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Sample records for positively charged hole

  1. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  2. Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations ...

  3. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  4. Plasma horizons of a charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)

  5. Magnetic charge, black holes, and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of converting a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole into a naked singularity by means of test particle accretion is considered. The dually charged Reissner-Nordstroem metric describes a black hole only when M 2 >Q 2 +P 2 . The test particle equations of motion are shown to allow test particles with arbitrarily large magnetic charge/mass ratios to fall radially into electrically charged black holes. To determine the nature of the final state (black hole or naked singularity) an exact solution of Einstein's equations representing a spherical shell of magnetically charged dust falling into an electrically charged black hole is studied. Naked singularities are never formed so long as the weak energy condition is obeyed by the infalling matter. The differences between the spherical shell model and an infalling point test particle are examined and discussed

  6. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  7. Depilating Global Charge From Thermal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John David; March-Russell, John; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    At a formal level, there appears to be no difficulty involved in introducing a chemical potential for a globally conserved quantum number into the partition function for space-time including a black hole. Were this possible, however, it would provide a form of black hole hair, and contradict the idea that global quantum numbers are violated in black hole evaporation. We demonstrate dynamical mechanisms that negate the formal procedure, both for topological charge (Skyrmions) and complex scalar-field charge. Skyrmions collapse to the horizon; scalar-field charge fluctuates uncontrollably.

  8. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  9. Charged black holes with scalar hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-09-10

    We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, in which the dilaton coupling to the Maxwell field is not the usual single exponential function, but one with a stationary point. The theories admit two charged black holes: one is the Reissner-Nordstrøm (RN) black hole and the other has a varying dilaton. For a given charge, the new black hole in the extremal limit has the same AdS{sub 2}×Sphere near-horizon geometry as the RN black hole, but it carries larger mass. We then introduce some scalar potentials and obtain exact charged AdS black holes. We also generalize the results to black p-branes with scalar hair.

  10. Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.

  11. Charged topological black hole pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    I examine the pair creation of black holes in space-times with a cosmological constant of either sign. I consider cosmological C-metrics and show that the conical singularities in this metric vanish only for three distinct classes of black hole metric, two of which have compact event horizons on each spatial slice. One class is a generalization of the Reissner-Nordstroem (anti-)de Sitter black holes in which the event horizons are the direct product of a null line with a 2-surface with topology of genus g. The other class consists of neutral black holes whose event horizons are the direct product of a null conoid with a circle. In the presence of a domain wall, black hole pairs of all possible types will be pair created for a wide range of mass and charge, including even negative mass black holes. I determine the relevant instantons and Euclidean actions for each case. (orig.)

  12. Charged black holes in quadratic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyjasek, Jerzy; Tryniecki, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Iterative solutions to fourth-order gravity describing static and electrically charged black holes are constructed. The obtained solutions are parametrized by two integration constants which are related to the electric charge and the exact location of the event horizon. Special emphasis is put on the extremal black holes. It is explicitly demonstrated that in the extremal limit the exact location of the (degenerate) event horizon is given by r + =|e|. Similarly to the classical Reissner-Nordstroem solution, the near-horizon geometry of the charged black holes in quadratic gravity, when expanded into the whole manifold, is simply that of Bertotti and Robinson. Similar considerations have been carried out for boundary conditions of the second type which employ the electric charge and the mass of the system as seen by a distant observer. The relations between results obtained within the framework of each method are briefly discussed

  13. Thermodynamics and stability of hyperbolic charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Wang Anzhong

    2004-01-01

    In AdS space the black hole horizon can be a hypersurface with a positive, zero, or negative constant curvature, resulting in different horizon topology. Thermodynamics and stability of black holes in AdS spaces are quite different for different horizon curvatures. In this paper we study thermodynamics and stability of hyperbolic charged black holes with negative constant curvature horizon in the grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble, respectively. They include hyperbolic Reissner-Nordstroem black holes in arbitrary dimensions and hyperbolic black holes in the D=5,4,7 gauged supergravities. It is found that associated Gibbs free energies are always negative, which implies that these black hole solutions are globally stable and the black hole phase is dominant in the grand canonical ensemble, but there is a region in the phase space where the black hole is not locally thermodynamically stable with a negative heat capacity for a given gauge potential. In the canonical ensemble, the Helmholtz free energies are not always negative and heat capacities with fixed electric charge are not always positive, which indicates that the Hawking-Page phase transition may happen and black holes are not always locally thermodynamically stable

  14. Sensitivity of GRETINA position resolution to hole mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasher, V.S. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Cromaz, M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Merchan, E.; Chowdhury, P. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Crawford, H.L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lister, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Campbell, C.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Radford, D.C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wiens, A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The sensitivity of the position resolution of the gamma-ray tracking array GRETINA to the hole charge-carrier mobility parameter is investigated. The χ{sup 2} results from a fit of averaged signal (“superpulse”) data exhibit a shallow minimum for hole mobilities 15% lower than the currently adopted values. Calibration data on position resolution is analyzed, together with simulations that isolate the hole mobility dependence of signal decomposition from other effects such as electronics cross-talk. The results effectively exclude hole mobility as a dominant parameter for improving the position resolution for reconstruction of gamma-ray interaction points in GRETINA.

  15. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  16. Angular momentum of an electric charge and magnetically charged black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, D. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Physics); Rey, S.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Physics Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Inst. for Fundamental Theory)

    1991-03-21

    We find the angular momentum L of a point particle with electric charge e held at a fixed position in the presence of a black hole with magnetic charge g. (For a point charge in the presence of an ordinary magnetic monopole, it is known that L=eg.) The angular momentum does depend on the separation distance between the particle and the black hole; however, L->eg for a large separation. Implications for the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the quantum hairs and other physical situations are discussed. (orig.).

  17. Angular momentum of an electric charge and magnetically charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfinkle, D.; Rey, Soo-Jong

    1990-01-01

    We find the angular momentum L of a point particle with electric charge e held at a fixed position in the presence of a black hole with magnetic charge g. (For a point charge in the presence of an of ordinary magnetic monopole, it is known that L = eg). The angular momentum does depend on the separation distance between the particle and the black hole; however, L → eg for a large separation. Implications for the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the quantum hairs and other physical situations are discussed

  18. Instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Ro, Daeho

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in four- or higher-dimensions under fragmentation. The unstable black holes under fragmentation can be broken into two black holes. Instability depends not only on the mass and charge of the black hole but also on the ratio between the fragmented black hole and its predecessor. We have found that the near extremal black holes are unstable, and Schwarzschild-AdS black holes are stable. These are qualitatively similar to black holes in four dimensions and higher. The detailed instabilities are numerically investigated.

  19. Noether charge, black hole volume, and complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Josiah; Fischler, Willy; Nguyen, Phuc H. [Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, TX 78712-1192 (United States)

    2017-03-23

    In this paper, we study the physical significance of the thermodynamic volumes of AdS black holes using the Noether charge formalism of Iyer and Wald. After applying this formalism to study the extended thermodynamics of a few examples, we discuss how the extended thermodynamics interacts with the recent complexity = action proposal of Brown et al. (CA-duality). We, in particular, discover that their proposal for the late time rate of change of complexity has a nice decomposition in terms of thermodynamic quantities reminiscent of the Smarr relation. This decomposition strongly suggests a geometric, and via CA-duality holographic, interpretation for the thermodynamic volume of an AdS black hole. We go on to discuss the role of thermodynamics in complexity = action for a number of black hole solutions, and then point out the possibility of an alternate proposal, which we dub “complexity = volume 2.0'. In this alternate proposal the complexity would be thought of as the spacetime volume of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. Finally, we provide evidence that, in certain cases, our proposal for complexity is consistent with the Lloyd bound whereas CA-duality is not.

  20. Global geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical geometry of charged black holes is studied in the context of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model where effects due to pair-creation of charged particles can be included in a systematic way. The classical mass-inflation instability of the Cauchy horizon is amplified and we find that gravitational collapse of charged matter results in a spacelike singularity that precludes any extension of the spacetime geometry. At the classical level, a static solution describing an eternal black hole has timelike singularities and multiple asymptotic regions. The corresponding semiclassical solution, on the other hand, has a spacelike singularity and a Penrose diagram like that of an electrically neutral black hole. Extremal black holes are destabilized by pair-creation of charged particles. There is a maximally charged solution for a given black hole mass but the corresponding geometry is not extremal. Our numerical data exhibits critical behavior at the threshold for black hole formation

  1. A charged black hole in a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Chaudhury, S.; Dowerah, S.

    1983-01-01

    We present here an investigation of the event horizon of a charged black hole embedded in a uniform magnetic field studying the Gaussian curvature. It is shown that the Gauss-Bonnet theorem holds for this magnetized black hole and for a magnetized Kerr black hole

  2. Charged scalar perturbations around Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yong Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the stability of the Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger (GHS black hole under charged scalar perturbations. Employing the appropriate numerical methods, we show that the GHS black hole is always stable against charged scalar perturbations. This is different from the results obtained in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter black holes. Furthermore, we argue that in the GHS black hole background there is no amplification of the incident charged scalar wave to cause the superradiance, so that the superradiant instability cannot exist in this spacetime.

  3. Charging method of water hole with ANFO explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Susumu

    1988-02-28

    It has been investigated how to charge a water hole with an inexpensive explosive for blasting. An experiment was made using the combination of a plasticized resin hose and the ANFO charger as the method for making the most of the ANFO explosive aiming at charging a hole with the explosive at a low cost without damaging the hole wall. The experimental result indicates that any water hole with spring water can be charged with the explosive using the ANFO charger combined with the plasticized resin hose. The method is superior to conventional methods in cost and workability because the working atmosphere is not aggravated and the hole wall is not damaged without using an expensive vacuum collector. Charging a blasting hole 165 mm or less in diameter with the explosive will be investigated for commercialization in future. (4 figs)

  4. Thermodynamical and dynamical properties of charged BTZ black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zi-Yu; Wang, Bin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Cheng-Yong [Peking University, Center for High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Kord Zangeneh, Mahdi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM)-Maragha, P. O. Box: 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the spacetime properties of BTZ black holes in the presence of the Maxwell field and Born-Infeld field and find rich properties in the spacetime structures when the model parameters are varied. Employing Landau-Lifshitz theory, we examine the thermodynamical phase transition in the charged BTZ black holes. We further study the dynamical perturbation in the background of the charged BTZ black holes and find different properties in the dynamics when the thermodynamical phase transition occurs. (orig.)

  5. Entropy of charged dilaton-axion black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Tanwi; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2008-01-01

    Using the brick wall method, the entropy of the charged dilaton-axion black hole is determined for both asymptotically flat and nonflat cases. The entropy turns out to be proportional to the horizon area of the black hole confirming the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy formula for black holes. The leading order logarithmic corrections to the entropy are also derived for such black holes.

  6. Microscopic entropy of the charged BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Melis, Maurizio; Setare, Mohammad R

    2008-01-01

    The charged BTZ black hole is characterized by a power-law curvature singularity generated by the electric charge of the hole. The curvature singularity produces ln r terms in the asymptotic expansion of the gravitational field and divergent contributions to the boundary terms. We show that these boundary deformations can be generated by the action of the conformal group in two dimensions and that an appropriate renormalization procedure allows for the definition of finite boundary charges. In the semiclassical regime the central charge of the dual CFT turns out to be that calculated by Brown and Henneaux, whereas the charge associated with time translation is given by the renormalized black hole mass. We then show that the Cardy formula reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the charged BTZ black hole

  7. New aspect of critical nonlinearly charged black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Taghadomi, Z. S.; Corda, C.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a point charged particle moving in the background of the critical power Maxwell charged AdS black holes in a probe approximation is studied. The extended phase space, where the cosmological constant appears as a pressure, is regarded and the effective potential is investigated. At last, the mass-to-charge ratio and the large q limit are studied.

  8. Three-charge black holes on a circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, Niels A.; Roenne, Peter B.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.

    2007-01-01

    We study phases of five-dimensional three-charge black holes with a circle in their transverse space. In particular, when the black hole is localized on the circle we compute the corrections to the metric and corresponding thermodynamics in the limit of small mass. When taking the near-extremal limit, this gives the corrections to the finite entropy of the extremal three-charge black hole as a function of the energy above extremality. For the partial extremal limit with two charges sent to infinity and one finite we show that the first correction to the entropy is in agreement with the microscopic entropy by taking into account that the number of branes shift as a consequence of the interactions across the transverse circle. Beyond these analytical results, we also numerically obtain the entire phase of non- and near-extremal three- and two-charge black holes localized on a circle. More generally, we find in this paper a rich phase structure, including a new phase of three-charge black holes that are non-uniformly distributed on the circle. All these three-charge black hole phases are found via a map that relates them to the phases of five-dimensional neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes

  9. Beyond the singularity of the 2-D charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, Amit; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Sever, Amit

    2003-01-01

    Two dimensional charged black holes in string theory can be obtained as exact SL(2,R) x U(1)/U(1) quotient CFTs. The geometry of the quotient is induced from that of the group, and in particular includes regions beyond the black hole singularities. Moreover, wavefunctions in such black holes are obtained from gauge invariant vertex operators in the SL(2,R) CFT, hence their behavior beyond the singularity is determined. When the black hole is charged we find that the wavefunctions are smooth at the singularities. Unlike the uncharged case, scattering waves prepared beyond the singularity are not fully reflected; part of the wave is transmitted through the singularity. Hence, the physics outside the horizon of a charged black hole is sensitive to conditions set behind the past singularity. (author)

  10. Phase transitions and critical behaviour for charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S; Vaidya, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a four-dimensional charged black hole in a finite cavity in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter spaces. In each case, we find a Hawking-Page-like phase transition between a black hole and a thermal gas very much like the known transition in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. For a 'supercooled' black hole - a thermodynamically unstable black hole below the critical temperature for the Hawking-Page phase transition - the phase diagram has a line of first-order phase transitions that terminates in a second-order point. For the asymptotically flat case, we calculate the critical exponents at the second-order phase transition and find that they exactly match the known results for a charged black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We find strong evidence for similar phase transitions for the de Sitter black hole as well. Thus many of the thermodynamic features of charged anti-de Sitter black holes do not really depend on asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions; the thermodynamics of charged black holes is surprisingly universal

  11. Strong field gravitational lensing by a charged Galileon black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi, E-mail: clefairy035@163.com, E-mail: yixie@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Strong field gravitational lensings are dramatically disparate from those in the weak field by representing relativistic images due to light winds one to infinity loops around a lens before escaping. We study such a lensing caused by a charged Galileon black hole, which is expected to have possibility to evade no-hair theorem. We calculate the angular separations and time delays between different relativistic images of the charged Galileon black hole. All these observables can potentially be used to discriminate a charged Galileon black hole from others. We estimate the magnitudes of these observables for the closest supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The strong field lensing observables of the charged Galileon black hole can be close to those of a tidal Reissner-Nordström black hole or those of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. It will be helpful to distinguish these black holes if we can separate the outermost relativistic images and determine their angular separation, brightness difference and time delay, although it requires techniques beyond the current limit.

  12. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  13. Charged rotating black holes on a 3-brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.N.; Guemruekcueoglu, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    We study exact stationary and axisymmetric solutions describing charged rotating black holes localized on a 3-brane in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. The charges of the black holes are considered to be of two types, the first being an induced tidal charge that appears as an imprint of nonlocal gravitational effects from the bulk space and the second is a usual electric charge arising due to a Maxwell field trapped on the brane. We assume a special ansatz for the metric on the brane taking it to be of the Kerr-Schild form and show that the Kerr-Newman solution of ordinary general relativity in which the electric charge is superseded by a tidal charge satisfies a closed system of the effective gravitational field equations on the brane. It turns out that the negative tidal charge may provide a mechanism for spinning up the black hole so that its rotation parameter exceeds its mass. This is not allowed in the framework of general relativity. We also find a new solution that represents a rotating black hole on the brane carrying both charges. We show that for a rapid enough rotation the combined influence of the rotational dynamics and the local bulk effects of the 'squared' energy-momentum tensor on the brane distort the horizon structure of the black hole in such a way that it can be thought of as composed of nonuniformly rotating null circles with growing radii from the equatorial plane to the poles. We finally study the geodesic motion of test particles in the equatorial plane of a rotating black hole with tidal charge. We show that the effects of negative tidal charge tend to increase the horizon radius, as well as the radii of the limiting photon orbit, the innermost bound and the innermost stable circular orbits for both direct and retrograde motions of the particles

  14. Quantum loop corrections of a charged de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, J.

    2018-03-01

    A charged black hole in de Sitter (dS) space is considered and logarithmic corrected entropy used to study its thermodynamics. Logarithmic corrections of entropy come from thermal fluctuations, which play a role of quantum loop correction. In that case we are able to study the effect of quantum loop on black hole thermodynamics and statistics. As a black hole is a gravitational object, it helps to obtain some information about the quantum gravity. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are investigated for the logarithmic corrected case and we find that it is only valid for the charged dS black hole. We show that the black hole phase transition disappears in the presence of logarithmic correction.

  15. Geometro-thermodynamics of tidal charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Pidokrajt, Narit; Winitzki, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Tidal charged spherically symmetric vacuum brane black holes are characterized by their mass m and tidal charge q, an imprint of the five-dimensional Weyl curvature. For q>0 they are formally identical to the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole of general relativity. We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometries of tidal charged black holes and discuss similarities and differences as compared to the Reissner-Nordstroe m black hole. As a similarity, we show that (for q>0) the heat capacity of the tidal charged black hole diverges on a set of measure zero of the parameter space, nevertheless both the regularity of the Ruppeiner metric and a Poincare stability analysis show no phase transition at those points. The thermodynamic state spaces being different indicates that the underlying statistical models could be different. We find that the q<0 parameter range, which enhances the localization of gravity on the brane, is thermodynamically preferred. Finally we constrain for the first time the possible range of the tidal charge from the thermodynamic limit on gravitational radiation efficiency at black hole mergers. (orig.)

  16. Thermodynamics of novel charged dilatonic BTZ black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field has been studied. It has been shown that the dilatonic potential must be considered as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Two new classes of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, vector and tensor field equations, have been obtained and their properties have been studied. The conserved charge and mass of the new black holes have been calculated, making use of the Gauss's law and Abbott-Deser proposal, respectively. Through comparison of the thermodynamical extensive quantities (i.e. temperature and entropy) obtained from both, the geometrical and the thermodynamical methods, the validity of the first law of black hole thermodynamics has been confirmed for both of the new black holes we just obtained. A black hole thermal stability or phase transition analysis has been performed, making use of the canonical ensemble method. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, it has been found that for either of the new black hole solutions there are some specific ranges in such a way that the black holes with the horizon radius in these ranges are locally stable. The points of type one and type two phase transitions have been determined. The black holes, with the horizon radius equal to the transition points are unstable. They undergo type one or type two phase transitions to be stabilized.

  17. A rotating charged black hole solution in f (R) gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the context of f (R) theories of gravity, we address the problem of finding a rotating charged black hole solution in the case of constant curvature. A new metric is obtained by solving the field equations and we show that its behaviour is typical of a rotating charged source. In addition, we analyse the ...

  18. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  20. Thermodynamics of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes in rainbow gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the charged three-dimensional Einstein's theory coupled to a dilatonic field has been considered in the rainbow gravity. The dilatonic potential has been written as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Four new classes of charged dilatonic rainbow black hole solutions, as the exact solution to the coupled field equations of the energy dependent space time, have been obtained. Two of them are correspond to the Coulomb's electric field and the others are consequences of a modified Coulomb's law. Total charge and mass as well as the entropy, temperature and electric potential of the new charged black holes have been calculated in the presence of rainbow functions. Although the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, it has been found that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is still valid for all of the new black hole solutions. At the final stage, making use of the canonical ensemble method and regarding the black hole heat capacity, the thermal stability or phase transition of the new rainbow black hole solutions have been analyzed.

  1. Thermodynamics of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes in rainbow gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehghani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the charged three-dimensional Einstein's theory coupled to a dilatonic field has been considered in the rainbow gravity. The dilatonic potential has been written as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Four new classes of charged dilatonic rainbow black hole solutions, as the exact solution to the coupled field equations of the energy dependent space time, have been obtained. Two of them are correspond to the Coulomb's electric field and the others are consequences of a modified Coulomb's law. Total charge and mass as well as the entropy, temperature and electric potential of the new charged black holes have been calculated in the presence of rainbow functions. Although the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, it has been found that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is still valid for all of the new black hole solutions. At the final stage, making use of the canonical ensemble method and regarding the black hole heat capacity, the thermal stability or phase transition of the new rainbow black hole solutions have been analyzed.

  2. Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes. (orig.)

  3. Quasinormal modes of semiclassical electrically charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Facultad de Mecanica, Universidad de Cienfuegos, Carretera a Rodas, km 4, Cuatro Caminos, Cienfuegos (Cuba); De Oliveira, Jeferson, E-mail: opavel@ucf.edu.cu, E-mail: jeferson@fma.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-04-21

    We report the results concerning the influence of vacuum polarization due to quantum massive vector, scalar and spinor fields on the scalar sector of quasinormal modes in spherically symmetric charged black holes. The vacuum polarization from quantized fields produces a shift in the values of the quasinormal frequencies, and correspondingly the semiclassical system becomes a better oscillator with respect to the classical Reissner-Nordstroem black hole.

  4. Entropy Corrections for a Charged Black Hole of String Theory*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexis Larra(n)aga

    2011-01-01

    We study the entropy of the Gibbons-Macda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GMGHS) charged black hole, originated from the effective action that emerges in the low-energy of string theory, beyond semiclassical approximations. Applying the properties of exact differentials for three variables to the first law thermodynamics ve derive the quantum corrections to the entropy of the black hole. The leading (logarithmic) and non leading corrections to the area law are obtained.

  5. Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    It is shown that black hole spacetimes in classical Einstein gravity are characterized by, in addition to their ADM mass M, momentum P-vector , angular momentum J-vector and boost charge K-vector , an infinite head of supertranslation hair. The distinct black holes are distinguished by classical superrotation charges measured at infinity. Solutions with supertranslation hair are diffeomorphic to the Schwarzschild spacetime, but the diffeomorphisms are part of the BMS subgroup and act nontrivially on the physical phase space. It is shown that a black hole can be supertranslated by throwing in an asymmetric shock wave. A leading-order Bondi-gauge expression is derived for the linearized horizon supertranslation charge and shown to generate, via the Dirac bracket, supertranslations on the linearized phase space of gravitational excitations of the horizon. The considerations of this paper are largely classical augmented by comments on their implications for the quantum theory.

  6. Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that black hole spacetimes in classical Einstein gravity are characterized by, in addition to their ADM mass M, momentum P-vector , angular momentum J-vector and boost charge K-vector , an infinite head of supertranslation hair. The distinct black holes are distinguished by classical superrotation charges measured at infinity. Solutions with supertranslation hair are diffeomorphic to the Schwarzschild spacetime, but the diffeomorphisms are part of the BMS subgroup and act nontrivially on the physical phase space. It is shown that a black hole can be supertranslated by throwing in an asymmetric shock wave. A leading-order Bondi-gauge expression is derived for the linearized horizon supertranslation charge and shown to generate, via the Dirac bracket, supertranslations on the linearized phase space of gravitational excitations of the horizon. The considerations of this paper are largely classical augmented by comments on their implications for the quantum theory.

  7. Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    It is shown that black hole spacetimes in classical Einstein gravity are characterized by, in addition to their ADM mass M, momentum \\overrightarrow{P} , angular momentum \\overrightarrow{J} and boost charge \\overrightarrow{K} , an infinite head of supertranslation hair. The distinct black holes are distinguished by classical superrotation charges measured at infinity. Solutions with super-translation hair are diffeomorphic to the Schwarzschild spacetime, but the diffeomorphisms are part of the BMS subgroup and act nontrivially on the physical phase space. It is shown that a black hole can be supertranslated by throwing in an asymmetric shock wave. A leading-order Bondi-gauge expression is derived for the linearized horizon supertranslation charge and shown to generate, via the Dirac bracket, supertranslations on the linearized phase space of gravitational excitations of the horizon. The considerations of this paper are largely classical augmented by comments on their implications for the quantum theory.

  8. The Phase Transition of Higher Dimensional Charged Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huaifan; Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Guo, Xiongying

    2016-01-01

    We have studied phase transitions of higher dimensional charge black hole with spherical symmetry. We calculated the local energy and local temperature and find that these state parameters satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We analyze the critical behavior of black hole thermodynamic system by taking state parameters (Q,Φ) of black hole thermodynamic system, in accordance with considering the state parameters (P,V) of van der Waals system, respectively. We obtain the critical point of black hole thermodynamic system and find that the critical point is independent of the dual independent variables we selected. This result for asymptotically flat space is consistent with that for AdS spacetime and is intrinsic property of black hole thermodynamic system.

  9. Timelike geodesics around a charged spherically symmetric dilaton black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaga C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the timelike geodesics around a spherically symmetric charged dilaton black hole. The trajectories around the black hole are classified using the effective potential of a free test particle. This qualitative approach enables us to determine the type of orbit described by test particle without solving the equations of motion, if the parameters of the black hole and the particle are known. The connections between these parameters and the type of orbit described by the particle are obtained. To visualize the orbits we solve numerically the equation of motion for different values of parameters envolved in our analysis. The effective potential of a free test particle looks different for a non-extremal and an extremal black hole, therefore we have examined separately these two types of black holes.

  10. Quasilocal energy, Komar charge and horizon for regular black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    We study the Brown-York quasilocal energy for regular black holes. We also express the identity that relates the difference of the Brown-York quasilocal energy and the Komar charge at the horizon to the total energy of the spacetime for static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions in a convenient way which permits us to understand why this identity is not satisfied when we consider nonlinear electrodynamics. However, we give a relation between quantities evaluated at the horizon and at infinity when nonlinear electrodynamics is considered. Similar relations are obtained for more general static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions which include solutions of dilaton gravity theories.

  11. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  12. Charged Massive Particle’s Tunneling from Charged Nonrotating Microblack Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle’s tunneling in charged nonrotating TeV-scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged nonrotating microblack hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the backscattered radiation.

  13. Absorption of massive scalar field by a charged black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sato, H [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Fundamental Physics

    1976-04-12

    Absorption and reflection of charged, massive scalar field by the Reisner-Nordstrom black hole are investigated through a numerical computation. The absorption is suppressed when (Schwarzschild radius)<(Compton wave length) and the amplification of the wave occurs when the level crossing condition is satisfied.

  14. Nano-electron beam induced current and hole charge dynamics through uncapped Ge nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, A.; El Hdiy, A.; Troyon, M. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, Bat. 6, case no 15, UFR Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Amiard, G.; Ronda, A.; Berbezier, I. [IM2NP, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint Jerome - Case 142, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2012-04-16

    Dynamics of hole storage in spherical Ge nanocrystals (NCs) formed by a two step dewetting/nucleation process on an oxide layer grown on an n-doped <001> silicon substrate is studied using a nano-electron beam induced current technique. Carrier generation is produced by an electron beam irradiation. The generated current is collected by an atomic force microscope--tip in contact mode at a fixed position away from the beam spot of about 0.5 {mu}m. This distance represents the effective diffusion length of holes. The time constants of holes charging are determined and the effect of the NC size is underlined.

  15. Charged Fermions Tunneling from a Rotating Charged Black Hole in 5-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Lin Rong; Wang Chuanyin

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Hawking radiation from black hole horizon can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and fermions tunneling method can successfully recover Hawking temperature. In this tunneling framework, choosing a set of appropriate matrices γ μ is an important technique for fermions tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by Kerner and Man's fermions tunneling method of 4 dimension black holes, we further improve the analysis to investigate Hawking tunneling radiation from a rotating charged black hole in 5-dimensional gauged supergravity by constructing a set of appropriate matrices γ μ for general covariant Dirac equation. Finally, the expected Hawking temperature of the black hole is correctly recovered, which takes the same form as that obtained by other methods. This method is universal, and can also be directly extend to the other different-type 5-dimensional charged black holes.

  16. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  17. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: eostm@muon.kaist.ac.k, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-21

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  18. Thermodynamics of charged black holes with a nonlinear electrodynamics source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Hernan A.; Hassaiene, Mokhtar; Martinez, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    We study the thermodynamical properties of electrically charged black hole solutions of a nonlinear electrodynamics theory defined by a power p of the Maxwell invariant, which is coupled to Einstein gravity in four and higher spacetime dimensions. Depending on the range of the parameter p, these solutions present different asymptotic behaviors. We compute the Euclidean action with the appropriate boundary term in the grand canonical ensemble. The thermodynamical quantities are identified and, in particular, the mass and the charge are shown to be finite for all classes of solutions. Interestingly, a generalized Smarr formula is derived and it is shown that this latter encodes perfectly the different asymptotic behaviors of the black hole solutions. The local stability is analyzed by computing the heat capacity and the electrical permittivity and we find that a set of small black holes is locally stable. In contrast to the standard Reissner-Nordstroem solution, there is a first-order phase transition between a class of these nonlinear charged black holes and the Minkowski spacetime.

  19. Entanglement Entropy for the charged BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrañaga, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we calculate the explicit form of the entanglement entropy for the charged BTZ (Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli) black hole. The leading term in the large temperature expansion of the entropy function for this black hole reproduces its Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the subleading term, representing the first corrections due to quantum entanglement, behaves as a logarithm of the BH entropy. It has also been obtained an inverse of area term in subleading order similar to the reported when considering Hawking radiation as quantum tunneling of particles through the event horizon

  20. Configurational entropy of charged AdS black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Oh Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When we consider charged AdS black holes in higher dimensional spacetime and a molecule number density along coexistence curves is numerically extended to higher dimensional cases. It is found that a number density difference of a small and large black holes decrease as a total dimension grows up. In particular, we find that a configurational entropy is a concave function of a reduced temperature and reaches a maximum value at a critical (second-order phase transition point. Furthermore, the bigger a total dimension becomes, the more concave function in a configurational entropy while the more convex function in a reduced pressure.

  1. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  2. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  3. Topological black holes dressed with a conformally coupled scalar field and electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo; Staforelli, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Electrically charged solutions for gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field are found in four dimensions in the presence of a cosmological constant. If a quartic self-interaction term for the scalar field is considered, there is a solution describing an asymptotically locally AdS charged black hole dressed with a scalar field that is regular on and outside the event horizon, which is a surface of negative constant curvature. This black hole can have negative mass, which is bounded from below for the extremal case, and its causal structure shows that the solution describes a ''black hole inside a black hole''. The thermodynamics of the nonextremal black hole is analyzed in the grand canonical ensemble. The entropy does not follow the area law, and there is an effective Newton constant which depends on the value of the scalar field at the horizon. If the base manifold is locally flat, the solution has no electric charge, and the scalar field has a vanishing stress-energy tensor so that it dresses a locally AdS spacetime with a nut at the origin. In the case of vanishing self interaction, the solutions also dress locally AdS spacetimes, and if the base manifold is of negative constant curvature a massless electrically charged hairy black hole is obtained. The thermodynamics of this black hole is also analyzed. It is found that the bounds for the black holes parameters in the conformal frame obtained from requiring the entropy to be positive are mapped into the ones that guarantee cosmic censorship in the Einstein frame

  4. Image formation in weak gravitational lensing by tidal charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Zsolt; Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Hobill, David

    2010-01-01

    We derive a generic weak lensing equation and apply it for the study of images produced by tidal charged brane black holes. We discuss the similarities and point out the differences with respect to the Schwarzschild black hole weak lensing, to both first- and second-order accuracy, when either the mass or the tidal charge dominates. In the case of mass-dominated weak lensing, we analyze the position of the images, the magnification factors and the flux ratio, as compared to the Schwarzschild lensing. The most striking modification appears in the flux ratio. When the tidal charge represents the dominating lensing effect, the number and orientation of the images with respect to the optical axis resembles the lensing properties of a Schwarzschild geometry, where the sign associated with the mass is opposite to that for the tidal charge. Finally it is found that the ratio of the brightness of the images as a function of image separation in the case of tidal charged black holes obeys a power-law relation significantly different from that of Schwarzschild black holes. This might provide a means for determining the underlying spacetime structure.

  5. Strong gravitational lensing by a charged Kiselev black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    We study the gravitational lensing scenario where the lens is a spherically symmetric charged black hole (BH) surrounded by quintessence matter. The null geodesic equations in the curved background of the black hole are derived. The resulting trajectory equation is solved analytically via perturbation and series methods for a special choice of parameters, and the distance of the closest approach to black hole is calculated. We also derive the lens equation giving the bending angle of light in the curved background. In the strong field approximation, the solution of the lens equation is also obtained for all values of the quintessence parameter w{sub q}. For all w{sub q}, we show that there are no stable closed null orbits and that corrections to the deflection angle for the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole when the observer and the source are at large, but finite, distances from the lens do not depend on the charge up to the inverse of the distances squared. A part of the present work, analyzed, however, with a different approach, is the extension of Younas et al. (Phys Rev D 92:084042, 2015) where the uncharged case has been treated. (orig.)

  6. Greybody factors of massive charged fermionic fields in a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)

  7. Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.

  8. K-shell-hole production, multiple-hole production, charge transfer, and antisymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, J.F.; Ford, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    In calculating K-shell-hole production when an ion collides with an atom, account must be taken of the fact that processes involving electrons other than the K-shell electron can occur. For example, after making a K-shell hole an L-shell electron may be knocked into it, or an L-shell vacancy may be produced and the K-shell electron promoted to that vacancy in the ''Fermi sea'' of the target-atom orbitals. In 1973 a theorem was proved by one of the present authors demonstrating that all these multielectron processes cancel in an independent-particle model for the target atom. In this paper it is shown that the same thing occurs for hole production by charge transfer to the ion. The authors demonstrate that multihole production does not obey this simple rule and that the probability for multihole production is not the product of independent single-electron probabilities. The correct expressions that should be used for these processes are given, together with new results for charge-transfer processes accompanied by hole production

  9. Meissner effect for axially symmetric charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlebeck, Norman; Scholtz, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In our previous work [N. Gürlebeck and M. Scholtz, Phys. Rev. D 95, 064010 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.064010], we have shown that electric and magnetic fields are expelled from the horizons of extremal, stationary and axially symmetric uncharged black holes; this is called the Meissner effect for black holes. Here, we generalize this result in several directions. First, we allow that the black hole carries charge, which requires a generalization of the definition of the Meissner effect. Next, we introduce the notion of almost isolated horizons, which is weaker than the usual notion of isolated horizons, since the geometry of the former is not necessarily completely time independent. Moreover, we allow the horizon to be pierced by strings, thereby violating the usual assumption on the spherical topology made in the definition of the weakly isolated horizon. Finally, we spell out in detail all assumptions entering the proof and show that the Meissner effect is an inherent property of black holes even in full nonlinear theory.

  10. Doping Phosphorene with Holes and Electrons through Molecular Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Pratap; Rajesh, S; Manjunatha, S; Bandyopadhyay, Arkamita; Barua, Manaswee; Pati, Swapan K; Rao, C N R

    2017-11-03

    An important aspect of phosphorene, the novel two-dimensional semiconductor, is whether holes and electrons can both be doped in this material. Some reports found that only electrons can be preferentially doped into phosphorene. There are some theoretical calculations showing charge-transfer interaction with both tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). We have carried out an investigation of chemical doping of phosphorene by a variety of electron donor and acceptor molecules, employing both experiment and theory, Raman scattering being a crucial aspect of the study. We find that both electron acceptors and donors interact with phosphorene by charge-transfer, with the acceptors having more marked effects. All the three Raman bands of phosphorene soften and exhibit band broadening on interaction with both donor and acceptor molecules. First-principles calculations establish the occurrence of charge-transfer between phosphorene with donors as well as acceptors. The absence of electron-hole asymmetry is noteworthy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Non-commutative geometry inspired charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Nicolini, Piero; Smailagic, Anais; Spallucci, Euro

    2007-01-01

    We find a new, non-commutative geometry inspired, solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing a variety of charged, self-gravitating objects, including extremal and non-extremal black holes. The metric smoothly interpolates between de Sitter geometry, at short distance, and Reissner-Nordstrom geometry far away from the origin. Contrary to the ordinary Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime there is no curvature singularity in the origin neither 'naked' nor shielded by horizons. We investigate both Hawking process and pair creation in this new scenario

  12. Geodesic flows in a charged black hole spacetime with quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Hemwati [Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Physics, Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India); Uniyal, Rashmi [Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Physics, Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India); Government Degree College, Department of Physics, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand (India)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the evolution of timelike geodesic congruences, in the background of a charged black hole spacetime surrounded by quintessence. The Raychaudhuri equations for three kinematical quantities namely the expansion scalar, shear and rotation along the geodesic flows in such spacetime are obtained and solved numerically. We have also analysed both the weak and the strong energy conditions for the focussing of timelike geodesic congruences. The effect of the normalisation constant (α) and the equation of state parameter (ε) on the evolution of the expansion scalar is discussed, for the congruences with and without an initial shear and rotation. It is observed that there always exists a critical value of the initial expansion below which we have focussing with smaller values of the normalisation constant and the equation of state parameter. As the corresponding values of both of these parameters are increased, no geodesic focussing is observed. The results obtained are then compared with those of the Reissner Nordstroem and Schwarzschild black hole spacetimes as well as their de Sitter black hole analogues accordingly. (orig.)

  13. Geodesic flows in a charged black hole spacetime with quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Hemwati; Uniyal, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of timelike geodesic congruences, in the background of a charged black hole spacetime surrounded by quintessence. The Raychaudhuri equations for three kinematical quantities namely the expansion scalar, shear and rotation along the geodesic flows in such spacetime are obtained and solved numerically. We have also analysed both the weak and the strong energy conditions for the focussing of timelike geodesic congruences. The effect of the normalisation constant (α) and the equation of state parameter (ε) on the evolution of the expansion scalar is discussed, for the congruences with and without an initial shear and rotation. It is observed that there always exists a critical value of the initial expansion below which we have focussing with smaller values of the normalisation constant and the equation of state parameter. As the corresponding values of both of these parameters are increased, no geodesic focussing is observed. The results obtained are then compared with those of the Reissner Nordstroem and Schwarzschild black hole spacetimes as well as their de Sitter black hole analogues accordingly. (orig.)

  14. Planckian charged black holes in ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the role of the charge within the self-complete quantum gravity paradigm. By studying the classicalization of generic ultraviolet improved charged black hole solutions around the Planck scale, we showed that the charge introduces important differences with respect to the neutral case. First, there exists a family of black hole parameters fulfilling the particle-black hole condition. Second, there is no extremal particle-black hole solution but quasi extremal charged particle-black holes at the best. We showed that the Hawking emission disrupts the condition of particle-black hole. By analyzing the Schwinger pair production mechanism, the charge is quickly shed and the particle-black hole condition can ultimately be restored in a cooling down phase towards a zero temperature configuration, provided non-classical effects are taken into account.

  15. Planckian charged black holes in ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Piero

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of the role of the charge within the self-complete quantum gravity paradigm. By studying the classicalization of generic ultraviolet improved charged black hole solutions around the Planck scale, we showed that the charge introduces important differences with respect to the neutral case. First, there exists a family of black hole parameters fulfilling the particle-black hole condition. Second, there is no extremal particle-black hole solution but quasi extremal charged particle-black holes at the best. We showed that the Hawking emission disrupts the condition of particle-black hole. By analyzing the Schwinger pair production mechanism, the charge is quickly shed and the particle-black hole condition can ultimately be restored in a cooling down phase towards a zero temperature configuration, provided non-classical effects are taken into account.

  16. Hamiltonian thermodynamics of charged three-dimensional dilatonic black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Goncalo A. S.; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2008-01-01

    The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories, with an electromagnetic Maxwell field and a cosmological constant, can be recast in a Brans-Dicke-Maxwell type action, with its free ω parameter. For a negative cosmological constant, these theories have static, electrically charged, and spherically symmetric black hole solutions. Those theories with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity (ω→±∞), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory (ω=0), and a theory representing a class of theories (ω=-3), all with a Maxwell term. The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti-de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces and the radial component of the vector potential one-form are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with two pairs of canonical coordinates (M,P M ;Q,P Q ), where M is the mass parameter, which for ω M is the conjugate momenta of M, Q is the charge parameter, and P Q is its conjugate momentum. The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schroedinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the grand canonical ensemble is obtained, where the chemical potential is the scalar electric field φ. Like the uncharged cases studied previously, the charged black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.

  17. Phases of planar AdS black holes with axionic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Christodoulou, Ariana; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Skenderis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Planar AdS black holes with axionic charge have finite DC conductivity due to momentum relaxation. We obtain a new family of exact asymptotically AdS 4 black branes with scalar hair, carrying magnetic and axion charge, and we study the thermodynamics and dynamic stability of these, as well as of a number of previously known electric and dyonic solutions with axion charge and scalar hair. The scalar hair for all solutions satisfy mixed boundary conditions, which lead to modified holographic Ward identities, conserved charges and free energy, relative to those following from the more standard Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that properly accounting for the scalar boundary conditions leads to well defined first law and other thermodynamic relations. Finally, we compute the holographic quantum effective potential for the dual scalar operator and show that dynamical stability of the hairy black branes is equivalent to positivity of the energy density.

  18. Phases of planar AdS black holes with axionic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Christodoulou, Ariana [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, I 34136 Trieste (Italy); Skenderis, Kostas [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-03

    Planar AdS black holes with axionic charge have finite DC conductivity due to momentum relaxation. We obtain a new family of exact asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black branes with scalar hair, carrying magnetic and axion charge, and we study the thermodynamics and dynamic stability of these, as well as of a number of previously known electric and dyonic solutions with axion charge and scalar hair. The scalar hair for all solutions satisfy mixed boundary conditions, which lead to modified holographic Ward identities, conserved charges and free energy, relative to those following from the more standard Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that properly accounting for the scalar boundary conditions leads to well defined first law and other thermodynamic relations. Finally, we compute the holographic quantum effective potential for the dual scalar operator and show that dynamical stability of the hairy black branes is equivalent to positivity of the energy density.

  19. Inside charged black holes. II. Baryons plus dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; Pollack, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of two companion papers on the interior structure of self-similar accreting charged black holes. In the first paper, the black hole was allowed to accrete only a single fluid of charged baryons. In this second paper, the black hole is allowed to accrete in addition a neutral fluid of almost noninteracting dark matter. Relativistic streaming between outgoing baryons and ingoing dark matter leads to mass inflation near the inner horizon. When enough dark matter has been accreted that the center-of-mass frame near the inner horizon is ingoing, then mass inflation ceases and the fluid collapses to a central singularity. A null singularity does not form on the Cauchy horizon. Although the simultaneous presence of ingoing and outgoing fluids near the inner horizon is essential to mass inflation, reducing one or the other of the ingoing dark matter or outgoing baryonic streams to a trace relative to the other stream makes mass inflation more extreme, not the other way around as one might naively have expected. Consequently, if the dark matter has a finite cross section for being absorbed into the baryonic fluid, then the reduction of the amount of ingoing dark matter merely makes inflation more extreme, the interior mass exponentiating more rapidly and to a larger value before mass inflation ceases. However, if the dark matter absorption cross section is effectively infinite at high collision energy, so that the ingoing dark matter stream disappears completely, then the outgoing baryonic fluid can drop through the Cauchy horizon. In all cases, as the baryons and the dark matter voyage to their diverse fates inside the black hole, they only ever see a finite amount of time pass by in the outside universe. Thus the solutions do not depend on what happens in the infinite past or future. We discuss in some detail the physical mechanism that drives mass inflation. Although the gravitational force is inward, inward means opposite direction for ingoing and

  20. On non-linear magnetic-charged black hole surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Cao H.

    2018-06-01

    We derive a non-linear magnetic-charged black hole surrounded by quintessence, which behaves asymptotically like the Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence but at the short distances like the dS geometry. The horizon properties of this black hole are investigated in detail. The thermodynamics of the black hole is studied in the local and global views. Finally, by calculating the heat capacity and the free energy, we point to that the black hole may undergo a thermal phase transition, between a larger unstable black hole and a smaller stable black hole, at a critical temperature.

  1. Faraday rotation near charged black holes and other electrovacuum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, U.H.

    1975-01-01

    In space permeated by a steady background electromagnetic field a gravitational wave and an electromagnetic wave not only undergo beat frequency oscillations, but the linear polarizations of these waves undergo Faraday rotations as well. The beating and the Faraday rotations are inextricably related. The classification of these phenomena requires three parameters, the three Euler parameters of SU(2). They specify in a more general sense the ''polarization'' of an electrograviton mode. The evolution of the beat frequency oscillations and the Faraday rotations along a propagating wave front is described as a moving point in SU(2). Consequently, a charged black hole serves not only as a catalyst for converting suitably directed electromagnetic radiation into gravitational radiation, but also as an agent that randomized the linear polarizations of radiation emerging from it. An assessment of these phenomena in relation to the origin of Weber's signals is given

  2. New charged black holes with conformal scalar hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalon, Andres; Maeda, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    A new class of four-dimensional, hairy, stationary solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-Λ system with a conformally coupled scalar field is obtained. The metric belongs to the Plebanski-Demianski family and hence its static limit has the form of the charged (A)dS C metric. It is shown that, in the static case, a new family of hairy black holes arises. They turn out to be cohomogeneity-two, with horizons that are neither Einstein nor homogenous manifolds. The conical singularities in the C metric can be removed due to the backreaction of the scalar field providing a new kind of regular, radiative spacetime. The scalar field carries a continuous parameter proportional to the usual acceleration present in the C metric. In the zero-acceleration limit, the static solution reduces to the dyonic Bocharova-Bronnikov-Melnikov-Bekenstein solution or the dyonic extension of the Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black holes, depending on the value of the cosmological constant.

  3. No-bomb theorem for charged Reissner–Nordström black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role played by black holes in many areas of physics makes it highly important to explore the nature of their stability. The stability of charged Reissner–Nordström black holes to neutral (gravitational and electromagnetic) perturbations was established almost four decades ago. However, the stability of these charged black holes under charged perturbations has remained an open question due to the complexity introduced by the well-known phenomena of superradiant scattering: A charged scalar field impinging on a charged Reissner–Nordström black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole. If the incident field has a non-zero rest mass, then the mass term effectively works as a mirror, preventing the energy extracted from the hole from escaping to infinity. One may suspect that the superradiant amplification of charged fields by the charged black hole may lead to an instability of the Reissner–Nordström spacetime (in as much the same way that rotating Kerr black holes are unstable under rotating scalar perturbations). However, in this Letter we show that, for charged Reissner–Nordström black holes in the regime (Q/M) 2 ⩽8/9, the two conditions which are required in order to trigger a possible superradiant instability [namely: (1) the existence of a trapping potential well outside the black hole, and (2) superradiant amplification of the trapped modes] cannot be satisfied simultaneously. Our results thus support the stability of charged Reissner–Nordström black holes under charged scalar perturbations in the regime (Q/M) 2 ⩽8/9.

  4. A comparative study of Dirac quasinormal modes of charged black holes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Sayan K.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study the Dirac quasinormal modes of higher dimensional charged black holes. Higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem type black holes as well as charged black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories are studied for fermionic perturbations using WKB method. A comparative study of the quasinormal modes in the two different theories of gravity has been performed. The behavior of the frequencies with the variation of black hole parameters as well as with the variation of space-time dimensions is studied. We also study the large multipole number limit of the black hole potential in order to look for an analytic expression for the frequencies. (orig.)

  5. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  6. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  7. Scalar hair around charged black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Nicolás; Landea, Ignacio Salazar

    2018-02-01

    We explore charged black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in five dimensions, with a charged scalar hair. We interpret such hairy black holes as the final state of the superradiant instability previously reported for this system. We explore the relation of the hairy black hole solutions with the nonbackreacting quasibound states and scalar clouds, as well as with the boson star solutions.

  8. Electrostatics in the Surroundings of a Topologically Charged Black Hole in the Brane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larrañaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determine the expression for the electrostatic potential generated by a point charge held stationary in the topologically charged black hole spacetime arising from the Randall-Sundrum II braneworld model. We treat the static electric point charge as a linear perturbation on the black hole background and an expression for the electrostatic multipole solution is given: PACS: 04.70.-s, 04.50.Gh, 11.25.-w, 41.20.-q, 41.90.+e.

  9. Charge loss (or the lack thereof) for AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of evaporating charged black holes is complicated to model in general, but is nevertheless important since the hints to the Information Loss Paradox and its recent firewall incarnation may lie in understanding more generic geometries than that of Schwarzschild spacetime. Fortunately, for sufficiently large asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordström black holes, the evaporation process can be modeled via a system of coupled linear ordinary differential equations, with charge loss rate governed by Schwinger pair-production process. The same model can be generalized to study the evaporation of AdS Reissner-Nordström black holes with flat horizon. It was recently found that such black holes always evolve towards extremality since charge loss is inefficient. This property is completely opposite to the asymptotically flat case in which the black hole eventually loses its charges and tends towards Schwarzschild limit. We clarify the underlying reason for this different behavior.

  10. Massless charged particles: Cosmic censorship, and the third law of black hole mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairoos, C.; Ghosh, Avirup; Sarkar, Sudipta

    2017-10-01

    The formulation of the laws of Black hole mechanics assumes the stability of black holes under perturbations in accordance with the "cosmic censorship hypothesis" (CCH). CCH prohibits the formation of a naked singularity by a physical process from a regular black hole solution with an event horizon. Earlier studies show that naked singularities can indeed be formed leading to the violation of CCH if a near-extremal black hole is injected with massive charged particles and the backreaction effects are neglected. We investigate the validity of CCH by considering the infall of charged massless particles as well as a charged null shell. We also discuss the issue of the third law of Black hole mechanics in the presence of null charged particles by considering various possibilities.

  11. Chaos in charged AdS black hole extended phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabab, M.; El Moumni, H.; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K.; Zhizeh, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present an analytical study of chaos in a charged black hole in the extended phase space in the context of the Poincare-Melnikov theory. Along with some background on dynamical systems, we compute the relevant Melnikov function and find its zeros. Then we analyse these zeros either to identify the temporal chaos in the spinodal region, or to observe spatial chaos in the small/large black hole equilibrium configuration. As a byproduct, we derive a constraint on the Black hole' charge required to produce chaotic behaviour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first endeavour to understand the correlation between chaos and phase picture in black holes.

  12. Thermodynamic interpretation of the field equation of BTZ charged black hole near the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larranaga, A.

    2008-01-01

    As is already known, a spacetime horizon acts like a boundary of a thermal system and we can associate with it notions such as temperature and entropy. Following the work of M. Akbar, in this paper we will show how it is possible to interpret the field equation of a charged BTZ black hole near the horizon as a thermodynamic identity dE=TdS+P r dA+ΦdQ$, where Φ is the electric potential and $Q$ is the electric charge of a BTZ black hole. These results indicate that the field equations for the charged BTZ black hole possess intrinsic thermodynamic properties near the horizon.

  13. Regular black holes: electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a De Sitter core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Jose P.S. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (CENTRA/IST/UTL) (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico. Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica; Zanchin, Vilson T. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The understanding of the inside of a black hole is of crucial importance in order to have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole. The singularities that lurk inside of the usual black hole solutions are things to avoid. Their substitution by a regular part is of great interest, the process generating regular black holes. In the present work regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several solutions: the regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, the regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, the regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and the regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed. (author)

  14. Nonlinear Evolution and Final Fate of Charged Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Superradiant Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis

    2016-04-08

    We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Backreaction then causes the black hole to lose charge and mass until the perturbation becomes nonsuperradiant, with the final state described by a stable hairy black hole. For large gauge coupling, the instability extracts a large amount of charge per unit mass, resulting in greater entropy increase. We discuss the implications of the observed behavior for the general problem of superradiance in black hole spacetimes.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of charged three-dimensional black holes in the scalar-tensor gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-02-01

    Making use of the suitable transformation relations, the action of three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory has been obtained from that of scalar-tensor modified gravity theory coupled to the Maxwell's electrodynamics as the matter field. Two new classes of the static three-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational field equations, have been obtained in the Einstein frame. Also, it has been found that the scalar potential can be written in the form of a generalized Liouville-type potential. The conserved black hole charge and masses as well as the black entropy, temperature, and electric potential have been calculated from the geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. Through comparison of the results arisen from these two alternative approaches, the validity of the thermodynamical first law has been proved for both of the new black hole solutions in the Einstein frame. Making use of the canonical ensemble method, a black hole stability or phase transition analysis has been performed. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, with the black hole charge as a constant, the points of type-1 and type-2 phase transitions have been determined. Also, the ranges of the black hole horizon radius at which the Einstein black holes are thermally stable have been obtained for both of the new black hole solutions. Then making use of the inverse transformation relations, two new classes of the string black hole solutions have been obtained from their Einstein counterpart. The thermodynamics and thermal stability of the new string black hole solutions have been investigated. It has been found that thermodynamic properties of the new charged black holes are identical in the Einstein and Jordan frames.

  16. Cosmic censorship principle in two-dimensional charged extreme black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bin; Ru Keng Su [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Physics; Cheung, T. [Hong Kong City Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Physics

    1999-10-01

    By constructing a gedanken experiment, the authors prove that the event horizon of a two-dimensional charged extreme black hole cannot be removed. Singularities are found to be formed on the horizon through analyzing the fate of Hawking partner and application of Helliwell-Konkowski conjecture. The cosmic censorship principle is well protected in this black hole.

  17. Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS{sub 4} charged superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Óscar J.C.; Masachs, Ramon [STAG research centre and Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-24

    We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS{sub 4}) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS{sub 4}-Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS{sub 4}-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.

  18. The motion of a charged black hole in an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicak, J.; Cambridge Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The motion of a charged black hole in a weak, asymptotically uniform electric field is analysed by using the Hamiltonian formalism for coupled electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstrom space-time. The hole is shown to accelerate with respect to a distant inertial observer according to Newton's law. The relation of the approximate solution obtained to the exact solution of Ernst, representing the charged C-metric without nodal singularity, is then clarified. (author)

  19. Hawking radiation of five-dimensional charged black holes with scalar fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Gang Miao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation cascade from the five-dimensional charged black hole with a scalar field coupled to higher-order Euler densities in a conformally invariant manner. We give the semi-analytic calculation of greybody factors for the Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that the Hawking radiation cascade from this five-dimensional black hole is extremely sparse. The charge enhances the sparsity of the Hawking radiation, while the conformally coupled scalar field reduces this sparsity.

  20. The self-force on a non-minimally coupled static scalar charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Demian H J; Tsokaros, Antonios A; Wiseman, Alan G

    2007-01-01

    The finite part of the self-force on a static, non-minimally coupled scalar test charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole is zero. This result is determined from the work required to slowly raise or lower the charge through an infinitesimal distance. Unlike similar force calculations for minimally-coupled scalar charges or electric charges, we find that we must account for a flux of field energy that passes through the horizon and changes the mass and area of the black hole when the charge is displaced. This occurs even for an arbitrarily slow displacement of the non-minimally coupled scalar charge. For a positive coupling constant, the area of the hole increases when the charge is lowered and decreases when the charge is raised. The fact that the self-force vanishes for a static, non-minimally coupled scalar charge in Schwarzschild spacetime agrees with a simple prediction of the Quinn-Wald axioms. However, Zel'nikov and Frolov computed a non-vanishing self-force for a non-minimally coupled charge. Our method of calculation closely parallels the derivation of Zel'nikov and Frolov, and we show that their omission of this unusual flux is responsible for their (incorrect) result. When the flux is accounted for, the self-force vanishes. This correction eliminates a potential counter example to the Quinn-Wald axioms. The fact that the area of the black hole changes when the charge is displaced brings up two interesting questions that did not arise in similar calculations for static electric charges and minimally coupled scalar charges. (1) How can we reconcile a decrease in the area of the black hole horizon with the area theorem which concludes that δArea horizon ≥ 0? The key hypothesis of the area theorem is that the stress-energy tensor must satisfy a null-energy condition T αβ l α l β ≥ 0 for any null vector l α . We explicitly show that the stress-energy associated with a non-minimally coupled field does not satisfy this condition, and this violation of

  1. Destroying charged black holes in higher dimensions with test particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Weiyang; Tang, Hao; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2017-07-01

    A possible way to destroy the Tangherlini Reissner-Nordström black hole is discussed in the spirit of Wald’s gedanken experiment. By neglecting radiation and self force effects, the absorbing condition and destruction condition of the test point particle which is capable of destroying the black hole are obtained. We find that it is impossible to challenge the weak cosmic censorship for an initially extremal black hole in all dimensions. Instead, it is shown that the near extremal black hole will turn into a naked singularity in this particular process, in which case the allowed range of the particle’s energy is very narrow. The result indicates that the self-force effects may well change the outcome of the calculation.

  2. Stringy stability of charged dilaton black holes with flat event horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Yen Chin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Electrically charged black holes with flat event horizon in anti-de Sitter space have received much attention due to various applications in Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, from modeling the behavior of quark-gluon plasma to superconductor. Critical to the physics on the dual field theory is the fact that when embedded in string theory, black holes in the bulk may become vulnerable to instability caused by brane pair-production. Since dilation arises naturally in the context of string theory, we study the effect of coupling dilation to Maxwell field on the stability of flat charged AdS black holes.

  3. Formation and evaporation of an electrically charged black hole in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany); Modesto, Leonardo [Southern University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Shenzhen (China); Porey, Shiladitya [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Rachwal, Leslaw [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    Extending previous work on the formation and the evaporation of black holes in conformal gravity, in the present paper we study the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric and electrically charged thin shell of radiation. The process creates a singularity-free black hole. Assuming that in the evaporation process the charge Q is constant, the final product of the evaporation is an extremal remnant with M = Q, which is reached in an infinite amount of time. We also discuss the issue of singularity and thermodynamics of black holes in Weyl's conformal gravity. (orig.)

  4. Charged massive particle at rest in the field of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.; Ruffini, R.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and a charged massive particle is studied in the framework of perturbation theory. The particle backreaction is taken into account, studying the effect of general static perturbations of the hole following the approach of Zerilli. The solutions of the combined Einstein-Maxwell equations for both perturbed gravitational and electromagnetic fields to first order of the perturbation are exactly reconstructed by summing all multipoles, and are given explicit closed form expressions. The existence of a singularity-free solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system requires that the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle satisfy an equilibrium condition which is in general dependent on the separation between the two bodies. If the black hole is undercritically charged (i.e. its charge-to-mass ratio is less than one), the particle must be overcritically charged, in the sense that the particle must have a charge-to-mass ratio greater than one. If the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle are both equal to one (so that they are both critically charged, or 'extreme'), the equilibrium can exist for any separation distance, and the solution we find coincides with the linearization in the present context of the well-known Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for two extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. In addition to these singularity-free solutions, we also analyze the corresponding solution for the problem of a massive particle at rest near a Schwarzschild black hole, exhibiting a strut singularity on the axis between the two bodies. The relations between our perturbative solutions and the corresponding exact two-body solutions belonging to the Weyl class are also discussed

  5. CHAOTIC MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The observational data from some black hole candidates suggest the importance of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of a black hole. Highly magnetized disk accretion may play an importance rule, and large-scale magnetic field may be formed above the disk surface. Then, we expect that the nature of the black hole spacetime would be revealed by magnetic phenomena near the black hole. We will start investigating the motion of a charged test particle which depends on the initial parameter setting in the black hole dipole magnetic field, which is a test field on the Kerr spacetime. Particularly, we study the spin effects of a rotating black hole on the motion of the charged test particle trapped in magnetic field lines. We make detailed analysis for the particle's trajectories by using the Poincare map method, and show the chaotic properties that depend on the black hole spin. We find that the dragging effects of the spacetime by a rotating black hole weaken the chaotic properties and generate regular trajectories for some sets of initial parameters, while the chaotic properties dominate on the trajectories for slowly rotating black hole cases. The dragging effects can generate the fourth adiabatic invariant on the particle motion approximately.

  6. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V. [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Steyrleuthner, R.; Neher, D. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Str. 24, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ihiawakrim, D. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg, Cedex2 (France); Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M. [Institut Charles Sadron CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Koch, N., E-mail: norbert.koch@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Erneuerbare Energien, Albert-Einstein Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 10{sup 4} due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contrast to the previous speculations, electrical bistability in such devices was not observed.

  7. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V.; Steyrleuthner, R.; Neher, D.; Ihiawakrim, D.; Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M.; Koch, N.

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 10 4 due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contrast to the previous speculations, electrical bistability in such devices was not observed.

  8. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    OpenAIRE

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V.; Steyrleuthner, Robert; Ihiawakrim, D.; Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M.; Neher, D.; Koch, N.

    2017-01-01

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 104 due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contr...

  9. Moduli, Scalar Charges, and the First Law of Black Hole Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.; Kallosh, R.; Kol, B.

    1996-01-01

    We show that under variation of moduli fields φ the first law of black hole thermodynamics becomes dM=κdA/8π +ΩdJ+ψdq+χdp-Σdφ, where Σ are the scalar charges. Also the ADM mass is extremized at fixed A, J, (p,q) when the moduli fields take the fixed value φ fix (p,q) which depend only on electric and magnetic charges. Thus the double-extreme black hole minimizes the mass for fixed conserved charges. We can now explain the fact that extreme black holes fix the moduli fields at the horizon φ=φ fix (p,q): φ fix is such that the scalar charges vanish: Σ(φ fix ,(p,q))=0. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Charged black holes in Hořava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiszewski, Stefan; Karch, Andreas; Robinson, Brandon; Sommer, David

    2014-01-01

    We explore static spherically symmetric black hole solutions allowing a bulk U(1) vector field in the khronometric formulation of Hořava gravity by way of Einstein-Æther. We examine analytic solutions and study numerical results in the limit that the khronon does not backreact on the metric

  11. Charged BTZ-like black hole solutions and the diffusivity-butterfly velocity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Sin, Sang-Jin; Tian, Yu; Wu, Shao-Feng; Wu, Shang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    We show that there exists a class of charged BTZ-like black hole solutions in Lifshitz spacetime with a hyperscaling violating factor. The charged BTZ black hole is characterized by a charge-dependent logarithmic term in the metric function. As concrete examples, we give five such charged BTZ-like black hole solutions and the standard charged BTZ metric can be regarded as a special instance of them. In order to check the recent proposed universal relations between diffusivity and the butterfly velocity, we first compute the diffusion constants of the standard charged BTZ black holes and then extend our calculation to arbitrary dimension d, exponents z and θ. Remarkably, the case d = θ and z = 2 is a very special in that the charge diffusion D c is a constant and the energy diffusion D e might be ill-defined, but v B 2 τ diverges. We also compute the diffusion constants for the case that the DC conductivity is finite but in the absence of momentum relaxation.

  12. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Freese, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10 11 GeV–10 16 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  13. Analytical study of a Kerr-Sen black hole and a charged massive scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Canisius

    2017-11-01

    It is reported that Kerr-Newman and Kerr-Sen black holes are unstable to perturbations of charged massive scalar field. In this paper, we study analytically the complex frequencies which characterize charged massive scalar fields in a near-extremal Kerr-Sen black hole. For near-extremal Kerr-Sen black holes and for charged massive scalar fields in the eikonal large-mass M ≫μ regime, where M is the mass of the black hole, and μ is the mass of the charged scalar field, we have obtained a simple expression for the dimensionless ratio ωI/(ωR-ωc) , where ωI and ωR are, respectively, the imaginary and real parts of the frequency of the modes, and ωc is the critical frequency for the onset of super-radiance. We have also found our expression is consistent with the result of Hod [Phys. Rev. D 94, 044036 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.044036] for the case of a near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole and the result of Zouros and Eardly [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 118, 139 (1979), 10.1016/0003-4916(79)90237-9] for the case of neutral scalar fields in the background of a near-extremal Kerr black hole.

  14. Gyromagnetic ratio of charged Kerr-anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Alikram N

    2007-01-01

    We examine the gyromagnetic ratios of rotating and charged AdS black holes in four and higher spacetime dimensions. We compute the gyromagnetic ratio for Kerr-AdS black holes with an arbitrary electric charge in four dimensions and show that it corresponds to g = 2 irrespective of the AdS nature of the spacetime. We also compute the gyromagnetic ratio for Kerr-AdS black holes with a single angular momentum and with a test electric charge in all higher dimensions. The gyromagnetic ratio crucially depends on the dimensionless ratio of the rotation parameter to the curvature radius of the AdS background. At the critical limit, when the boundary Einstein universe is rotating at the speed of light, it exhibits a striking feature leading to g 2 regardless of the spacetime dimension. Next, we extend our consideration to include the exact metric for five-dimensional rotating charged black holes in minimal gauged supergravity. We show that the value of the gyromagnetic ratio found in the 'test-charge' approach remains unchanged for these black holes

  15. On the Penrose inequality for charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disconzi, Marcelo M; Khuri, Marcus A

    2012-01-01

    Bray and Khuri (2011 Asian J. Math. 15 557–610; 2010 Discrete Continuous Dyn. Syst. A 27 741766) outlined an approach to prove the Penrose inequality for general initial data sets of the Einstein equations. In this paper we extend this approach so that it may be applied to a charged version of the Penrose inequality. Moreover, assuming that the initial data are time-symmetric, we prove the rigidity statement in the case of equality for the charged Penrose inequality, a result which seems to be absent from the literature. A new quasi-local mass, tailored to charged initial data sets is also introduced, and used in the proof. (paper)

  16. Electrically charged matter in rigid rotation around magnetized black hole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, J.; Slaný, P.; Cremaschini, C.; Stuchlík, Z.; Karas, Vladimír; Trova, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), 044029/1-044029/14 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP14-07753P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black holes * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  17. Critical Phenomena in Higher Curvature Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Lala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the critical phenomena in higher curvature charged AdS black holes. We have considered Lovelock-Born-Infeld-AdS black hole as an example. The thermodynamics of the black hole have been studied which reveals the onset of a higher-order phase transition in the black hole in the canonical ensemble (fixed charge ensemble framework. We have analytically derived the critical exponents associated with these thermodynamic quantities. We find that our results fit well with the thermodynamic scaling laws and consistent with the mean field theory approximation. The suggestive values of the other two critical exponents associated with the correlation function and correlation length on the critical surface have been derived.

  18. On the variably-charged black holes in general relativity: Hawking's radiation and naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibohal, Ng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper variably-charged non-rotating Reissner-Nordstrom and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes are discussed. Such a variable charge e with respect to the polar coordinate r in the field equations is referred to as an electrical radiation of the black hole. It is shown that every electrical radiation e(r) of the non-rotating black hole leads to a reduction in its mass M by some quantity. If one considers such electrical radiation taking place continuously for a long time, then a continuous reduction of the mass may take place in the black-hole body and the original mass of the black hole may be evaporated completely. At that stage, the gravity of the object may depend only on the electromagnetic field, not on the mass. Immediately after the complete evaporation of the mass, if the next radiation continues, there may be creation of a new mass leading to the formation of a negative mass naked singularity. It appears that this new mass of the naked singularity would never decrease, but might increase gradually as the radiation continues forever. A similar investigation is also discussed in the case of a variably-charged rotating Kerr-Newman black hole. Thus, it has been shown by incorporating Hawking's evaporation of radiating black holes in the form of spacetime metrics, every electrical radiation of variably-charged rotating and non-rotating black holes may produce a change in the mass of the body without affecting the Maxwell scalar

  19. On Thermodynamical Relation Between Rotating Charged BTZ Black Holes and Effective String Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexis Larra(~n)aga

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the first law of thermodynamics for the (2+1)-dimensional rotating charged BTZ black hole considering a pair of thermodynamical systems constructed with the two horizons of this solution. We show that these two systems are similar to the right and left movers of string theory and that the temperature associated with the black hole is the harmonic mean of the temperatures associated with these two systems.

  20. Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai, E-mail: supakchai.p@gmail.com; Winstanley, Elizabeth, E-mail: E.Winstanley@sheffield.ac.uk

    2017-01-10

    We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.

  1. Thin charged shells and the violation of the third law of black hole mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proszynski, M.

    1983-01-01

    The collapse of an infinitely thin spherical shell of charged matter, which surrounds a spherically symmetric black hole or has a flat interior, is analyzed in connection with the laws of black hole mechanics and the cosmic censorship hypothesis. An effective potential is introduced to describe the motion of the shell. The process, proposed by Farrugia and Hajicek as a counterexample to the third law, is discussed and generalized to the case of nondust shells. (author)

  2. Logarithmic corrections to entropy of magnetically charged AdS4 black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtak Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Logarithmic terms are quantum corrections to black hole entropy determined completely from classical data, thus providing a strong check for candidate theories of quantum gravity purely from physics in the infrared. We compute these terms in the entropy associated to the horizon of a magnetically charged extremal black hole in AdS×4S7 using the quantum entropy function and discuss the possibility of matching against recently derived microscopic expressions.

  3. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of dyonic charged AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Das, Anirban [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-15

    We investigate phase transitions and critical phenomena of four dimensional dyonic charged AdS black holes in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. In a mixed canonical-grand canonical ensemble with a fixed electric charge and varying magnetic charge these black holes exhibit a liquid-gas like first order phase transition culminating in a second order critical point similar to the van der Waals gas. We show that the thermodynamic scalar curvature R for these black holes follow our proposed geometrical characterization of the R-crossing Method for the first order liquid-gas like phase transition and exhibits a divergence at the second order critical point. The pattern of R crossing and divergence exactly corresponds to those of a van der Waals gas described by us in an earlier work. (orig.)

  4. Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planck distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.

  5. Face-down positioning versus non-supine positioning in macular hole surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the full thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure rate in patients positioning non-supine (NSP) compared with patients positioning face-down (FDP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed two FTMH case series-postoperative positioning was FDP and NSP, respectively. All eyes were...... group fully complied with the recommended positioning protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Results from consistent FTMH repair indicate similar anatomical success rates in FDP and NSP groups, suggesting that FDP is unnecessary. Objective monitoring of positioning would be beneficial in future FTMH studies to be able...

  6. The Nernst theorem and statistical entropy in a (1+1)-dimensional charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Z.; Junfang, Z.; Lichun, Z.

    2001-01-01

    It was derived that the bosonic and fermionic entropies in (1+1)-dimensional charged black hole directly by using the quantum statistical method. The result is the same as the integral expression obtained by solving the wave equation approximately. Then it is obtained the statistical entropy of the black hole by integration via the improved brick-wall method, membrane model. The derived entropy satisfies the thermodynamic relation. When the radiation temperature of the black hole tends to zero, so does the entropy. It obeys Nernst theorem. So it can be taken as Planck absolute entropy

  7. Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korunur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the Møller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.

  8. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Ling [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China); Feng, Zhong-Wen [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China)

    2018-01-15

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition. (orig.)

  9. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition. (orig.)

  10. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  11. Redundant and physical black hole parameters: Is there an independent physical dilaton charge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hajian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Black holes as solutions to gravity theories, are generically identified by a set of parameters. Some of these parameters are associated with black hole physical conserved charges, like ADM charges. There can also be some “redundant parameters.” We propose necessary conditions for a parameter to be physical. The conditions are essentially integrability and non-triviality of the charge variations arising from “parametric variations,” variation of the solution with respect to the chosen parameters. In addition, we prove that variation of the redundant parameters which do not meet our criteria do not appear in the first law of thermodynamics. As an interesting application, we show that dilaton moduli are redundant parameters for black hole solutions to Einstein–Maxwell–(Axion–Dilaton theories, because variations in dilaton moduli would render entropy, mass, electric charges or angular momenta non-integrable. Our results are in contrast with modification of the first law due to scalar charges suggested in Gibbons–Kallosh–Kol paper [1] and its follow-ups. We also briefly discuss implications of our results for the attractor behavior of extremal black holes.

  12. Redundant and physical black hole parameters: Is there an independent physical dilaton charge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, K., E-mail: kamalhajian@ipm.ir; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M., E-mail: jabbari@theory.ipm.ac.ir

    2017-05-10

    Black holes as solutions to gravity theories, are generically identified by a set of parameters. Some of these parameters are associated with black hole physical conserved charges, like ADM charges. There can also be some “redundant parameters.” We propose necessary conditions for a parameter to be physical. The conditions are essentially integrability and non-triviality of the charge variations arising from “parametric variations,” variation of the solution with respect to the chosen parameters. In addition, we prove that variation of the redundant parameters which do not meet our criteria do not appear in the first law of thermodynamics. As an interesting application, we show that dilaton moduli are redundant parameters for black hole solutions to Einstein–Maxwell–(Axion)–Dilaton theories, because variations in dilaton moduli would render entropy, mass, electric charges or angular momenta non-integrable. Our results are in contrast with modification of the first law due to scalar charges suggested in Gibbons–Kallosh–Kol paper and its follow-ups. We also briefly discuss implications of our results for the attractor behavior of extremal black holes.

  13. Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-01-01

    We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr–Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.

  14. Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Ujjal, E-mail: ujjaldebnath@yahoo.com

    2016-09-15

    We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr–Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.

  15. Dualities in D=5, N=2 supergravity, black hole entropy, and AdS central charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, D.

    2001-01-01

    The issue of microstate counting for general black holes in D=5, N=2 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets is discussed from various viewpoints. The statistical entropy is computed for the near-extremal case by using the central charge appearing in the asymptotic symmetry algebra of AdS 2 . Furthermore, we show that the considered supergravity theory enjoys a duality invariance which connects electrically charged black holes and magnetically charged black strings. The near-horizon geometry of the latter turns out to be AdS 3 x S 2 , which allows a microscopic calculation of their entropy using the Brown-Hennaux central charges in Cardy's formula. In both approaches we find perfect agreement between statistical and thermodynamical entropy. (orig.)

  16. Comparing D-branes and black holes with 0- and 6-brane charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    We consider configurations of D6-branes with a D0-brane charge given by recent work of Taylor and compute interaction potentials with various D-brane probes using a 1-loop open string calculation. These results are compared to a supergravity calculation using the solution given by Sheinblatt of an extremal black hole carrying 0-brane and 6-brane charges. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Sound modes in holographic hydrodynamics for charged AdS black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yoshinori; Sin, Sang-Jin; Takeuchi, Shingo; Tsukioka, Takuya; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2009-01-01

    In the previous paper we studied the transport coefficients of quark-gluon plasma in finite temperature and finite density in vector and tensor modes. In this paper, we extend it to the scalar modes. We work out the decoupling problem and hydrodynamic analysis for the sound mode in charged AdS black hole and calculate the sound velocity, the charge susceptibility and the electrical conductivity. We find that Einstein relation among the conductivity, the diffusion constant and the susceptibility holds exactly.

  18. Charged vector particle tunneling from a pair of accelerating and rotating and 5D gauged super-gravity black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Wajiha; Ali, Riasat [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the quantum tunneling process for charged vector particles through the horizons of more generalized black holes by using the Proca equation. For this purpose, we consider a pair of charged accelerating and rotating black holes with Newman-Unti-Tamburino parameter and a black hole in 5D gauged super-gravity theory, respectively. Further, we study the tunneling probability and corresponding Hawking temperature for both black holes by using the WKB approximation. We find that our analysis is independent of the particles species whether or not the background black hole geometries are more generalized. (orig.)

  19. On the absence of scalar hair for charged rotating black holes in non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    black holes with exterior non-abelian gauge field or Skyrmion field [8–10] have put ... solutions for charged rotating space-time with a minimally coupled scalar field from the ...... 125, 2163 (1962). [26] G Magnano and L M Sokolowski, Phys.

  20. Field of a dipole in charged black-hole electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    By using the solution of Adler and Das for Maxwell's equations in a Reissner-Nordstroem optimally charged background metric, the field of a static electric dipole is found and then, by a duality rotation, the field of a static magnetic dipole is obtained. A generalization of the concept of electric-dipole moment is proposed for static dipoles in curved manifolds, and the behaviour of the fields both for the dipole very near and very far from the singular surface of the Reissner-Nordstroem geometry is studied. (author)

  1. Two-Phase Equilibrium Properties in Charged Topological Dilaton AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss phase transition of the charged topological dilaton AdS black holes by Maxwell equal area law. The two phases involved in the phase transition could coexist and we depict the coexistence region in P-v diagrams. The two-phase equilibrium curves in P-T diagrams are plotted, the Clapeyron equation for the black hole is derived, and the latent heat of isothermal phase transition is investigated. We also analyze the parameters of the black hole that could have an effect on the two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black holes may go through a small-large phase transition similar to that of a usual nongravity thermodynamic system.

  2. Abbott-Deser-Tekin Charge of Dilaton Black Holes with Squashed Horizons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Jin Peng; Wen-Chang Xiang; Shao-Hong Cai

    2016-01-01

    We consider the conserved charge of static black holes with squashed horizons in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory via both the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) method and its off-shell generalization.We first make use of the original ADT method to compute the mass of the dilaton squashed black holes in terms of three different reference spacetimes,which are the asymptotic geometry,the fiat background and the spacetime of the KaluzaKlein monopole with boundary matched to the original metric,respectively.Each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics,although the mass computed on the basis of the boundary matching the KaluzaKlein monopole is different from that of the other two reference spacetimes.Then the mass of the black holes is evaluated through the off-shell generalized ADT method.

  3. Longitudinal holes in debunched particle beams in storage rings, perpetuated by space-charge forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Koscielniak

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Stationary, self-consistent, and localized longitudinal density perturbations on an unbunched charged-particle beam, which are solutions of the nonlinearized Vlasov-Poisson equation, have recently received some attention. In particular, we address the case that space charge is the dominant longitudinal impedance and the storage ring operates below transition energy so that the negative mass instability is not an explanation for persistent beam structure. Under the customary assumption of a bell-shaped steady-state distribution, about which the expansion is made, the usual wave theory of Keil and Schnell for perturbations on unbunched beams predicts that self-sustaining perturbations are possible only (below transition if the impedance is inductive (or resistive or if the bell shape is inverted. Space charge gives a capacitive impedance. Nevertheless, we report numerous experimental measurements made at the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster that plainly show the longevity of holelike structures in coasting beams. We shall also report on computer simulations of boosterlike beams that provide compelling evidence that it is space-charge force which perpetuates the holes. We shall show that the localized solitonlike structures, i.e., holes, decouple from the steady-state distribution and that they are simple solutions of the nonlinearized time-independent Vlasov equation. We have derived conditions for stationarity of holes that satisfy the requirement of self-consistency; essentially, the relation between the momentum spread and depth of the holes is given by the Hamiltonian—with the constraint that the phase-space density be high enough to support the solitons. The stationarity conditions have scaling laws similar to the Keil-Schnell criteria except that the charge and momentum spread of the hole replaces that of the beam.

  4. The charged black-hole bomb: A lower bound on the charge-to-mass ratio of the explosive scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-04-01

    The well-known superradiant amplification mechanism allows a charged scalar field of proper mass μ and electric charge q to extract the Coulomb energy of a charged Reissner-Nordström black hole. The rate of energy extraction can grow exponentially in time if the system is placed inside a reflecting cavity which prevents the charged scalar field from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is known as the charged black-hole bomb. Previous numerical studies of this composed physical system have shown that, in the linearized regime, the inequality q / μ > 1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability. In the present paper we use analytical techniques to study the instability properties of the charged black-hole bomb in the regime of linearized scalar fields. In particular, we prove that the lower bound q/μ>√{rm /r- - 1/ rm /r+ - 1 } provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability in this composed physical system (here r± are the horizon radii of the charged Reissner-Nordström black hole and rm is the radius of the confining mirror). This analytically derived lower bound on the superradiant instability regime of the composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the instability spectrum.

  5. Charged rotating black holes in four-dimensional gauged and ungauged supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Z.-W.; Cvetic, M.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    We study four-dimensional non-extremal charged rotating black holes in ungauged and gauged supergravity. In the ungauged case, we obtain rotating black holes with four independent charges, as solutions of N=2 supergravity coupled to three Abelian vector multiplets. This is done by reducing the theory along the time direction to three dimensions, where it has an O(4,4) global symmetry. Applied to the reduction of the uncharged Kerr metric, O(1,1) 4 is a subject of O(4,4) transformations generate new solutions that correspond, after lifting back to four dimensions, to the introduction of four independent electromagnetic charges. In the case where these charges are set pairwise equal, we then generalise the four-dimensional rotating black holes to solutions of gauged N=4 supergravity, with mass, angular momentum and two independent electromagnetic charges. The dilaton and axion fields are non-constant. We also find generalisations of the gauged and ungauged solutions to include the NUT parameter, and for the ungauged solutions, the acceleration parameter too. The solutions in gauged supergravity provide new gravitational backgrounds for a further study of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence at non-zero temperature

  6. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q≤μ 2/3 E c -1/3 , where q and μ are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E c is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z≤Z * =α -1/3 A 2/3 , where α=e 2 /h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  7. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  8. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the slug and jet center hole of axisymmetric shaped charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoxiang, Ren; Gang, Tao; Peng, Wen; Changxing, Du; Chunqiao, Pang; Hongbo, Meng

    2018-06-01

    In the jet formation process of axisymmetric shaped charges, the slug is also formed. There is always a central hole in the symmetry axis of the jet and slug. The phenomenon was rarely mentioned and analyzed by the classical theory of shaped charges. For this problem, this paper attempts to explain the existence of the central hole in the jet and slug. Based on the analysis of recovery slug, we know that the jet and slug are in solid state in the process of formation. Through the analysis of X-flash radiographs of the stretching jet and particulation fracture, it is confirmed that the center holes in the jet are also present. Meanwhile, through the analysis of the microstructure of the recovered slug, it is found that there is a wave disturbance near the surface of the central hole. It can be speculated that the wave disturbance also exist in the jet. This effect may be one of the reasons for jet breakup. Due to the presence of the central hole in the jet, the density deficit of the jet obtained by other tests is very reasonable.

  9. Van der Waals-like behaviour of charged black holes and hysteresis in the dual QFTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Cadoni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the rules of the AdS/CFT correspondence, we compute the spherical analogue of the shear viscosity, defined in terms of the retarded Green function for the stress-energy tensor for QFTs dual to five-dimensional charged black holes of general relativity with a negative cosmological constant. We show that the ratio between this quantity and the entropy density, η˜/s, exhibits a temperature-dependent hysteresis. We argue that this hysteretic behaviour can be explained by the Van der Waals-like character of charged black holes, considered as thermodynamical systems. Under the critical charge, hysteresis emerges owing to the presence of two stable states (small and large black holes connected by a meta-stable region (intermediate black holes. A potential barrier prevents the equilibrium path between the two stable states; the system evolution must occur through the meta-stable region, and a path-dependence of η˜/s is generated.

  10. Critical phenomena and chemical potential of a charged AdS black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liang, Bin; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Inspired by the interpretation of the cosmological constant from the boundary gauge theory, we here treat it as the number of colors N and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential μ in the black hole side. Then the thermodynamics and the chemical potential for a five-dimensional charged AdS black hole are studied. It is found that there exists a small-large black hole phase transition of van der Waals type. The critical phenomena are investigated in the N2-μ chart. The result implies that the phase transition can occur for large number of colors N , while is forbidden for small number. This to some extent implies that the interaction of the system increases with the number. In particular, in the reduced parameter space, all the thermodynamic quantities can be rescaled with the black hole charge such that these reduced quantities are charge-independent. Then we obtain the coexistence curve and the phase diagram. The latent heat is also numerically calculated. Moreover, the heat capacity and the thermodynamic scalar are studied. The result indicates that the information of the first-order black hole phase transition is encoded in the heat capacity and scalar. However, the phase transition point cannot be directly calculated with them. Nevertheless, the critical point linked to a second-order phase transition can be determined by either the heat capacity or the scalar. In addition, we calculate the critical exponents of the heat capacity and the scalar for the saturated small and large black holes near the critical point.

  11. Hawking effect and quantum nonthermal radiation of an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole using a new tortoise coordinate transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun; Xie Zhi-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour—Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation, the Klein—Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton—Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  12. Quasinormal modes of four-dimensional topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Cato lica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2016-02-15

    We study scalar perturbations of four- dimensional topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes with spherical and plane transverse sections, and we find numerically the quasinormal modes for scalar fields. Then we study the stability of these black holes under massive and massless scalar field perturbations. We focus our study on the dependence of the dynamical exponent, the nonlinear exponent, the angular momentum, and the mass of the scalar field in the modes. It is found that the modes are overdamped, depending strongly on the dynamical exponent and the angular momentum of the scalar field for a spherical transverse section. In contrast, for plane transverse sections the modes are always overdamped. (orig.)

  13. Critical phenomena of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The extended thermodynamics of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity is analyzed. The P–V criticality of these black holes has some unusual features. There exists a single critical point with critical temperature Tc and critical pressure Pc. At fixed T>Tc (or at fixed P>Pc, there are two zeroth order phase transition points but no first order phase transition points. The systems favors large pressure states at constant T, or high temperature states at constant P.

  14. Applications of gauge/gravity dualities with charged Anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, Viviane Theresa

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we deal with different applications of the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence, which is also more generally referred to as gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured duality in superstring theory between strongly-coupled four-dimensional N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory and weakly-coupled type IIB string theory in five-dimensional AdS spacetime. This duality provides a powerful method to investigate strongly-coupled low-energy systems in four dimensions by substitutionally carrying out calculations in five-dimensional weakly-coupled supergravity. In this work, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore three different strongly-coupled systems, namely a brane world accommodating a strongly-coupled field theory, a strongly-coupled fluid on a three-sphere and a strongly-coupled p-wave superfluid. In all these cases, the dual supergravity descriptions involve charged AdS black holes. The first system studied here is a Randall-Sundrum brane world moving in the background of a five-dimensional non-extremal black hole of N=2 gauged supergravity. The equations of motion of the brane are found to be equal to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) equations for a closed universe. The closed brane universe has special thermodynamic properties. The energy of the brane field theory exhibits a subextensive Casimir contribution, and the entropy can be expressed as a Cardy-Verlinde-type formula. We show that the equations for both quantities can take forms that strongly resemble the two FRW equations. At the horizon of the black hole, these two sets of equations are shown to even merge with each other which might suggest the existence of a common underlying theory. In addition, as a by-product result, the non-extremal black hole solutions considered here are found to admit an alternative description in terms of first-order flow equations similar to those which are well-known from the attractor mechanism of

  15. Applications of gauge/gravity dualities with charged Anti-de Sitter black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Viviane Theresa

    2010-05-17

    In this thesis, we deal with different applications of the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence, which is also more generally referred to as gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured duality in superstring theory between strongly-coupled four-dimensional N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory and weakly-coupled type IIB string theory in five-dimensional AdS spacetime. This duality provides a powerful method to investigate strongly-coupled low-energy systems in four dimensions by substitutionally carrying out calculations in five-dimensional weakly-coupled supergravity. In this work, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore three different strongly-coupled systems, namely a brane world accommodating a strongly-coupled field theory, a strongly-coupled fluid on a three-sphere and a strongly-coupled p-wave superfluid. In all these cases, the dual supergravity descriptions involve charged AdS black holes. The first system studied here is a Randall-Sundrum brane world moving in the background of a five-dimensional non-extremal black hole of N=2 gauged supergravity. The equations of motion of the brane are found to be equal to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) equations for a closed universe. The closed brane universe has special thermodynamic properties. The energy of the brane field theory exhibits a subextensive Casimir contribution, and the entropy can be expressed as a Cardy-Verlinde-type formula. We show that the equations for both quantities can take forms that strongly resemble the two FRW equations. At the horizon of the black hole, these two sets of equations are shown to even merge with each other which might suggest the existence of a common underlying theory. In addition, as a by-product result, the non-extremal black hole solutions considered here are found to admit an alternative description in terms of first-order flow equations similar to those which are well-known from the attractor mechanism of

  16. Charged black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brihaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study 4-dimensional charged and static black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model, in which a shift symmetry for the scalar field exists. For vanishing scalar field the solution corresponds to the Reissner–Nordström (RN solution, while solutions of the full scalar-gravity model have to be constructed numerically. We demonstrate that these black holes support Galilean scalar hair up to a maximal value of the scalar–tensor coupling that depends on the value of the charge and can be up to roughly twice as large as that for uncharged solutions. The Hawking temperature TH of the hairy black holes at maximal scalar–tensor coupling decreases continuously with the increase of the charge and reaches TH=0 for the highest possible charge that these solutions can carry. However, in this limit, the scalar–tensor coupling needs to vanish. The limiting solution hence corresponds to the extremal RN solution, which does not support regular Galilean scalar hair due to its AdS2×S2 near-horizon geometry.

  17. Cosmic censorship in overcharging a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole via charged particle absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Sago, Norichika; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    There is a claim that a static-charged black hole (Reissner-Nordstroem black hole) can be overcharged by absorbing a charged test particle. If it is true, it might give a counter example to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, which states that spacetime singularities are never observed by a distant observer. However, so far the proposed process has only been analyzed within a test particle approximation. Here, we claim that the backreaction effects of a charged particle cannot be neglected when judging whether the suggested process is really a counter example to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Furthermore, we argue that all the backreaction effects can be properly taken into account when we consider the trajectory of a particle on the border between the plunge and bounce orbits. In such marginal cases, we find that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole can never be overcharged via the absorption of a charged particle. Since all the plunge orbits are expected to have a higher energy than the marginal orbit, we conclude that there is no supporting evidence that indicates the violation of the cosmic censorship in the proposed overcharging process.

  18. Quasinormal modes of a massless charged scalar field on a small Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikata, Nami; Yoshida, Shijun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quasinormal modes of a massless charged scalar field on a small Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole both with analytical and numerical approaches. In the analytical approach, by using the small black hole approximation (r + + /L→0, where r + and L stand for the black hole event horizon radius and the AdS scale, respectively. We then show that the small RN-AdS black hole is unstable if its quasinormal modes satisfy the superradiance condition and that the instability condition of the RN-AdS black hole in the limit of r + /L→0 is given by Q>(3/eL)Q c , where Q, Q c , and e are the charge of the black hole, the critical (maximum) charge of the black hole, and the charge of the scalar field, respectively. In the numerical approach, we calculate the quasinormal modes for the small RN-AdS black holes with r + + =0.2L, 0.1L, and 0.01L become unstable against scalar perturbations with eL=4 when the charge of the black hole satisfies Q > or approx. 0.8Q c , 0.78Q c , and 0.76Q c , respectively.

  19. On conserved charges and thermodynamics of the AdS{sub 4} dyonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas, Marcela [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Fuentealba, Oscar; Matulich, Javier [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-05-02

    We consider four-dimensional gravity in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field and an Abelian gauge field. This theory corresponds to the bosonic sector of a Kaluza-Klein reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity which induces a specific self-interacting potential for the scalar field. We compute the conserved charges and carry out the thermodynamics of an anti-de Sitter (AdS) dyonic black hole solution that was proposed recently. The charges coming from symmetries of the action are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim Hamiltonian approach. They correspond to the mass, which acquires contributions from the scalar field, and the electric charge. We introduce integrability conditions because the scalar field leads to non-integrable terms in the variation of the mass. These conditions are generically solved by introducing boundary conditions that relate the leading and subleading terms of the scalar field fall-off. The Hamiltonian Euclidean action, computed in the grand canonical ensemble, is obtained by demanding the action to have an extremum. Its value is given by a radial boundary term plus an additional polar angle boundary term due to the presence of a magnetic monopole. Remarkably, the magnetic charge can be identified from the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term, confirming that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is a consequence of having a well-defined and finite Hamiltonian action principle, even if the charge does not come from a symmetry of the action. The temperature and electrostatic potential are determined by demanding regularity of the black hole solution, whereas the value of the magnetic potential is determined by the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term. Consequently, the first law of black hole thermodynamics is identically satisfied by construction.

  20. Stress-energy tensor near a charged, rotating, evaporating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    The recently developed two-dimensional stress-energy regularization techniques are applied to the two-dimensional analog of the Reissner-Nordstroem family of black-hole metrics. The calculated stress-energy tensor in all cases contains the thermal radiation discovered by Hawking. Implications for the evolution of the interior of a charged black hole are considered. The calculated stress-energy tensor is found to diverge on the inner, Cauchy, horizon. Thus the effect of quantum mechanics is to cause the Cauchy horizon to become singular. The stress-energy tensor is also calculated for the ''most reasonable'' two-dimensional analog of the Kerr-Newman family of black-hole metrics. Although the analysis is not as rigorous as in the Reissner-Nordstroem case, it appears that the correct value for the Hawking radiation also appears in this model

  1. Hiding of the conserved (anti)baryonic charge into black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is considered. It is suggested that the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated by black hole evaporation in a specific mechanism proposed by Zeldovich. Net amount of baryons evaporated by a black hole is shown can be unequal to that of antibaryons, even if the baryon charge is microscopically conserved. It is concluded that the discussed mechanism can provide the observed baryon assymetry of the Universe if primary black holes with the mass M=10sup(4+-2)Msub(P), where Msub(P)=10sup(19) GeV is the Planck mass, give noticeable contribution into the total energy density of the Universe

  2. Back reaction, the Hawking emission spectrum from the charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pingchuan; Wang Zhihong; Han Yan

    2011-01-01

    The Hawking emission spectrum of the Schwarzschild-like black hole has been successfully described in the tunneling picture. In this paper, we develop the idea for the case of the charged black hole with back reaction. First, the most general, static spherically symmetric charged black hole, in the presence of back reaction, has been provided by solving the Einstein equations with a non-zero vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor (T μν (φ, g μν )). At the one-loop corrections, we also produce the modified expressions for the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. It is found that the leading correction to the semiclassical entropy is logarithmic and next to the leading order is inverse of the horizon area, just as the expected well-known results. In particular, as our main focus in this paper, we show that the modified black hole still radiates with a perfect blackbody spectrum, only the temperature undergoing quantum corrections. Also, the Hawking fluxes of the electric current and energy-momentum tensor to include the effect of back reaction are obtained. The results are interestingly found sharing the same form as that from the point of anomaly.

  3. Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz

    2009-09-15

    A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.

  4. Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.

  5. Absorption and radiation of nonminimally coupled scalar field from charged BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the absorption and radiation of nonminimally coupled scalar field from the charged BTZ black hole. We find the analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient, the absorption cross section and the decay rate in strong coupling case. We find that the reflection coefficient is directly governed by Hawking temperature TH, scalar wave frequency ω , Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S_{BH}, angular momentum m and coupling constant ξ.

  6. Scale-dependent three-dimensional charged black holes in linear and non-linear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, Angel; Koch, Benjamin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Instituto de Fisica, Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Ernesto; Bargueno, Pedro; Hernandez-Arboleda, Alejandro [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota, Distrito Capital (Colombia); Panotopoulos, Grigorios [Universidade de Lisboa, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-07-15

    In the present work we study the scale dependence at the level of the effective action of charged black holes in Einstein-Maxwell as well as in Einstein-power-Maxwell theories in (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes without a cosmological constant. We allow for scale dependence of the gravitational and electromagnetic couplings, and we solve the corresponding generalized field equations imposing the null energy condition. Certain properties, such as horizon structure and thermodynamics, are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  7. Hidden conformal symmetry of a rotating black hole with four charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Kainan; Zhang Zhibai

    2011-01-01

    Kerr/CFT correspondence exhibits many remarkable connections between the near-horizon Kerr black hole and a conformal field theory (CFT). Recently, Castro, Maloney, and Strominger showed that a hidden conformal symmetry exists in the solution space of a Kerr black hole. In this paper we investigate a rotating black hole with four independent U(1) charges derived from string theory which is known as the four-dimensional Cvetic-Youm solution, and we prove that the same hidden conformal symmetry also holds. We obtain the exact black hole entropy using the temperatures derived. The entropy and absorption cross section agree with the previous results [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, Nucl. Phys. B506, 107 (1997).] and [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2009) 088.]. In addition, we clarify a previous explanation on the temperatures of the Cvetic-Youm solution's dual CFT. This work provides more robust derivation of the hidden conformal symmetry of Kerr-like black holes and as well as Kerr/CFT correspondence.

  8. Radiation from Accelerating Electric Charges: The Third Derivative of Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Edward

    2010-03-01

    While some textbooks appear to suggest that acceleration of an electric charge is both a necessary and sufficient cause for the generation of electromagnetic radiation, the question has in fact had an intricate and involved history. In particular, the acceleration of a charge in hyperbolic motion, the behavior of a charge supported against a gravitational force (and its implications for the Equivalence Principle), and a charge accelerated by a workless constraint have been the subject of repeated investigation. The present paper examines specifically the manner in which the third derivative of position enters into the equations of motion, and the implications this has for the emission of radiation. Plass opens his review article with the statement that ``A fundamental property of all charged particles is that electromagnetic energy is radiated whenever they are accelerated'' (Plass 1961; emphasis mine). His treatment of the equations of motion, however, emphasizes the importance of the occurrence of the third derivative of position therein, present in linear motion only when the rate of acceleration is increasing or decreasing. There appears to be general agreement that the presence of a nonzero third derivative indicates that this charge is radiating; but does its absence preclude radiation? This question leads back to the issues of charges accelerated by a uniform gravitational field. We will examine the equations of motion as presented in Fulton & Rohrlich (1960), Plass (1961), Barut (1964), Teitelboim (1970) and Mo & Papas (1971) in the light of more recent literature in an attempt to clarify this question.

  9. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  10. Spherical domain wall formed by field dynamics of Hawking radiation and spontaneous charging-up of black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation in the gauge Higgs-Yukawa theory. The ballistic model is proposed as an effective description of the system. We find that a spherical domain wall around the black hole is formed by field dynamics rather than thermal phase transition. The formation is a general property of the black hole whose Hawking temperature is equal to or greater than the energy scale of the theory. The formation of the electroweak wall and that of the GUT wall are shown. We also find a phenomenon of the spontaneous charging-up of the black hole by the wall. The Hawking radiation drives a mechanism of the charge transportation into the black hole when C- and CP-violation are assumed. The mechanism can strongly transport the hyper-charge into a black hole of the electroweak scale

  11. Quasinormal modes and thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in (anti) de Sitter space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasia, P.; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we study the Quasi-Normal Modes (QNMs) under massless scalar perturbations and the thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in the (Anti)de Sitter ((A)dS) space-time. It is found that the behavior of QNMs changes with the massive parameter of the graviton and also with the charge of the black hole. The thermodynamics of such black holes in the (A)dS space-time is also analyzed in detail. The behavior of specific heat with temperature for such black holes gives an indication of a phase transition that depends on the massive parameter of the graviton and also on the charge of the black hole. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  13. Canister positioning. Influence of fracture system on deposition hole stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The study concerns the mechanical behaviour of rock surrounding tunnels and deposition holes in a nuclear waste repository. The mechanical effects of tunnel excavation and deposition hole excavation are investigated by use of a tunnel scale numerical model representing a part of a KBS-3 type repository. The excavation geometry, the initial pre-mining state of stress, and the geometrical features of the fracture system are defined according to conditions that prevail in the TBM tunnel rock mass in Aespoe HRL. Comparisons are made between results obtained without consideration of fractures and results obtained with inclusion of the fracture system. The focus is on the region around the intersection of a tunnel and a deposition hole. A general conclusion is that a fracture system of the type found in the TBM rock mass does not have a decisive influence on the stability of the deposition holes. To estimate the expected extent of spalling, information about other conditions, e.g. the orientation of the initial stresses and the strength properties of the intact rock, is more important than detailed information about the fracture system

  14. Position Reconstruction and Charge Distribution in LHCb VELO Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Versloot, TW; Akiba, K; Artuso, M; Van Beuzekom, M; Borel, J; Bowcock, TJV; Buytaert, J; Collins, P; Dumps, R; Dwyer, L; Eckstein, D; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Frei, R; Gersabek M; Haefeli, G; Hennessy, K; Huse, T; Jans, E; John, M; Ketel, TJ; Keune, A; Lastoviicka, T; Mountain, R; Neufeld, N; Parkes, C; Stone, S; Szumlak, T; Tobin, M; Van Lysebetten, A; Viret, S; De Vries, H; Wang, J

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, a partially equipped LHCb VELO detector half was characterised in a test beam experiment (Alignment Challenge and Detector Commissioning, ACDC3). The position reconstruction and resolution for 2-strip R-sensor clusters was studied as a function of strip pitch and track inclination on the sensor surface. The Charge Density Distribution (CDD) is derived from the weighted charge distribution. It becomes asymmetric for tracks non-perpendicular to the strip surface. It is shown that the asymmetric broadening of the CDD around the track intercept position results in a linear eta-function at higher angles (>6 degrees). The sensor spatial resolution is determined both using a linear weighted mean of strip charges, as well as a third-order polynomial approximation via a eta-correction. The experimental results are in agreement with previous simulations. Future studies are underway to determine the angle and pitch dependent parameters which will be implemented in the LHCb VELO cluster position software tools.

  15. Method and apparatus for positioning a beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michail, M.S.; Woodard, O.C.; Yourke, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    A beam of charged particles is stepped from one predetermined position to another to form a desired pattern on a semiconductor wafer. There is a dynamic correction for the deviation of the actual position of the beam from its predetermined position, so that the beam is applied to the deviated position rather than the predetermined position. Through the location of four registration marks, the writing field is precisely defined. Writing fields may be interconnected by the sharing of registration marks, enabling the construction of chips which are larger than a single writing field. (auth)

  16. Electron-hole collision limited transport in charge-neutral bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Youngwoo; Ki, Dong-Keun; Soler-Delgado, David; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2017-12-01

    Ballistic transport occurs whenever electrons propagate without collisions deflecting their trajectory. It is normally observed in conductors with a negligible concentration of impurities, at low temperature, to avoid electron-phonon scattering. Here, we use suspended bilayer graphene devices to reveal a new regime, in which ballistic transport is not limited by scattering with phonons or impurities, but by electron-hole collisions. The phenomenon manifests itself in a negative four-terminal resistance that becomes visible when the density of holes (electrons) is suppressed by gate-shifting the Fermi level in the conduction (valence) band, above the thermal energy. For smaller densities, transport is diffusive, and the measured conductivity is reproduced quantitatively, with no fitting parameters, by including electron-hole scattering as the only process causing velocity relaxation. Experiments on a trilayer device show that the phenomenon is robust and that transport at charge neutrality is governed by the same physics. Our results provide a textbook illustration of a transport regime that had not been observed previously and clarify the nature of conduction through charge-neutral graphene under conditions in which carrier density inhomogeneity is immaterial. They also demonstrate that transport can be limited by a fully electronic mechanism, originating from the same microscopic processes that govern the physics of Dirac-like plasmas.

  17. On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d = 4 and d = 5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d = 4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d = 5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d = 5 near horizon Myers- Perry black hole with a NUT charge. (orig.)

  18. On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d = 4 and d = 5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d = 4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d = 5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d = 5 near horizon Myers- Perry black hole with a NUT charge. (orig.)

  19. Equations of motion in general relativity of a small charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.; Hogan, P. A.; Itoh, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details of a model in general relativity of a small charged black hole moving in an external gravitational and electromagnetic field. The importance of our model lies in the fact that we can derive the equations of motion of the black hole from the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations without encountering infinities. The key assumptions which we base our results upon are that (a) the black hole is isolated and (b) near the black hole the wave fronts of the radiation generated by its motion are smoothly deformed spheres. The equations of motion which emerge fit the pattern of the original DeWitt and Brehme equations of motion (after they 'renormalize'). Our calculations are carried out in a coordinate system in which the null hypersurface histories of the wave fronts can be specified in a simple way, with the result that we obtain a new explicit form, particular to our model, for the well-known ''tail term'' in the equations of motion.

  20. Vacuum polarization in the spacetime of a charged nonlinear black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berej, Waldemar; Matyjasek, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Building on general formulas obtained from the approximate renormalized effective action, the approximate stress-energy tensor of the quantized massive scalar field with arbitrary curvature coupling in the spacetime of a charged black hole that is the solution of the coupled equations of nonlinear electrodynamics and general relativity is constructed and analyzed. It is shown that, in a few limiting cases, the analytical expressions relating the obtained tensor to the general renormalized stress-energy tensor evaluated in the geometry of the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole can be derived. A detailed numerical analysis with special emphasis put on minimal coupling is presented, and the results are compared with those obtained earlier for a conformally coupled field. Some novel features of the renormalized stress-energy tensor are discussed

  1. Thermodynamic instability of charged dilaton black holes in AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.; Hendi, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    We study thermodynamic instability of a class of (n+1)-dimensional charged dilatonic spherically symmetric black holes in the background of the anti-de Sitter universe. We calculate the quasilocal mass of the anti-de Sitter dilaton black hole through the use of the subtraction method of Brown and York. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis in the canonical ensemble and disclose the effect of the dilaton field on the thermal stability of the solutions. Our study shows that the solutions are thermally stable for small α, while for large α the system has an unstable phase, where α is a coupling constant between the dilaton and matter field.

  2. Thermodynamic instability of nonlinearly charged black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B.E.; Momennia, M. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Motivated by the violation of Lorentz invariance in quantum gravity, we study black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow in the context of Einstein gravity coupled with various models of nonlinear electrodynamics. We regard an energy dependent spacetime and obtain the related metric functions and electric fields. We show that there is an essential singularity at the origin which is covered by an event horizon. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamical quantities and examine the validity of the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability conditions for these black hole solutions in the context of canonical ensemble. We show that the thermodynamical structure of the solutions depends on the choices of nonlinearity parameters, charge, and energy functions. (orig.)

  3. Charged de Sitter-like black holes: quintessence-dependent enthalpy and new extreme solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    We consider Reissner-Nordstroem black holes surrounded by quintessence where both a non-extremal event horizon and a cosmological horizon exist besides an inner horizon (-1 ≤ ω < -1/3). We determine new extreme black hole solutions that generalize the Nariai horizon to asymptotically de Sitter-like solutions for any order relation between the squares of the charge q{sup 2} and the mass parameter M{sup 2} provided q{sup 2} remains smaller than some limit, which is larger than M{sup 2}. In the limit case q{sup 2} = 9ω{sup 2}M{sup 2}/(9ω{sup 2}-1), we derive the general expression of the extreme cosmo-blackhole, where the three horizons merge, and we discuss some of its properties.We also show that the endpoint of the evaporation process is independent of any order relation between q{sup 2} and M{sup 2}. The Teitelboim energy and the Padmanabhan energy are related by a nonlinear expression and are shown to correspond to different ensembles. We also determine the enthalpy H of the event horizon, as well as the effective thermodynamic volume which is the conjugate variable of the negative quintessential pressure, and show that in general the mass parameter and the Teitelboim energy are different from the enthalpy and internal energy; only in the cosmological case, that is, for Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter black hole we have H = M. Generalized Smarr formulas are also derived. It is concluded that the internal energy has a universal expression for all static charged black holes, with possibly a variable mass parameter, but it is not a suitable thermodynamic potential for static-black-hole thermodynamics if M is constant. It is also shown that the reverse isoperimetric inequality holds. We generalize the results to the case of the Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter black hole surrounded by quintessence with two physical constants yielding two thermodynamic volumes. (orig.)

  4. Determination of charge carrier mobility of hole transporting polytriarylamine-based diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, Eva M.; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Sommer, Michael; Huettner, Sven; Bolink, Henk J.; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2010-01-01

    Hole transport properties of three different side chain poly(triarylamines) have been determined by means of the analysis of steady-state current-voltage characteristics using co-planar diode structures. The interpretation is based on space-charge limited models with field-dependent mobility. Mobilities between ∼ 10 -8 and 10 -6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained. The highest mobility is achieved for poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) devices and the lowest for poly(triphenylamine) devices. Electron-rich methoxy substituents increase the mobility of poly(triphenylamine)s. A comparison of the mobility values with those obtained using organic field-effect transistors is also given.

  5. Spectrum of relativistic radiation from electric charges and dipoles as they fall freely into a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru; Novikov, I. D.; Lipatova, L. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astrospace Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    The motion of electric charges and dipoles falling radially and freely into a Schwarzschild black hole is considered. The inverse effect of the electromagnetic fields on the black hole is neglected. Since the dipole is assumed to be a point particle, the deformation due to the action of tidal forces on it is neglected. According to the theorem stating that 'black holes have no hair', the multipole electromagnetic fields should be completely radiated as a multipole falls into a black hole. The electromagnetic radiation power spectrum for these multipoles (a monopole and a dipole) has been found. Differences have been found in the spectra for different orientations of the falling dipole. A general method has been developed to find the radiated multipole electromagnetic fields for multipoles (including higher-order multipoles-quadrupoles, etc.) falling freely into a black hole. The calculated electromagnetic spectra can be compared with observational data from stellar-mass and smaller black holes.

  6. Localization of holes near charged defects in orbitally degenerate, doped Mott insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Adolfo; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Horsch, Peter

    2018-05-01

    We study the role of charged defects, disorder and electron-electron (e-e) interactions in a multiband model for t2g electrons in vanadium perovskites R1-xCaxVO3 (R = La,…,Y). By means of unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations, we find that the atomic multiplet structure persists up to 50% Ca doping. Using the inverse participation number, we explore the degree of localization and its doping dependence for all electronic states. The observation of strongly localized wave functions is consistent with our conjecture that doped holes form spin-orbital polarons that are strongly bound to the charged Ca2+ defects. Interestingly, the long-range e-e interactions lead to a discontinuity in the wave function size across the chemical potential, where the electron removal states are more localized than the addition states.

  7. Superradiance of charged black holes in Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Octavio; Grandi, Nicolás; Oliva, Julio

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we show that electrically charged black holes in Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet gravity suffer from a superradiant instability. It is triggered by a charged scalar field that fulfils Dirichlet boundary conditions at a mirror located outside the horizon. As in general relativity, the unstable modes exist provided that the mirror is located beyond a critical radius, making the instability a long wavelength one. We explore the effects of the Gauss–Bonnet corrections on the critical radius and find evidence that the critical radius decreases as the Gauss–Bonnet coupling α increases. Due to the, up to date, lack of an analytic rotating solution for Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet theory, this is the first example of a superradiant instability in the presence of higher curvature terms in the action.

  8. The electrically charged BTZ black hole with self (anti-self) dual Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, M.; Koikawa, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Einstein-Maxwell equations with a negative cosmological constant Λ in 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions discussed by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli are solved by assuming a self (anti-self) dual equation E r-circumflex = ± B -circumflex , which is imposed on the orthonormal basis components of the electric field E r-circumflex and the magnetic field B -circumflex . This solution describes an electrically charged extra black hole with mass M=8πGQ 2 e , angular momentum J = ±8πGQ 2 e / modul Λ 1/2 and electric charge Q e . Although the coordinate components of the electric field E r and the magnetic field B have singularities on the horizon at r (4πGQ 2 e / modul Λ) 1/2 , the spacetime has the same value of constant negative curvature R = 6Λ as that of Banados et al. (author). 5 refs

  9. Static BPS black holes in AdS{sub 4} with general dyonic charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmagyi, Nick [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005, Paris (France)

    2015-03-06

    We complete the study of static BPS, asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black holes within N=2 FI-gauged supergravity and where the scalar manifold is a symmetric very special Kähler manifold. We find the analytic form for the general solution to the BPS equations, the horizon appears as a double root of a particular quartic polynomial whereas in previous work this quartic polynomial further factored into a pair of double roots. A new and distinguishing feature of our solutions is that the phase of the supersymmetry parameter varies throughout the black hole. The general solution has 2n{sub v} independent parameters; there are two algebraic constraints on 2n{sub v}+2 charges, matching our previous analysis on BPS solutions of the form AdS{sub 2}×Σ{sub g}. As a consequence we have proved that every BPS geometry of this form can arise as the horizon geometry of a BPS AdS{sub 4} black hole. When specialized to the STU-model our solutions uplift to M-theory and describe a stack of M2-branes wrapped on a Riemman surface in a Calabi-Yau fivefold with internal angular momentum.

  10. Analytic treatment of the excited instability spectra of the magnetically charged SU(2) Reissner-Nordström black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2017-03-14

    The magnetically charged SU(2) Reissner-Nordström black-hole solutions of the coupled nonlinear Einstein-Yang-Mills field equations are known to be characterized by infinite spectra of unstable (imaginary) resonances {ω_n(r_+,r_−)}{sub n=0}{sup n=∞} (here r{sub ±} are the black-hole horizon radii). Based on direct numerical computations of the black-hole instability spectra, it has recently been observed that the excited instability eigenvalues of the magnetically charged black holes exhibit a simple universal behavior. In particular, it was shown that the numerically computed instability eigenvalues of the magnetically charged black holes are characterized by the small frequency universal relation ω{sub n}(r{sub +}−r{sub −})=λ{sub n}, where {λ_n} are dimensionless constants which are independent of the black-hole parameters. In the present paper we study analytically the instability spectra of the magnetically charged SU(2) Reissner-Nordström black holes. In particular, we provide a rigorous analytical proof for the numerically-suggested universal behavior ω{sub n}(r{sub +}−r{sub −})=λ{sub n} in the small frequency ω{sub n}r{sub +}≪(r{sub +}−r{sub −})/r{sub +} regime. Interestingly, it is shown that the excited black-hole resonances are characterized by the simple universal relation ω{sub n+1}/ω{sub n}=e{sup −2π/√3}. Finally, we confirm our analytical results for the black-hole instability spectra with numerical computations.

  11. Charge Spreading and Position Sensitivity in a Segmented Planar Germanium Detector (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger, R. A; Gehrels, N; Johnson, W. N; Kurfess, J. D; Phlips, B. P; Tueller, J

    1998-01-01

    The size of the charge cloud collected in a segmented germanium detector is limited by the size of the initial cloud, uniformity of the electric field, and the diffusion of electrons and holes through the detector...

  12. Q ‑ Φ criticality and microstructure of charged AdS black holes in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gao-Ming; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2017-12-01

    The phase transition and critical behaviors of charged AdS black holes in f(R) gravity with a conformally invariant Maxwell (CIM) source and constant curvature are further investigated. As a highlight, this research is carried out by employing new state parameters (T,Q, Φ) and contributes to deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and phase structure of black holes. Our analyses manifest that the charged f(R)-CIM AdS black hole undergoes a first-order small-large black hole phase transition, and the critical behaviors qualitatively behave like a Van der Waals liquid-vapor system. However, differing from the case in Einstein’s gravity, phase structures of the black holes in f(R) theory exhibit an interesting dependence on gravity modification parameters. Moreover, we adopt the thermodynamic geometry to probe the black hole microscopic properties. The results show that, on the one hand, both the Ruppeiner curvature and heat capacity diverge exactly at the critical point, on the other hand, the f(R)-CIM AdS black hole possesses the property as ideal Fermi gases. Of special interest, we discover a microscopic similarity between the black holes and a Van der Waals liquid-vapor system.

  13. Charging and heat collection by a positively charged dust grain in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-07-18

    Dust particulates immersed in a quasineutral plasma can emit electrons in several important applications. Once electron emission becomes strong enough, the dust enters the positively charged regime where the conventional orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory can break down due to potential-well effects on trapped electrons. A minimal modification of the trapped-passing boundary approximation in the so-called OML(+) approach is shown to accurately predict the dust charge and heat collection flux for a wide range of dust size and temperature.

  14. Hole-capture properties of the electron-irradiation-induced deep-level H5 in p-type InP: A charge-controlled bistable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretagnon, T.; Bastide, G.; Rouzeyre, M.

    1989-01-01

    The electron-induced irradiated defect H 5 in Zn-doped p-type InP is an unusual hole trap, since its temperature-independent weak-hole capture cross section, σ c ∼10 -21 cm 2 , is 6 orders of magnitude lower than the value obtained from thermal-emission rates. We present a charge-controlled bistable configuration-coordinate diagram that explains this large difference and accounts for the optical-absorption properties. In addition, a microscopic D In n+ -Zn - defect, made by pairing under electrostatic attraction of the ionized acceptor Zn - and of a positively charged primitive defect D In n+ of the In sublattice, is tentatively proposed as a plausible complex at the origin of H 5

  15. Numerical evidence for universality in the excited instability spectrum of magnetically charged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-05-15

    It is well known that the SU(2) Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory are characterized by an infinite set of unstable (imaginary) eigenvalues {ω_n(T_B_H)}{sub n=0}{sup n=∞} (here T{sub BH} is the black-hole temperature). In this paper we analyze the excited instability spectrum of these magnetically charged black holes. The numerical results suggest the existence of a universal behavior for these black-hole excited eigenvalues. In particular, we show that unstable eigenvalues in the regime ω{sub n} << T{sub BH} are characterized, to a very good degree of accuracy, by the simple universal relation ω{sub n}(r{sub +} - r{sub -}) = constant, where r{sub ±} are the horizon radii of the black hole. (orig.)

  16. Charged anti-de Sitter BTZ black holes in Maxwell-f(T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, G. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by the Bañados, Teitelboim and Zanelli (BTZ) formalism, we discuss the Maxwell-f(T) gravity in (2 + 1) dimensions. The main task is to derive exact solutions for a special form of f(T) = T + 𝜖T2, with T being the torsion scalar of Weitzenböck geometry. To this end, a triad field is applied to the equations of motion of charged f(T) and sets of circularly symmetric noncharged and charged solutions have been derived. We show that, in the charged case, the monopole-like and the ln terms are linked by a correlative constant despite the known results in teleparallel geometry and its extensions.39 Furthermore, it is possible to show that the event horizon is not identical with the Cauchy horizon due to such a constant. The singularities and the horizons of these black holes are examined: they are new and have no analogue in the literature due to the fact that their curvature singularities are soft. We calculate the energy content of these solutions by using the general vector form of the energy-momentum within the framework of f(T) gravity. Finally, some thermodynamical quantities, like entropy and Hawking temperature, are derived.

  17. Negative and positive magnetoresistance in bilayer graphene: Effects of weak localization and charge inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yungfu; Bae, Myung-Ho; Chialvo, Cesar; Dirks, Travis; Bezryadin, Alexey; Mason, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of magnetoresistance in bilayer graphene as a function of gate voltage (carrier density) and temperature. We examine multiple contributions to the magnetoresistance, including those of weak localization (WL), universal conductance fluctuations (UCF), and inhomogeneous charge transport. A clear WL signal is evident at all measured gate voltages (in the hole doped regime) and temperature ranges (from 0.25 to 4.3 K), and the phase coherence length extracted from the WL data does not saturate at low temperatures. The WL data is fit to demonstrate that the electron-electron Nyquist scattering is the major source of phase decoherence. A decrease in UCF amplitude with increase in gate voltage and temperature is shown to be consistent with a corresponding decrease in the phase coherence length. In addition, a weak positive magnetoresistance at higher magnetic fields is observed, and attributed to inhomogeneous charge transport. -- Research highlights: → Weak localization theory describes low-field magnetoresistance in bilayer graphene. → Electron-electron Nyquist scattering limits phase coherence in bilayer graphene. → Positive magnetoresistance reveals charge inhomogeneity in bilayer graphene.

  18. The quantum nonthermal radiation and horizon surface gravity of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole with electric charge and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhi-Kun; Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, we discuss the quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics near an event horizon by studying the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of a scalar particle in curved space-time, and obtain the event horizon surface gravity and the Hawking temperature on that event horizon. The results show that there is a crossing of particle energy near the event horizon. We derive the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels. It is also found that the Hawking temperature of a black hole depends not only on the time, but also on the angle. There is a problem of dimension in the usual tortoise coordinate, so the present results obtained by using a correct-dimension new tortoise coordinate transformation may be more reasonable

  19. Charged Lifshitz black hole and probed Lorentz-violation fermions from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: rocengeng@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: xmeikuang@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2017-06-10

    We analytically obtain a new charged Lifshitz solution by adding a non-relativistic Maxwell field in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. The black hole exhibits an anisotropic scaling between space and time (Lifshitz scaling) in the UV limit, while in the IR limit, the Lorentz invariance is approximately recovered. We introduce the probed Lorentz-violation fermions into the background and holographically investigate the spectral properties of the dual fermionic operator. The Lorentz-violation of the fermions will enhance the peak and correspond larger fermi momentum, which compensates the non-relativistic bulk effect of the dynamical exponent (z). For a fixed z, when the Lorentz-violation of fermions increases to a critical value, the behavior of the low energy excitation goes from a non-Fermi liquid type to a Fermi liquid type, which implies a kind of phase transition.

  20. Higher Dimensional Charged Black Hole Solutions in f(R Gravitational Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. L. Nashed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present, without any assumption, a class of electric and magnetic flat horizon D-dimension solutions for a specific class of f(R=R+αR2, all of which behave asymptotically as Anti-de-Sitter spacetime. The most interesting property of these solutions is that the higher dimensions black holes, D>4, always have constant electric and magnetic charges in contrast to what is known in the literature. For D=4, we show that the magnetic field participates in the metric on equal foot as the electric field participates. Another interesting result is the fact that the Cauchy horizon is not identical with the event horizon. We use Komar formula to calculate the conserved quantities. We study the singularities and calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy and show that the first law of thermodynamics is always satisfied.

  1. Determination of charge carrier mobility of hole transporting polytriarylamine-based diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, Eva M. [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Garcia-Belmonte, Germa, E-mail: garciag@uji.e [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Sommer, Michael; Huettner, Sven [Applied Functional Polymers, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Bolink, Henk J. [Molecular Science Institute-Universitat de Valencia, Poligon La Coma s/n, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Thelakkat, Mukundan, E-mail: mukundan.thelakkat@uni-bayreuth.d [Applied Functional Polymers, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2010-04-02

    Hole transport properties of three different side chain poly(triarylamines) have been determined by means of the analysis of steady-state current-voltage characteristics using co-planar diode structures. The interpretation is based on space-charge limited models with field-dependent mobility. Mobilities between {approx} 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} are obtained. The highest mobility is achieved for poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) devices and the lowest for poly(triphenylamine) devices. Electron-rich methoxy substituents increase the mobility of poly(triphenylamine)s. A comparison of the mobility values with those obtained using organic field-effect transistors is also given.

  2. Critical behavior and microscopic structure of charged AdS black holes via an alternative phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Dehyadegari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS black holes have similar thermodynamic behavior as the Van der Waals fluid system, provided one treats the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable (pressure in an extended phase space. In this paper, we disclose the deep connection between charged AdS black holes and Van der Waals fluid system from an alternative point of view. We consider the mass of an AdS black hole as a function of square of the charge Q2 instead of the standard Q, i.e. M=M(S,Q2,P. We first justify such a change of view mathematically and then ask if a phase transition can occur as a function of Q2 for fixed P. Therefore, we write the equation of state as Q2=Q2(T,Ψ where Ψ (conjugate of Q2 is the inverse of the specific volume, Ψ=1/v. This allows us to complete the analogy of charged AdS black holes with Van der Waals fluid system and derive the phase transition as well as critical exponents of the system. We identify a thermodynamic instability in this new picture with real analogy to Van der Waals fluid with physically relevant Maxwell construction. We therefore study the critical behavior of isotherms in Q2–Ψ diagram and deduce all the critical exponents of the system and determine that the system exhibits a small–large black hole phase transition at the critical point (Tc,Qc2,Ψc. This alternative view is important as one can imagine such a change for a given single black hole i.e. acquiring charge which induces the phase transition. Finally, we disclose the microscopic properties of charged AdS black holes by using thermodynamic geometry. Interestingly, we find that scalar curvature has a gap between small and large black holes, and this gap becomes exceedingly large as one moves away from the critical point along the transition line. Therefore, we are able to attribute the sudden enlargement of the black hole to the strong repulsive nature of the internal constituents at the phase transition.

  3. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoni, Luca; Cesana, Alberto; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Morbidelli, Massimo; Lupi, Monica; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D’Incalci, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells. (paper)

  4. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che

    2015-01-01

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner

  5. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che [Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  6. An EPR study of positive hole transfer and trapping in irradiated frozen solutions containing aromatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.V.; Zezin, A.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Processes of positive hole migration and trapping are of basic significance for understanding of the primary events in the radiation chemistry of solid molecular systems. Specific interest is concerned with the case, when ionization energies of 'hole traps' are rather close, so one may expect 'fine tuning' effects resulting from variations in conformation, weak interactions, molecular packing, etc. In this contribution we report the results of EPR study of formation of radical cations in irradiated frozen halocarbon solutions containing aromatic molecules of different structure. Using the 'two-trap' model made it possible to obtain an evidence for efficient long-range trap-to-trap positive hole transfer between alkyl benzene molecules with close ionization energies distributed in the matrices with high ionization potentials. The distance of transfer was found to be 2-4 nm. In the case of frozen solutions containing ethylbenzene and toluene, it was found that the efficiency and direction of hole transfer was controlled by the conformation of ethylbenzene radical cation. The study of positive hole localization in 'bridged' diphenyls of Ph(CH 2 ) n Ph type revealed that the structure of radical cations of these species was affected by local environment (type of halocarbon matrix) and the conformational flexibility of 'bridge'. In summary, we may conclude that migration and localization of positive hole in rigid systems containing aromatic 'traps' is quite sensitive to rather subtle effects. This conclusion may be of common significance for the radiation chemistry of systems with physical dispersion of the traps of similar chemical structure (e.g. macromolecules, adsorbed molecules, etc.)

  7. Radiometric control of the position of blind holes axes in graphite blocks of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.L.; Bujas, R.; Lemonnier, A.; Tortel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of a radiometric method intended for controlling the positions of blind hole axes are given. A comparison is made between radiometry and radiography and the performances obtained using a thulium 170 source are described. The automation capabilities are discussed [fr

  8. Positively charged phosphorus as a hydrogen bond acceptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element that is essential to the life of all organisms, and the atmospheric detection of phosphine suggests the existence of a volatile biogeochemical P cycle. Here, we investigate the ability of P to participate in the formation of OH···P hydrogen bonds. Three bimolecular......-stretching frequency red shifts and quantum chemical calculations, we find that P is an acceptor atom similar in strength to O and S and that all three P, O, and S atoms are weaker acceptors than N. The quantum chemical calculations show that both H and P in the OH···P hydrogen bond have partial positive charges......, as expected from their electronegativities. However, the electrostatic potentials show a negative potential area on the electron density surface around P that facilitates formation of hydrogen bonds....

  9. Study of Measurement Strategies of Geometric Deviation of the Position of the Threaded Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drbul, Mário; Martikan, Pavol; Sajgalik, Michal; Czan, Andrej; Broncek, Jozef; Babik, Ondrej

    2017-12-01

    Verification of product and quality control is an integral part of current production process. In terms of functional requirements and product interoperability, it is necessary to analyze their dimensional and also geometric specifications. Threaded holes are verified elements too, which are a substantial part of detachable screw connections and have a broad presence in engineering products. This paper deals with on the analysing of measurement strategies of verification geometric deviation of the position of the threaded holes, which are the indirect method of measuring threaded pins when applying different measurement strategies which can affect the result of the verification of the product..

  10. Charge transport in organic molecular semiconductors from first principles: The bandlike hole mobility in a naphthalene crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nien-En; Zhou, Jin-Jian; Agapito, Luis A.; Bernardi, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Predicting charge transport in organic molecular crystals is notoriously challenging. Carrier mobility calculations in organic semiconductors are dominated by quantum chemistry methods based on charge hopping, which are laborious and only moderately accurate. We compute from first principles the electron-phonon scattering and the phonon-limited hole mobility of naphthalene crystal in the framework of ab initio band theory. Our calculations combine GW electronic bandstructures, ab initio electron-phonon scattering, and the Boltzmann transport equation. The calculated hole mobility is in very good agreement with experiment between 100 -300 K , and we can predict its temperature dependence with high accuracy. We show that scattering between intermolecular phonons and holes regulates the mobility, though intramolecular phonons possess the strongest coupling with holes. We revisit the common belief that only rigid molecular motions affect carrier dynamics in organic molecular crystals. Our paper provides a quantitative and rigorous framework to compute charge transport in organic crystals and is a first step toward reconciling band theory and carrier hopping computational methods.

  11. Universality in the relaxation dynamics of the composed black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system: The role of quantum Schwinger discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quasinormal resonance spectrum {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime is studied analytically in the large-coupling regime qQ≫Mμ (here {μ,q} are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and {M,Q} are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole. This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound τ×T≥ħ/π in black-hole physics (here τ≡1/ℑω0 is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and T is the Bekenstein–Hawking temperature of the black hole. In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime may saturate this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bound by light scalar fields are excluded by the Schwinger-type pair-production mechanism (a vacuum polarization effect, a quantum phenomenon which restricts the physical parameters of the composed black-hole-charged-field system to the regime qQ≪M2μ2/ħ.

  12. AdS charged black holes in Einstein–Yang–Mills gravity's rainbow: Thermal stability and P−V criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hendi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the interesting non-abelian gauge field, in this paper, we look for the analytical solutions of Yang–Mills theory in the context of gravity's rainbow. Regarding the trace of quantum gravity in black hole thermodynamics, we examine the first law of thermodynamics and also thermal stability in the canonical ensemble. We show that although the rainbow functions and Yang–Mills charge modify the solutions, the first law of thermodynamics is still valid. Based on the phenomenological similarities between the adS black holes and van der Waals liquid/gas systems, we study the critical behavior of the Yang–Mills black holes in the extended phase space thermodynamics. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on thermal instability as well as critical properties by using appropriate figures.

  13. AdS charged black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills gravity's rainbow: Thermal stability and P - V criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Momennia, Mehrab

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the interesting non-abelian gauge field, in this paper, we look for the analytical solutions of Yang-Mills theory in the context of gravity's rainbow. Regarding the trace of quantum gravity in black hole thermodynamics, we examine the first law of thermodynamics and also thermal stability in the canonical ensemble. We show that although the rainbow functions and Yang-Mills charge modify the solutions, the first law of thermodynamics is still valid. Based on the phenomenological similarities between the adS black holes and van der Waals liquid/gas systems, we study the critical behavior of the Yang-Mills black holes in the extended phase space thermodynamics. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on thermal instability as well as critical properties by using appropriate figures.

  14. Hawking radiation and propagation of massive charged scalar field on a three-dimensional Gödel black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Övgün, Ali; Saavedra, Joel; Vásquez, Yerko

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we consider the three-dimensional Gödel black hole as a background and we study the vector particle tunneling from this background in order to obtain the Hawking temperature. Then, we study the propagation of a massive charged scalar field and we find the quasinormal modes analytically, which turns out be unstable as a consequence of the existence of closed time-like curves. Also, we consider the flux at the horizon and at infinity, and we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients as well as the absorption cross section. Mainly, we show that massive charged scalar waves can be superradiantly amplified by the three-dimensional Gödel black hole and that the coefficients have an oscillatory behavior. Moreover, the absorption cross section is null at the high frequency limit and for certain values of the frequency.

  15. Charge carriers bulk recombination instead of electroplex emission after their tunneling through hole-blocking layer in OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. Y.; Liu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Teng, F.; Xu, Z.; Hou, Y.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-08-01

    Charge carriers bulk recombination instead of forming electroplex after their tunneling through a hole-blocking layer, i.e. 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), in organic electroluminescence (EL) device ITO/poly-(N-vinyl-carbazole)(PVK)/BCP/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/Al is reported. By changing the thickness of BCP layer, one can find that high electric fields enhance the tunneling process of holes accumulated at the PVK/BCP interface into BCP layer instead of forming “electroplex emission” as reported earlier in literatures. Our experimental data show that charge carriers bulk recombination takes place in both PVK layer and BCP layer, and even in Alq3 layer when BCP layer is thin enough. Further, it is suggested that PVK is the origin of the emission shoulder at 595 nm in the EL spectra of trilayer device ITO/PVK/BCP/Alq3/Al.

  16. Mergers of Charged Black Holes: Gravitational-wave Events, Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH-BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.

  17. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20–25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30–60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p + implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO 2 interface charge densities ( Q f ) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p + implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Q f , that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  18. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20-25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30-60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p+ implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO2 interface charge densities (Qf) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p+ implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Qf, that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  19. Macular hole surgery with short-acting gas and short-duration face-down positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xirou T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tina Xirou,1 Panagiotis G Theodossiadis,2 Michael Apostolopoulos,3 A Stamatina Kabanarou,1 Elias Feretis,1 Ioannis D Ladas,3 Chrysanthi Koutsandrea31Vitreoretinal Unit, Red Cross Hospital, 2B Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Greece; 3A Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, GreecePurpose: To report on the outcomes of vitrectomy and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas tamponade for idiopathic macular holes with 2 days of face-down positioning.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, observational sequential case-series study on 23 consecutive patients receiving macular hole surgery using 20% SF6 and advised to stay in a face-down position for 2 days postoperatively (SF6 group. These patients were compared to 23 consecutive patients who had previously undergone macular hole surgery, had received 14% C3F8, and were advised to maintain a face-down position for 2 days (C3F8 group. Patients in both groups underwent vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and fluid gas exchange using either SF6 or C3F8. Preoperative and postoperative data included best corrected visual acuity recorded in LogMAR units, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography.Results: At a 6-month follow-up, macular hole closure was noted in 23/23 eyes (100% and in 22/23 eyes (96% in the SF6 and C3F8 groups, respectively. The improvement in visual acuity (measured through Snellen acuity lines both preoperatively until 6 months postoperatively was 4.08 ± 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08–5.08 for the SF6 group and 2.87 ± 2.30 (95% CI: 1.87–3.86 for the C3F8 group; this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06.Conclusion: Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and a short-acting gas tamponade using SF6 with posture limitation for 2 days may give a high success rate in macular hole surgery.Keywords: idiopathic macular holes, SF6 gas tamponade, C3F8 gas tamponade

  20. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  1. Quasi-bound state resonances of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    The quasi-bound states of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal charged Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime are studied analytically. These discrete resonant modes of the composed black-hole-field system are characterized by the physically motivated boundary condition of ingoing waves at the black-hole horizon and exponentially decaying (bounded) radial eigenfunctions at spatial infinity. Solving the Klein-Gordon wave equation for the linearized scalar fields in the black-hole spacetime, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the complex frequency spectrum which characterizes the quasi-bound state resonances of the composed Reissner-Nordstroem-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. (orig.)

  2. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  3. Effects of dark energy on the efficiency of charged AdS black holes as heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Science, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, we study the heat engine where a charged AdS black hole surrounded by dark energy is the working substance and the mechanical work is done via the PdV term in the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the extended phase space. We first investigate the effects of a kind of dark energy (quintessence field in this paper) on the efficiency of the RN-AdS black holes as the heat engine defined as a rectangular closed path in the P-V plane. We get the exact efficiency formula and find that the quintessence field can improve the heat engine efficiency, which will increase as the field density ρ{sub q} grows. At some fixed parameters, we find that a larger volume difference between the smaller black holes(V{sub 1}) and the bigger black holes(V{sub 2}) will lead to a lower efficiency, while the bigger pressure difference P{sub 1} - P{sub 4} will make the efficiency higher, but it is always smaller than 1 and will never be beyond the Carnot efficiency, which is the maximum value of the efficiency constrained by thermodynamics laws; this is consistent to the heat engine in traditional thermodynamics. After making some special choices for the thermodynamical quantities, we find that the increase of the electric charge Q and the normalization factor a can also promote the heat engine efficiency, which would infinitely approach the Carnot limit when Q or a goes to infinity. (orig.)

  4. Near-horizon limit of the charged BTZ black hole and AdS2 quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Setare, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We show that the 3D charged Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole solution interpolates between two different 2D AdS spacetimes: a near-extremal, near-horizon AdS 2 geometry with constant dilaton and U(1) field and an asymptotic AdS 2 geometry with a linear dilaton. Thus, the charged BTZ black hole can be considered as interpolating between the two different formulations proposed until now for AdS 2 quantum gravity. In both cases the theory is the chiral half of a 2D CFT and describes, respectively, Brown-Hennaux-like boundary deformations and near-horizon excitations. The central charge c as of the asymptotic CFT is determined by 3D Newton constant G and the AdS length l, c as = 3l/G, whereas that of the near-horizon CFT also depends on the U(1) charge Q, c nh ∝lQ/√G.

  5. On thermodynamics of charged AdS black holes in extended phases space via M2-branes background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabab, M.; Masmar, K.; El Moumni, H.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS 4 black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and the thermodynamical geometry of Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in AdS 4 x S 7 , with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner, and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such a black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results to those obtained by the phase transition diagram via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge is held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in Belhaj et al. (Eur Phys J C 76(2):73, 2016) are recovered in the limit of the vanishing charge. (orig.)

  6. Three-charge black holes and quarter BPS states in Little String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Harvey, Jeffrey; Kutasov, David; Lee, Sungjay [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago,5620 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-22

    We show that the system of k NS5-branes wrapping T{sup 4}×S{sup 1} has non-trivial vacuum structure. Different vacua have different spectra of 1/4 BPS states that carry momentum and winding around the S{sup 1}. In one vacuum, such states are described by black holes; in another, they can be thought of as perturbative BPS states in Double Scaled Little String Theory. In general, both kinds of states are present. We compute the degeneracy of perturbative BPS states exactly, and show that it differs from that of the corresponding black holes. We comment on the implication of our results to the black hole microstate program, UV/IR mixing in Little String Theory, string thermodynamics, the string/black hole transition, and other issues.

  7. Innermost stable circular orbit of spinning particle in charged spinning black hole background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Guo, Wen-Di; Sui, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) (spin-aligned or anti-aligned orbit) for a classical spinning test particle with the pole-dipole approximation in the background of Kerr-Newman black hole in the equatorial plane. It is shown that the orbit of the spinning particle is related to the spin of the test particle. The motion of the spinning test particle will be superluminal if its spin is too large. We give an additional condition by considering the superluminal constraint for the ISCO in the black hole backgrounds. We obtain numerically the relations between the ISCO and the properties of the black holes and the test particle. It is found that the radius of the ISCO for a spinning test particle is smaller than that of a nonspinning test particle in the black hole backgrounds.

  8. The Bisognano-Wichmann theorem for charged states and the conformal boundary of a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Longo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This note concerns the study of the incremental entropy of a quantum black hole, based on Operator Algebra methods. Our results are based on the results presented in the references [6,11,12,13].

  9. Study of correlations of positive and negative charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Chan, C.H.; Dong, B.L.; Duthie, J.G.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Yokomi, H.; Christl, M.J.; Derrickson, J.H.; Eby, P.B.; Fountain, W.F.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, F.E.; Nagamiya, S.; Dake, S.; Tominaga, T.; Fuki, M.; Iyono, A.; Ogata, T.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Particle correlations of the central collision events of 32 S + Pb at 200 GeV/AMU have been studied by utilizing a Magnetic-Interferomagnetic-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) detector. Particle angles, momentum, and charge-signs are measured for all produced charged tracks for each event. Two-particle correlation functions, C 2 = dN (vertical strokep 1 - p 2 vertical stroke = q)/dp 1 dp 2 , for (++), (--) and (+-) particles are examined. A source radius around 4 - 6 fm is observed for overall identical particle correlations, while unexpected short-range correlations of unlike-sign pairs are observed in the high rapidity region. An analysis of unlike-sign pairs in terms of resonance decays indicated that a large amount (40% relative to pions) of η or ω mesons (decaying into 3 π), or of scalar iso-scalar σ mesons (decaying into 2 π) would be required to explain some of the data. Multi-particle charge-sign clusters are recognized; however, their 'run-test' and 'conjugate-test' show small deviations from statistical fluctuations. (orig.)

  10. The effect of hole transporting layer in charge accumulation properties of p-i-n perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedros Galatopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The charge accumulation properties of p-i-n perovskite solar cells were investigated using three representative organic and inorganic hole transporting layer (HTL: (a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, Al 4083, (b copper-doped nickel oxide (Cu:NiOx, and (c Copper oxide (CuO. Through impedance spectroscopy analysis and modelling, it is shown that charge accumulation is decreased in the HTL/perovskite interface, between PEDOT:PSS to Cu:NiOx and CuO. This was indicative from the decrease in double layer capacitance (Cdl and interfacial charge accumulation capacitance (Cel, resulting in an increase to recombination resistance (Rrec, thus decreased charge recombination events between the three HTLs. Through AFM measurements, it is also shown that the reduced recombination events (followed by the increase in Rrec are also a result of increased grain size between the three HTLs, thus reduction in the grain boundary area. These charge accumulation properties of the three HTLs have resulted in an increase to the power conversion efficiency between the PEDOT:PSS (8.44%, Cu:NiOx (11.45%, and CuO (15.3%-based devices.

  11. Bleaching threshold of cationic radicals of alkanes and capture energy of the positive hole of these ions in irradiated solid matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, A.; Strobbe, M.; Ceulemans, J.

    1984-01-01

    Gamma irradiated Cl 3 CCF 3 shows an absorption band at about 360 nm, and another band, at 600 nm. The band at 600 nm disappears completely by irradiation with light of lambda>610 nm. Cl 3 CCF 3 containing 1% of decane irradiated at 77 K presents the some phenomena. Selective bleaching by photons of increasing energy allows the determination of the threshold for bleaching of cationic radicals of decane trapped in Cl 3 CCF 3 . Distinction between photoinduced charge transfer and photodissociation is obtained by addition of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediame. Showing that bleaching threshold corresponds to the capture energy of the positive hole on decane cationic radical [fr

  12. Geometrical Method for Thermal Instability of Nonlinearly Charged BTZ Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahiyan, Shahram; Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Eslam Panah, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    We consider three-dimensional BTZ black holes with three models of nonlinear electrodynamics as source. Calculating heat capacity, we study the stability and phase transitions of these black holes. We show that Maxwell, logarithmic, and exponential theories yield only type one phase transition which is related to the root(s) of heat capacity, whereas, for correction form of nonlinear electrodynamics, heat capacity contains two roots and one divergence point. Next, we use geometrical approach for studying classical thermodynamical behavior of the system. We show that Weinhold and Ruppeiner metrics fail to provide fruitful results and the consequences of the Quevedo approach are not completely matched to the heat capacity results. Then, we employ a new metric for solving this problem. We show that this approach is successful and all divergencies of its Ricci scalar and phase transition points coincide. We also show that there is no phase transition for uncharged BTZ black holes.

  13. Study of position resolution for cathode readout MWPC with measurement of induced charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, J.; Iwasaki, H.; Kageyama, T.; Kuribayashi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takeda, T.

    1983-01-01

    A readout technqiue of multiwire proportional chambers by measurement of charges induced on cathode strips, orthogonal to anode wires, requires an algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position. With given chamber parameters and under the influence of noise, resolution limits depend on the chosen algorithm. We have studied the position resolution obtained by the centroid method and by the charge-ratio method, both using three consecutive cathode strips. While the centroid method uses a single number, the center of gravity of the measured charges, the charge-ratio method uses the ratios of the charges Qsub(i-1)/Qsub(i) and Qsub(i+1)/Qsub(i) where Qsub(i) is the largest. To obtain a given resolution, the charge-ratio method generally allows wider cathode strips and therefore a smaller number of readout channels than the centroid method. (orig.)

  14. Adsorption of cations onto positively charged surface mesopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neue, Uwe; Iraneta, Pamela; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-11-29

    Uwe Neue developed a theoretical treatment to account for the adsorption of ions on mesopores of packing materials the walls of which are bonded to ionic ligands but left this work unfinished. We elaborated upon this treatment and refined it, based on the equivalence that he suggested between charged surface particles and a membrane that separates two ionic solutions but is impermeable to one specification. He had written that the electro-chemical potentials in both ionic solutions are equal (Donnan equilibrium). The equilibrium between the surface and the pore concentrations is accounted for by an homogeneous electrostatically modified Langmuir (EML) isotherm model. The theoretical results are presented for four different charge surface concentrations σ0=0, 0.001, 0.002, and 0.003C/m(2), using a phosphate buffer (W(S)pH=2.65) of ionic strength I=10mM. The average pore size, the specific surface area, and the specific pore volume of the stationary phase were Dp=140Å, Sp=182m(2)/g, and Vp=0.70cm(3)/g, respectively. The theoretical results provide the quantitative difference between the ionic strength, the pH, and the concentrations of all the ions in the pores and in the bulk eluent. The theory predicts (1) that the retention times of cations under linear conditions is lower and (2) that their band widths under overloaded conditions for a given retention factor shrinks when the surface charge density σ0 is increased. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental results published previously and explain them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Charge and/or spin limits for black holes at a non-commutative scale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Paik

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... momentum (J) of a generalized black hole of mass M to be bounded by the condition Q2 + (J/M)2 ≤ M2, whereas ... in the classical commutative space–time background is ... scale of the Standard Model of particle physics and.

  16. Møller's energy in the dyadosphere of a charged black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    black hole. OKTAY AYDOGDU and MUSTAFA SALTI. (Pramana – J. Phys. 67, 239–247 (2006)). We have added references which had been missed in our article and have refreshed the reference list. We list below the new references and point out the place where these have been added. • S S Xulu, gr-qc/0304081 (ref.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation from collisions at almost the speed of light: An extremely relativistic charged particle falling into a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic radiation released during the high energy collision of a charged point particle with a four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. We show that the spectra is flat, and well described by a classical calculation. We also compare the total electromagnetic and gravitational energies emitted, and find that the former is suppressed in relation to the latter for very high energies. These results could apply to the astrophysical world in the case that charged stars and small charged black holes are out there colliding into large black holes, and to a very high energy collision experiment in a four-dimensional world. In this latter scenario the calculation is to be used for the moments just after black hole formation, when the collision of charged debris with the newly formed black hole is certainly expected. Since the calculation is four dimensional, it does not directly apply to TeV-scale gravity black holes, as these inhabit a world of six to eleven dimensions, although our results should qualitatively hold when extrapolated with some care to higher dimensions

  18. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of positively charged chitosan gold nanoparticles in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon Young; Jang, Soo Hwa [Seoul National University, Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute for Veterinary Science (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin; Jeong, Saeromi; Park, Jin Ho; Ock, Kwang Su [Soongsil University, Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kangtaek [Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Ik [Kyung Hee University, College of Environment and Applied Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sang-Woo, E-mail: sjoo@ssu.ac.kr [Soongsil University, Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong, E-mail: leeso@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute for Veterinary Science (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and mechanisms of cytotoxicity of the positively charged Au nanoparticles (NPs) were examined in A549 cells, which are one of the most characterized pulmonary cellular systems. Positively charged Au NPs were prepared by chemical reduction using chitosan. The dimension and surface charge of Au NPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. The uptake of Au NPs into A549 cells was also monitored using TEM and dark-field microscopy (DFM) and z-stack confocal microRaman spectroscopy. DFM live cell imaging was also performed to monitor the entry of chitosan Au NPs in real time. The cytotoxic assay, using both methylthiazol tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed that positively charged Au NPs decreased cell viability. Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis suggest that positively charged chitosan Au NPs provoke cell damage through both apoptotic and necrotic pathways.

  19. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of positively charged chitosan gold nanoparticles in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Young; Jang, Soo Hwa; Park, Jin; Jeong, Saeromi; Park, Jin Ho; Ock, Kwang Su; Lee, Kangtaek; Yang, Sung Ik; Joo, Sang-Woo; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2012-01-01

    Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and mechanisms of cytotoxicity of the positively charged Au nanoparticles (NPs) were examined in A549 cells, which are one of the most characterized pulmonary cellular systems. Positively charged Au NPs were prepared by chemical reduction using chitosan. The dimension and surface charge of Au NPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. The uptake of Au NPs into A549 cells was also monitored using TEM and dark-field microscopy (DFM) and z-stack confocal microRaman spectroscopy. DFM live cell imaging was also performed to monitor the entry of chitosan Au NPs in real time. The cytotoxic assay, using both methylthiazol tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed that positively charged Au NPs decreased cell viability. Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis suggest that positively charged chitosan Au NPs provoke cell damage through both apoptotic and necrotic pathways.

  20. Einstein-Katz action, variational principle, Noether charges and the thermodynamics of AdS-black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Deruelle, Nathalie; Julié, Félix-Louis [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, CEA, Observatoire de Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet,F-75205 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)

    2016-08-08

    In this paper we describe 4-dimensional gravity coupled to scalar and Maxwell fields by the Einstein-Katz action, that is, the covariant version of the “Gamma-Gamma − Gamma-Gamma' part of the Hilbert action supplemented by the divergence of a generalized “Katz vector'. We consider static solutions of Einstein’s equations, parametrized by some integration constants, which describe an ensemble of asymptotically AdS black holes. Instead of the usual Dirichlet boundary conditions, which aim at singling out a specific solution within the ensemble, we impose that the variation of the action vanishes on shell for the broadest possible class of solutions. We will see that, when a long-range scalar “hair' is present, only sub-families of the solutions can obey that criterion. The Katz-Bicak-Lynden-Bell (“KBL') superpotential built on this (generalized) vector will then give straightforwardly the Noether charges associated with the spacetime symmetries (that is, in the static case, the mass). Computing the action on shell, we will see next that the solutions which obey the imposed variational principle, and with Noether charges given by the KBL superpotential, satisfy the Gibbs relation, the Katz vectors playing the role of “counterterms'. Finally, we show on the specific example of dyonic black holes that the sub-class selected by our variational principle satisfies the first law of thermodynamics when their mass is defined by the KBL superpotential.

  1. The impact of long-range electron-hole interaction on the charge separation yield of molecular photocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the effects of charge carrier interaction and recombination on the operation of molecular photocells. Molecular photocells are devices where the energy conversion process takes place in a single molecular donor-acceptor complex attached to electrodes. Our investigation is based on the quantum scattering theory, in particular on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation; this minimizes the complexity of the problem while providing useful and non-trivial insight into the mechanism governing photocell operation. In this study, both exciton pair creation and dissociation are treated in the energy domain, and therefore there is access to detailed spectral information, which can be used as a framework to interpret the charge separation yield. We demonstrate that the charge carrier separation is a complex process that is affected by different parameters, such as the strength of the electron-hole interaction and the non-radiative recombination rate. Our analysis helps to optimize the charge separation process and the energy transfer in organic solar cells and in molecular photocells.

  2. Janis–Newman Algorithm: Generating Rotating and NUT Charged Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Erbin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present the most general form of the Janis–Newman algorithm. This extension allows generating configurations which contain all bosonic fields with spin less than or equal to two (real and complex scalar fields, gauge fields, metric field and with five of the six parameters of the Plebański–Demiański metric (mass, electric charge, magnetic charge, NUT charge and angular momentum. Several examples are included to illustrate the algorithm. We also discuss the extension of the algorithm to other dimensions.

  3. Enhancement of charge carrier recombination efficiency by utilizing a hole-blocking interlayer in white OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Yu Junsheng; Zhao Juan; Li Ming; Lu Zhiyun

    2013-01-01

    Charge carrier balance and recombination are essential factors relating to the performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). In this study, we discussed the contribution of charge carrier balance in the interlayer-based WOLEDs. By varying the interlayer thickness, the mechanisms of electroluminescent spectral alteration, energy transfer, and especially, charge carrier transport and balance in the devices were investigated and revealed in detail. With a 5 nm thick interlayer tailoring charge carrier transport and recombination, WOLEDs yielded a high power efficiency, current efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 36.1 lm W −1 , 47.1 cd A −1 and 18.3%, respectively. Additionally, single-carrier devices and quantitative analysis were subsequently carried out, demonstrating that the enhancement of carrier recombination efficiency corresponds to the optimization of device performance. (paper)

  4. Clapeyron equation and phase equilibrium properties in higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black holes with a nonlinear source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Datong (China); Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2017-05-15

    Using Maxwell's equal area law, we discuss the phase transition of higher dimensional charged topological dilaton AdS black hole with a nonlinear source. The coexisting region of the two phases is found and we depict the coexistence region in the P-v diagrams. The two-phase equilibrium curves in the P-T diagrams are plotted, and we take the first order approximation of volume v in the calculation. To better compare with a general thermodynamic system, the Clapeyron equation is derived for a higher dimensional charged topological black hole with a nonlinear source. The latent heat of an isothermal phase transition is investigated. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the region of two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems. (orig.)

  5. Comparing Positively and Negatively Charged Distonic Radical Ions in Phenylperoxyl Forming Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peggy E; Marshall, David L; Poad, Berwyck L J; Narreddula, Venkateswara R; Kirk, Benjamin B; Trevitt, Adam J; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2018-06-04

    In the gas phase, arylperoxyl forming reactions play a significant role in low-temperature combustion and atmospheric processing of volatile organic compounds. We have previously demonstrated the application of charge-tagged phenyl radicals to explore the outcomes of these reactions using ion trap mass spectrometry. Here, we present a side-by-side comparison of rates and product distributions from the reaction of positively and negatively charge tagged phenyl radicals with dioxygen. The negatively charged distonic radical ions are found to react with significantly greater efficiency than their positively charged analogues. The product distributions of the anion reactions favor products of phenylperoxyl radical decomposition (e.g., phenoxyl radicals and cyclopentadienone), while the comparable fixed-charge cations yield the stabilized phenylperoxyl radical. Electronic structure calculations rationalize these differences as arising from the influence of the charged moiety on the energetics of rate-determining transition states and reaction intermediates within the phenylperoxyl reaction manifold and predict that this influence could extend to intra-molecular charge-radical separations of up to 14.5 Å. Experimental observations of reactions of the novel 4-(1-carboxylatoadamantyl)phenyl radical anion confirm that the influence of the charge on both rate and product distribution can be modulated by increasing the rigidly imposed separation between charge and radical sites. These findings provide a generalizable framework for predicting the influence of charged groups on polarizable radicals in gas phase distonic radical ions. Graphical Abstract.

  6. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  7. Two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode as a charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, K.; Zadro, M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode has been tested for measurement of position and energy of charged particles. Position nonlinearity and resolution, as well as energy resolution and ballistic deficit were measured for 5.486 MeV α-particles. The results obtained for different pulse shaping time constants are presented

  8. A Killing tensor for higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with NUT charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the recently discovered family of higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with an extra NUT-like parameter. We show that the inverse metric is additively separable after multiplication by a simple function. This allows us to separate the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, showing that geodesic motion is integrable on this background. The separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is intimately linked to the existence of an irreducible Killing tensor, which provides an extra constant of motion. We also demonstrate that the Klein-Gordon equation for this background is separable

  9. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  10. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hendi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  11. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)

  12. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)

  13. Direct and inverse scattering at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields by Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Daudé, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the direct and inverse scattering theory at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields evolving in the exterior region of a Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black hole. In the first part, they establish the existence and asymptotic completeness of time-dependent wave operators associated to our Dirac fields. This leads to the definition of the time-dependent scattering operator that encodes the far-field behavior (with respect to a stationary observer) in the asymptotic regions of the black hole: the event and cosmological horizons. The authors also use the miraculous property (quoting Chandrasekhar)-that the Dirac equation can be separated into radial and angular ordinary differential equations-to make the link between the time-dependent scattering operator and its stationary counterpart. This leads to a nice expression of the scattering matrix at fixed energy in terms of stationary solutions of the system of separated equations. In a second part, the authors use this expression of ...

  14. Shape, position and orientational design of holes for plates with optimized eigenfrequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    2003-01-01

    A hole with a given size is placed in the interior of a plate with an arbitrary external boundary. To avoid stress concentrations the shape of the hole must be smooth (continuous curvature). The objectives of the optimization are the eigenfrequencies of the plate with the hole. The optimization...... an analytical description of the hole. A rather general parameterization with only seven design parameters is applied, including the possibility of going from an ellipse to a square or even to a triangle. Optimal designs are obtained iteratively using mathematical programming, each of the redesigns is based...

  15. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  16. Conserved charges and black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory on AdS{sub 3} reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Riquelme, Miguel [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Tempo, David [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB Campus Plaine C.P.231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2015-10-26

    Stationary circularly symmetric solutions of General Relativity with negative cosmological constant coupled to the Maxwell field are analyzed in three spacetime dimensions. Taking into account that the fall-off of the fields is slower than the standard one for a localized distribution of matter, it is shown that, by virtue of a suitable choice of the electromagnetic Lagrange multiplier, the action attains a bona fide extremum provided the asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field fulfills a nontrivial integrability condition. As a consequence, the mass and the angular momentum become automatically finite, without the need of any regularization procedure, and they generically acquire contributions from the electromagnetic field. Therefore, unlike the higher-dimensional case, it is found that the precise value of the mass and the angular momentum explicitly depends on the choice of boundary conditions. It can also be seen that requiring compatibility of the boundary conditions with the Lorentz and scaling symmetries of the class of stationary solutions, singles out a very special set of “holographic boundary conditions” that is described by a single parameter. Remarkably, in stark contrast with the somewhat pathological behaviour found in the standard case, for the holographic boundary conditions (i) the energy spectrum of an electrically charged (rotating) black hole is nonnegative, and (ii) for a fixed value of the mass, the electric charge is bounded from above.

  17. Probing charge transfer dynamics in self-assembled monolayers by core hole clock approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharnikov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent progress in the application of core hole clock approach in the framework of resonant Auger electron spectroscopy to the monomolecular assembles of alkyl, oligophenyl, and oligo(phenylene–ethynylene) based molecules on Au(1 1 1) substrates, referring mostly to the work by the author et al. The major goal was to study electron transfer (ET) dynamics in these systems serving as prototypes of molecular electronics (ME) devices. The ET pathway to the conductive substrate was unambiguously defined by resonant excitation of the nitrile tailgroup attached to the molecular backbone. Characteristic ET times within the femtosecond domain were determined, along with the attenuation factors for the ET dynamics, analogous to the case of the static transport. The above parameters were found to exhibit strong dependence on the character of the molecular orbital which mediates the ET process. In addition, certain spectral features, which can be associated with an inverse ET from the molecular backbone to the excitation site, were observed upon exchange of the nitrile group by strongly electronegative nitro moiety. The reported results represent a valuable input for theory and a certain potential for applications such as ME devices where optimization of ET can have significant technological impact.

  18. Method of improving heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Xia, Huifen

    2018-01-01

    The project of polymer flooding has achieved great success in Daqing oilfield, and the main oil reservoir recovery can be improved by more than 15%. But, for some strong oil reservoir heterogeneity carrying out polymer flooding, polymer solution will be inefficient and invalid loop problem in the high permeability layer, then cause the larger polymer volume, and a significant reduction in the polymer flooding efficiency. Aiming at this problem, it is studied the method that improves heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control. The research results show that the polymer physical and chemical reaction of positively-charged gel with the residual polymer in high permeability layer can generate three-dimensional network of polymer, plugging high permeable layer, and increase injection pressure gradient, then improve the effect of polymer flooding development. Under the condition of the same dosage, positively-charged gel profile control can improve the polymer flooding recovery factor by 2.3∼3.8 percentage points. Under the condition of the same polymer flooding recovery factor increase value, after positively-charged gel profile control, it can reduce the polymer volume by 50 %. Applying mechanism of positively-charged gel profile control technology is feasible, cost savings, simple construction, and no environmental pollution, therefore has good application prospect.

  19. The relation of electrode voltages to charge position in SLC arc and final focus beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, C.

    1989-01-01

    The position of a charged particle beam can be measured with a Beam Position Monitor (BPM) by converting the voltages induced on its array of electrodes into a position offset from the array's center. Most of the BPMs in the Arcs and Final Focus of the SLC use four stripline electrodes arranged symmetrically around the beam; normalized voltage differences are calculated as the difference divided by the sum of voltages on opposite electrode pairs. The resulting number is multiplied by a conversion factor, denoted in this paper as S b , to give the offset (in millimeters) of the charge from the center of the BPM. Prior to installation in the beam line, the BPMs were calibrated with a charge pulse on a rod. Owing to geometric effects which will be discussed later, a different conversion factor had to be used for calibration. It will be denoted here by S r . This paper gives the results of calculations and measurements of S r and S b for Arc and Final Focus BPMs. This paper also describes the relevant physical properties of the several types of BPMs and calculations of the expected scale factors, the measurement methods used, and gives the results of measurements, which are compared with the theoretical expectations. 2 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Yasuura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  1. Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-23

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  2. Behavior of quasinormal modes and Van der Waals-like phase transition of charged AdS black holes in massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong [Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Liu, Yunqi [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, we utilize the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the Van der Waals-like small and large black holes (SBH/LBH) phase transition of charged topological Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four-dimensional massive gravity. We find that the signature of this SBH/LBH phase transition is detected in the isobaric as well as in the isothermal process. This further supports the idea that the QNMs can be an efficient tool to investigate the thermodynamical phase transition. (orig.)

  3. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm 2 with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm 2 . Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring

  4. Charged black holes in string-inspired gravity II. Mass inflation and dependence on parameters and potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jakob [KISTI,Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-07

    We investigate the relation between the existence of mass inflation and model parameters of string-inspired gravity models. In order to cover various models, we investigate a Brans-Dicke theory that is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. By tuning a model parameter that decides the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the electromagnetic field, we can make both of models such that the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward strong or weak coupling directions after gravitational collapses. We observe that as long as the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward any (strong or weak) directions, there is no Cauchy horizon and no mass inflation. Therefore, we conclude that to induce a Cauchy horizon and mass inflation inside a charged black hole, either there is no bias of the Brans-Dicke field as well as no Brans-Dicke hair outside the horizon or such a biased Brans-Dicke field should be well trapped and controlled by a potential.

  5. Axion-dilation black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this talk some essential features of stringy black holes are described. The author considers charged U(1) and U(1) x U(1) four-dimensional axion-dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperature and the entropy of all solutions are shown to be simple functions of the squares of supercharges, defining the positivity bounds. Spherically symmetric and multi black hole solutions are presented. The extreme solutions with zero entropy (holons) represent a ground state of the theory and are characterized by elementary dilaton, axion, electric, and magnetic charges. The attractive gravitational and axion-dilaton force is balanced by the repulsive electromagnetic force. The author discusses the possibility of splitting of nearly extreme black holes. 11 refs

  6. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PEPTIDE SOLUBILITY, STRUCTURE AND CHARGE POSITION EFFECT ON ADSORPTION BY ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Trujillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, structure and position of charges in a peptide antigen sequence can be mentioned as being amongst the basic features of adsorption. In order to study their effect on adsorption, seven analogue series were synthesized from a MSP-1 peptide sequence by systematically replacing each one of the positions in the peptide sequence by aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine or lysine. Such modifications in analogue peptide sequences showed a non-regular tendency regarding solubility and adsorption data. Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid analogue series showed great improvements in adsorption, especially in peptides where Lysine in position 6 and Arginine in position 13 were replaced. Solubility of position 5 analogue was greater than the position 6 analogue in Aspartic acid series; however, the position 6 analogue showed best adsorption results whilst the Aspartic acid in position 5 analogue showed no adsorption in the same conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural analysis revealed differences in the -helical structureextension between these analogues. The Aspartic acid in position 6, located in the polar side of the helix, may allow this analogueto fit better onto the adsorption regions suggesting that the local electrostatic charge is responsible for this behavior.

  8. arXiv Hawking radiation and propagation of massive charged scalar field on a three-dimensional G\\"odel black hole

    CERN Document Server

    González, P.A.; Saavedra, Joel; Vásquez, Yerko

    2018-05-18

    In this paper we consider the three-dimensional G\\"{o}del black hole as a background and we study the vector particle tunneling from this background in order to obtain the Hawking temperature. Then, we study the propagation of a massive charged scalar field and we find the quasinormal modes analytically, which turns out be unstable as a consequence of the existence of closed time-like curves. Also, we consider the flux at the horizon and at infinity, and we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients as well as the absorption cross section. Mainly, we show that massive charged scalar waves can be superradiantly amplified by the three-dimensional G\\"{o}del black hole and that the coefficients have an oscillatory behavior. Moreover, the absorption cross section is null at the high frequency limit and for certain values of the frequency.

  9. Charge-compensation in 3d-transition-metal-oxide intercalation cathodes through the generation of localized electron holes on oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Roberts, Matthew R; Hao, Rong; Guerrini, Niccoló; Pickup, David M; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Edström, Kristina; Guo, Jinghua; Chadwick, Alan V; Duda, Laurent C; Bruce, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    During the charging and discharging of lithium-ion-battery cathodes through the de- and reintercalation of lithium ions, electroneutrality is maintained by transition-metal redox chemistry, which limits the charge that can be stored. However, for some transition-metal oxides this limit can be broken and oxygen loss and/or oxygen redox reactions have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present operando mass spectrometry of (18)O-labelled Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2, which demonstrates that oxygen is extracted from the lattice on charging a Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2 cathode, although we detected no O2 evolution. Combined soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that, in addition to oxygen loss, Li(+) removal is charge compensated by the formation of localized electron holes on O atoms coordinated by Mn(4+) and Li(+) ions, which serve to promote the localization, and not the formation, of true O2(2-) (peroxide, O-O ~1.45 Å) species. The quantity of charge compensated by oxygen removal and by the formation of electron holes on the O atoms is estimated, and for the case described here the latter dominates.

  10. High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.

  11. Positively charged microporous ceramic membrane for the removal of Titan Yellow through electrostatic adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuting; Li, Na; Zhu, Mengfu; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Yu; Deng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    To develop a depth filter based on the electrostatic adsorption principle, positively charged microporous ceramic membrane was prepared from a diatomaceous earth ceramic membrane. The internal surface of the highly porous ceramic membrane was coated with uniformly distributed electropositive nano-Y2O3 coating. The dye removal performance was evaluated through pressurized filtration tests using Titan Yellow aqueous solution. It showed that positively charged microporous ceramic membrane exhibited a flow rate of 421L/(m(2)·hr) under the trans-membrane pressure of 0.03bar. Moreover it could effectively remove Titan Yellow with feed concentration of 10mg/L between pH3 to 8. The removal rate increased with the enhancement of the surface charge properties with a maximum rejection of 99.6%. This study provides a new and feasible method of removing organic dyes in wastewater. It is convinced that there will be a broad market for the application of charged ceramic membrane in the field of dye removal or recovery from industry wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  13. Position readout by charge division in large two-dimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.

    1976-10-01

    The improvement in readout spatial resolution for charge division systems with subdivided readout electrodes has been analyzed. This readout forms the position and sum signals by a linear, unambiguous analogue summation technique. It is shown that the readout resolution is a function of only electrode capacitance and shaping parameters. The line width improves as 1/N/sup 1 / 2 /, where N is the number of electrode subdivisions

  14. Directional rolling of positively charged nanoparticles along a flexibility gradient on long DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suehyun; Joo, Heesun; Kim, Jun Soo

    2018-01-31

    Directing the motion of molecules/colloids in any specific direction is of great interest in many applications of chemistry, physics, and biological sciences, where regulated positioning or transportation of materials is highly desired. Using Brownian dynamics simulations of coarse-grained models of a long, double-stranded DNA molecule and positively charged nanoparticles, we observed that the motion of a single nanoparticle bound to and wrapped by the DNA molecule can be directed along a gradient of DNA local flexibility. The flexibility gradient is constructed along a 0.8 kilobase-pair DNA molecule such that local persistence length decreases gradually from 50 nm to 40 nm, mimicking a gradual change in sequence-dependent flexibility. Nanoparticles roll over a long DNA molecule from less flexible regions towards more flexible ones as a result of the decreasing energetic cost of DNA bending and wrapping. In addition, the rolling becomes slightly accelerated as the positive charge of nanoparticles decreases due to a lower free energy barrier of DNA detachment from charged nanoparticle for processive rolling. This study suggests that the variation in DNA local flexibility can be utilized in constructing and manipulating supramolecular assemblies of DNA molecules and nanoparticles in structural DNA nanotechnology.

  15. Reduction of digital errors of digital charge division type position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritani, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Takenaka, Y.; Mori, C.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that ''digital errors'', i.e. differential non-linearity, appear in a position profile of radiation interactions when the profile is obtained with a digital charge-division-type position-sensitive detector. Two methods are presented to reduce the digital errors. They are the methods using logarithmic amplifiers and a weighting function. The validities of these two methods have been evaluated mainly by computer simulation. These methods can considerably reduce the digital errors. The best results are obtained when both methods are applied. ((orig.))

  16. Bulk-boundary thermodynamic equivalence, and the Bekenstein and cosmic-censorship bounds for rotating charged AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Perry, M.J.; Pope, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    We show that one may pass from bulk to boundary thermodynamic quantities for rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in arbitrary dimensions so that if the bulk quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics then so do the boundary conformal field theory (CFT) quantities. This corrects recent claims that boundary CFT quantities satisfying the first law may only be obtained using bulk quantities measured with respect to a certain frame rotating at infinity, and which therefore do not satisfy the first law. We show that the bulk black-hole thermodynamic variables, or equivalently therefore the boundary CFT variables, do not always satisfy a Cardy-Verlinde type formula, but they do always satisfy an AdS-Bekenstein bound. The universal validity of the Bekenstein bound is a consequence of the more fundamental cosmic-censorship bound, which we find to hold in all cases examined. We also find that at fixed entropy, the temperature of a rotating black hole is bounded above by that of a nonrotating black hole, in four and five dimensions, but not in six or more dimensions. We find evidence for universal upper bounds for the area of cosmological event horizons and black-hole horizons in rotating black-hole spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant

  17. Study of electric field distorted by space charges under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2018-03-01

    Actually, many insulation problems are related to electric fields. And measuring electric fields is an important research topic of high-voltage engineering. In particular, the electric field distortion caused by space charge is the basis of streamer theory, and thus quantitatively measuring the Poisson electric field caused by space charge is significant to researching the mechanism of air gap discharge. In this paper, we used our photoelectric integrated sensor to measure the electric field distribution in a 1-m rod-plane gap under positive lightning impulse voltage. To verify the reliability of this quantitative measurement, we compared the measured results with calculated results from a numerical simulation. The electric-field time domain waveforms on the axis of the 1-m rod-plane out of the space charge zone were measured with various electrodes. The Poisson electric fields generated by space charge were separated from the Laplace electric field generated by applied voltages, and the amplitudes and variations were measured for various applied voltages and at various locations. This work also supplies the feasible basis for directly measuring strong electric field under high voltage.

  18. Positive column of a glow discharge in neon with charged dust grains (a review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, D. N., E-mail: cryolab@ihed.ras.ru; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The effect of charged micron-size dust grains (microparticles) on the electric parameters of the positive column of a low-pressure dc glow discharge in neon has been studied experimentally and numerically. Numerical analysis is carried out in the diffusion-drift approximation with allowance for the interaction of dust grains with metastable neon atoms. In a discharge with a dust grain cloud, the longitudinal electric field increases. As the number density of dust grains in an axisymmetric cylindrical dust cloud rises, the growth of the electric field saturates. It is shown that the contribution of metastable atoms to ionization is higher in a discharge with dust grains, in spite of the quenching of metastable atoms on dust grains. The processes of charging of dust grains and the dust cloud are considered. As the number density of dust grains rises, their charge decreases, while the space charge of the dust cloud increases. The results obtained can be used in plasma technologies involving microparticles.

  19. Positive column of a glow discharge in neon with charged dust grains (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, D. N.; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of charged micron-size dust grains (microparticles) on the electric parameters of the positive column of a low-pressure dc glow discharge in neon has been studied experimentally and numerically. Numerical analysis is carried out in the diffusion-drift approximation with allowance for the interaction of dust grains with metastable neon atoms. In a discharge with a dust grain cloud, the longitudinal electric field increases. As the number density of dust grains in an axisymmetric cylindrical dust cloud rises, the growth of the electric field saturates. It is shown that the contribution of metastable atoms to ionization is higher in a discharge with dust grains, in spite of the quenching of metastable atoms on dust grains. The processes of charging of dust grains and the dust cloud are considered. As the number density of dust grains rises, their charge decreases, while the space charge of the dust cloud increases. The results obtained can be used in plasma technologies involving microparticles.

  20. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  1. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. E-mail: faustgr@usc.es; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A

    2003-10-21

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 {mu}m thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm{sup 2} with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm{sup 2}. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  2. Microporous nano-MgO/diatomite ceramic membrane with high positive surface charge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian; Liu, Zhimeng; Deng, Cheng; Zhu, Mengfu; Wang, Deyin; Li, Kui; Deng, Yu; Jiang, Mingming

    2016-12-15

    A novel microporous nano-MgO/diatomite ceramic membrane with high positive surface charge was prepared, including synthesis of precursor colloid, dip-coating and thermal decomposition. Combined SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS studies show the nano-MgO is irregularly distributed on the membrane surface or pore walls and forms a positively charged nano coating. And the nano-MgO coating is firmly attached to the diatomite membrane via SiO chemical bond. Thus the nano-MgO/diatomite membrane behaves strong electropositivity with the isoelectric point of 10.8. Preliminary filtration tests indicate that the as-prepared nano-MgO/diatomite membrane could remove approximately 99.7% of tetracycline in water through electrostatic adsorption effect. The desirable electrostatic property enables the nano-MgO/diatomite membrane to be a candidate for removal of organic pollutants from water. And it is convinced that there will be a great application prospect of charged ceramic membrane in water treatment field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PIMS (Positioning In Macular hole Surgery) trial - a multicentre interventional comparative randomised controlled clinical trial comparing face-down positioning, with an inactive face-forward position on the outcome of surgery for large macular holes: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasu, Saruban; Bunce, Catey; Hooper, Richard; Thomson, Ann; Bainbridge, James

    2015-11-17

    Idiopathic macular holes are an important cause of blindness. They have an annual incidence of 8 per 100,000 individuals, and prevalence of 0.2 to 3.3 per 1000 individuals with visual impairment. The condition occurs more frequently in adults aged 75 years or older. Macular holes can be repaired by surgery in which the causative tractional forces in the eye are released and a temporary bubble of gas is injected. To promote successful hole closure individuals may be advised to maintain a face-down position for up to 10 days following surgery. The aim of this study is to determine whether advice to position face-down improves the surgical success rate of closure of large (>400 μm) macular holes, and thereby reduces the need for further surgery. This will be a multicentre interventional, comparative randomised controlled clinical trial comparing face-down positioning with face-forward positioning. At the conclusion of standardised surgery across all sites, participants still eligible for inclusion will be allocated randomly 1:1 to 1 of the 2 treatment arms stratified by site, using random permuted blocks of size 4 or 6 in equal proportions. We will recruit 192 participants having surgery for large macular holes (>400 μm); 96 in each of the 2 arms of the study. The primary objective is to determine the impact of face-down positioning on the likelihood of closure of large (≥400 μm) full-thickness macular holes following surgery. This will be the first multicentre randomised control trial to investigate the value of face-down positioning following macular hole standardised surgery. UK CRN: 17966 (date of registration 26 November 2014).

  4. Simulation of the interaction of positively charged beams and electron clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovik, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The incoherent (head-tail) effect on the bunch due to the interaction with electron clouds (e-clouds) leads to a blow up of the transverse beam size in storage rings operating with positively charged beams. Even more the e-cloud effects are considered to be the main limiting factor for high current, high-brightness or high-luminosity operation of future machines. Therefore the simulation of e-cloud phenomena is a highly active field of research. The main focus in this work was set to a development of a tool for simulation of the interaction of relativistic bunches with non-relativistic parasitic charged particles. The result is the Particle-In-Cell Program MOEVE PIC Tracking which can track a 3D bunch under the influence of its own and external electromagnetic fields but first and foremost it simulates the interaction of relativistic positively charged bunches and initially static electrons. In MOEVE PIC Tracking the conducting beam pipe can be modeled with an arbitrary elliptical cross-section to achieve more accurate space charge field computations for both the bunch and the e-cloud. The simulation of the interaction between positron bunches and electron clouds in this work gave a detailed insight of the behavior of both particle species during and after the interaction. Further and ultimate goal of this work was a fast estimation of the beam stability under the influence of e-clouds in the storage ring. The standard approach to simulate the stability of a single bunch is to track the bunch particles through the linear optics of the machine by multiplying the 6D vector of each particle with the transformation matrices describing the lattice. Thereby the action of the e-cloud on the bunch is approximated by a pre-computed wake kick which is applied on one or more points in the lattice. Following the idea of K.Ohmi the wake kick was pre-computed as a two variable function of the bunch part exiting the e-cloud and the subsequent parts of a bunch which receive a

  5. Off-Shell ADT charges of five-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes%五维Myers-Perry黑洞的离壳ADT荷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安旭强; 景艺德; 彭俊金

    2018-01-01

    In this work,we have calculated the conserved charges,such as mass and angular momentum,of five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black holes via the off-shell generalized Abbott-DeserTekin (ADT) method.These conserved charges strictly satisfy the differential and integral forms of the first law for black holes.Moreover,we compare the off-shell ADT conserved charges with those via both the formalisms of the well-known ADM and Komar integral,finding that all the results are correspondingly identified with each other.%基于离壳推广的Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT)定义,给出了五维时空中双转动的Myers-Perry黑洞的离壳ADT质量与角动量等守恒荷.在此基础上,验证了这些守恒荷严格满足黑洞热力学第一定律的微分与积分形式.此外,通过离壳推广的ADT方法与ADM定义以及Komar公式的比较,我们发现,对于五维Myers-Perry黑洞来说,此3种方法给出的守恒荷完全一致.

  6. SFG and SPR Study of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Film Assembly on Positively Charged Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghun; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew; Castner, David

    2012-02-01

    This study uses sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing to investigate the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films formed on positively charged and hydrophilic surfaces. The SPR signals show a good surface coverage suggesting that full monolayer coverage is reached at 1 mM. SFG spectra of SDS adsorbed exhibits well resolved CH3 peaks and OH peaks. At both 0.2 mM and 1 mM SDS concentration the intensity of both the CH3 and OH peaks decreased close to background levels. We found that the loss of SFG signal at 0.2 mM occurs at this concentration independent of surface charge density. It is more likely that the loss of signal is related to structural inhomogeneity induced by a striped phase - stand-up phase transition. This is supported by a distinct change of the relative SFG phase between CH3/OH near 0.2 mM. The second intensity minimum might be related to charge compensation effects. We observed a substrate dependence for the high concentration transition. We also observed distinct SFG signal phase changes for water molecules associated with SDS layers at different SDS solution concentrations indicating that the orientation of bound water changed with SDS surface structure.

  7. The Charge-Mass-Spin Relation of Clifford Polyparticles, Kerr-Newman Black Holes and the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2003-01-01

    A Clifford-algebraic interpretation is proposed of the charge, mass, spin relationship found recently by Cooperstock and Faraoini which was based on the Kerr-Newman metric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The components of the polymomentum associated with a Clifford polyparticle in four dimensions provide for such a charge, mass, spin relationship without the problems encountered in Kaluza-Klein compactifications which furnish an unphysically large value for the electron charge. A physical reasoning behind such charge, mass, spin relationship is provided, followed by a discussion on the geometrical derivation of the fine structure constant by Wyler, Smith, Gonzalez-Martin and Smilga. To finalize, the renormalization of electric charge is discussed and some remarks are made pertaining the modifications of the charge-scale relationship, when the spin of the polyparticle changes with scale, that may cast some light into the alleged Astrophysical variations of the fine structure constant.

  8. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  9. Electron beam patterning for writing of positively charged gold colloidal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafri, Hadar; Azougi, Jonathan; Girshevitz, Olga; Zalevsky, Zeev; Zitoun, David

    2018-02-01

    Synthesis at the nanoscale has progressed at a very fast pace during the last decades. The main challenge today lies in precise localization to achieve efficient nanofabrication of devices. In the present work, we report on a novel method for the patterning of gold metallic nanoparticles into nanostructures on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabrication makes use of relatively accessible equipment, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and wet chemical synthesis. The electron beam implants electrons into the insulating material, which further anchors the positively charged Au nanoparticles by electrostatic attraction. The novel fabrication method was applied to several substrates useful in microelectronics to add plasmonic particles. The resolution and surface density of the deposition were tuned, respectively, by the electron energy (acceleration voltage) and the dose of electronic irradiation. We easily achieved the smallest written feature of 68 ± 18 nm on SOI, and the technique can be extended to any positively charged nanoparticles, while the resolution is in principle limited by the particle size distribution and the scattering of the electrons in the substrate. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. On the use of a charged tunnel layer as a hole collector to improve the efficiency of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Cangming; Sahraei, Nasim; Aberle, Armin G.; Stangl, Rolf; Peters, Ian Marius

    2015-01-01

    A new concept, using a negatively charged tunnel layer as a hole collector, is proposed and theoretically investigated for application in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The concept features a glass/transparent conductive oxide/ultra-thin negatively charged tunnel layer/intrinsic a-Si:H/n-doped a-Si:H/metal structure. The key feature of this so called t + -i-n structure is the introduction of a negatively charged tunnel layer (attracting holes from the intrinsic absorber layer), which substitutes the highly recombination active p-doped a-Si:H layer in a conventional p-i-n configuration. Atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD AlO x ) is suggested as a potential candidate for such a tunnel layer. Using typical ALD AlO x parameters, a 27% relative efficiency increase (i.e., from 9.7% to 12.3%) is predicted theoretically for a single-junction a-Si:H solar cell on a textured superstrate. This prediction is based on parameters that reproduce the experimentally obtained external quantum efficiency and current-voltage characteristics of a conventional processed p-i-n a-Si:H solar cell, reaching 9.7% efficiency and serving as a reference. Subsequently, the p-doped a-Si:H layer is replaced by the tunnel layer (studied by means of numerical device simulation). Using a t + -i-n configuration instead of a conventional p-i-n configuration will not only increase the short-circuit current density (from 14.4 to 14.9 mA/cm 2 , according to our simulations), it also enhances the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor (from 917 mV to 1.0 V and from 74% to 83%, respectively). For this concept to work efficiently, a high work function front electrode material or a high interface charge is needed

  11. Parameters influencing charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using novel hole conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.E.; Hirata, N.; Schmidt-Mende, L.; Orizu, C.; Ogier, S.D.; Carr, K.; Grätzel, M.; Durrant, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid organic hole-transport material (HTM) are currently under intensive investigation, since they offer a number of practical advantages over liquid-electrolyte junction devices. Of particular importance to the design of such devices is the

  12. The Effect of Dopant-Free Hole-Transport Polymers on Charge Generation and Recombination in Cesium-Bismuth-Iodide Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huimin; Johansson, Malin B; Johansson, Erik M J

    2018-03-22

    The photovoltaic characteristics of CsBi 3 I 10 -based solar cells with three dopant-free hole-conducting polymers are investigated. The effect on charge generation and charge recombination in the solar cells using the different polymers is studied and the results indicate that the choice of polymer strongly affects the device properties. Interestingly, for the solar cell with poly[[2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl)-5,8-quinoxalinediyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl] (TQ1), the photon-to-current conversion spectrum is highly improved in the red wavelength region, suggesting that the polymer also contributes to the photocurrent generation in this case. This report provides a new direction for further optimization of Bi-halide solar cells by using dopant-free hole-transporting polymers and shows that the energy levels and the interaction between the Bi-halide and the conducting polymers are very important for solar cell performance. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Onset of turbulence induced by electron nonthermality in a complex plasma in presence of positively charged dust grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Sarkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper onset of turbulence has been detected from the study of non linear dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma considering electrons nonthermal and equilibrium dust charge positive. Dust grains are charged by secondary electron emission process. Our analysis shows that increase in electron nonthermality makes the grain charging process faster by reducing the magnitude of the nonadiabaticity induced pseudo viscosity. Consequently nature of dust charge variation changes from nonadiabatic to adiabatic one. For further increase of electron nonthermality, this pseudo viscosity becomes negative and hence generates a turbulent grain charging behaviour. This turbulent grain charging phenomenon is exclusively the outcome of this nonlinear study which was not found in linear analysis.

  14. Design study of beam position monitors for measuring second-order moments of charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Hanaki, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation on the multipole moments of charged particle beams in two-dimensional polar coordinates. The theoretical description of multipole moments is based on a single-particle system that is expanded to a multiparticle system by superposition, i.e., summing over all single-particle results. This paper also presents an analysis and design method for a beam position monitor (BPM) that detects higher-order (multipole) moments of a charged particle beam. To calculate the electric fields, a numerical analysis based on the finite difference method was created and carried out. Validity of the numerical analysis was proven by comparing the numerical with the analytical results for a BPM with circular cross section. Six-electrode BPMs with circular and elliptical cross sections were designed for the SPring-8 linac. The results of the numerical calculations show that the second-order moment can be detected for beam sizes ≧420μm (circular) and ≧550μm (elliptical).

  15. Design study of beam position monitors for measuring second-order moments of charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Yanagida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation on the multipole moments of charged particle beams in two-dimensional polar coordinates. The theoretical description of multipole moments is based on a single-particle system that is expanded to a multiparticle system by superposition, i.e., summing over all single-particle results. This paper also presents an analysis and design method for a beam position monitor (BPM that detects higher-order (multipole moments of a charged particle beam. To calculate the electric fields, a numerical analysis based on the finite difference method was created and carried out. Validity of the numerical analysis was proven by comparing the numerical with the analytical results for a BPM with circular cross section. Six-electrode BPMs with circular and elliptical cross sections were designed for the SPring-8 linac. The results of the numerical calculations show that the second-order moment can be detected for beam sizes ≧420  μm (circular and ≧550  μm (elliptical.

  16. Enhanced biomimic bactericidal surfaces by coating with positively-charged ZIF nano-dagger arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-10-01

    Cicada wing surfaces are covered with dense patterns of nano-pillar structure that prevent bacterial growth by rupturing adhered microbial cells. To mimic the natural nano-pillar structure, we developed a general and simple method to grow metal organic framework (MOF) nano-dagger arrays on a wide range of surfaces. These nano-daggers possess high bactericidal activity, with log reduction >7 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was hypothesized that the positively-charged ZIF-L nano-dagger surfaces enhance bacterial cell adhesion, facilitating selective and efficient bacteria killing by the rigid and sharp nano-dagger tips. This research provides a safe and clean antimicrobial surface technology which does not require external chemicals and will not cause drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Positively Charged Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Their Effect on the Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong-Ok Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and HTCC-coated lipid particles had higher zeta-potential values than uncoated one over the whole pH ranges and improved encapsulation efficiency. In vitro drug release showed that all NLC formulations showed higher in vitro release efficiency than drug particle at pH 7.4. Furthermore, NLC formulation prepared with chitosan or HTCC represented good sustained release property. The results indicate that chitosan and HTCC can be excellent formulating excipients of lipid-based delivery carrier for improving poorly water soluble drug delivery.

  18. Positively Charged Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Their Effect on the Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Choe, Jaehyeog; Suh, Seokjin; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-05-20

    The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC) to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and HTCC-coated lipid particles had higher zeta-potential values than uncoated one over the whole pH ranges and improved encapsulation efficiency. In vitro drug release showed that all NLC formulations showed higher in vitro release efficiency than drug particle at pH 7.4. Furthermore, NLC formulation prepared with chitosan or HTCC represented good sustained release property. The results indicate that chitosan and HTCC can be excellent formulating excipients of lipid-based delivery carrier for improving poorly water soluble drug delivery.

  19. Position dependence of charge collection in prototype sensors for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, Tilman; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Konecki, Marcin; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Sanders, David A; Son Seung Hee; Speer, Thomas; Swartz, Morris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the sensor R&D activity for the CMS pixel detector. Devices featuring several design and technology options have been irradiated up to a proton fluence1 of 1 multiplied by 10**1**5 n //e//q/cm**2 at the CERN PS. Afterward, they were bump bonded to unirradiated readout chips and tested using high energy pions in the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS. The readout chip allows a nonzero suppressed full analogue readout and therefore a good characterization of the sensors in terms of noise and charge collection properties. The position dependence of signal is presented and the differences between the two sensor options are discussed. 20 Refs.

  20. Think positive : phase separation enables a positively charged additive to induce dramatic changes in calcium carbonate morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantaert, B.; Kim, Y.; Ludwig, H.; Nudelman, F.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Meldrum, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble macromolecules are essential to Nature's control over biomineral formation. Following early studies where macromolecules rich in aspartic and glutamic acid were extracted from nacre, research has focused on the use of negatively charged additives to control calcium carbonate precipitation.

  1. Model for thickness dependence of radiation charging in MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, C. R.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    The model considers charge buildup in MOS structures due to hole trapping in the oxide and the creation of sheet charge at the silicon interface. The contribution of hole trapping causes the flatband voltage to increase with thickness in a manner in which square and cube dependences are limiting cases. Experimental measurements on samples covering a 200 - 1000 A range of oxide thickness are consistent with the model, using independently obtained values of hole-trapping parameters. An important finding of our experimental results is that a negative interface charge contribution due to surface states created during irradiation compensates most of the positive charge in the oxide at flatband. The tendency of the surface states to 'track' the positive charge buildup in the oxide, for all thicknesses, applies both in creation during irradiation and in annihilation during annealing. An explanation is proposed based on the common defect origin of hole traps and potential surface states.

  2. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part I. Factors influencing the mechanism of the pulse charge of the positive plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchev, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Karoui, F.; Mattera, F. [Commissariat de l' Energie Atomique, Institut National de l' Energie Solaire, INES-RDI, Parc Technologique de Savoie Technolac, 50 Avenue du Lac Leman, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)

    2008-02-15

    The mechanism of the positive plate charge in pulse regime was studied in model lead-acid cells with one positive and two negative plates (8 Ah each) and Ag/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reference electrodes. The results showed that the evolution of the electrode potential is much slower on the positive plate than on the negative plate. Regardless of this fact, the calculated capacitive current of charge and self-discharge of the electrochemical double layer (EDL) during the 'ON' and 'OFF' half-periods of the pulse current square waves is comparable with the charge current amplitude. The result is due to the high values of the EDL on the surface of the lead dioxide active material. The influence of different factors like state of charge, state of health, pulse frequency, current amplitude and open circuit stay before the polarization was discussed. The previously determined optimal frequency of 1 Hz was associated with a maximum in the average double layer current on frequency dependence. The average double layer current is also maximal at SOC between 75 and 100%. The exchange of the constant current polarization with pulse polarization does not change substantially the mechanism and the overvoltage of the oxygen evolution reaction on the positive plate. The mechanism of the self-discharge of the EDL was also estimated analyzing long-time PPP transients (up to 2 h). It was found that when the PPP is lower than 1.2 V the preferred mechanism of EDL self-discharge is by coupling with the lead sulphate oxidation reaction. At higher values of PPP the EDL self-discharge happens via oxygen evolution. The high faradic efficiency of the pulse charge is due to the chemical oxidation of the Pb(II) ions by the O atoms and OH radicals formed at the oxygen evolution both during the 'ON' and 'OFF' periods. (author)

  3. Position statement on ethics, equipoise and research on charged particle radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Timlin, Claire; Peach, Ken; Binik, Ariella; Puthenparampil, Wilson; Lodge, Mark; Kehoe, Sean; Brada, Michael; Burnet, Neil; Clarke, Steve; Crellin, Adrian; Dunn, Michael; Fossati, Piero; Harris, Steve; Hocken, Michael; Hope, Tony; Ives, Jonathan; Kamada, Tadashi; London, Alex John; Miller, Robert; Parker, Michael; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Savulescu, Julian; Short, Susan; Skene, Loane; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tuan, Jeffrey; Weijer, Charles

    2014-08-01

    The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indications. Equipoise is the key ethical concept in determining which research studies are justified. However, there is a good deal of disagreement about how this concept is best understood and applied in the specific case of CPRT. This report is a position statement on these controversies that arises out of a workshop held at Wolfson College, Oxford in August 2011. The workshop brought together international leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, medical physics, radiobiology, research ethics and methodology), including proponents on both sides of the debate, in order to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with CPRT research. This position statement provides an ethical platform for future research and should enable further work to be done in developing international coordinated programmes of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Positively versus negatively charged moral emotion expectancies in adolescence: the role of situational context and the developing moral self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Johnston, Megan

    2011-09-01

    The study analyses adolescents' positively charged versus negatively charged moral emotion expectancies. Two hundred and five students (M= 14.83 years, SD= 2.21) participated in an interview depicting various situations in which a moral norm was either regarded or transgressed. Emotion expectancies were assessed for specific emotions (pride, guilt) as well as for overall strength and valence. In addition, self-importance of moral values was measured by a questionnaire. Results revealed that positively charged emotion expectancies were more pronounced in contexts of prosocial action than in the context of moral transgressions, whereas the opposite was true for negatively charged emotions. At the same time, expectations of guilt and pride were substantially related to the self-importance of moral values. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  6. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslam Panah, B. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-10

    Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  7. Hybrid graphene and graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite: gap opening, electron-hole puddle, interfacial charge transfer, and enhanced visible light response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Aijun; Sanvito, Stefano; Li, Zhen; Wang, Dawei; Jiao, Yan; Liao, Ting; Sun, Qiao; Ng, Yun Hau; Zhu, Zhonghua; Amal, Rose; Smith, Sean C

    2012-03-07

    Opening up a band gap and finding a suitable substrate material are two big challenges for building graphene-based nanodevices. Using state-of-the-art hybrid density functional theory incorporating long-range dispersion corrections, we investigate the interface between optically active graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)) and electronically active graphene. We find an inhomogeneous planar substrate (g-C(3)N(4)) promotes electron-rich and hole-rich regions, i.e., forming a well-defined electron-hole puddle, on the supported graphene layer. The composite displays significant charge transfer from graphene to the g-C(3)N(4) substrate, which alters the electronic properties of both components. In particular, the strong electronic coupling at the graphene/g-C(3)N(4) interface opens a 70 meV gap in g-C(3)N(4)-supported graphene, a feature that can potentially allow overcoming the graphene's band gap hurdle in constructing field effect transistors. Additionally, the 2-D planar structure of g-C(3)N(4) is free of dangling bonds, providing an ideal substrate for graphene to sit on. Furthermore, when compared to a pure g-C(3)N(4) monolayer, the hybrid graphene/g-C(3)N(4) complex displays an enhanced optical absorption in the visible region, a promising feature for novel photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. On the use of a charged tunnel layer as a hole collector to improve the efficiency of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Cangming; Sahraei, Nasim; Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Stangl, Rolf [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Peters, Ian Marius

    2015-06-28

    A new concept, using a negatively charged tunnel layer as a hole collector, is proposed and theoretically investigated for application in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The concept features a glass/transparent conductive oxide/ultra-thin negatively charged tunnel layer/intrinsic a-Si:H/n-doped a-Si:H/metal structure. The key feature of this so called t{sup +}-i-n structure is the introduction of a negatively charged tunnel layer (attracting holes from the intrinsic absorber layer), which substitutes the highly recombination active p-doped a-Si:H layer in a conventional p-i-n configuration. Atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD AlO{sub x}) is suggested as a potential candidate for such a tunnel layer. Using typical ALD AlO{sub x} parameters, a 27% relative efficiency increase (i.e., from 9.7% to 12.3%) is predicted theoretically for a single-junction a-Si:H solar cell on a textured superstrate. This prediction is based on parameters that reproduce the experimentally obtained external quantum efficiency and current-voltage characteristics of a conventional processed p-i-n a-Si:H solar cell, reaching 9.7% efficiency and serving as a reference. Subsequently, the p-doped a-Si:H layer is replaced by the tunnel layer (studied by means of numerical device simulation). Using a t{sup +}-i-n configuration instead of a conventional p-i-n configuration will not only increase the short-circuit current density (from 14.4 to 14.9 mA/cm{sup 2}, according to our simulations), it also enhances the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor (from 917 mV to 1.0 V and from 74% to 83%, respectively). For this concept to work efficiently, a high work function front electrode material or a high interface charge is needed.

  9. Two-dimensional potential and charge distributions of positive surface streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daiki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Information on the potential and the field profile along a surface discharge is required for quantitatively discussing and clarifying the propagation mechanism. The sensing technique with a Pockels crystal has been developed for directly measuring the potential and electric field distribution on a dielectric material. In this paper, the Pockels sensing system consists of a pulse laser and a CCD camera for measuring the instantaneous two-dimensional potential distribution on a 25.4 mm square area with a 50 μm sampling pitch. The temporal resolution is 3.2 ns which is determined by the pulse width of the laser emission. The transient change in the potential distribution of a positive surface streamer propagating in atmospheric air is measured with this system. The electric field and the charge distributions are also calculated from the measured potential profile. The propagating direction component of the electric field near the tip of the propagating streamer reaches 3 kV mm -1 . When the streamer stops, the potential distribution along a streamer forms an almost linear profile with the distance from the electrode, and its gradient is about 0.5 kV mm -1 .

  10. Positively charged gold nanoparticles capped with folate quaternary chitosan: Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and uptake by cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hui-Ju; Young, Yen-An; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Cheng, Kuang-Ming; Chen, Xin-An; Chen, Ying-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Cheung; Young, Jenn-Jong; Hong, Po-da

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we synthesized various quaternary chitosan derivatives and used them to stabilize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These chitosan derivatives comprised N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), folate-HTCC, galactosyl-HTCC, and their fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated derivatives. Various positively surface-charged AuNPs were prepared under alkaline conditions using glucose as a reducing agent in the presence of the HTCC derivatives (HTCCs). The effects of the concentration of NaOH, glucose, and HTCCs on the particles size, zeta potential, and stability were studied in detail. Cell cycle assays verify that none of the HTCCs or HTCCs-AuNPs was cytotoxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the folate HTCC-AuNPs were internalized in Caco-2, HepG2, and HeLa cancer cells to a significantly greater extent than AuNPs without folate. But, galactosyl HTCC-AuNPs only showed high cell uptake by HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of NH2-terminal positive charges in the activity of inward rectifier KATP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, C A; Jeliazkova, I; Nichols, C G

    2002-09-01

    Approximately half of the NH(2) terminus of inward rectifier (Kir) channels can be deleted without significant change in channel function, but activity is lost when more than approximately 30 conserved residues before the first membrane spanning domain (M1) are removed. Systematic replacement of the positive charges in the NH(2) terminus of Kir6.2 with alanine reveals several residues that affect channel function when neutralized. Certain mutations (R4A, R5A, R16A, R27A, R39A, K47A, R50A, R54A, K67A) change open probability, whereas an overlapping set of mutants (R16A, R27A, K39A, K47A, R50A, R54A, K67A) change ATP sensitivity. Further analysis of the latter set differentiates mutations that alter ATP sensitivity as a consequence of altered open state stability (R16A, K39A, K67A) from those that may affect ATP binding directly (K47A, R50A, R54A). The data help to define the structural determinants of Kir channel function, and suggest possible structural motifs within the NH(2) terminus, as well as the relationship of the NH(2) terminus with the extended cytoplasmic COOH terminus of the channel.

  12. Osteoblasts with impaired spreading capacity benefit from the positive charges of plasma polymerised allylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kunz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, impinge on the performance of orthopaedic implants by impairing bone regeneration. For this reason, the development of effective surface modifications supporting the ingrowth of implants in morbid bone tissue is essential. Our study is designed to elucidate if cells with restricted cell-function limiting adhesion processes benefit from plasma polymer deposition on titanium. We used the actin filament disrupting agent cytochalasin D (CD as an experimental model for cells with impaired actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, the cell’s capacity to adhere and spread was drastically reduced due to shortened actin filaments and vinculin contacts that were smaller. The coating of titanium with a positively charged nanolayer of plasma polymerised allylamine (PPAAm abrogated these disadvantages in cell adhesion and the CD-treated osteoblasts were able to spread significantly. Interestingly, PPAAm increased spreading by causing enhanced vinculin number and contact length, but without significantly reorganising actin filaments. PPAAm with the monomer allylamine was deposited in a microwave-excited low-pressure plasma-processing reactor. Cell physiology was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the length and number of actin filaments was quantified by mathematical image processing. We showed that biomaterial surface modification with PPAAm could be beneficial even for osteoblasts with impaired cytoskeleton components. These insights into in vitro conditions may be used for the evaluation of future strategies to design implants for morbid bone tissue.

  13. Charge polarization effects and hole spectra characteristics in AlxGa1-xN/GaN superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaoui, Fatna; Pereyra, Pedro

    2001-10-01

    We study the effects of charge polarization on the extended physical properties of superlattices, such as transmission coefficients and valence band structure. We consider both linear and parabolic modulation of the band edge. Based on the theory of finite periodic systems (TFPS), analytic expressions and high precision calculations of the relevant physical quantities for n-cell systems are obtained. New and also well-known features of these systems are identified. Besides the well-known energy bandstructure, we also have the field bandstructure, with interesting characteristics. Wider field gaps at stronger internal electric fields and higher density of field bands for larger layer widths are some of these characteristics. Well defined level density asymmetries identify the minibands induced by charge polarization or the so-called Quantum Confining Stark Effect. We present the n-cell transmission amplitudes, transmission coefficients and miniband structures for different values of the relevant parameters. (author)

  14. Nondispersive hole transport in a spin-coated dendrimer film measured by the charge-generation-layer time-of-flight method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Richards, Gary J.; Burn, Paul L.; Im, Chan; Bassler, Heinz

    2002-10-01

    Measurements of the mobility of a first-generation (G1) bis-fluorene cored dendrimer have been performed on spin-coated samples of 500 nm thickness using the charge-generation-layer time-of-flight (TOF) technique. A 10 nm perylene charge generation layer was excited by the 532 nm line of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and the generated carriers swept through the dendrimer film under an applied field. We observe nondispersive hole transport in the dendrimer layer with a room-temperature mobility mu=2.0 x10-4 cm2/V s at a field of 0.55 MV/cm. There is a weak field dependence of the mobility and it increases from mu=1.6 x10-4 cm2/V s at 0.2 MV/cm to mu=3.0 x10-4 cm2/V s at 1.4 MV/cm. These results suggest that the measurement of mobility by TOF in spin-coated samples on thickness scales relevant to organic light-emitting diodes can yield valuable information, and that dendrimers are promising materials for device applications.

  15. Separation analysis of macrolide antibiotics with good performance on a positively charged C18HCE column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Shen, Aijin; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-03-01

    The separation of basic macrolide antibiotics suffers from peak tailing and poor efficiency on traditional silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography columns. In this work, a C18HCE column with positively charged surface was applied to the separation of macrolides. Compared with an Acquity BEH C18 column, the C18HCE column exhibited superior performance in the aspect of peak shape and separation efficiency. The screening of mobile phase additives including formic acid, acetic acid and ammonium formate indicated that formic acid was preferable for providing symmetrical peak shapes. Moreover, the influence of formic acid content was investigated. Analysis speed and mass spectrometry compatibility were also taken into account when optimizing the separation conditions for liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was successfully utilized for the determination of macrolide residues in a honey sample. Azithromycin was chosen as the internal standard for the quantitation of spiramycin and tilmicosin, while roxithromycin was used for erythromycin, tylosin, clarithromycin, josamycin and acetylisovaleryltylosin. Good correlation coefficients (r(2) > 0.9938) for all macrolides were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries were 73.7-134.7% and 80.7-119.7% with relative standard deviations of 2.5-8.0% and 3.9-16.1%, respectively. Outstanding sensitivity with limits of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) of 0.02-1 μg/kg and limits of detection (S/N ≥ 3) of 0.01-0.5 μg/kg were achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Quantum size correction to the work function and the centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Payami

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different values . For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model (SJM as well as simple jellium model (JM with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere.

  17. Quantum size correction to the work function and centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payami, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different r s values (2≤ r s ≥ 7). For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes 2≤ N ≥100 in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model as well as simple jellium model with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere

  18. Charge dividing mechanism on resistive electrode in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-10-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistancies and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C) 1 / 2 , where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  19. Long-Term Charge/Discharge Cycling Stability of MnO2 Aqueous Supercapacitor under Positive Polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Ataherian, Fatemeh; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2011-01-01

    The long-term charge/discharge cycling stability of MnO 2 electrode under positive polarization in aqueous KCl electrolyte has been studied over different potential windows spanning from the open circuit potential to varied higher-end potential

  20. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  2. Coalescence of rotating black holes on Eguchi-Hanson space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Ken; Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Tomizawa, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    We obtain new charged rotating multi-black hole solutions on the Eguchi-Hanson space in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell system with a Chern-Simons term and a positive cosmological constant. In the two-black holes case, these solutions describe the coalescence of two rotating black holes with the horizon topologies of S 3 into a single rotating black hole with the horizon topology of the lens space L(2;1)=S 3 /Z 2 . We discuss the differences in the horizon areas between our solutions and the two-centered Klemm-Sabra solutions which describe the coalescence of two rotating black holes with the horizon topologies of S 3 into a single rotating black hole with the horizon topology of S 3

  3. The regiochemical distribution of positive charges along cholesterol polyamine carbamates plays significant roles in modulating DNA binding affinity and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geall, A J; Eaton, M A; Baker, T; Catterall, C; Blagbrough, I S

    1999-10-15

    We have quantified the effects of the regiochemical distribution of positive charges along the polyamine moiety in lipopolyamines for DNA molecular recognition. High affinity binding leads to charge neutralisation, DNA condensation and ultimately to lipofection. Binding affinities for calf thymus DNA were determined using an ethidium bromide displacement assay and condensation was detected by changes in turbidity using light scattering. The in vitro transfection competence of cholesterol polyamine carbamates was measured in CHO cells. In the design of DNA condensing and transfecting agents for non-viral gene therapy, the interrelationship of ammonium ions, not just their number, must be considered.

  4. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  5. Bogoliubov Angle, Particle-Hole Mixture and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, A.

    2010-05-04

    Superconducting excitations - Bogoliubov quasiparticles - are the quantum mechanical mixture of negatively charged electron (-e) and positively charged hole (+e). We propose a new observable for Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) studies that is the manifestation of the particle-hole entanglement of the superconducting quasiparticles. We call this observable a Bogoliubov angle. This angle measures the relative weight of particle and hole amplitude in the superconducting (Bogoliubov) quasiparticle. We show how this quantity can be measured by comparing the ratio of spectral intensities at positive and negative energies.

  6. Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gußmann, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.gussmann@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)

  8. On a possibility of creation of positive space charge cloud in a system with magnetic insulation of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.A.; Dobrovol'skii, A.M.; Dunets, S.P.; Evsyukov, A.N.; Protsenko, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach for creation an effective, low-cost, low-maintenance axially symmetric plasma optical tools for focusing and manipulating high-current beams of negatively charged particles, electrons and negative ions. This approach is based on fundamental plasma optical concept of magnetic insulation of electrons and non-magnetized positive ions providing creation of controlled uncompensated cloud of the space charge. The axially symmetric electrostatic plasma optical lens is well-known and well developed tool where this concept is used successfully. This provides control and focusing high-current positive ion beams in wide range of parameters. Here for the first time we present optimistic experimental results describing the application of an idea of magnetic insulation of electrons for generation of the stable cloud of positive space charge by focusing onto axis the converging stream of heavy ions produced by circular accelerator with closed electron drift. The estimations of a maximal concentration of uncompensated cloud of positive ions are also made

  9. Effect of scanning in the supine and prone positions on dilation of air-charged colon in CTVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jing; Chen Junkun; Zhang Zongjun; Wang Junpeng; Gao Dazhi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of scanning in the supine and prone positions on dilation of air-charged colon in CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC). Methods: Thirty cases underwent CTVC scanning in both the supine and prone positions immediately before colonoscopy, and the dilation of each intestine was graded. The differences of colon dilation in different positions were compared. Results: In supine and prone position, there were 26 (17.3%) and 22 (14.7%) insufficient dilating colon segments, respectively, and only 5 (3.3%) insufficient dilating colon segments in double positions. 15(50.0%) and 13(43.3%) colons dilated insufficiently in supine and prone position, respectively, and decreased to 5 (16.7%) in double positions. The dilation of rectum, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon had significant difference in different positions. Conclusion: When performing CTVC, it is highly necessary to scan in both the supine and prone positions in order to ensure the sufficient dilation of colon. In supine position, the dilation of transverse colon is better, while the dilation of rectum and sigmoid colon in prone position is superior to that in supine position

  10. Development and use of thin film composite based positively charged nanofiltration membranes in separation of aqueous streams and nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, T.K.; Bindal, R.C.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    A new, positively charged, thin film composite (TFC) type nanofiltration membrane has been developed and studied for its use in various aqueous stream separations. The membrane, containing fixed quaternary ammonium moieties, was developed by insitu interfacial polymerization of a functionalized amine (polyethyleneimine) and terephthaloyl chloride on a suitable base membrane. The nature of the charge on the membrane was established by ATR FT IR spectroscopy and was estimated by determination of its ion exchange capacity. The membrane was tested for its performance in single solute feed systems containing salts of various combinations of univalent and bivalent ions (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , CaCl 2 and MgSO 4 ) in test cell as well as in 2512 spiral modules. The membrane gave differential separation profile for these solutes with high rejection for CaCl 2 and low rejection for Na 2 SO 4 due to positive charge on the membrane and the type of charge constituting the salts. The membrane was also used for separation of simulated effluent solution containing uranyl nitrate in combination with ammonium nitrate which is a common effluent generated in nuclear industry. Here also the membrane gave differential separation profile for uranyl nitrate and ammonium nitrate in their mixture by concentrating the former salt and passing the later. This helped separation of these two solutes in the mixture into two different streams. (author)

  11. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  12. Orbital selectivity causing anisotropy and particle-hole asymmetry in the charge density wave gap of 2 H -TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Wijayaratne, K.; Butler, A.; Yang, J.; Malliakas, C. D.; Chung, D. Y.; Louca, D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; van Wezel, J.; Chatterjee, U.

    2017-09-01

    We report an in-depth angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on 2 H -TaS2 , a canonical incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) system. This study demonstrates that just as in related incommensurate CDW systems, 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -NbSe2 , the energy gap (ΔCDW) of 2 H -TaS2 is localized along the K -centered Fermi surface barrels and is particle-hole asymmetric. The persistence of ΔCDW even at temperatures higher than the CDW transition temperature TCDW in 2 H -TaS2 , reflects the similar pseudogap behavior observed previously in 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -NbSe2 . However, in sharp contrast to 2 H -NbSe2 , where ΔCDW is nonzero only in the vicinity of a few "hot spots" on the inner K -centered Fermi surface barrels, ΔCDW in 2 H -TaS2 is nonzero along the entirety of both K -centered Fermi surface barrels. Based on a tight-binding model, we attribute this dichotomy in the momentum dependence and the Fermi surface specificity of ΔCDW between otherwise similar CDW compounds to the different orbital orientations of their electronic states that participate in the CDW pairing. Our results suggest that the orbital selectivity plays a critical role in the description of incommensurate CDW materials.

  13. The screening of charged impurities in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenjing; Li, Lain-Jong

    2010-01-01

    Positively charged impurities were introduced into a bilayer graphene (BLG) transistor by n-doping with dimethylformamide. Subsequent exposure of the BLG device to moisture resulted in a positive shift of the Dirac point and an increase of hole mobility, suggesting that moisture could reduce the scattering strength of the existing charged impurities. In other words, moisture screened off the 'effective density' of charged impurities. At the early stage of moisture screening the scattering of hole carriers is dominated by long-range Coulomb scatter, but an alternative scattering mechanism should also be taken into consideration when the effective density of impurities is further lowered on moisture exposure.

  14. Device for positioning a component directly opposite the holes in a plate and method of setting up such a device at a distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Michel; Saglio, Robert.

    1982-01-01

    The device includes a hooking finger placed in position at a distance, for example by means of a hooking pole on which the remainder of the device is threaded. A remote controlled locking system makes it possible join firmly the two parts, each of which has a hooking component able to become fixed in a hole. These movements of the device after it has been brought into position are also controlled from a distance. Application to the testing of nuclear power station steam generator tubes by eddy current probe [fr

  15. Lithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Yu, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Peterson, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li 1+y Mn 2 0 4 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.

  16. Control of hole localization in magnetic semiconductors by axial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raebiger, Hannes; Bae, Soungmin; Echeverría-Arrondo, Carlos; Ayuela, Andrés

    2018-02-01

    Mn and Fe-doped GaN are widely studied prototype systems for hole-mediated magnetic semiconductors. The nature of the hole states around the Mn and Fe impurities, however, remains under debate. Our self-interaction corrected density-functional calculations show that the charge neutral Mn 0 and positively charged Fe+ impurities have symmetry-broken d5+h ground states, in which the hole is trapped by one of the surrounding N atoms in a small polaron state. We further show that both systems also have a variety of other d5+h configurations, including symmetric, delocalized states, which may be stabilized by axial strain. This finding opens a pathway to promote long-range hole-mediated magnetic interactions by strain engineering and clarifies why highly strained thin-films samples often exhibit anomalous magnetic properties.

  17. Cascading electron and hole transfer dynamics in a CdS/CdTe core-shell sensitized with bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR): slow charge recombination in type II regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Partha; Debnath, Tushar; Chopra, Uday; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2015-02-14

    Ultrafast cascading hole and electron transfer dynamics have been demonstrated in a CdS/CdTe type II core-shell sensitized with Br-PGR using transient absorption spectroscopy and the charge recombination dynamics have been compared with those of CdS/Br-PGR composite materials. Steady state optical absorption studies suggest that Br-PGR forms strong charge transfer (CT) complexes with both the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell. Hole transfer from the photo-excited QD and QD core-shell to Br-PGR was confirmed by both steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Charge separation was also confirmed by detecting electrons in the conduction band of the QD and the cation radical of Br-PGR as measured from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Charge separation in the CdS/Br-PGR composite materials was found to take place in three different pathways, by transferring the photo-excited hole of CdS to Br-PGR, electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to the CdS QD, and direct electron transfer from the HOMO of Br-PGR to the conduction band of the CdS QD. However, in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system hole transfer from the photo-excited CdS to Br-PGR and electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to CdS take place after cascading through the CdTe shell QD. Charge separation also takes place via direct electron transfer from the Br-PGR HOMO to the conduction band of CdS/CdTe. Charge recombination (CR) dynamics between the electron in the conduction band of the CdS QD and the Br-PGR cation radical were determined by monitoring the bleach recovery kinetics. The CR dynamics were found to be much slower in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system than in the CdS/Br-PGR system. The formation of the strong CT complex and the separation of charges cascading through the CdTe shell help to slow down charge recombination in the type II regime.

  18. Effect of positively charged particles on sputtering damage of organic electro-luminescent diodes with Mg:Ag alloy electrodes fabricated by facing target sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Suemori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of the positively charged particles generated during sputtering on the performances of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with Mg:Ag alloy electrodes fabricated by sputtering. The number of positively charged particles increased by several orders of magnitude when the target current was increased from 0.1 A to 2.5 A. When a high target current was used, many positively charged particles with energies higher than the bond energy of single C–C bonds, which are typically found in organic molecules, were generated. In this situation, we observed serious OLED performance degradation. On the other hand, when a low target current was used, OLED performance degradation was not observed when the number of positively charged particles colliding with the organic underlayer increased. We concluded that sputtering damage caused by positively charged particles can be avoided by using a low target current.

  19. Effect of position and momentum constraints on charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajni; Kumar, Suneel

    2012-01-01

    The rich phenomenology of multifragmentation has been widely explored after two decades of its discovery. It has been experimentally shown that in one single heavy ion collision many intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) are produced, where IMFs are defined as fragments with 5 ≤ A ≤ A tot /6. In the earlier literature, the multifragmentation was studied by Jakobsson et al. who measured the charge particle distribution along with their kinetic energy spectra in 16 O/ 36 Ar induced reaction between 25 and 200 MeV/nucleon representing the various phenomena in heavy ion collisions

  20. Colorimetric method for determination of bisphenol A based on aptamer-mediated aggregation of positively charged gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingyue; Li, Ying; Bie, Jiaxin; Guo, Jiajia; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid colorimetric aptasensor for the determination of the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) was developed. It is based on the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that are positively charged due to the modification with cysteamine which is cationic at near-neutral pH values. If aptamers are added to such AuNPs, aggregation occurs due to electrostatic interactions between the negatively-charged aptamers and the positively-charged AuNPs. This results in a color change of the AuNPs from red to blue. If a sample containing BPA is added to the anti-BPA aptamers, the anti-BPA aptamers undergo folding via an induced-fit binding mechanism. This is accompanied by a conformational change, which prevents the aptamer-induced aggregation and color change of AuNPs. The effect was exploited to design a colorimetric assay for BPA. Under optimum conditions, the absorbance ratio of A 527 /A 680 is linearly proportional to the BPA concentration in the range from 35 to 140 ng∙mL −1 , with a detection limit of 0.11 ng∙mL −1 . The method has been successfully applied to the determination of BPA in spiked tap water and gave recoveries between 91 and 106 %. Data were in full accordance with results obtained from HPLC. This assay is selective, easily performed, and in our perception represents a promising alternative to existing methods for rapid quantification of BPA. (author)

  1. Elaboration of Stable and Antibody Functionalized Positively Charged Colloids by Polyelectrolyte Complexation between Chitosan and Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona C. Polexe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe the elaboration of multifunctional positively charged polyelectrolyte complex (PEC nanoparticles, designed to be stable at physiological salt concentration and pH, for effective targeted delivery. These nanoparticles were obtained by charge neutralization between chitosan (CS as polycation and hyaluronic acid (HA as polyanion. We showed that the course of the complexation process and the physico-chemical properties of the resulting colloids were impacted by (i internal parameters such as the Degree of Acetylation (DA, i.e., the molar ration of acetyl glucosamine residues and molar mass of CS, the HA molar mass and (ii external parameters like the charge mixing ratio and the polymer concentrations. As a result, nonstoichiometric colloidal PECs were obtained in water or PBS (pH 7.4 and remained stable over one month. The polymer interactions were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC and TGA and the morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. A model antibody, anti-ovalbumine (OVA immunoglobulin A (IgA was sorbed on the particle surface in water and PBS quantitatively in 4 h. The CS-HA/IgA nanoparticles average size was between 425–665 nm with a positive zeta potential. These results pointed out that CS-HA can be effective carriers for use in targeted drug delivery.

  2. Charge partitioning and anomalous hole doping in Rh-doped Sr2IrO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikara, S.; Fabbris, G.; Terzic, J.; Cao, G.; Khomskii, D.; Haskel, D.

    2017-02-01

    The simultaneous presence of sizable spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations in iridium oxides has led to predictions of novel ground states including Dirac semimetals, Kitaev spin liquids, and superconductivity. Electron and hole doping studies of spin-orbit assisted Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 are being intensively pursued due to extensive parallels with the La2CuO4 parent compound of cuprate superconductors. In particular, the mechanism of charge doping associated with replacement of Ir with Rh ions remains controversial with profound consequences for the interpretation of electronic structure and transport data. Using x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements at the Rh L, K, and Ir L edges we observe anomalous evolution of charge partitioning between Rh and Ir with Rh doping. The partitioning of charge between Rh and Ir sites progresses in a way that holes are initially doped into the J(eff) = 1/2 band at low x only to be removed from it at higher x values. This anomalous hole doping naturally explains the reentrant insulating phase in the phase diagram of Sr2Ir1-x Rh-x O-4 and ought to be considered when searching for superconductivity and other emergent phenomena in iridates doped with 4d elements.

  3. Doubly versus singly positively charged oxygen ions back-scattered from a silicon surface under dynamic O2+ bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzreb, Klaus; Williams, Peter; Loerincik, Jan; Sroubek, Zdenek

    2003-01-01

    Mass-resolved (and emission-charge-state-resolved) low-energy ion back-scattering during dynamic O 2 + bombardment of a silicon surface was applied in a Cameca IMS-3f secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument to determine the bombarding energy dependence of the ratio of back-scattered O 2+ versus O + . While the ratio of O 2+ versus O + drops significantly at reduced bombarding energies, O 2+ back-scattered from silicon was still detectable at an impact energy (in the lab frame) as low as about 1.6 keV per oxygen atom. Assuming neutralization prior to impact, O 2+ ion formation in an asymmetric 16 O→ 28 Si collision is expected to take place via 'collisional double ionization' (i.e. by promotion of two outer O 2p electrons) rather than by the production of an inner-shell (O 2s or O 1s) core hole followed by Auger-type de-excitation during or after ejection. A molecular orbital (MO) correlation diagram calculated for a binary 'head-on' O-Si collision supports this interpretation

  4. The Effect of Charge at the Surface of Silver Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadegan, A.; Ghahramani, Y.; Nabavizadeh, M.; Gholami, A.; Hemmateenejad, I.; Dorostkar, S.; Sharghi, H.

    2014-01-01

    The bactericidal efficiency of various positively and negatively charged silver nanoparticles has been extensively evaluated in literature, but there is no report on efficacy of neutrally charged silver nanoparticles. The goal of this study is to evaluate the role of electrical charge at the surface of silver nanoparticles on antibacterial activity against a panel of microorganisms. Three different silver nanoparticles were synthesized by different methods, providing three different electrical surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative). The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was tested against gram-positive (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and gram-negative (i.e., Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. Well diffusion and micro-dilution tests were used to evaluate the bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles. According to the obtained results, the positively-charged silver nanoparticles showed the highest bactericidal activity against all microorganisms tested. The negatively charged silver nanoparticles had the least and the neutral nanoparticles had intermediate antibacterial activity. The most resistant bacteria were Proteus vulgaris. We found that the surface charge of the silver nanoparticles was a significant factor affecting bactericidal activity on these surfaces. Although the positively charged nanoparticles showed the highest level of effectiveness against the organisms tested, the neutrally charged particles were also potent against most bacterial species.

  5. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  6. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  7. Humic acid adsorption onto cationic cellulose nanofibers for bioinspired removal of copper( ii ) and a positively charged dye

    KAUST Repository

    Sehaqui, H.

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Waste pulp residues are herein exploited for the synthesis of a sorbent for humic acid (HA), which is a major water pollutant. Cellulose pulp was etherified with a quaternary ammonium salt in water thereby introducing positive charges onto the surface of the pulp fibers, and subsequently mechanically disintegrated into high surface area cellulose nanofibers (CNF). CNF with three different charge contents were produced and their adsorption capacity towards HA was investigated with UV-spectrophotometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, and ζ-potential measurements. Substantial coverage of the CNF surface with HA in a wide pH range led to a reversal of the positive ζ-potentials of CNF suspensions. The HA adsorption capacity and the kinetics of HA uptake were found to be promoted by both acidic pH conditions and the surface charge content of CNF. It is suggested that HA adsorption onto CNF depends on electrostatic interactions between the two components, as well as on the conformation of HA. At pH ∼ 6, up to 310 mg g-1 of HA were adsorbed by the functionalized CNF, a substantially higher capacity than that of previously reported HA sorbents in the literature. It is further shown that CNF-HA complexes could be freeze-dried into "soil-mimicking" porous foams having good capacity to capture Cu(ii) ions and positive dyes from contaminated water. Thus, the most abundant natural polymer, i.e., cellulose could effectively bind the most abundant natural organic matter for environmental remediation purpose.

  8. Memory for media: investigation of false memories for negatively and positively charged public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen; Taylor, Kristian; Ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large body of false memory research, little has addressed the potential influence of an event's emotional content on susceptibility to false recollections. The Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis predicts that negative emotion generally facilitates memory but also heightens susceptibility to false memories. Participants were asked whether they could recall 20 "widely publicised" public events (half fictitious) ranging in emotional valence, with or without visual cues. Participants recalled a greater number of true negative events (M=3.31/5) than true positive (M=2.61/5) events. Nearly everyone (95%) came to recall at least one false event (M=2.15 false events recalled). Further, more than twice as many participants recalled any false negative (90%) compared to false positive (41.7%) events. Negative events, in general, were associated with more detailed memories and false negative event memories were more detailed than false positive event memories. Higher dissociation scores were associated with false recollections of negative events, specifically.

  9. Charge Inversion of Phospholipids by Dimetal Complexes for Positive Ion-Mode Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Simon; Gorshkov, Vladimir; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    charges per phosphate group. Three different phosphoinositide phosphates (mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated inositides), a phosphatidic acid, a phosphatidylcholine, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and a phosphatidylglycerol were investigated. The intensities obtained in positive ion-mode of phosphoinositide...... phosphates and phosphatidic acid bound to {LGa2}(5+) were between 2.5- and 116-fold higher than that of the unmodified lipids in the negative ion-mode. Native phosphoinositide ions yielded upon CID in the negative ion-mode predominantly product ions due to losses of H3PO4, PO3(-) and H2O. In comparison, CID...

  10. Strong lensing of a regular black hole with an electrodynamics source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Tuhina; Rahaman, Farook; Molla, Sabiruddin; Bhadra, Jhumpa; Shah, Hasrat Hussain

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we have investigated the gravitational lensing phenomenon in the strong field regime for a regular, charged, static black holes with non-linear electrodynamics source. We have obtained the angle of deflection and compared it to a Schwarzschild black hole and Reissner Nordström black hole with similar properties. We have also done a graphical study of the relativistic image positions and magnifications. We hope that this method may be useful in the detection of non-luminous bodies like this current black hole.

  11. Role of uniform pore structure and high positive charges in the arsenate adsorption performance of Al13-modified montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shou; Feng, Chenghong; Huang, Xiangning; Li, Baohua; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Al 13 modification changes As(V) sorption mechanism of montmorillonites. ► Intercalated ion charges mainly affects As(V) adsorption kinetics. ► Uniform pore structure exhibit more excellent As(V) adsorption performance. - Abstract: Four modified montmorillonite adsorbents with varied Al 13 contents (i.e., Na-Mont, AC-Mont, PAC 20 -Mont, and Al 13 -Mont) were synthesized and characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. The arsenate adsorption performance of the four adsorbents were also investigated to determine the role of intercalated Al 13 , especially its high purity, high positive charge (+7), and special Keggin structure. With increased Al 13 content, the physicochemical properties (e.g., surface area, structural uniformity, basal spacing, and pore volume) and adsorption performance of the modified montmorillonites were significantly but disproportionately improved. The adsorption data well fitted the Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherm model, whereas the kinetic data better correlated with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The arsenate sorption mechanism of the montmorillonites changed from physical to chemisorption after intercalation with Al 13 . Increasing charges of the intercalated ions enhanced the arsenate adsorption kinetics, but had minimal effect on the structural changes of the montmorillonites. The uniform pore structure formed by intercalation with high-purity Al 13 greatly enhanced the pore diffusion and adsorption rate of arsenate, resulting in the high adsorption performance of Al 13 -Mont.

  12. Effect of nuclear shielding in collision of positive charged helium ions with helium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavaminia, Hoda; Ghavaminia, Shirin

    2018-03-01

    Differential in angle and absolute cross sections in energy of the scattered particles are obtained for single charge exchange in ^3He^+-^4He collisions by means of the four body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. The effect of the dynamic electron correlation through the complete perturbation potential and the nuclear-screening influence of the passive electrons on the electron capture process is investigated. The results obtained in the CB1-4B method are compared with the available experimental data. For differential cross sections, the present results are in better agreement with experimental data than other theoretical data at extreme forward scattering angles. The integral cross sections are in excellent agreement with the experiment. Also, total cross sections for single electron capture, has been investigated using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The present calculated results are found to be in an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  14. High Efficiency, Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless Charging of EVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabaan, Rakan [Hyundai American Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), Superior Twp, MI (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop, implement, and demonstrate a wireless power transfer (WPT) system that is capable of the following metrics: Total system efficiencies of more than 85 percent with minimum 20 cm coil-to-coil gap; System output power at least 6.6 kW; but design system up to 19.2 kW for future higher power study; Maximum lateral positioning tolerance achievable while meeting regulatory emission guidelines.

  15. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  16. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caderni, N [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-04-16

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis.

  17. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caderni, N.; Calvani, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  18. Investigation of the electrochemical and electrocatalytic behavior of positively charged gold nanoparticle and L-cysteine film on an Au electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyan; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqing; Li Xuelian

    2007-01-01

    Positively charged gold nanoparticle (positively charged nano-Au), which was prepared, characterized by ξ-potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in combination with L-cysteine to fabricate a modified electrode for electrocatalytic reaction of biomolecules. Compared with electrodes modified by negatively charged gold nanoparticle/L-cysteine, or L-cysteine alone, the electrode modified by the positively charged gold nanoparticle/L-cysteine exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior toward the oxidation of biomolecules such as ascorbic acid, dopamine and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the proposed mechanism for electrocatalytic response of positively charged gold nanoparticle was discussed. The immunosensor showed a specific to ascorbic acid in the range 5.1 x 10 -7 -6.7 x 10 -4 M and a low detection limit of 1.5 x 10 -7 M. The experimental results demonstrate that positively charged gold nanoparticle have more efficient electrocatalytic reaction than negatively charged gold nanoparticle, which opens up new approach for fabricating sensor

  19. The Positively Charged Hyperbranched Polymers with Tunable Fluorescence and the Cell Imaging Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hengchang; Qin, Yanfang; Yang, Zenming; Yang, Manyi; Ma, Yucheng; Yin, Pei; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Tao; Lei, Ziqiang; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-25

    Fluorescence-tunable materials are becoming increasingly attractive for their potential application in optics, electronics, and biomedical technology. Herein, a multi-color molecular pixel system is realized using simple copolymerization method. Bleeding both of complementary colors from blue and yellow fluorescence segments, reproduced a serious multicolor fluorescence materials. Interestingly, the emission colors of the polymers can be fine-tuned in solid state, solution phase, and in hydrogel state. More importantly, the positive fluorescent polymers exhibited cell-membrane permeable ability, and were found to accumulate on the cell nucleus, exhibiting remarkable selectivity to give bright fluorescence. The DNA/RNA selectivity experiments in vitro and in vivo verified that [tris(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine]-[1,8-dibromooctane] (TPPA-DBO) has prominent selectivity to DNA over RNA inside cells.

  20. Photoconversion and dynamic hole recycling process in anion vacancies in neutron-irradiated MgO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monge, M.A.; Gonzalez, R.; Munoz Santiuste, J.E.; Pareja, R.; Chen, Y.; Kotomin, E.A.; Popov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy and theory demonstrate that photon excitation of the positively charged anion vacancies (F + centers) at 5.0 eV in neutron-irradiated MgO crystals releases holes that are subsequently trapped at V-type centers, which are cation vacancies charge compensated by impurities, such as Al 3+ , F - , and OH - ions. The concentration of trapped-hole centers was found to exceed that of available anion vacancies. The disproportionately large amount of holes produced is attributed to a dynamic recycling process, by which the F + center serves to release a hole to the V-type centers and subsequently trap a hole from an Fe 3+ ion. The net effect was the increase of V-type centers mostly at the expense of Fe 3+ ions. It was also shown that concurrently there was a component which distributed holes directly from Fe 3+ to the V-type centers. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  2. Supplementary Material for: Measurements of Positively Charged Ions in Premixed Methane-Oxygen Atmospheric Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Cations and anions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Electric fields can be applied to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of the combustion process. Detailed flame ion chemistry models are needed to understand and predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasmas. In this work, a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane–oxygen argon burner-stabilized atmospheric flames. Lean and stoichiometric flames are considered to assess the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Relative ion concentration profiles are compared with numerical simulations using various temperature profiles, and good qualitative agreement was observed for the stoichiometric flame. However, for the lean flame, numerical simulations misrepresent the spatial distribution of selected ions greatly. Three modifications are suggested to enhance the ion mechanism and improve the agreement between experiments and simulations. The first two modifications comprise the addition of anion detachment reactions to increase anion recombination at low temperatures. The third modification involves restoring a detachment reaction to its original irreversible form. To our knowledge, this work presents the first detailed measurements of cations and flame temperature in canonical methane–oxygen-argon atmospheric flat flames. The positive ion profiles reported here may be useful to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.

  3. Measurements of Positively Charged Ions in Premixed Methane-Oxygen Atmospheric Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-08-22

    Cations and anions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Electric fields can be applied to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of the combustion process. Detailed flame ion chemistry models are needed to understand and predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasmas. In this work, a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane–oxygen argon burner-stabilized atmospheric flames. Lean and stoichiometric flames are considered to assess the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Relative ion concentration profiles are compared with numerical simulations using various temperature profiles, and good qualitative agreement was observed for the stoichiometric flame. However, for the lean flame, numerical simulations misrepresent the spatial distribution of selected ions greatly. Three modifications are suggested to enhance the ion mechanism and improve the agreement between experiments and simulations. The first two modifications comprise the addition of anion detachment reactions to increase anion recombination at low temperatures. The third modification involves restoring a detachment reaction to its original irreversible form. To our knowledge, this work presents the first detailed measurements of cations and flame temperature in canonical methane–oxygen-argon atmospheric flat flames. The positive ion profiles reported here may be useful to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.

  4. Influence of joint direction and position of explosive charge on fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsaoui, Abdellah; Talhi, Korichi

    2009-01-01

    Although researchers have realized varying degrees of success in small-scale physical in situ testing, most will agree that the greatest uncertainty stems from the uncontrollable field variables. Given the diverse nature of field conditions encountered, there exists no reliable and proven method of predicting fragmentation. Due to the lack of adequate field controls, it is unlikely that a universal physical model will ever be developed for all blasting. This paper presents the results of a test conducted at the Hadjar Essoud quarry to investigate the problems associated with the discontinuities in the rock, which are among the factors causing the reduction of the resistance of the rocks to the explosive. Nevertheless, the distance between the joints, their dip and strike, and the position of the detonator play a significant role in the final fragmentation of the rock. In this work, we studied the role of the abovementioned factors on models of limestone rock of 150 X 375 X 450 mm. Accurate measurement of blast, fragmentation is important in mining and quarrying operations, in monitoring blasts, and optimizing their design. We shall use the Kuznetsov-Rammler method to measure fragmentation. It shows great potential as a practical aid to predict and control the quality of the fragmented material in the Hadjar Essoud quarry. (author)

  5. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  6. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  7. Measurement of Production Properties of Positively Charged Kaons in Proton-Carbon Interactions at 31 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogusz, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Cetner, T.; Choi, K.U.; Christakoglou, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Garrido, X.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kim, J.H.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Lagoda, J.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.I.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szaflik, P.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Yi, J.G.; Yoo, I.K.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of positively charged kaons in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c were measured with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. The analysis is based on the full set of data collected in 2007 with a graphite target with a thickness of 4% of a nuclear interaction length. Interaction cross sections and charged pion spectra were already measured using the same set of data. These new measurements in combination with the published ones are required to improve predictions of the neutrino flux for the T2K long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan. In particular, the knowledge of kaon production is crucial for precisely predicting the intrinsic electron neutrino component and the high energy tail of the T2K beam. The results are presented as a function of laboratory momentum in 2 intervals of the laboratory polar angle covering the range from 20 up to 240 mrad. The kaon spectra are compared with predictions of several hadron production models. Using the published...

  8. Approximate energies and thermal properties of a position-dependent mass charged particle under external magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Eshghi; H Mehraban; S M Ikhdair

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Schr(o)dinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse-plus-Coulomb potentials and is under the influence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields.The nonrelativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions.We also study the thermal quantifies of such a system.Further,the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism.We give plots for energy states as a function of various physical parameters.The behavior of the internal energy,specific heat,and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown.

  9. Approximate energies and thermal properties of a position-dependent mass charged particle under external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshghi, M; Mehraban, H; Ikhdair, S M

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Schrödinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse-plus-Coulomb potentials and is under the influence of external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields. The nonrelativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions. We also study the thermal quantities of such a system. Further, the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism. We give plots for energy states as a function of various physical parameters. The behavior of the internal energy, specific heat, and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown. (paper)

  10. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, T.; Debu, P.; Dupré, P.; Liszkay, L.; Mansoulie, B.; Pérez, P.; Rey, J. M.; Ruiz, N.; Sacquin, Y.; Crivelli, P.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·1011 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  11. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y; Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A

    2010-01-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·10 11 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  12. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y [Irfu, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A, E-mail: tomoko.muranaka@cea.f [Institut fuer TelichenPhysik, ETHZ, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5{center_dot}10{sup 11} per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  13. Long-Term Charge/Discharge Cycling Stability of MnO2 Aqueous Supercapacitor under Positive Polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Ataherian, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    The long-term charge/discharge cycling stability of MnO 2 electrode under positive polarization in aqueous KCl electrolyte has been studied over different potential windows spanning from the open circuit potential to varied higher-end potential limited by O 2 evolution. Cycling up to 1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl (aq)) causes partial (35) capacitance fading to a plateau value within the initial cycles, accompanied by morphological reconstruction, reduction of surface Mn ions and oxygen evolution. The surface Mn-ion reduction has been attributed to a two-step oxidation-reduction mechanism involving OH oxidation in electrolyte, based on electrochemical analysis. When cycling potential extends to 1.4 V, extensive oxygen evolution takes place. The combination of surface passivation of current collector and extensive gas bubbling, which deteriorates electrical contact among the constituent particles within the electrode, results in further monotonic capacitance reduction. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  14. σ-holes and π-holes: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2018-04-05

    σ-Holes and π-holes are regions of molecules with electronic densities lower than their surroundings. There are often positive electrostatic potentials associated with them. Through these potentials, the molecule can interact attractively with negative sites, such as lone pairs, π electrons, and anions. Such noncovalent interactions, "σ-hole bonding" and "π-hole bonding," are increasingly recognized as being important in a number of different areas. In this article, we discuss and compare the natures and characteristics of σ-holes and π-holes, and factors that influence the strengths and locations of the resulting electrostatic potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of positively charged short peptides on stability of cubic phases of monoolein/dioleoylphosphatidic acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Shah Md; Li, Shu Jie; Awad, Tarek S; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-06-07

    To elucidate the stability and phase transition of cubic phases of biomembranes with infinite periodic minimal surface is indispensable from biological and physicochemical aspects. In this report, we investigated the effect of positively charged peptide-3K (LLKKK) and poly(L-lysine) on the phase stability of monoolein (MO) membranes containing negatively charged dioleoylphosphatidic acid (DOPA) (i.e., DOPA/MO membranes) using small-angle X-ray scattering. At first, the effect of peptide-3K on 10% DOPA/90% MO membrane in excess water, which is in the Q229 phase, was investigated. At 3.4 mM peptide-3K, a Q229 to Q230 phase transition occurred, and at >3.4 mM peptide-3K, the membrane was in the Q230 phase. Poly(L-lysine) (M(w) 1K-4K) also induced the Q230 phase, but peptide-2K (LLKK) could not induce it in the same membrane. We also investigated the effect of peptide-3K on the multilamellar vesicle (MLV) of 25% DOPA/75% MO membrane, which is in L(alpha) phase. In the absence of peptide, the spacing of MLV was very large (11.3 nm), but at > or = 8 mM peptide-3K, it greatly decreased to a constant value (5.2 nm), irrespective of the peptide concentration, indicating that peptide-3K and the membranes form an electrostatically stabilized aggregation with low water content. Poly(L-lysine) also decreased greatly the spacing of the 25% DOPA/75% MO MLV, indicating the formation of a similar aggregation. To compare the effects of peptide-3K and poly(L-lysine) with that of osmotic stress on stability of the cubic phase, we investigated the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) with molecular weight 7500 (PEG-6K) on the phase stability of 10% DOPA/90% MO membrane. With an increase in PEG-6K concentration, i.e., with an increase in osmotic stress, the most stable phase changed as follows; Q229 (Schwartz's P surface) --> Q224 (D) --> Q230 (G). On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effects of the positively charged short peptides (peptide-3K) and poly

  16. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  17. Quintessence Reissner Nordström Anti de Sitter Black Holes and Joule Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarnejad, H.; Yaraie, E.; Farsam, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we investigate corrections of the quintessence regime of the dark energy on the Joule-Thomson (JT) effect of the Reissner Nordström anti de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole. The quintessence dark energy has equation of state as p q = ω ρ q in which -1black hole mass, we calculate inversion temperature T i of the quintessence RNAdS black hole where its cooling phase is changed to heating phase at a particular (inverse) pressure P i . Position of the inverse point { T i , P i } is determined by crossing the inverse curves with the corresponding Gibbons-Hawking temperature on the T-P plan. We determine position of the inverse point versus different numerical values of the mass M and the charge Q of the quintessence AdS RN black hole. The cooling-heating phase transition (JT effect) is happened for M > Q in which the causal singularity is still covered by the horizon. Our calculations show sensitivity of the inverse point { T i , P i } position on the T-P plan to existence of the quintessence dark energy just for large numerical values of the AdS RN black holes charge Q. In other words the quintessence dark energy dose not affect on position of the inverse point when the AdS RN black hole takes on small charges.

  18. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  19. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  20. Effects of the Distributions of Energy or Charge Transfer Rates on Spectral Hole Burning in Pigment-Protein Complexes at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herascu, N.; Ahmouda, S.; Picorel, R.; Seibert, M.; Jankowiak, R.; Zazubovich, V.

    2011-12-22

    Effects of the distributions of excitation energy transfer (EET) rates (homogeneous line widths) on the nonphotochemical (resonant) spectral hole burning (SHB) processes in photosynthetic chlorophyll-protein complexes (reaction center [RC] and CP43 antenna of Photosystem II from spinach) are considered. It is demonstrated that inclusion of such a distribution results in somewhat more dispersive hole burning kinetics. More importantly, however, inclusion of the EET rate distributions strongly affects the dependence of the hole width on the fractional hole depth. Different types of line width distributions have been explored, including those resulting from Foerster type EET between weakly interacting pigments as well as Gaussian ones, which may be a reasonable approximation for those resulting, for instance, from so-called extended Foerster models. For Gaussian line width distributions, it is possible to determine the parameters of both line width and tunneling parameter distributions from SHB data without a priori knowledge of any of them. Concerning more realistic asymmetric distributions, we demonstrate, using the simple example of CP43 antenna, that one can use SHB modeling to estimate electrostatic couplings between pigments and support or exclude assignment of certain pigment(s) to a particular state.

  1. Simulation study on discrete charge effects of SiNW biosensors according to bound target position using a 3D TCAD simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In-Young; Jang, Hyeri; Lee, Jieun; Moon, Hyunggeun; Seo, Sung Min; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a simulation method for the biosensor environment which treats the semiconductor and the electrolyte region together, using the well-established semiconductor 3D TCAD simulator tool. Using this simulation method, we conduct electrostatic simulations of SiNW biosensors with a more realistic target charge model where the target is described as a charged cube, randomly located across the nanowire surface, and analyze the Coulomb effect on the SiNW FET according to the position and distribution of the target charges. The simulation results show the considerable variation in the SiNW current according to the bound target positions, and also the dependence of conductance modulation on the polarity of target charges. This simulation method and the results can be utilized for analysis of the properties and behavior of the biosensor device, such as the sensing limit or the sensing resolution.

  2. Simulation study on discrete charge effects of SiNW biosensors according to bound target position using a 3D TCAD simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, In-Young; Moon, Hyunggeun; Jang, Hyeri; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Seo, Sung Min

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a simulation method for the biosensor environment which treats the semiconductor and the electrolyte region together, using the well-established semiconductor 3D TCAD simulator tool. Using this simulation method, we conduct electrostatic simulations of SiNW biosensors with a more realistic target charge model where the target is described as a charged cube, randomly located across the nanowire surface, and analyze the Coulomb effect on the SiNW FET according to the position and distribution of the target charges. The simulation results show the considerable variation in the SiNW current according to the bound target positions, and also the dependence of conductance modulation on the polarity of target charges. This simulation method and the results can be utilized for analysis of the properties and behavior of the biosensor device, such as the sensing limit or the sensing resolution. (paper)

  3. Experimental testing of an explosive sink-hole in cement blocks with the use of small charges. [Effects on a flat surface using 0. 65 to 1. 25 g of explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yu.; Jin, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    When a spherical charge is exploded in the presence of one free surface, an explosion sinkhole of a certain depth is formed. The relationship of volume, diameter, and depth of sinkhole to mass of explosive substance is expressed as a square root. However, there are numerous factors that influence the explosion effectiveness. As the explosive mass is increased, deviation from this relationship occurs. It was proven in the USA that with a charge mass of 1-30 t this deviation depends on the type of rock. To determine the optimal figure, experimental blasting was conducted using a 50 x 50 x 30 cm block. Cylindrical charges 8.0 mm in diameter, mass 0.65 g, 0.85 g, 1.05 g and 1.25 g were used. A hole was drilled in the center of the block whose length depended on length of charge X. A series of regression equations were developed. These equations were transformed into a super-complicated linear regression equation. Using FORTRAN a linear regression program was developed with an ACOS-500 computer.

  4. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  5. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  6. Dyonic black hole in heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, D.P.; Mukherji, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study some features of the dyonic black hole solution in heterotic string theory on a six-torus. This solution has 58 parameters. Of these, 28 parameters denote the electric charge of the black hole, another 28 correspond to the magnetic charge, and the other two parameters are the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole. We discuss the extremal limit and show that in various limits it reduces to the known black hole solutions. The solutions saturating the Bogomolnyi bound are identified. An explicit solution is presented for the non-rotating dyonic black hole. (orig.)

  7. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  8. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20-40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  9. Bose-Einstein study of position-momentum correlations of charged pions in hadronic $Z^{0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A., Jr.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, N.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D.E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2007-01-01

    A study of Bose-Einstein correlations in pairs of identically charged pions produced in e+e- annihilations at the Z0 peak has been performed for the first time assuming a non-static emitting source. The results are based on the high statistics data obtained with the OPAL detector at LEP. The correlation functions have been analyzed in intervals of the average pair transverse momentum and of the pair rapidity, in order to study possible correlations between the pion production points and their momenta (position-momentum correlations). The Yano-Koonin and the Bertsch-Pratt parameterizations have been fitted to the measured correlation functions to estimate the geometrical parameters of the source as well as the velocity of the source elements with respect to the overall centre-of-mass frame. The source rapidity is found to scale approximately with the pair rapidity, and both the longitudinal and transverse source dimensions are found to decrease for increasing average pair transverse momenta.

  10. The role of space charge in the performance of the bunching system for the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Smith, R.

    1995-01-01

    The bunching system of the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector consists of a four-frequency harmonic buncher, a beam-tail removing chopper, and a 24.25 MHz spiral resonator sine-wave rebuncher. The system is designed to efficiently create beam pulses of approximately 0.25 nsec FWHM for injection into mid acceleration by the ATLAS superconducting linac. Studies of the effect of space charge on the performance of the system have been undertaken and compared to simulations as part of the design process for a new bunching system to be developed for a second ion source. Results of measurements and modeling studies indicate that the present system suffers significant bunching performance deterioration at beam currents as low as 5 eμA for 238 U 26+ at a velocity of β=0.0085. The low beam current tolerance of the present system is in reasonable agreement with computer simulation. Studies of two alternatives to the present bunching system are discussed and their limitations are explored

  11. More on microstate geometries of 4d black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Morales, J.F.; Pieri, L.; Zinnato, N.

    2017-01-01

    We construct explicit examples of microstate geometries of four-dimensional black holes that lift to smooth horizon-free geometries in five dimensions. Solutions consist of half-BPS D-brane atoms distributed in ℝ 3 . Charges and positions of the D-brane centers are constrained by the bubble equations and boundary conditions ensuring the regularity of the metric and the match with the black hole geometry. In the case of three centers, we find that the moduli spaces of solutions includes disjoint one-dimensional components of (generically) finite volume.

  12. More on microstate geometries of 4d black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. [Università di Roma Tor Vergata and I.N.F.N, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Morales, J.F. [I.N.F.N. - Sezione di Roma 2 and Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pieri, L. [Università di Roma Tor Vergata and I.N.F.N, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Center for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zinnato, N. [Università di Roma Tor Vergata and I.N.F.N, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2017-05-29

    We construct explicit examples of microstate geometries of four-dimensional black holes that lift to smooth horizon-free geometries in five dimensions. Solutions consist of half-BPS D-brane atoms distributed in ℝ{sup 3}. Charges and positions of the D-brane centers are constrained by the bubble equations and boundary conditions ensuring the regularity of the metric and the match with the black hole geometry. In the case of three centers, we find that the moduli spaces of solutions includes disjoint one-dimensional components of (generically) finite volume.

  13. Dissociation of multiply charged ICN by Coulomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eland, J. H. D. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Singh, R.; Hult Roos, A.; Andersson, J.; Squibb, R. J.; Feifel, R. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Pickering, J. D.; Brouard, M. [Department of Chemistry, The Chemistry Research Laboratory, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Slater, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, The Chemistry Research Laboratory, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Zagorodskikh, S. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-08-21

    The fragmentations of iodine cyanide ions created with 2 to 8 positive charges by photoionization from inner shells with binding energies from 59 eV (I 4d) to ca. 900 eV (I 3p) have been examined by multi-electron and multi-ion coincidence spectroscopy with velocity map imaging ion capability. The charge distributions produced by hole formation in each shell are characterised and systematic effects of the number of charges and of initial charge localisation are found.

  14. Moulting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...

  15. Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2008-01-01

    Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmi...

  16. The noise analysis and optimum filtering techniques for a two-dimensional position sensitive orthogonal strip gamma ray detector employing resistive charge division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Muller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of an orthogonal strip, two-dimensional position sensitive high purity germanium gamma ray detector is discussed. Position sensitivity is obtained by connecting each electrode strip on the detector to a resistor network. Charge, entering the network, divides in relation to the resistance between its entry point and the virtual earth points of the charge sensitive preamplifiers located at the end of each resistor network. The difference of the voltage pulses at the output of each preamplifier is proportional to the position at which the charge entered the resistor network and the sum of the pulse is proportional to the energy of the detected gamma ray. The analysis and spatial noise resolution is presented for this type of position sensitive detector. The results of the analysis show that the position resolution is proportional to the square root of the filter amplifier's output pulse time constant and that for energy measurement the resolution is maximized at the filter amplifier's noise corner time constant. The design of the electronic noise filtering system for the prototype gamma ray camera was based on the mathematical energy and spatial resolution equations. For the spatial channel a Gaussian trapezoidal filtering system was developed. Gaussian filtering was used for the energy channel. The detector noise model was verified by taking rms noise measurements of the filtered energy and spatial pulses from resistive readout charge dividing detectors. These measurements were within 10% of theory. (Auth.)

  17. Holographic superconductor in the analytic hairy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Chanyong

    2011-01-01

    We study the charged black hole of hyperbolic horizon with scalar hair (charged Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli: CMTZ black hole) as a model of analytic hairy black hole for holographic superconductor. For this purpose, we investigate the second order phase transition between CMTZ and hyperbolic Reissner-Nordstroem-AdS (HRNAdS) black holes. However, this transition unlikely occurs. As an analytic treatment for holographic superconductor, we develop superconductor in the bulk and superfluidity on the boundary using the CMTZ black hole below the critical temperature. The presence of charge destroys the condensates around the zero temperature, which is in accord with the thermodynamic analysis of the CMTZ black hole.

  18. Stability of Horava-Lifshitz black holes in the context of AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin

    2011-01-01

    The anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence is a powerful tool that promises to provide new insights toward a full understanding of field theories under extreme conditions, including but not limited to quark-gluon plasma, Fermi liquid, and superconductor. In many such applications, one typically models the field theory with asymptotically AdS black holes. These black holes are subjected to stringy effects that might render them unstable. Horava-Lifshitz gravity, in which space and time undergo different transformations, has attracted attention due to its power-counting renormalizability. In terms of AdS/CFT correspondence, Horava-Lifshitz black holes might be useful to model holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling symmetry. It is thus interesting to study the stringy stability of Horava-Lifshitz black holes in the context of AdS/CFT. We find that uncharged topological black holes in λ=1 Horava-Lifshitz theory are nonperturbatively stable, unlike their counterparts in Einstein gravity, with the possible exceptions of negatively curved black holes with detailed balance parameter ε close to unity. Sufficiently charged flat black holes for ε close to unity, and sufficiently charged positively curved black holes with ε close to zero, are also unstable. The implication to the Horava-Lifshitz holographic superconductor is discussed.

  19. Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Aryl Diazonium Modified Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Enhanced Direct Electron Transfer through a Positively Charged Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in the field of biosensors and biofuel cells is to establish a highly efficient electron transfer rate between the active site of redox enzymes and electrodes to fully access the catalytic potential of the biocatalyst and achieve high current densities. We report on very efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete sordida (PsCDH) and surface modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Sonicated SWCNTs were adsorbed on the top of glassy carbon electrodes and modified with aryl diazonium salts generated in situ from p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, thus featuring at acidic pH (3.5 and 4.5) negative or positive surface charges. After adsorption of PsCDH, both electrode types showed excellent long-term stability and very efficient DET. The modified electrode presenting p-aminophenyl groups produced a DET current density of 500 μA cm−2 at 200 mV vs normal hydrogen reference electrode (NHE) in a 5 mM lactose solution buffered at pH 3.5. This is the highest reported DET value so far using a CDH modified electrode and comes close to electrodes using mediated electron transfer. Moreover, the onset of the electrocatalytic current for lactose oxidation started at 70 mV vs NHE, a potential which is 50 mV lower compared to when unmodified SWCNTs were used. This effect potentially reduces the interference by oxidizable matrix components in biosensors and increases the open circuit potential in biofuel cells. The stability of the electrode was greatly increased compared with unmodified but cross-linked SWCNTs electrodes and lost only 15% of the initial current after 50 h of constant potential scanning. PMID:21417322

  20. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Masuda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137, which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20–40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  1. Performance of a position sensitive Si(Li) x-ray detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of stored and trapped highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G; Braeuning, H; Hess, S; Maertin, R; Spillmann, U; Stoehlker, Th

    2010-01-01

    We report on a novel two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of x-ray radiation arising from highly-charged ions. The performance of the detector system was evaluated in ion-atom collision experiments at the ESR storage ringe at GSI, Darmstadt. Based on the data obtained, the polarimeter efficiency is estimated in this work.

  2. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Vulfius, C.A.; Corbacheva, E.V.; Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Utkin, Y.N.; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    α-Conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of α-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into α-conotoxins

  3. Some astrophysical processes around magnetized black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kološ, M.; Tursunov, A.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform external magnetic field. A real magnetic field around a black hole will be far away from to be completely regular and uniform, a uniform magnetic field is used as linear approximation. Ionized particle acceleration, charged particle oscillations and synchrotron radiation of moving charged particle have been studied.

  4. Warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li Wei; Padi, Megha; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l -2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS 3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,R) x U(1)-invariant warped AdS 3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS 3 . We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS 3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS 3 . Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS 3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS 3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c R -formula and c L -formula.

  5. Rotating dilaton black holes with hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    We consider stationary rotating black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, coupled to a dilaton. The black holes possess nontrivial non-Abelian electric and magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon. While generic solutions carry no non-Abelian magnetic charge, but non-Abelian electric charge, the presence of the dilaton field allows also for rotating solutions with no non-Abelian charge at all. As a consequence, these special solutions do not exhibit the generic asymptotic noninteger power falloff of the non-Abelian gauge field functions. The rotating black hole solutions form sequences, characterized by the winding number n and the node number k of their gauge field functions, tending to embedded Abelian black holes. The stationary non-Abelian black hole solutions satisfy a mass formula, similar to the Smarr formula, where the dilaton charge enters instead of the magnetic charge. Introducing a topological charge, we conjecture that black hole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory are uniquely characterized by their mass, their angular momentum, their dilaton charge, their non-Abelian electric charge, and their topological charge

  6. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  7. Positively charged polymers modulate the fate of human mesenchymal stromal cells via ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia De Luca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs interact with the physical properties (e.g. topography, charge, ζ-potential, and contact angle of polymeric surfaces is essential to design new biomaterials capable of regulating stem cell behavior. The present study investigated the ability of two polymers (pHM1 and pHM3 with different positive surface charge densities to modulate the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast-like phenotype via cell-cell ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling. Although pHM1 promoted the phosphorylation of EphB4, leading to cell differentiation, pHM3, characterized by a high positive surface charge density, had no significant effect on EphB4 activation or MSCs differentiation. When the MSCs were cultured on pHM1 in the presence of a forward signaling blocking peptide, the osteoblast differentiation was compromised. Our results demonstrated that the ephrinB2/EphB4 interaction was required for MSCs differentiation into an osteoblast-like phenotype and that the presence of a high positive surface charge density altered this interaction.

  8. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Spin properties of charged Mn-doped quantum dota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besombes, L.; Léger, Y.; Maingault, L.; Mariette, H.

    2007-04-01

    The optical properties of individual quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom and charged with a single carrier are analyzed. The emission of the neutral, negatively and positively charged excitons coupled with a single magnetic atom (Mn) are observed in the same individual quantum dot. The spectrum of the charged excitons in interaction with the Mn atom shows a rich pattern attributed to a strong anisotropy of the hole-Mn exchange interaction slightly perturbed by a small valence-band mixing. The anisotropy in the exchange interaction between a single magnetic atom and a single hole is revealed by comparing the emission of a charged Mn-doped quantum dot in longitudinal and transverse magnetic field.

  10. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  11. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Ted [Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Sotiriou, Thomas P, E-mail: jacobson@umd.ed, E-mail: T.Sotiriou@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  12. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Ted; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  13. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  14. Charge Generation and Propagation in Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann

    2002-01-01

    Various electrical phenomena have been reported prior to or concurrent with earthquakes such as resistivity changes, ground potentials, electromagnetic (EM), and luminous signals. Doubts have been raised as to whether some of these phenomena are real and indeed precursory. One of the reasons for uncertainty is that, despite decades of intense work, there is still no physically coherent model. Using low- to medium-velocity impacts to measure electrical signals with microsecond time resolution, it has now been observed that when dry gabbro and diorite cores are impacted at relatively low velocities, approximately 100 m/s, highly mobile charge carriers are generated in a small volume near the impact point. They spread through the rocks, causing electric potentials exceeding +400 mV, EM, and light emission. As the charge cloud spreads, the rock becomes momentarily conductive. When a dry granite block is impacted at higher velocity, approximately 1.5 km/s, the propagation of the P and S waves is registered through the transient piezoelectric response of quartz. After the sound waves have passed, the surface of the granite block becomes positively charged, suggesting the same charge carriers as observed during the low-velocity impact experiments, expanding from within the bulk. During the next 2-3 ms the surface potential oscillates, indicating pulses of electrons injected from ground and contact electrodes. The observations are consistent with positive holes, e.g., defect electrons in the O(2-) sublattice, traveling via the O 2p-dominated valence band of the silicate minerals. Before activation, the positive holes lay dormant in the form of electrically inactive positive hole pairs (PHP), chemically equivalent to peroxy links, O3X/OO\\XO3, with X=Si(4+), Al(3+), etc. PHPs are introduced into the minerals by way of hydroxyl,O3X-OH, which all nominally anhydrous minerals incorporate when crystallizing in H2O-laden environments. The fact that positive holes can be

  15. Doubly versus Singly Positively Charged Oxygen Ions Back-Scattering from a Silicon Surface under Dynamic O2+ Bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franzreb, K.; Williams, P.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    203-204, 1/4 (2003), s. 39-42 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : low-energy ion scattering * doubly charged ions * molecular orbital Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2003

  16. Thermodynamic stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter rotating black holes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamic stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) rotating black holes in D-dimensions are determined. Local thermodynamic stability requires not only positivity conditions on the specific heat and the moment of inertia tensor but it is also necessary that the adiabatic compressibility be positive. It is shown that, in the absence of a cosmological constant, neither rotation nor charge is sufficient to ensure full local thermodynamic stability of a black hole. Thermodynamic stability properties of AdS Myers–Perry black holes are investigated for both singly spinning and multi-spinning black holes. Simple expressions are obtained for the specific heat and moment of inertia tensor in any dimension. An analytic expression is obtained for the boundary of the region of parameter space in which such space-times are thermodynamically stable. (paper)

  17. General classification of charged test particle circular orbits in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Quevedo, H. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ruffini, R. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    We investigate charged particles' circular motion in the gravitational field of a charged mass distribution described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We introduce a set of independent parameters completely characterizing the different spatial regions in which circular motion is allowed. We provide a most complete classification of circular orbits for different sets of particle and source charge-to-mass ratios. We study both black holes and naked singularities and show that the behavior of charged particles depend drastically on the type of source. Our analysis shows in an alternative manner that the behavior of circular orbits can in principle be used to distinguish between black holes and naked singularities. From this analysis, special limiting values for the dimensionless charge of black hole and naked singularity emerge, namely, Q/M = 1/2, Q/M = √(13)/5 and Q/M = √(2/3) for the black hole case and Q/M = 1, Q/M = 5/(2√(6)), Q/M = 3√(6)/7, and finally Q/M = √(9/8) for the naked singularity case. Similarly and surprisingly, analogous limits emerge for the orbiting particles charge-to-mass ratio ε, for positive charges ε = 1, ε = 2 and ε = M/Q. These limits play an important role in the study of the coupled electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, and the investigation of the role of the charge in the gravitational collapse of compact objects. (orig.)

  18. Black-hole creation in quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Chao, Wu [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics]|[Specola Vaticana, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See)

    1997-11-01

    It is proven that the probability of a black hole created from the de Sitter space-time background, at the Wkb level, is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of the black hole and cosmological horizon areas, or the total entropy of the universe. This is true not only for the spherically symmetric cases of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, but also for the rotating cases of the Kerr black hole and the rotating charged case of the Newman black hole. The de Sitter metric is the most probable evolution at the Planckian era of the universe.

  19. Quantum tunneling from three-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, Asiya; Gohar, H.; Lin, Hai; Saifullah, K.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2013-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation from three-dimensional black holes. For this purpose the emission of charged scalar and charged fermionic particles is investigated from charged BTZ black holes, with and without rotation. We use the quantum tunneling approach incorporating WKB approximation and spacetime symmetries. Another class of black holes which is asymptotic to a Sol three-manifold has also been investigated. This procedure gives us the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, and we compute the temperature of the radiation for these black holes. We also consider the quantum tunneling of particles from black hole asymptotic to Sol geometry

  20. On the deformed Einstein equations and quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dil, E; Ersanli, C C; Kolay, E

    2016-01-01

    Recently q -deformed Einstein equations have been studied for extremal quantum black holes which have been proposed to obey deformed statistics by Strominger. In this study, we give the solutions of deformed Einstein equations by considering these equations for the charged black holes. Also we present the implications of the solutions, such as the deformation parameters lead the charged black holes to have a smaller mass than the classical Reissner- Nordstrom black holes. The reduction in mass of a classical black hole can be viewed as a transition from classical to quantum black hole regime. (paper)

  1. Accumulation and dissipation of positive charges induced on a PMMA build-up cap of an ionisation chamber by 60Co gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y.; Takata, N.

    2013-01-01

    The signal current from an ionisation chamber with a PMMA build-up cap decreases with irradiation time due to electric fields produced by positive charges induced on the cap. In the present study, it was confirmed that the signal current decreases faster for irradiation using narrower 60 Co gamma-ray beams. This is because the number of secondary electrons that are emitted from surrounding materials and penetrate the build-up cap is smaller in a narrower gamma-ray beam, so that fewer positive charges are neutralised. The ionisation chamber was first subjected to continuous gamma-ray irradiation for 24 h, following which it was irradiated with shorter periodic gamma-ray bursts while measuring the current signal. This allowed the coefficients of positive charge accumulation and dissipation to be determined. It was found that the dissipation coefficient has a large constant value during gamma-ray irradiation and decreases asymptotically to a small value after irradiation is stopped. From the coefficients, the minimum signal current was calculated, which is the value when accumulation and dissipation balance each other under continuous irradiation. The time required for the signal current to recover following irradiation was also calculated. (authors)

  2. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  3. STU black holes and string triality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; Kallosh, R.; Rahmfeld, J.; Shmakova, M.; Wong, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    We find double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F=STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2,Z)] 3 symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without a prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric vs T,U moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using a particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals that of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In the democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S, T, and U duality symmetries are nonperturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. STU Black Holes and String Triality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2003-05-23

    We found double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F = STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2, Z)]{sup 3} symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric versus T,U-moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals the area formula of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S and T and U duality symmetries are non-perturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges.

  5. Brane holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r e is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r 0 by the factor (1-V 2 ) -1 . We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r 0 and r e can meet the test brane again at a point outside r e . From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.

  6. Integrative Approach with Electrophysiological and Theoretical Methods Reveals a New Role of S4 Positively Charged Residues in PKD2L1 Channel Voltage-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomohiro; Tsumoto, Kunichika; Yamada, Kazunori; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Hirose, Shinichi; Nomura, Hideki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Yasuo

    2017-08-29

    Numerical model-based simulations provide important insights into ion channel gating when experimental limitations exist. Here, a novel strategy combining numerical simulations with patch clamp experiments was used to investigate the net positive charges in the putative transmembrane segment 4 (S4) of the atypical, positively-shifted voltage-dependence of polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1) channel. Charge-neutralising mutations (K452Q, K455Q and K461Q) in S4 reduced gating charges, positively shifted the Boltzmann-type activation curve [i.e., open probability (P open )-V curve] and altered the time-courses of activation/deactivation of PKD2L1, indicating that this region constitutes part of a voltage sensor. Numerical reconstruction of wild-type (WT) and mutant PKD2L1-mediated currents necessitated, besides their voltage-dependent gating parameters, a scaling factor that describes the voltage-dependence of maximal conductance, G max . Subsequent single-channel conductance (γ) measurements revealed that voltage-dependence of G max in WT can be explained by the inward-rectifying property of γ, which is greatly changed in PKD2L1 mutants. Homology modelling based on PKD2 and Na V Ab structures suggest that such voltage dependence of P open and γ in PKD2L1 could both reflect the charged state of the S4 domain. The present conjunctive experimental and theoretical approaches provide a framework to explore the undetermined mechanism(s) regulating TRP channels that possess non-classical voltage-dependent properties.

  7. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes. (paper)

  8. Multiscalar black holes with contingent primary hair: Mechanics and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignemi, Salvatore; Wiltshire, David L.

    2004-01-01

    We generalize a class of magnetically charged black holes nonminimally coupled to two scalar fields previously found by one of us to the case of multiple scalar fields. The black holes possess a novel type of primary scalar hair, which we call a contingent primary hair: although the solutions possess degrees of freedom which are not completely determined by the other charges of the theory, the charges necessarily vanish in the absence of the magnetic monopole. Only one constraint relates the black hole mass to the magnetic charge and scalar charges of the theory. We obtain a Smarr-type thermodynamic relation, and the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the system. We further explicitly show in the two-scalar-field case that, contrary to the case of many other hairy black holes, the black hole solutions are stable to radial perturbations

  9. The quantum structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2006-01-01

    We give an elementary review of black holes in string theory. We discuss black hole entropy from string microstates and Hawking radiation from these states. We then review the structure of two-charge microstates and explore how 'fractionation' can lead to quantum effects over macroscopic length scales of the order of the horizon radius. (topical review)

  10. Entanglements in Marginal Solutions: A Means of Tuning Pre-Aggregation of Conjugated Polymers with Positive Implications for Charge Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Hanlin

    2015-06-17

    The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.

  11. Entanglements in Marginal Solutions: A Means of Tuning Pre-Aggregation of Conjugated Polymers with Positive Implications for Charge Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Hanlin; Zhao, Kui; Fernandes, Nikhil J.; Boufflet, Pierre; Bannock, James Henry; Yu, Liyang; de Mello, John C; Stingelin, Natalie; Heeney, Martin; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.

  12. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  13. Duality invariance of black hole creation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Pair creation of electrically charged black holes and its dual process, pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, are considered. It is shown that the creation rates are equal provided the boundary conditions for the two processes are dual to one another. This conclusion follows from a careful analysis of boundary terms and boundary conditions for the Maxwell action. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  15. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  16. Is there life inside black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2011-01-01

    Bound inside rotating or charged black holes, there are stable periodic planetary orbits, which neither come out nor terminate at the central singularity. Stable periodic orbits inside black holes exist even for photons. These bound orbits may be defined as orbits of the third kind, following the Chandrasekhar classification of particle orbits in the black hole gravitational field. The existence domain for the third-kind orbits is rather spacious, and thus there is place for life inside supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei. Interiors of the supermassive black holes may be inhabited by civilizations, being invisible from the outside. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts. (paper)

  17. Fermion zero modes and the black-hole hypermultiplet with rigid supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.; Kallosh, R.; Ortin, T.

    1995-01-01

    The gravitini zero modes riding on top of the extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole solution of N=2 supergravity are shown to be normalizable. The gravitini and dilatini zero modes of axion-dilaton extreme black-hole solutions of N=4 supergravity are also given and found to have finite norms. These norms are duality invariant. The finiteness and positivity of the norms in both cases are found to be correlated with the Witten-Israel-Nester construction; however, we have replaced the Witten condition by the pure-spin-3/2 constraint on the gravitini. We compare our calculation of the norms with the calculations which provide the moduli space metric for extreme black holes. The action of the N=2 hypermultiplet with an off-shell central charge describes the solitons of N=2 supergravity. This action, in the Majumdar-Papapetrou multi-black-hole background, is shown to be N=2 rigidly supersymmetric

  18. Pressure and volume in the first law of black hole thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-12-01

    The mass of a black hole is interpreted, in terms of thermodynamic potentials, as being the enthalpy, with the pressure given by the cosmological constant. The volume is then defined as being the Legendre transform of the pressure, and the resulting relation between volume and pressure is explored in the case of positive pressure. A virial expansion is developed and a van der Waals like critical point determined. The first law of black hole thermodynamics includes a PdV term which modifies the maximal efficiency of a Penrose process. It is shown that, in four-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, an extremal charged rotating black hole can have an efficiency of up to 75%, while for an electrically neutral rotating black hole this figure is reduced to 52%, compared to the corresponding values of 50% and 29% respectively when the cosmological constant is zero.

  19. Pressure and volume in the first law of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    The mass of a black hole is interpreted, in terms of thermodynamic potentials, as being the enthalpy, with the pressure given by the cosmological constant. The volume is then defined as being the Legendre transform of the pressure, and the resulting relation between volume and pressure is explored in the case of positive pressure. A virial expansion is developed and a van der Waals like critical point determined. The first law of black hole thermodynamics includes a PdV term which modifies the maximal efficiency of a Penrose process. It is shown that, in four-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, an extremal charged rotating black hole can have an efficiency of up to 75%, while for an electrically neutral rotating black hole this figure is reduced to 52%, compared to the corresponding values of 50% and 29% respectively when the cosmological constant is zero. (paper)

  20. Acceleration of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  1. Bounds on the g/sub K//sub N//sub Σ/ 2 coupling constant from positivity and charge-exchange data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Positivity of the imaginary part of the forward K - n elastic amplitude on the unphysical cut allows the calculation of bounds on the g/sub K//sub N//sub Σ/ 2 coupling constant using the forward differential cross sections of the charge-exchange reaction K - p→K-bar 0 n, the scarce K - n real-part data, and a Stieltjes parametrization of the K - p real-part data. The bounds on the coupling constant are 2.11 2 - n amplitude: (0.35 +- 0.05) +- (0.16 +- 0.04)i GeV/c

  2. Black Holes and the Information Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    In electromagnetism, like charges repel, opposite charges attract. A remarkable feature of the gravitational force is that like masses attract. This gives rise to an instability: the more mass you have, the stronger the attractive force, until an inevitable implosion follows, leading to a "black hole". It is in the black hole where an apparent conflict between Einstein's General Relativity and the laws of Quantum Mechanics becomes manifest. Most physicists now agree that a black hole should be described by a Schrödinger equation, with a Hermitean Hamiltonian, but this requires a modification of general relativity. Both General Relativity and Quantum mechanics are shaking on their foundations.

  3. Superradiantly stable non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jia-Hui [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Zhan-Feng [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    The superradiant stability is investigated for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. We use an algebraic method to demonstrate that all non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are superradiantly stable against a charged massive scalar perturbation. This improves the results obtained before for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. (orig.)

  4. Towards the theory of mini black holes with subplanckian mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter phenomenologically examines the question of the decay (evaporation) and formation of mini black holes. Neutral black holes are considered, having neither electrical charge, nor color and weak charge, so that no long range vector field is present beyond gravitational radius. Topics considered include thermodynamic equilibrium and the formation of light black holes, the formation and decay of light black holes in the big bang, and the difficulties of the theory. It is emphasized that the existence of mini black holes has not yet been proven

  5. Exact solutions of Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, Matias; Ferraro, Rafael; Giribet, Gaston

    2004-01-01

    The exact five-dimensional charged black hole solution in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics is presented. This solution interpolates between the Hoffmann black hole for the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory and other solutions in the Lovelock theory previously studied in the literature. It is shown how the conical singularity of the metric around the origin can be removed by a proper choice of the black hole parameters. The differences existing with the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are discussed. In particular, we show the existence of charged black holes with a unique horizon

  6. Noncommutative Black Holes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Elena Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Based on the latest public results, 13 TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has not indicated any evidence of hitherto tested models of quantum black holes, semiclassical black holes, or string balls. Such models have predicted signatures of particles with high transverse momenta. Noncommutative black holes remain an untested model of TeV-scale gravity that offers the starkly different signature of particles with relatively low transverse momenta. Considerations for a search for charged noncommutative black holes using the ATLAS detector will be discussed.

  7. Do stringy corrections stabilize colored black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    We consider hairy black hole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory, coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet curvature term, and we study their stability under small, spacetime-dependent perturbations. We demonstrate that stringy corrections do not remove the sphaleronic instabilities of colored black holes with the number of unstable modes being equal to the number of nodes of the background gauge function. In the gravitational sector and in the limit of an infinitely large horizon, colored black holes are also found to be unstable. Similar behavior is exhibited by magnetically charged black holes while the bulk of neutral black holes are proved to be stable under small, gauge-dependent perturbations. Finally, electrically charged black holes are found to be characterized only by the existence of a gravitational sector of perturbations. As in the case of neutral black holes, we demonstrate that for the bulk of electrically charged black holes no unstable modes arise in this sector. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. On the Field of a Stationary Charged Spherical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of gravitation related to the field of a spherical charged source imply the existence of an interdependence between gravitation and electricity [5]. The present paper deals with the joint action of gravitation and electricity in the case of a stationary charged spherical source. Let m and " be respectively the mass and the charge of the source, and let k be the gravitational constant. Then the equations of gravitation need specific discussion according as j " j m p k (source strongly charged. In any case the curvature radius of the sphere bounding the matter possesses a strictly positive greatest lower hound, so that the source is necessarily an extended object. Pointwise sources do not exist. In particular, charged black holes do not exist.

  9. Modeling charge transport properties of cyano-substituted PPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Helena M.G.; Ramos, Marta M.D.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, poly (p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and its derivatives have attracted much interest due to their applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One of the issues that determine device performance is the transport of charge carriers along the polymer strands. For that reason, we investigate the influence of cyano substitution on geometry and electronic behaviour of PPV chains using self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that substitution by cyano groups induce distortion in the PPV chains and a charge rearrangement among the polymer atoms. Specifically addressed is the issue concerning estimates of charge (electron and hole) mobility by computer experiments. Significant differences have been found both in the strength of the electric field needed to move positive and negative charge carriers along the polymer chain as well as in charge mobility

  10. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  11. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  12. The infra-red spectrum of the molecular dication (doubly positively charged molecule) D35Cl2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusen, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The ion-beam/laser-beam spectrometer used in this work was designed, built and commissioned for the experimental investigation of doubly charged molecular species [Shiell 1995]. Using this spectrometer the photodissociation spectrum of the X 3 Σ - state of the molecular dication D 35 Cl 2+ was measured in the infrared. It has not yet been possible to assign and fit the observed transitions in the usual way, but comparisons of our spectra with ab-initio generated spectra show good agreement and form the basis for our preliminary assignments. Our preliminary analysis shows a good agreement between the measured spectra and an ab-initio theoretical spectra of the ν = 2-1 band, including the rotational constants and tunneling lifetimes, calculated from the potential energy of Bennett and McNab [1995]. The theoretical spectrum was brought into agreement with the measured spectra by moving its band origin by -21.1 cm -1 . The theoretical rotational constants that give good agreement with the spectrum are (in cm -1 ) B'' = 3.898, D'' = 3.561, H'' = 1.04 x 10 -9 , B' = 3.648, D' = 3.163 x 10 -4 , H' = -9.269 x 10 -8 . The shifted origin of the ν = 2-1 band is 994.3 cm -1 . A Fortran computer program was written to simulate 3Σ-3Σ vibration-rotation spectra. The theoretical spectrum obtained with this computer program has been compared with our measured spectrum. Our experimentally measured line widths and wavenumbers have been compared with the ab-initio theoretical spectrum and a good agreement obtained. This is good evidence that we are observing the ν=2-1 band of D 35 CI 2+ in the ground electronic state (X 3 Σ - state). Good agreement between measured and predicted hyperfine patterns was found using a Fermi contact constant (for the chlorine nucleus) of 190 MHz. (author)

  13. Magnetized black holes and nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed. We study the phenomenon of vacuum birefringence, the causality and unitarity in this model. There is no singularity of the electric field in the center of pointlike charges and the total electrostatic energy is finite. We obtain corrections to the Coulomb law at r →∞. The weak, dominant and strong energy conditions are investigated. Magnetized charged black hole is considered and we evaluate the mass, metric function and their asymptotic at r →∞ and r → 0. The magnetic mass of the black hole is calculated. The thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of regular black holes are discussed. We calculate the Hawking temperature of black holes and show that there are first-order and second-order phase transitions. The parameters of the model when the black hole is stable are found.

  14. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  15. The effect of desulfation of chondroitin sulfate on interactions with positively charged growth factors and upregulation of cartilaginous markers in encapsulated MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeremy J; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2013-07-01

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are known to interact electrostatically with positively charged growth factors to modulate signaling. Therefore, regulating the degree of sulfation of GAGs may be a promising approach to tailor biomaterial carriers for controlled growth factor delivery and release. For this study, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was first desulfated to form chondroitin, and resulting crosslinked CS and chondroitin hydrogels were examined in vitro for release of positively charged model protein (histone) and for their effect on cartilaginous differentiation of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Desulfation significantly increased the release of histone from chondroitin hydrogels (30.6 ± 2.3 μg released over 8 days, compared to natively sulfated CS with 20.2 ± 0.8 μg), suggesting that sulfation alone plays a significant role in modulating protein interactions with GAG hydrogels. MSCs in chondroitin hydrogels significantly upregulated gene expression of collagen II and aggrecan by day 21 in chondrogenic medium (115 ± 100 and 23.1 ± 7.9 fold upregulation of collagen II and aggrecan, respectively), compared to CS hydrogels and PEG-based swelling controls, indicating that desulfation may actually enhance the response of MSCs to soluble chondrogenic cues, such as TGF-β1. Thus, desulfated chondroitin materials present a promising biomaterial tool to further investigate electrostatic GAG/growth factor interactions, especially for repair of cartilaginous tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scaling symmetry and scalar hairy Lifshitz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seungjoon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jaehoon [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Park, Sang-A; Yi, Sang-Heon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    By utilizing the scaling symmetry of the reduced action for planar black holes, we obtain the corresponding conserved charge. We use the conserved charge to find the generalized Smarr relation of static hairy planar black holes in various dimensions. Our results not only reproduce the relation in the various known cases but also give the new relation in the Lifshitz planar black holes with the scalar hair.

  17. Hole emission from Ge/Si quantum dots studied by time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapteyn, C.M.A.; Lion, M.; Heitz, R.; Bimberg, D. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Miesner, C.; Asperger, T.; Brunner, K.; Abstreiter, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik

    2001-03-01

    Emission of holes from self-organized Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in Si Schottky diodes is studied by time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS signal is rather broad and depends strongly on the filling and detection bias conditions. The observed dependence is interpreted in terms of carrier emission from many-hole states of the QDs. The activation energies obtained from the DLTS measurements are a function of the amount of stored charge and the position of the Fermi level in the QDs. (orig.)

  18. Empty black holes, firewalls, and the origin of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel solution for the endpoint of gravitational collapse, in which spacetime ends (and is orbifolded) at a microscopic distance from black hole event horizons. This model is motivated by the emergence of singular event horizons in the gravitational aether theory, a semiclassical solution to the cosmological constant problem(s) and thus suggests a catastrophic breakdown of general relativity close to black hole event horizons. A similar picture emerges in fuzzball models of black holes in string theory, as well as the recent firewall proposal to resolve the information paradox. We then demonstrate that positing a surface fluid in thermal equilibrium with Hawking radiation, with vanishing energy density (but nonvanishing pressure) at the new boundary of spacetime, which is required by Israel junction conditions, yields a thermodynamic entropy that is identical to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law, SBH, for charged rotating black holes. To our knowledge, this is the first derivation of black hole entropy that only employs local thermodynamics. Furthermore, a model for the microscopic degrees of freedom of the surface fluid (which constitute the microstates of the black hole) is suggested, which has a finite, but Lorentz-violating, quantum field theory. Finally, we comment on the effects of physical boundary on Hawking radiation and show that relaxing the assumption of equilibrium with Hawking radiation sets SBH as an upper limit for Black Hole entropy.

  19. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  20. Stability of black holes in de Sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, F.; Moss, I.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of black-hole perturbations is extended to charged black holes in de Sitter space. These spacetimes have wormholes connecting different asymptotic regions. It appears that, at least in some cases, these holes are stable even at the Cauchy horizon. It follows that they violate cosmic censorship and an observer could in principle travel through the black hole to another universe. The stability of these spacetimes also implies the existence of a cosmological ''no hair'' theorem

  1. Solution of Deformed Einstein Equations and Quantum Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dil, Emre; Kolay, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    Recently, one- and two-parameter deformed Einstein equations have been studied for extremal quantum black holes which have been proposed to obey deformed statistics by Strominger. In this study, we give a deeper insight into the deformed Einstein equations and consider the solutions of these equations for the extremal quantum black holes. We then represent the implications of the solutions, such that the deformation parameters lead the charged black holes to have a smaller mass than the usual Reissner-Nordström black holes. This reduction in mass of a usual black hole can be considered as a transition from classical to quantum black hole regime.

  2. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  3. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)

  4. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.

  5. Atomic structure in black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2006-01-01

    We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)

  6. Novel use of positively charged nylon transfer membranes for trapping indoleacetic acid or other small anions during efflux from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Positively charged nylon blotting membranes were used as an anion binding medium to trap [14C]indoleactic acid (IAA) as it exited cells at the basal ends of Coleus blumei L. stem and Zea mays L. coleoptile segments. Autoradiography was used to visualize where the [14C] that moved out of the cut ends was localized on the nylon membrane. Diffusion of [14C]IAA from the initial point of contact with the nylon membrane was minimal. Comparison of the autoradiograms with anatomical tissue prints of the cut ends of the segments was used to determine what tissues participate in IAA movement. The results of these initial studies were consistent with other reports suggesting that [14C]IAA movement was primarily associated with vascular tissues in both C. blumei stems and corn coleoptiles, but the resolution was not sufficient to identify which vascular tissues were involved in IAA transport. With further refinements, this technique could also be used for studying the movement of other small charged molecules through plant tissues.

  7. Interaction of cationic porphyrins with DNA: Importance of the number and position of the charges and minimum structural requirements for intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, M.A.; Battioni, J.P.; Dupre, D.; Mansuy, D.; Le Pecq, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three porphyrins or metalloporphyrins corresponding to the general formula [meso-[N-methyl-4(or 3 or 2)-pyridiniumyl] n (aryl) 4-n porphyrin]M (M = H 2 , Cu II , or ClFe III ), with n = 2-4, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These porphyrins differ not only in the number (2-4) and position of their cationic charges but also in the steric requirements to reach even temporarily a completely planar geometry. Interaction of these porphyrins or metalloporphyrins with calf thymus DNA has been studied and their apparent affinity binding constants have been determined by use of a competition method with ethidium bromide which was applicable not only for all the free base porphyrins but also for their copper (II) or iron (III) complexes. Whatever their mode of binding may be, their apparent affinity binding constants were relatively high and a linear decrease of log K app with the number of porphyrin charges was observed. Studies of porphyrin-DNA interactions by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosimetry, and fluorescence energy transfer experiments showed that not only the tetracationic meso-tetrakis[N-methyl-4(or 3)-pyridiniumyl]porphyrins, which both involved four freely rotating meso-aryl groups, but also the corresponding tri- and dicationic porphyrins were able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA. These results show that only half of the porphyrin ring is necessary for intercalation to occur

  8. Analysis of thermal detrapping of holes created by electron irradiation in high purity amorphous SiO_2 using the induced and secondary current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, K.; Moya, G.; Si Ahmed, A.; Damamme, G.; Kallel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Positive charging of high purity amorphous SiO_2 achieved by electron irradiation in a specially equipped scanning electron microscope. • Quantity of detrapped holes evaluated via measurements of induced and secondary electron currents. • Study of isothermal detrapping for different temperatures (300–663 K). • Analysis of the hole detrapping via a first order kinetics. • Evaluation of the hole detrapping parameters (activation energy and frequency factor). - Abstract: Isothermal detrapping of holes after electron irradiation (using a SEM) in high purity amorphous SiO_2 is evaluated at different temperatures (in the range 300–663 K) by means of the induced and secondary current measurements. In order to single out the hole detrapping, the specific charging conditions (1 keV defocused electron beam of low density) leading to positive charging are adopted. The thermal detrapping, which stems from a single trap, begins at 523 K and is completed at 663 K. After annealing in air at 973 K during 48 h, two detrapping stages are revealed: the former is connected with an additional shallow trap, while the latter requires temperatures above 663 K for a complete detrapping. The first order kinetics describes reasonably well the detrapping process. The frequency factors (near 10"1"0 s"−"1) and the activation energies (about 1.6 eV) deduced from this analysis could be assigned, respectively, to the relaxation connected to detrapping and to the trap energy level of the charged oxygen vacancy.

  9. Impact of the interaction with the positive charge in adsorption of benzene and other organic compounds from aqueous solutions on carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzyk, Artur P.; Ćwiertnia, Magdalena S.; Wiśniewski, Marek; Gauden, Piotr A.; Rychlicki, Gerhard; Szymański, Grzegorz S.

    2007-02-01

    We present the results of benzene adsorption at the acidic pH level determined on the series of chemically modified activated carbons and at three temperatures. The influence of carbon surface chemical composition on benzene adsorption is discussed. It is shown that the decrease in the pH level from 7 up to 1.5 increases benzene adsorption and the only exception is carbon modified with gaseous ammonia. Basing on the results of current work and those published previously (for phenol, paracetamol, acetanilide and aniline) and using the results of quantum chemistry calculations (DFT, Gaussian 98) we show, that the value of the energy of interaction with unit positive charge is crucial during the analysis of the influence of pH level on adsorption. Obtained results allow to predict the changes in adsorption of aromatics on carbons with the decrease in the pH level.

  10. Modulational instability of ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén waves in a plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of finite amplitude ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén (SDA) waves, and their modulational instability in a magnetized plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids have been theoretically investigated by using the reductive perturbation method. The derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived to examine the stability analysis of such SDA waves. It is found that the SDA waves propagating in such an opposite polarity dust plasma medium are modulationally unstable, and that the instability criterion and the growth rate of these unstable SDA waves in such a novel opposite polarity dust plasma medium are found to be significantly different from those in electron–ion or electron–positron plasma media. The implications of the present investigation in different space environments and laboratory devices are briefly discussed.

  11. Nonrotating and slowly rotating holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.A.; Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Suen, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The 3+1 formalism is applied to model Schwarzschild spacetime around a black hole. Particular note is taken of the 3+1 split of the laws of electrodynamics, and of the tendency of the approach to freeze motion at the event horizon. The null horizon is replaced with a timelike physical membrane which exhibits mechanical, thermodynamic and electrical properties, and which stretches the horizon. The usefulness of the stretching approach is illustrated by considering a black hole penetrated by vibrating magnetic field lines anchored in a perfectly conducting surrounding sphere. The necessity of modeling the field structure near the actual horizon is avoided by having the field end at the membrane. The surface charge, current, resistivity and ohmic heating of the stretched horizon are also considered, and the Lorentz force imparted to the stretched horizon surface by the field lines is investigated by examining a nearly Schwarzschild hole behaving as the rotor of an electric motor

  12. Can one increase the luminosity of a Schwarzschild black hole?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, Avraham E.

    2000-01-01

    We illustrate how Hawking's radiance from a Schwarzschild black hole is modified by the electrostatic self-interaction of the emitted charged particles. A W.K.B approximation shows that the probability for a self-interacting charged particle to propagate from the interior to the exterior of the horizon is increased relative to the corresponding probability for neutral particles. We also demonstrate how the electric potential of a charged test object in the black hole's vicinity gives rise to ...

  13. MHSP with position detection capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natal da Luz, H. [Physics Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A. [Physics Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: jveloso@fis.ua.pt; Mendes, N.F.C. [Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Mir, J.A. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-01

    The first implementation of a position sensitive readout for a Micro Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is described and tested. The readout consists on a resistive layer crossing the anodes and connected to a preamplifier on each side. By weighing the charge pulses on both preamplifiers it is possible to determine the interaction point. A 100-200 {omega} resistance layer between consecutive strips was found to be the best compromise between position linearity and energy resolution. Preliminary results using 22.1 keV X-rays present a good linearity between the measured and the actual position with a mean deviation of about 0.15 mm and a position resolution of 1.6 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), being limited by the analogue division electronic circuit. The performance of the MHSP position detector will be presented and discussed for 1D readout.

  14. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E

    2015-08-08

    The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the

  15. The effect of ketone defects on the charge transport and charge recombination in polyfluorenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, M.; Wetzelaer, G.-J.A.H.; Laddé, J.G.; Nicolai, H.T.; Wildeman, J.; Sweelssen, J.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of on-chain ketone defects on the charge transport of the polyfluorene derivative poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is investigated. Using MoO3 as ohmic hole contact, the hole transport in a pristine PFO diode is observed to be limited by space-charge, whereas fluorenone contaminated PFO

  16. The Effect of Ketone Defects on the Charge Transport and Charge Recombination in Polyfluorenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Ladde, Jurre G.; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Blom, Paul W. M.; Sweelssen, Jörgen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of on-chain ketone defects on the charge transport of the polyfluorene derivative poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is investigated. Using MoO3 as ohmic hole contact, the hole transport in a pristine PFO diode is observed to be limited by space-charge, whereas fluorenone contaminated PFO

  17. Symmetries of supergravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, David D K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate Killing tensors for various black hole solutions of supergravity theories. Rotating black holes of an ungauged theory, toroidally compactified heterotic supergravity, with NUT parameters and two U(1) gauge fields are constructed. If both charges are set equal, then the solutions simplify, and then there are concise expressions for rank-2 conformal Killing-Staeckel tensors. These are induced by rank-2 Killing-Staeckel tensors of a conformally related metric that possesses a separability structure. We directly verify the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on this conformally related metric and of the null Hamilton-Jacobi and massless Klein-Gordon equations on the 'physical' metric. Similar results are found for more general solutions; we mainly focus on those with certain charge combinations equal in gauged supergravity but also consider some other solutions.

  18. Thermodynamic theory of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The thermodynamic theory underlying black hole processes is developed in detail and applied to model systems. It is found that Kerr-Newman black holes undergo a phase transition at a = 0.68M or Q = 0.86M, where the heat capacity has an infinite discontinuity. Above the transition values the specific heat is positive, permitting isothermal equilibrium with a surrounding heat bath. Simple processes and stability criteria for various black hole situations are investigated. The limits for entropically favoured black hole formation are found. The Nernst conditions for the third law of thermodynamics are not satisfied fully for black holes. There is no obvious thermodynamic reason why a black hole may not be cooled down below absolute zero and converted into a naked singularity. Quantum energy-momentum tensor calculations for uncharged black holes are extended to the Reissner-Nordstrom case, and found to be fully consistent with the thermodynamic picture for Q < M. For Q < M the model predicts that 'naked' collapse also produces radiation, with such intensity that the collapsing matter is entirely evaporated away before a naked singularity can form.

  19. Greybody factors for d-dimensional black holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Natário, José; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational greybody factors are analytically computed for static, spherically symmetric black holes in d-dimensions, including black holes with charge and in the presence of a cosmological constant (where a proper definition of greybody factors for both asymptotically de Sitter and anti...... of the details of the black hole. For asymptotically de Sitter black holes the greybody factor is different for even or odd spacetime dimension, and proportional to the ratio of the areas of the event and cosmological horizons. For asymptotically Ads black holes the greybody factor has a rich structure in which...... universality is hidden in the transmission and reflection coefficients. For either charged or asymptotically de Sitter black holes the greybody factors are given by non-trivial functions, while for asymptotically Ads black holes the greybody factor precisely equals one (corresponding to pure blackbody emission)....

  20. The Thermodynamic Relationship between the RN-AdS Black Holes and the RN Black Hole in Canonical Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bo Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by analyzing the thermodynamic properties of charged AdS black hole and asymptotically flat space-time charged black hole in the vicinity of the critical point, we establish the correspondence between the thermodynamic parameters of asymptotically flat space-time and nonasymptotically flat space-time, based on the equality of black hole horizon area in the two different types of space-time. The relationship between the cavity radius (which is introduced in the study of asymptotically flat space-time charged black holes and the cosmological constant (which is introduced in the study of nonasymptotically flat space-time is determined. The establishment of the correspondence between the thermodynamics parameters in two different types of space-time is beneficial to the mutual promotion of different time-space black hole research, which is helpful to understand the thermodynamics and quantum properties of black hole in space-time.

  1. Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  2. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Polchinski, J.

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and (ii) the mass does not change abruptly during the transition. This provides a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy. This approach does not yield the numerical coefficient, but gives the correct dependence on mass and charge in a wide range of cases, including neutral black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Reversible evolution of charged ergoregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkotas, K.; Spyrou, N.

    1987-07-01

    The reversible evolution of a charged rotating ergoregion, due to the injection into it of particles with mass-energy and angular momentum, is studied systematically. As in the uncharged case, a bulge always forms on the outer boundary of the ergoregion due to the latter's angular momentum. The behavior of the bulge's position, relative to the black hole's rotation axis and equatorial plane, is studied, on the basis of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, during the ergoregion's reversible evolution. The range of the permitted values of the ergoregion's linear dimensions along the rotation axis and perpendicular to it is specified. Finally the differences with the evolution of an uncharged ergoregion are pointed out and discussed.

  4. Label-Free Platform for MicroRNA Detection Based on the Fluorescence Quenching of Positively Charged Gold Nanoparticles to Silver Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangmin; Cheng, Zhiyuan; Ma, Haiyan; Li, Zongbing; Xue, Ning; Wang, Po

    2018-01-16

    A novel strategy was developed for microRNA-155 (miRNA-155) detection based on the fluorescence quenching of positively charged gold nanoparticles [(+)AuNPs] to Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs). In the designed system, DNA-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) were introduced as fluorescent probes, and DNA-RNA heteroduplexes were formed upon the addition of target miRNA-155. Meanwhile, the (+)AuNPs could be electrostatically adsorbed on the negatively charged single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or DNA-RNA heteroduplexes to quench the fluorescence signal. In the presence of duplex-specific nuclease (DSN), DNA-RNA heteroduplexes became a substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA strand to yield a fluorescence signal due to the diffusion of AgNCs away from (+)AuNPs. Under the optimal conditions, (+)AuNPs displayed very high quenching efficiency to AgNCs, which paved the way for ultrasensitive detection with a low detection limit of 33.4 fM. In particular, the present strategy demonstrated excellent specificity and selectivity toward the detection of target miRNA against control miRNAs, including mutated miRNA-155, miRNA-21, miRNA-141, let-7a, and miRNA-182. Moreover, the practical application value of the system was confirmed by the evaluation of the expression levels of miRNA-155 in clinical serum samples with satisfactory results, suggesting that the proposed sensing platform is promising for applications in disease diagnosis as well as the fundamental research of biochemistry.

  5. The electron trap parameter extraction-based investigation of the relationship between charge trapping and activation energy in IGZO TFTs under positive bias temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jihyun; Choi, Sungju; Kang, Hara; Kim, Jae-Young; Ko, Daehyun; Ahn, Geumho; Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sung-Jin; Myong Kim, Dong; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Experimental extraction of the electron trap parameters which are associated with charge trapping into gate insulators under the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors. This was done by combining the PBTS/recovery time-evolution of the experimentally decomposed threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) and the technology computer-aided design (TCAD)-based charge trapping simulation. The extracted parameters were the trap density (NOT) = 2.6 × 1018 cm-3, the trap energy level (ΔET) = 0.6 eV, and the capture cross section (σ0) = 3 × 10-19 cm2. Furthermore, based on the established TCAD framework, the relationship between the electron trap parameters and the activation energy (Ea) is comprehensively investigated. It is found that Ea increases with an increase in σ0, whereas Ea is independent of NOT. In addition, as ΔET increases, Ea decreases in the electron trapping-dominant regime (low ΔET) and increases again in the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission/hopping-dominant regime (high ΔET). Moreover, our results suggest that the cross-over ΔET point originates from the complicated temperature-dependent competition between the capture rate and the emission rate. The PBTS bias dependence of the relationship between Ea and ΔET suggests that the electric field dependence of the PF emission-based electron hopping is stronger than that of the thermionic field emission-based electron trapping.

  6. Black hole thermodynamics with conical defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appels, Michael [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kubiznák, David [Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-05-22

    Recently we have shown https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.131303 how to formulate a thermodynamic first law for a single (charged) accelerated black hole in AdS space by fixing the conical deficit angles present in the spacetime. Here we show how to generalise this result, formulating thermodynamics for black holes with varying conical deficits. We derive a new potential for the varying tension defects: the thermodynamic length, both for accelerating and static black holes. We discuss possible physical processes in which the tension of a string ending on a black hole might vary, and also map out the thermodynamic phase space of accelerating black holes and explore their critical phenomena.

  7. Quantum capacity of quantum black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil

    2014-03-01

    The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.

  8. Black hole dynamics at large D

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the classical dynamics of black holes can be reformulated as a dynamical problem of a codimension one membrane moving in flat space. This membrane - roughly the black hole event horizon - carries a conserved charge current and stress tensor which source radiation. This `membrane paradigm' may be viewed as a simplification of the equations of general relativity at large D, and suggests the possibility of using 1/D as a useful expansion parameter in the analysis of complicated four dimensional solutions of general relativity, for instance the collision between two black holes.

  9. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  10. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  11. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  12. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  13. Quantum corrections to thermodynamics of quasitopological black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaker Upadhyay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the modification to area-law due to thermal fluctuation at small horizon radius, we investigate the thermodynamics of charged quasitopological and charged rotating quasitopological black holes. In particular, we derive the leading-order corrections to the Gibbs free energy, charge and total mass densities. In order to analyze the behavior of the thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of small black holes, we draw a comparative analysis between the first-order corrected and original thermodynamical quantities. We also examine the stability and bound points of such black holes under effect of leading-order corrections.

  14. Black holes, magnetic fields and particle creation. [Quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, G W [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1976-10-01

    Wald has given a classical argument suggesting that a rotating black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field B will acquire a charge Q = 2JB where J is the angular momentum of the hole. The note contains a quantum field theoretic treatment of this process. For fields B greater than B/sub 0/ = 4 x 10/sup 13/ G the black hole will rapidly emit charged particles to achieve the equilibrium value. If B is less than the critical value the charge will remain zero.

  15. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  16. Physical effects in gravitational field of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    A large number of problems related to peculiarities of physical processes in a strong gravitational field of black holes has been considered. Energy shift and the complete structure of physical fields for charged sources near a black hole have been investigated. Density matrix and generating functional for quantum effects in stationary black holes have been calculated. Contributions of massless and massive fields to vacuum polarization in black holes have been investigated and influence of quantum effects on the global structure of a black hole has been discussed

  17. Quantum black holes: the event horizon as a fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Modeling the event horizon of a black hole by a fuzzy sphere leads us to modify some suggestions in the literature concerning black hole mass spectra. We derive a formula for the mass spectrum of quantum black holes in terms of four integers which define the area, angular momentum, electric and magnetic charge of the black hole. Although the event horizon becomes a commutative sphere in the classical limit a vestige of the quantum theory still persists in that the event horizon stereographically projects onto the non-commutative plane. We also suggest how the classical bounds on extremal black holes might be modified in the quantum theory. (author)

  18. Cosmic censorship conjecture in Kerr-Sen black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2017-06-01

    The validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the Kerr-Sen black hole, which is a solution to the low-energy effective field theory for four-dimensional heterotic string theory, is investigated using charged particle absorption. When the black hole absorbs the particle, the charge on it changes owing to the conserved quantities of the particle. Changes in the black hole are constrained to the equation for the motion of the particle and are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. Particle absorption increases the mass of the Kerr-Sen black hole to more than that of the absorbed charges such as angular momentum and electric charge; hence, the black hole cannot be overcharged. In the near-extremal black hole, we observe a violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the angular momentum in the first order of expansion and the electric charge in the second order. However, considering an adiabatic process carrying the conserved quantities as those of the black hole, we prove the stability of the black hole horizon. Thus, we resolve the violation. This is consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

  19. Cosmological monopoles and non-Abelian black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    We discuss magnetic monopole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with a positive cosmological constant. These configurations approach asymptotically the de Sitter spacetime background and exist only for a nonzero Higgs potential. We find that the total mass of the solutions within the cosmological horizon is finite. However, their mass evaluated by using the surface counterterm method outside the cosmological horizon at early/late time infinity generically diverges. Magnetic monopole solutions with finite mass and non-integer charge exist however in a truncation of the theory with a vanishing Higgs field. Both solutions with a regular origin and cosmological black holes are studied, special attention being paid to the computation of the global charges

  20. Peripheral Hole Acceptor Moieties on an Organic Dye Improve Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yan; Gabrielsson, Erik; Lohse, Peter William; Yang, Wenxing; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of charge transfer dynamics in dye‐sensitized solar cells is of fundamental interest and the control of these dynamics is a key factor for developing more efficient solar cell devices. One possibility for attenuating losses through recombination between injected electrons and oxidized dye molecules is to move the positive charge further away from the metal oxide surface. For this purpose, a metal‐free dye named E6 is developed, in which the chromophore core is tethered to two external triphenylamine (TPA) units. After photoinduced electron injection into TiO2, the remaining hole is rapidly transferred to a peripheral TPA unit. Electron–hole recombination is slowed down by 30% compared to a reference dye without peripheral TPA units. Furthermore, it is found that the added TPA moieties improve the electron blocking effect of the dye, retarding recombination of electrons from TiO2 to the cobalt‐based electrolyte. PMID:27722076