, the presence of copper ions, and pH of the medium. Catalase also reduces the oxygen uptake for all thiols. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was found to stimulate the oxygen uptake in the case of MEA and cysteine, but had little or no effect with DTT and glutathione. The combined presence of SOD and catalase resulted in less inhibition of oxygen uptake than that obtained by catalase alone. Alkaline pH was found to enhance the oxidation of cysteine and MEA. The results indicate that many problems may arise when thiols are added to various media. A major consideration is concerned with the production of peroxide, superoxide, and reduced trace metal intermediates. The presence of these intermediates may result in the production of hydroxyl radical intermediates as well as the eventual oxygen depletion from the medium

  8. Ethical media competence as a protective factor against cyberbullying and cybervictimization among german school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Ittel, Angela

    2014-10-01

    The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization.

  9. Protective or pathogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as potential biomarker in cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Miriam; Spaccapelo, Roberta

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is the major lethal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It is characterized by persistent coma along with symmetrical motor signs. Several clinical, histopathological, and laboratory studies have suggested that cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes, neural injury by malarial toxin, and excessive inflammatory cytokine production are possible pathogenic mechanisms. Although the detailed pathophysiology of CM remains unsolved, it is thought that the binding of parasitized erythrocytes to the cerebral endothelia of microvessels, leading to their occlusion and the consequent angiogenic dysregulation play a key role in the disease pathogenesis. Recent evidences showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor-related molecules are over-expressed in the brain tissues of CM patients, as well as increased levels of VEGF are detectable in biologic samples from malaria patients. Whether the modulation of VEGF is causative agent of CM mortality or a specific phenotype of patients with susceptibility to fatal CM needs further evaluation. Currently, there is no biological test available to confirm the diagnosis of CM and its complications. It is hoped that development of biomarkers to identify patients and potential risk for adverse outcomes would greatly enhance better intervention and clinical management to improve the outcomes. We review and discuss here what it is currently known in regard to the role of VEGF in CM as well as VEGF as a potential biomarker.

  10. Treatment-seeking college students with disabilities: Presenting concerns, protective factors, and academic distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Allison R; Edwin, Mary; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-02-01

    Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities. Results indicated that students with disabilities have many similar treatment concerns with their peers, but showed greater concerns in depression and self-harm; academic performance; anxiety and obsessions/compulsions; and fewer concerns in relationship problems. Significant predictors of academic distress for students with disabilities included attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and self-harm, trauma or victimization, stress and academic performance, and social support from family and peers. These results suggest the importance of several factors in understanding the presenting concerns of treatment-seeking students with disabilities and mitigating academic distress for this population. Additional areas for research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Risk and Protective Factors at Age 16: Psychological Adjustment in Children With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-09-01

    Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.

  12. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  13. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Graas, Marc; Lair, Marie-Lise; Lehnert, Torsten; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc

    2011-07-13

    In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236.

  14. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Osmulski, Pawel A.; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T.; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31y) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although HSP72 and HSP40 (Hdj1) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging. PMID:25018089

  15. CYP gene family variants as potential protective factors in drug addiction in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wenkai; Ouyang, Yongri; Yang, Min; Wang, Fengjiao; Jin, Tianbo; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing evidence that genetic factors also contribute to drug addiction. The human cytochrome P450 has shown special interest because of pharmacokinetic variation in different individuals and populations, which is largely determined by the relevant genes. The present study aimed to investigate the polymorphism of the CYP/addicts relationship. We genotyped 13 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) from three genes, including 692 cases and 700 controls. Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000 (Sequenom, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was used for SNP genotyping. Statistical analysis of the association between tSNPs and drug addiction was performed using the chi-squared test and SNP Stats software (http://bioinfo.iconcologia.net). The T/T genotype of rs2242480 in CYP3A4 was associated with decreased risk in the recessive model (p = 0.0002). Allele frequency at rs3743484 in CYP1A2 showed significant differences between addicts and controls (p = 0.046; odds ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval = 0.65-1.00). In genetic model analyses, the minor C allele of rs3743484 in CYP1A2 was associated with a reduced risk of drug addiction based on analysis using codominant and additive models (p = 0.027 dominant model; p =0.038 additive model). Our findings show that at allelic and genotypic level polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are significantly associated with a reduced risk of drug addiction in X'ian Han Chinese individuals. However, this result needs to be confirmed in additional studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. FBXO7 Y52C polymorphism as a potential protective factor in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Mutations in the F-box only protein 7 gene (FBXO7, the substrate-specifying subunit of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, cause Parkinson's disease (PD-15 (PARK15. To identify new variants, we sequenced FBXO7 cDNA in 80 Taiwanese early onset PD patients (age at onset ≤ 50 and only two known variants, Y52C (c.155A>G and M115I (c.345G>A, were found. To assess the association of Y52C and M115I with the risk of PD, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of PD and ethnically matched controls. There was a nominal difference in the Y52C G allele frequency between PD and controls (p = 0.045. After combining data from China [1], significant difference in the Y52C G allele frequency between PD and controls (p = 0.012 and significant association of G allele with decreased PD risk (p = 0.017 can be demonstrated. Upon expressing EGFP-tagged Cys52 FBXO7 in cells, a significantly reduced rate of FBXO7 protein decay was observed when compared with cells expressing Tyr52 FBXO7. In silico modeling of Cys52 exhibited a more stable feature than Tyr52. In cells expressing Cys52 FBXO7, the level of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2 was significantly reduced. Moreover, Cys52 FBXO7 showed stronger interaction with TRAF2 and promoted TRAF2 ubiquitination, which may be responsible for the reduced TRAF2 expression in Cys52 cells. After induced differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells expressing Cys52 FBXO7 displayed increased neuronal outgrowth. We therefore hypothesize that Cys52 variant of FBXO7 may contribute to reduced PD susceptibility in Chinese.

  17. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Vaccination with Eimeria tenella elongation factor-1α recombinant protein induces protective immunity against E. tenella and E. maxima infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Qing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Seung Kyoo; Oh, Sungtaek; Panebra, Alfredo; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2017-08-30

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by multiple species of the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, and is one of the most economically devastating enteric diseases for the poultry industry worldwide. Host immunity to Eimeria infection, however, is relatively species-specific. The ability to immunize chickens against different species of Eimeria using a single vaccine will have a major beneficial impact on commercial poultry production. In this paper, we describe the molecular cloning, purification, and vaccination efficacy of a novel Eimeria vaccine candidate, elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). One day-old broiler chickens were given two subcutaneous immunizations one week apart with E. coli-expressed E. tenella recombinant (r)EF-1α protein and evaluated for protection against challenge infection with E. tenella or E. maxima. rEF-1α-vaccinated chickens exhibited increased body weight gains, decreased fecal oocyst output, and greater serum anti-EF-1α antibody levels following challenge infection with either E. tenella or E. maxima compared with unimmunized controls. Vaccination with EF-1α may represent a new approach to inducing cross-protective immunity against avian coccidiosis in the field. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluating the role of curcum powder as a protective factor against bladder cancer--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mesallamy, Hala; Salman, Tarek M; Ashmawey, Abeer M; Osama, Nada

    2012-01-01

    Throughout human history, plant products have been used for many purposes including as medicines. Herbal products and spices can be used as preventive agents against cancer due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumorigenic properties. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcum in rats administered nitrosamine precursors; dibutylamine (DBA) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3); and infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and also to monitor changes in nuclear factor the Kappa B p65 (NF-κB p56) pathway and its downstream products, Bcl-2 and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in parallel with nitrosamine precursors, E. coli and curcum treatment. Rats were divided into three groups (n=25 each; except of control group, n+20). Group I a normal control group, group II administered DBA/NaNO3 in drinking water and infected with E. coli and group III was administered DBA/NaNO3 in drinking water, infected with E. coli and receiving standard diet containing 1% curcum powder. Histopathological examination reflected that the curcum treated group featured a lower incidence of urinary bladder lesions,and lower levels of NF-κB, Bcl-2 and IL-6, than the group receiving nitrosamine precursor and infected with E. coli. These findings suggested that curcum may have a protective role during the process of bladder carcinogenesis by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway and its downstream products.

  20. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  1. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alison Balbag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins’ leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]. These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.

  2. Protection set-points lines for the reactor core and considerations about power distribution and peak factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furieri, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assure the reactor core integrity during the slow operational transients (power excursion above the nominal value and the high coolant temperature), the formation of a steam film (DNB-Departure from Nucleate Boiling) in the control rods must be avoided. The protection set points lines presents the points where DNBR (relation between critical heat flux-q sub(DNB) and the local heat flux-q' sub(local) is equal to 1.30, corrected by peak factors and uncertainty in function of ΔTr and T sub(R), respectively coolant elevation and medium coolant temperature in reactor pressure vessel. The curve set-points were determined using a new version of COBRA-IIIF (CUPRO) computer code, implemented with new subroutines and linearized convergence scheme. Pratical results for Angra-1 core were obtained and its were compared with the results from the fabricator. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel): changes in weighting methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-01-01

    to introduce the methodology used to calculate post-stratification weights of the 2012 Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel) and to compare the trends of indicators estimated by cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. in this panel of cross-sectional studies, the prevalences of smokers, overweight, and intake of fruits and vegetables from 2006 to 2012 were estimated using the cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. there were no differences in time trends of the indicators estimated by both methods, but the prevalence of smokers estimated by the raking method was lower than the estimated by cell-by-cell weighting, whilst the prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake was higher; for overweight, there was no difference between the methods. raking method presented higher accuracy of the estimates when compared to cell-by-cell weighting method, proving to be most convenient, although it presents register coverage bias.

  4. Hierarchical remote data possession checking method based on massive cloud files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage service enables users to migrate their data and applications to the cloud, which saves the local data maintenance and brings great convenience to the users. But in cloud storage, the storage servers may not be fully trustworthy. How to verify the integrity of cloud data with lower overhead for users has become an increasingly concerned problem. Many remote data integrity protection methods have been proposed, but these methods authenticated cloud files one by one when verifying multiple files. Therefore, the computation and communication overhead are still high. Aiming at this problem, a hierarchical remote data possession checking (hierarchical-remote data possession checking (H-RDPC method is proposed, which can provide efficient and secure remote data integrity protection and can support dynamic data operations. This paper gives the algorithm descriptions, security, and false negative rate analysis of H-RDPC. The security analysis and experimental performance evaluation results show that the proposed H-RDPC is efficient and reliable in verifying massive cloud files, and it has 32–81% improvement in performance compared with RDPC.

  5. Resolution No. 96/03 About possession of ionic smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The resolution states that: first: all the entities of the country having Ionic smoke detectors in use are to be communicated to the National Center for Nuclear safety in correspondence with the format that is shown in the annex to the present. This formation must be updated every three years. Second: Entities possessing Ionic smoke detectors in use, must be corresponding management as radioactive waste of such detectors in the term of one year from the entry into force of this resolution with the center of protection and of radiation hygiene purposes ensure safe and proper m