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Sample records for positively biased appraisals

  1. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Self-focused attention affects subsequent processing of positive (but not negative) performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Valentiner, David P

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models highlight the conjoint roles of self-focused attention (SFA), post-event processing (PEP), and performance appraisals in the maintenance of social anxiety. SFA, PEP, and biased performance appraisals are related to social anxiety; however, limited research has examined how SFA affects information-processing following social events. The current study examined whether SFA affects the relationships between performance appraisals and PEP following a social event.. 137 participants with high (n = 72) or low (n = 65) social anxiety were randomly assigned to conditions of high SFA or low SFA while engaging in a standardized social performance. Subsequent performance appraisals and PEP were measured. Immediate performance appraisals were not affected by SFA. High levels of SFA led to a stronger, inverse relationship between immediate positive performance appraisals and subsequent negative PEP. High levels of SFA also led to a stronger, inverse relationship between negative PEP and changes in positive performance appraisals.. Future research should examine whether the current findings, which involved a standardized social performance event, extend to interaction events as well as in a clinical sample. These findings suggest that SFA affects the processing of positive information following a social performance event. SFA is particularly important for understanding how negative PEP undermines positive performance appraisals.. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L Woud

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.

  4. Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Cwik, Jan C; Blackwell, Simon E; Kleim, Birgit; Holmes, Emily A; Adolph, Dirk; Zhang, Hui; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap) enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.

  5. The Effect of Perceived Injustice on Appraisals of Physical Activity: An Examination of the Mediating Role of Attention Bias to Pain in a Chronic Low Back Pain Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Scott, Whitney; Guck, Adam; Vervoort, Tine

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the relationship between perceived injustice and attentional bias (AB) toward pain among individuals with chronic low back pain asked to perform and appraise the pain and difficulty of a standardized set of common physical activities. A pictorial dot-probe task assessed AB toward pain stimuli (ie, pain faces cueing pain), after which participants performed the physical tasks. Participants also rated face stimuli in terms of pain, sadness, and anger expression. As hypothesized, perceived injustice was positively associated with AB toward pain stimuli; additionally, perceived injustice and AB were positively associated with appraisals of pain and difficulty. Counter to expectations, AB did not mediate the relationship between perceived injustice and task appraisals, suggesting that AB is insufficient to explain this relationship. Exploratory analyses indicated that participants with higher levels of perceived injustice rated stimulus faces as sadder and angrier; no such differences emerged for pain ratings. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association between perceived injustice and AB toward pain, as well as perceived injustice and in vivo appraisals of common physical activity. Results extend existing literature and suggest that attentional and potential interpretive bias should be considered in future research. This article identifies significant associations between perceived injustice, biased attention to pain, and appraisals of common physical activities among individuals with chronic low back pain. These findings suggest targets for intervention as well as directions for future research regarding individuals with high perceptions of injustice related to pain. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating d-cycloserine as a potential pharmacological enhancer of an emotional bias learning procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Blackwell, Simon E; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Browning, Michael; Holmes, Emily A; Harmer, Catherine J; Margraf, Jürgen; Reinecke, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    The partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine may enhance psychological therapies. However, its exact mechanism of action is still being investigated. Cognitive bias modification techniques allow isolation of cognitive processes and thus investigation of how they may be affected by d-cycloserine. We used a cognitive bias modification paradigm targeting appraisals of a stressful event, Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, to investigate whether d-cycloserine enhanced the modification of appraisal, and whether it caused greater reduction in indices of psychopathology. Participants received either 250 mg of d-cycloserine ( n=19) or placebo ( n=19). As a stressor task, participants recalled a negative life event, followed by positive Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training. Before and after Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, appraisals and indices of psychopathology related to the stressor were assessed. Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal successfully modified appraisals, but d-cycloserine did not affect appraisals post-training. There were no post-training group differences in frequency of intrusions. Interestingly, d-cycloserine led to a greater reduction in distress and impact on state mood from recalling the event, and lower distress post-training was associated with fewer intrusions. Therefore, d-cycloserine may affect emotional reactivity to recalling a negative event when combined with induction of a positive appraisal style, but via a mechanism other than enhanced learning of the appraisal style.

  7. Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience.

  8. Turning lemonade into lemons: Dampening appraisals reduce positive affect and increase negative affect during positive activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Leigh-Anne; Javiad, Mahmood; Jell, Grace; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2017-04-01

    The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions. There was no difference between the two amplifying and control conditions, which all increased PA and reduced NA during the walks. However, the dampening condition significantly differed from all other conditions, reducing PA and increasing NA during the walk. Individual differences in anhedonia symptoms did not significantly moderate the pattern of findings. This evidence supports the view that dampening appraisals may be one mechanism driving anhedonia and may account for why positive activity scheduling can sometimes backfire when utilized in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of appraisal training on responses to a distressing autobiographical event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Zlomuzica, Armin; Cwik, Jan C; Margraf, Jürgen; Shkreli, Lorika; Blackwell, Simon E; Gladwin, Thomas E; Ehring, Thomas

    2018-04-14

    Dysfunctional appraisals are a key factor suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Research has shown that experimental induction of a positive or negative appraisal style following a laboratory stressor affects analogue posttraumatic stress symptoms. This supports a causal role of appraisal in the development of traumatic stress symptoms and the therapeutic promise of modifying appraisals to reduce PTSD symptoms. The present study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating the effects of experimentally induced appraisals on reactions to a naturally occurring analogue trauma and by examining effects on both explicit and implicit appraisals. Participants who had experienced a distressing life event were asked to imagine themselves in the most distressing moment of that event and then received either a positive or negative Cognitive Bias Modification training targeting appraisals (CBM-App). The CBM-App training induced training-congruent appraisals, but group differences in changes in appraisal over training were only seen for explicit and not implicit appraisals. However, participants trained positively reported less intrusion distress over the subsequent week than those trained negatively, and lower levels of overall posttraumatic stress symptoms. These data support the causal relationship between appraisals and trauma distress, and further illuminate the mechanisms linking the two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prayer and pain: the mediating role of positive re-appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Wachholtz, Amy; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored in a sample of Flemish pain patients the role of prayer as a possible individual factor in pain management. The focus on prayer as a personal religious factor fits with the current religious landscape in Western-Europe where personal religious factors are more important than organizational dimensions of religion. Our study is framed in the transactional theory of stress and coping by testing first, whether prayer was related with pain severity and pain tolerance and second, whether cognitive positive re-appraisal was a mediating mechanism in the association between prayer and pain. We expected that prayer would be related to pain tolerance in reducing the impact of the pain on patient's daily life, but not necessarily to pain severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, prayer, pain outcomes (i.e., pain severity and pain tolerance), and cognitive positive re-appraisal. Two hundred and two chronic pain (CP) patients, all members of a Flemish national patients association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that prayer was significantly related with pain tolerance, but not with pain severity. However, ancillary analyses revealed a moderational effect of religious affiliation in the relationship between prayer and pain severity as well as pain tolerance. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that cognitive positive re-appraisal was indeed an underlying mechanism in the relationship between prayer and pain tolerance. This study affirms the importance to distinguish between pain severity and pain tolerance, and indicates that prayer can play a role in pain management, especially for religious pain patients. Further, the findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and coping as the results indicate that positive re-appraisal might be an important underlying mechanism in the association between prayer and pain.

  11. Positive tertiary appraisals and posttraumatic stress disorder in U.S. male veterans of the war in Vietnam: the roles of positive affirmation, positive reformulation, and defensive denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrenwend, Bruce P; Neria, Yuval; Turner, J Blake; Turse, Nicholas; Marshall, Randall; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Koenen, Karestan C

    2004-06-01

    A 70.9% majority of the U.S. male veterans in a nationwide sample appraised the impact of their service in Vietnam on their present lives as mainly positive. A substantial minority, 41.7%, judged the effects to be highly salient. With controls on level of exposure to war-zone stressors measured with data from military records, the valence and salience of these appraisals are investigated in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other indicators of wartime and postwar functioning. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that mainly positive tertiary appraisals are affirmations of successful wartime and postwar adaptation rather than defensive denials related to maladaptive outcomes. The possibility that mainly positive tertiary appraisals also contribute to successful postwar adaptation is discussed. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Self-appraisal of hockey players of high class of different playing position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Mikhnov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to expose the features of display of self-appraisal for the hockey players of high class of different playing position. Material and Methods: for the exposure of level of self-appraisal for hockey players, information of sportsmen of high class, taking part in the matches of the Kontinental hockey league (KHL in a season 2013–2014 was probed sixteen hockey players, having a sporting digit MS and MSWC, took part in researches. Methods were used: pedagogical supervision, pedagogical analysis and generalization of front-rank experience, psychological testing, analysis of data of the special scientific-methodical literature, expert questioning, an analysis of data is the Internet. Results: findings allowed to set that the players of line of attack (central and extreme forward have more high level of self-appraisal for certain, than players of defence and hockey goalkeepers. This tendency is looked over both on the separate constituents of self-appraisal and on the whole on all spectrums of the studied indexes. The got results of researches rotined that the hockey players of high class had or middle or high level of self-appraisal. Among testable hockey players, players were not exposed with the low level of self-appraisal. Conclusions: the exposed distinctions in the level of self-appraisal of hockey players of high class can be used for diagnostics of playing predisposition and choice of playing line of business in a command.

  13. Attentional bias for positive emotional stimuli: A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Sander, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite an initial focus on negative threatening stimuli, researchers have more recently expanded the investigation of attentional biases toward positive rewarding stimuli. The present meta-analysis systematically compared attentional bias for positive compared with neutral visual stimuli across 243 studies (N = 9,120 healthy participants) that used different types of attentional paradigms and positive stimuli. Factors were tested that, as postulated by several attentional models derived from theories of emotion, might modulate this bias. Overall, results showed a significant, albeit modest (Hedges' g = .258), attentional bias for positive as compared with neutral stimuli. Moderator analyses revealed that the magnitude of this attentional bias varied as a function of arousal and that this bias was significantly larger when the emotional stimulus was relevant to specific concerns (e.g., hunger) of the participants compared with other positive stimuli that were less relevant to the participants' concerns. Moreover, the moderator analyses showed that attentional bias for positive stimuli was larger in paradigms that measure early, rather than late, attentional processing, suggesting that attentional bias for positive stimuli occurs rapidly and involuntarily. Implications for theories of emotion and attention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Analysis of tag-position bias in MPSS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattray Magnus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS technology was recently developed as a high-throughput technology for measuring the concentration of mRNA transcripts in a sample. It has previously been observed that the position of the signature tag in a transcript (distance from 3' end can affect the measurement, but this effect has not been studied in detail. Results We quantify the effect of tag-position bias in Classic and Signature MPSS technology using published data from Arabidopsis, rice and human. We investigate the relationship between measured concentration and tag-position using nonlinear regression methods. The observed relationship is shown to be broadly consistent across different data sets. We find that there exist different and significant biases in both Classic and Signature MPSS data. For Classic MPSS data, genes with tag-position in the middle-range have highest measured abundance on average while genes with tag-position in the high-range, far from the 3' end, show a significant decrease. For Signature MPSS data, high-range tag-position genes tend to have a flatter relationship between tag-position and measured abundance. Thus, our results confirm that the Signature MPSS method fixes a substantial problem with the Classic MPSS method. For both Classic and Signature MPSS data there is a positive correlation between measured abundance and tag-position for low-range tag-position genes. Compared with the effects of mRNA length and number of exons, tag-position bias seems to be more significant in Arabadopsis. The tag-position bias is reflected both in the measured abundance of genes with a significant tag count and in the proportion of unexpressed genes identified. Conclusion Tag-position bias should be taken into consideration when measuring mRNA transcript abundance using MPSS technology, both in Classic and Signature MPSS methods.

  15. Positioning of Weight Bias: Moving towards Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Sarah; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Alberga, Angela S; Arthur, Nancy; Kassan, Anusha; Lund, Darren E; Sesma-Vazquez, Monica; Williams, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity. We suggest that, despite differences, each perspective acknowledges the negative influences that position weight as being within individual control and the negative consequences of weight bias. We call for recognition and discussion of weight bias as a social justice issue in order to change the discourse and professional practices extended towards individuals with large bodies. We advocate for an emphasis on social justice as a uniting framework for interdisciplinary research on weight bias.

  16. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoern, Hanna A; Grueschow, Marcus; Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology.

  17. Positive Illusions? The Accuracy of Academic Self-Appraisals in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Todd; Martinussen, Rhonda

    2016-08-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) overestimate their academic competencies (AC) relative to performance and informant indicators (i.e., positive illusory bias; PIB). Do adolescents with ADHD exhibit this PIB and does it render self-views inaccurate? We examined the magnitude of the AC-PIB in adolescents with and without ADHD, the predictive accuracy of parent and adolescent AC ratings, and whether executive functions (EF) predict the AC-PIB. Adolescents (49 ADHD; 47 typically developing) completed math and EF tests, and self-rated their AC. Parents rated their adolescents' AC and EF. Adolescents with ADHD performed more poorly on the math task (vs. comparison group) but had a larger AC-PIB relative to parents' ratings. EFs predicted the PIB within the full sample. Adolescents' AC ratings, regardless of ADHD status, were more predictive of math performance than their parents' AC ratings. Adolescents with ADHD appear self-aware in their AC despite a modest PIB; nuanced self-appraisals may depend on EFs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Face Recognition, Musical Appraisal, and Emotional Crossmodal Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitto, Sara; Calcagnì, Antonio; Mignozzi, Arianna; Scardino, Rosanna; Piraino, Giulia; Turchi, Daniele; De Feudis, Irio; Brunetti, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; de Tommaso, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on the crossmodal integration of visual and auditory perception suggests that evaluations of emotional information in one sensory modality may tend toward the emotional value generated in another sensory modality. This implies that the emotions elicited by musical stimuli can influence the perception of emotional stimuli presented in other sensory modalities, through a top-down process. The aim of this work was to investigate how crossmodal perceptual processing influences emotional face recognition and how potential modulation of this processing induced by music could be influenced by the subject's musical competence. We investigated how emotional face recognition processing could be modulated by listening to music and how this modulation varies according to the subjective emotional salience of the music and the listener's musical competence. The sample consisted of 24 participants: 12 professional musicians and 12 university students (non-musicians). Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task whilst listening to music by Albeniz, Chopin, or Mozart. The target stimuli were emotionally neutral facial expressions. We examined the N170 Event-Related Potential (ERP) and behavioral responses (i.e., motor reaction time to target recognition and musical emotional judgment). A linear mixed-effects model and a decision-tree learning technique were applied to N170 amplitudes and latencies. The main findings of the study were that musicians' behavioral responses and N170 is more affected by the emotional value of music administered in the emotional go/no-go task and this bias is also apparent in responses to the non-target emotional face. This suggests that emotional information, coming from multiple sensory channels, activates a crossmodal integration process that depends upon the stimuli emotional salience and the listener's appraisal.

  19. Ion extraction from positively biased laser-ablation plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Fumika; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Jun; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ions were extracted through a grounded grid from a positively biased laser-ablation plasma and the behaviors were investigated. Since the plasma was positively biased against the grounded wall, we could extract the ions without insulated gap. We confirmed formation of a virtual anode when we increased the distance between the grid and the ion collector. Results also indicated that when the ion flux from the ablation plasma exceeded a critical value, the current was strongly suppressed to the space charge limited level due to the formation of virtual anode.

  20. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R; Reagan, Andrew J; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M; Bagrow, James P; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-02-24

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts.

  1. Face Recognition, Musical Appraisal, and Emotional Crossmodal Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Invitto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the crossmodal integration of visual and auditory perception suggests that evaluations of emotional information in one sensory modality may tend toward the emotional value generated in another sensory modality. This implies that the emotions elicited by musical stimuli can influence the perception of emotional stimuli presented in other sensory modalities, through a top-down process. The aim of this work was to investigate how crossmodal perceptual processing influences emotional face recognition and how potential modulation of this processing induced by music could be influenced by the subject's musical competence. We investigated how emotional face recognition processing could be modulated by listening to music and how this modulation varies according to the subjective emotional salience of the music and the listener's musical competence. The sample consisted of 24 participants: 12 professional musicians and 12 university students (non-musicians. Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task whilst listening to music by Albeniz, Chopin, or Mozart. The target stimuli were emotionally neutral facial expressions. We examined the N170 Event-Related Potential (ERP and behavioral responses (i.e., motor reaction time to target recognition and musical emotional judgment. A linear mixed-effects model and a decision-tree learning technique were applied to N170 amplitudes and latencies. The main findings of the study were that musicians' behavioral responses and N170 is more affected by the emotional value of music administered in the emotional go/no-go task and this bias is also apparent in responses to the non-target emotional face. This suggests that emotional information, coming from multiple sensory channels, activates a crossmodal integration process that depends upon the stimuli emotional salience and the listener's appraisal.

  2. Critical appraisal of nonrandomized studies-A review of recommended and commonly used tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Joan M; Thompson, Juliette C; Halfpenny, Nicholas J; Scott, David A

    2018-02-27

    When randomized controlled trial data are limited or unavailable, or to supplement randomized controlled trial evidence, health technology assessment (HTA) agencies may rely on systematic reviews of nonrandomized studies (NRSs) for evidence of the effectiveness of health care interventions. NRS designs may introduce considerable bias into systematic reviews, and several methodologies by which to evaluate this risk of bias are available. This study aimed to identify tools commonly used to assess bias in NRS and determine those recommended by HTA bodies. Appraisal tools used in NRS were identified through a targeted search of systematic reviews (January 2013-March 2017; MEDLINE and EMBASE [OVID SP]). Recommendations for the critical appraisal of NRS by expert review groups and HTA bodies were reviewed. From the 686 studies included in the narrative synthesis, 48 critical appraisal tools were identified. Commonly used tools included the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, the methodological index for NRS, and bespoke appraisal tools. Neither the Cochrane Handbook nor the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination recommends a particular instrument for the assessment of risk of bias in NRS, although Cochrane has recently developed their own NRS critical appraisal tool. Among HTA bodies, only the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health recommends use of a specific critical appraisal tool-SIGN 50 (for cohort or case-control studies). Several criteria including reporting, external validity, confounding, and power were examined. There is no consensus between HTA groups on the preferred appraisal tool. Reviewers should select from a suite of tools on the basis of the design of studies included in their review. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Estimation of satellite position, clock and phase bias corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Patrick; Psychas, Dimitrios; Günther, Christoph; Hugentobler, Urs

    2018-05-01

    Precise point positioning with integer ambiguity resolution requires precise knowledge of satellite position, clock and phase bias corrections. In this paper, a method for the estimation of these parameters with a global network of reference stations is presented. The method processes uncombined and undifferenced measurements of an arbitrary number of frequencies such that the obtained satellite position, clock and bias corrections can be used for any type of differenced and/or combined measurements. We perform a clustering of reference stations. The clustering enables a common satellite visibility within each cluster and an efficient fixing of the double difference ambiguities within each cluster. Additionally, the double difference ambiguities between the reference stations of different clusters are fixed. We use an integer decorrelation for ambiguity fixing in dense global networks. The performance of the proposed method is analysed with both simulated Galileo measurements on E1 and E5a and real GPS measurements of the IGS network. We defined 16 clusters and obtained satellite position, clock and phase bias corrections with a precision of better than 2 cm.

  4. An Investigation into Appraisal Bias: The Role of Decision Support Tools in Debiasing Valuation Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Owen Alan

    2011-01-01

    Given the nature of the valuation task environment appraisers are often made aware of previous value opinions rendered by appraisers, commonly in the form of an historic appraisal. And, because an appraisal task involves the rendering of market value, a hypothetical, unobservable construct based on probabilities, direct feedback against this…

  5. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  6. The appraisal of clinical guidelines in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Clarkson, Jan E; Esposito, Marco

    2009-01-01

    To appraise the reported processes involved in the development of published dental guidelines. Electronic databases were searched to identify guidelines making recommendations for any health professional within dentistry. All included guidelines were appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A total of 105 guidelines met the inclusion criteria. The appraised guidelines showed lack of rigour in their development (median score 14.3%; range 0% to 100%). Only 10 (9.5%) were coded as 'strongly recommend' by at least two assessors. If recommendations within clinical guidelines are to be relied upon, the methods used in their development must be explicit and free from bias. When using the AGREE checklist to make decisions on whether or not to implement individual sets of guidelines, the findings of the present assessment reinforce the need for more than two assessors to be included in the appraisal of each set of guidelines.

  7. Timing group delay and differential code bias corrections for BeiDou positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jinling

    2015-05-01

    This article first clearly figures out the relationship between parameters of timing group delay (TGD) and differential code bias (DCB) for BDS, and demonstrates the equivalence of TGD and DCB correction models combining theory with practice. The TGD/DCB correction models have been extended to various occasions for BDS positioning, and such models have been evaluated by real triple-frequency datasets. To test the effectiveness of broadcast TGDs in the navigation message and DCBs provided by the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX), both standard point positioning (SPP) and precise point positioning (PPP) tests are carried out for BDS signals with different schemes. Furthermore, the influence of differential code biases on BDS positioning estimates such as coordinates, receiver clock biases, tropospheric delays and carrier phase ambiguities is investigated comprehensively. Comparative analysis show that the unmodeled differential code biases degrade the performance of BDS SPP by a factor of two or more, whereas the estimates of PPP are subject to varying degrees of influences. For SPP, the accuracy of dual-frequency combinations is slightly worse than that of single-frequency, and they are much more sensitive to the differential code biases, particularly for the B2B3 combination. For PPP, the uncorrected differential code biases are mostly absorbed into the receiver clock bias and carrier phase ambiguities and thus resulting in a much longer convergence time. Even though the influence of the differential code biases could be mitigated over time and comparable positioning accuracy could be achieved after convergence, it is suggested to properly handle with the differential code biases since it is vital for PPP convergence and integer ambiguity resolution.

  8. Self-esteem modulates the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that certain individuals may show a self-positivity bias, rating themselves as possessing more positive personality traits than others. Previous evidence has shown that people evaluate self-related information in such a way as to maintain or enhance self-esteem. However, whether self-esteem would modulate the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation has never been explored. In the present study, 21 participants completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and then completed a task where they were instructed to indicate to what extent positive/negative traits described themselves. Behavioral data showed that participants endorsed positive traits as higher in self-relevance compared to the negative traits. Further, participants' self-esteem levels were positively correlated with their self-positivity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed smaller N1 amplitude and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitude to stimuli consistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-high self-relevant stimuli) when compared to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Moreover, only in individuals with low self-esteem, the latency of P2 was more pronounced in processing stimuli that were consistent with the self-positivity bias (negative-low self-relevant stimuli) than to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Overall, the present study provides additional support for the view that low self-esteem as a personality variable would affect the early attentional processing.

  9. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    Full Text Available A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors. However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or

  10. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities) but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors). However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or incorrect performance

  11. Why Reject Creative Ideas? Fear as a Driver of Implicit Bias against Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Soo; Chang, Jae Yoon; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-01-01

    Biases against creativity seem to be activated when people are motivated to reduce uncertainty. Drawing on the appraisal model of emotion, this study tested whether and how emotions with varying levels of uncertainty appraisals affect biases against creativity. This experimental study showed that fear, characterized by a high-uncertainty…

  12. The positivity bias in aging: Motivation or degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Lamidey, Virginie; Ergis, Anne-Marie; Clarys, David; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    The question of an emotional memory enhancement in aging, and of a positivity bias in particular, has been the subject of numerous empirical studies in the last decade. However, the roots of such positive preference are not yet well established. Partisans of a motivation-based perspective contend with those arguing that positivity is related to a cognitive or neural degradation. The aim of this study was to introduce some elements concerning positivity effect in aging. We compared immediate (i.e., immediate recall) versus delayed (i.e., delayed recall and recognition) emotional memory performance in 38 young adults, 39 old adults, 37 very old adults, and 41 Alzheimer's disease patients. Moreover, we manipulated the encoding instruction: Either participants received no particular processing instruction, or they had to process the material in a semantic way. The results indicated that the positivity bias is most likely to occur in individuals whose cognitive functions are preserved, after long retention delay, and in experimental conditions that do not constrain encoding. We concluded by highlighting that although these findings seem to be better in line with the motivation, rather than the degradation, perspective, they do not fully support either theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Positively Biased Self-Perceptions of Peer Acceptance and Subtypes of Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rebecca J.; Kistner, Janet A.; Stephens, Haley F.; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of research linking children’s positively biased self-perceptions with higher levels of aggression. This study extended this area of research by examining prospective associations of positively biased self-perceptions of peer acceptance with overt and relational aggression. In addition, moderating effects of peer rejection were examined to test the “disputed overestimation hypothesis,” which posits that the link between bias and aggression is limited to children who are rejected by their peers. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, measures of peer-rated and self-perceived peer acceptance and peer-rated overt and relational aggression were obtained for 712 children in 3rd through 5th grades (386 girls and 326 boys). Positively biased perceptions led to increases in relational, but not overt, aggression. This pattern was observed even when the effects of gender, race, peer rejection, and overt aggression on relational aggression were controlled. Contrary to the disputed overestimation hypothesis, the prospective associations between bias and aggression did not vary as a function of children’s peer rejection status, thus supporting the view that positive bias predicts future aggressive behavior, regardless of social status. The results are discussed in terms of the comparability with previous findings and practical implications. PMID:26423823

  14. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Enhancing Positive Reactions to Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    .... Thus, this study seeks to: (1) assess the psychological distress of 350 women ages 50 to 85 who receive breast cancer risk appraisal and randomization to immediate or delayed group psychosocial counseling (2...

  16. Enhancing Positive Reactions to Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    .... Thus, this study seeks to: (1) assess the psychological distress of 350 women ages 50 to 85 who receive breast cancer risk appraisal and randomization to immediate or delayed group psychosocial counseling; (2...

  17. A Positivity Bias in Written and Spoken English and Its Moderation by Personality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Adam A; Mehl, Matthias R; Larsen, Randy J

    2011-09-01

    The human tendency to use positive words ("adorable") more often than negative words ("dreadful") is called the linguistic positivity bias. We find evidence for this bias in two studies of word use, one based on written corpora and another based on naturalistic speech samples. In addition, we demonstrate that the positivity bias applies to nouns and verbs as well as adjectives. We also show that it is found to the same degree in written as well as spoken English. Moreover, personality traits and gender moderate the effect, such that persons high on extraversion and agreeableness and women display a larger positivity bias in naturalistic speech. Results are discussed in terms of how the linguistic positivity bias may serve as a mechanism for social facilitation. People, in general, and some people more than others, tend to talk about the brighter side of life.

  18. Appraisals to affect: Testing the integrative cognitive model of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper E; Dodd, Alyson; Tai, Sara; Emsley, Richard; Mansell, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive models have suggested that extreme appraisals of affective states and maladaptive affect regulation strategies are important in the development of bipolar symptomatology. Little is known about the pathway by which these appraisals and behaviours interact in the formation of activated and depressed affective states. This study tested the predictions that (1) ascent behaviours mediate the relationship between positive appraisals of activated mood and activation; and (2) descent behaviours mediate the relationship between negative appraisals of activated mood and depression. A total of 52 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder (confirmed by structured interview) completed biweekly assessments of affect regulation behaviours and mood for 4 weeks. Positive and negative appraisals of affective states were assessed at baseline through the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Prediction Inventory. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to explore the data. Ascent behaviours partially mediated the relationship between positive appraisals of activated mood and activation. Descent behaviours, but not negative appraisals of activated mood, predicted levels of depression indicating the absence of a mediation effect. The results suggest that positive appraisals of activated mood can escalate activation in individuals with bipolar disorder. Such appraisals may be inherently rewarding and reinforcing directly elevating levels of activation, whilst increasing individuals' use of ascent behaviours. The results are consistent with the view that appraisals and behaviours should be targeted during cognitive behavioural therapy for bipolar disorder. It may be beneficial to target positive appraisals of activated mood in cognitive behavioural therapy for mania. Cognitive behavioural therapists may also wish to focus on identifying and targeting individuals' use of ascent behaviours to reduce highly activated states. © 2015 The British Psychological

  19. The use of ecological momentary assessment to test appraisal theories of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Bishop, George D; Enkelmann, Hwee Chong; Why, Yong Peng; Diong, Siew Maan; Khader, Majeed; Ang, Jansen

    2005-12-01

    Although appraisal theories have received strong empirical support, there are methodological concerns about the research, including biased recall, heuristic responding, ethical issues, and weak and unrealistic induction of emotions in laboratories. To provide a more ecologically valid test of appraisal theories, the authors used ecological momentary assessment, in which the emotions and appraisals of Singaporean police officers were measured online over the course of an ordinary workday. The research focused on happiness. Support was obtained for predictions, demonstrating the generalizability of appraisal theories to a nonlaboratory setting and circumventing the shortcomings of previously used methodologies. Also, evidence was obtained that happiness was reported primarily in association with a specific combination of 3 relevant appraisals: high pleasantness, high perceived control, and low moral violation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenobia Talati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, and the Health Star Rating (HSR. Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc. and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods.

  1. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Selena; Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Mytton, Julie; Lease, Helen; Joynt, Jennifer

    2011-11-24

    Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries.The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether recommendations arising from health

  2. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Selena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  3. Is there a positive bias in false recognition? Evidence from confabulating amnesia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, Nura H; Morris, Robin G; Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Although there is some evidence for a positive emotional bias in the content of confabulations in brain damaged patients, findings have been inconsistent. The present study used the semantic-associates procedure to induce false recall and false recognition in order to examine whether a positive bias would be found in confabulating amnesic patients, relative to non-confabulating amnesic patients and healthy controls. Lists of positive, negative and neutral words were presented in order to induce false recall or false recognition of non-presented (but semantically associated) words. The latter were termed 'critical intrusions'. Thirteen confabulating amnesic patients, 13 non-confabulating amnesic patients and 13 healthy controls were investigated. Confabulating patients falsely recognised a higher proportion of positive (but unrelated) words, compared with non-confabulating patients and healthy controls. No differences were found for recall memory. Signal detection analysis, however, indicated that the positive bias for false recognition memory might reflect weaker memory in the confabulating amnesic group. This suggested that amnesia patients with weaker memory are more likely to confabulate and the content of these confabulations are more likely to be positive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attentional Bias to Beauty with Evolutionary Benefits: Evidence from Aesthetic Appraisal of Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Lai, Shuxian

    2018-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that beauty is associated with the survival and reproduction of organisms. Landscape architecture is composed of a series of natural elements that have significant evolutionary implications. The present study used one pilot material ratings and three experiments to examine the mechanisms of aesthetic appraisals of landscape architecture. The results confirmed that landscape architecture elicited a sense of beauty and captured visual attention more easily than other types of architecture during explicit aesthetic rating task (Experiment 1) and implicit aesthetic perception task (dot-probe paradigm, Experiment 2). Furthermore, the spatial cueing paradigm revealed that response latencies were significantly faster for landscape architecture than non-landscape architecture on valid trials, but there was no significant difference in this contrast on invalid trials at 150-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, Experiment 3a). At 500-ms SOA (Experiment 3b), participants responded significantly faster for landscape architecture on valid trials, but reacted significantly slower for landscape architecture on invalid trials. The findings indicated that the beauty of landscape architecture can be perceived implicitly, and only faster orienting of attention, but not delayed disengagement of attention was generated at early stages of the processing of landscape architecture. However, the attentional bias at later stages of attentional processes may be resulted from both faster orienting of attention and delayed disengagement of attention from landscape architecture photographs. PMID:29467696

  5. Attentional Bias to Beauty with Evolutionary Benefits: Evidence from Aesthetic Appraisal of Landscape Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Lai, Shuxian

    2018-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that beauty is associated with the survival and reproduction of organisms. Landscape architecture is composed of a series of natural elements that have significant evolutionary implications. The present study used one pilot material ratings and three experiments to examine the mechanisms of aesthetic appraisals of landscape architecture. The results confirmed that landscape architecture elicited a sense of beauty and captured visual attention more easily than other types of architecture during explicit aesthetic rating task (Experiment 1) and implicit aesthetic perception task (dot-probe paradigm, Experiment 2). Furthermore, the spatial cueing paradigm revealed that response latencies were significantly faster for landscape architecture than non-landscape architecture on valid trials, but there was no significant difference in this contrast on invalid trials at 150-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, Experiment 3a). At 500-ms SOA (Experiment 3b), participants responded significantly faster for landscape architecture on valid trials, but reacted significantly slower for landscape architecture on invalid trials. The findings indicated that the beauty of landscape architecture can be perceived implicitly, and only faster orienting of attention, but not delayed disengagement of attention was generated at early stages of the processing of landscape architecture. However, the attentional bias at later stages of attentional processes may be resulted from both faster orienting of attention and delayed disengagement of attention from landscape architecture photographs.

  6. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative VTH shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H2O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  7. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jong Woo [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Nathan, Arokia, E-mail: an299@cam.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, Brian [Holst Centre/TNO, Eindhoven, 5656 AE (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative V{sub TH} shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H{sub 2}O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  8. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena V Nordheim

    Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health

  9. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small

  10. Negative evaluation bias for positive self-referential information in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Winter

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that patients meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD display altered self-related information processing. However, experimental studies on dysfunctional self-referential information processing in BPD are rare. In this study, BPD patients (N = 30 and healthy control participants (N = 30 judged positive, neutral, and negative words in terms of emotional valence. Referential processing was manipulated by a preceding self-referential pronoun, an other-referential pronoun, or no referential context. Subsequently, patients and participants completed a free recall and recognition task. BPD patients judged positive and neutral words as more negative than healthy control participants when the words had self-reference or no reference. In BPD patients, these biases were significantly correlated with self-reported attributional style, particularly for negative events, but unrelated to measures of depressive mood. However, BPD patients did not differ from healthy control participants in a subsequent free recall task and a recognition task. Our findings point to a negative evaluation bias for positive, self-referential information in BPD. This bias did not affect the storage of information in memory, but may be related to self-attributions of negative events in everyday life in BPD.

  11. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  12. Place attachment, place identity and aesthetic appraisal of urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaśkiewicz Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As the aesthetic of the Polish cities became a topic of wider discussions, it is important to detect the potential role of human-place relations. Two studies (N = 185 & N = 196 were conducted to explore the relationship between place attachment, place identity and appraisal of urban landscape. Satisfaction with urban aesthetic was predicted by two dimensions of place attachment (place inherited and place discovered, local identity (on the trend level and national-conservative identity. Place discovered and European identity were also predictors of visual pollution sensitivity. Place discovered is considered as more active type of attachment that permits both a positive bias concerning the aesthetics of one’s city, and a stronger criticism of the elements that can potentially violate the place’s landscape.

  13. Time-course of attentional bias for positive social words in individuals with high and low social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyu; Li, Songwei; Qian, Mingyi; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Muyu; Yao, Nisha

    2014-07-01

    Although accumulating research demonstrates the association between attentional bias and social anxiety, the bias for positive stimuli has so far not been adequately studied. The aim is to investigate the time-course of attentional bias for positive social words in participants with high and low social anxiety. In a modified dot-probe task, word-pairs of neutral and positive social words were randomly presented for 100, 500, and 1250 milliseconds in a nonclinical sample of students to test their attentional bias. Non-significant interaction of Group × Exposure Duration was found. However, there was a significant main effect of group, with significantly different response latencies between the high social anxiety (HSA) and low social anxiety (LSA) groups in the 100 ms condition, without for 500 or 1250 ms. With respect to attentional bias, the LSA group showed enhanced preferential attention for positive social words to which the HSA group showed avoidance in the 100 ms condition. In the 500 ms condition, preferential attention to positive social words was at trend in the LSA group, relative to the HSA group. Neither group showed attentional bias in the 1250 ms condition. These findings extend recent research about the attention training program and add to the empirical literature suggesting that the initial avoidance of positive stimuli may contribute to maintaining social anxiety.

  14. Crizotinib for Untreated Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip; Woolacott, Nerys; Biswas, Mousumi; Mebrahtu, Teumzghi; Harden, Melissa; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-09-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, the manufacturer of crizotinib submitted evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of crizotinib in untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib has previously been assessed by NICE for patients with previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC (TA 296). It was not approved in this previous appraisal, but had been made available through the cancer drugs fund. As part of this new appraisal, the company included a price discount patient access scheme (PAS). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company's submission and the ERG's review and summarises the resulting NICE guidance issued in August 2016. The main clinical-effectiveness data were derived from a multicentre randomised controlled trial-PROFILE 1014-that compared crizotinib with pemetrexed chemotherapy in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with untreated non-squamous ALK-positive NSCLC. In the trial, crizotinib demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The company's economic model was a three-state 'area under the curve' Markov model. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be greater than £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (excluding the PAS discount). The ERG assessment of the evidence submitted by the company raised a number of concerns. In terms of the clinical evidence, the OS benefit was highly uncertain due to the cross-over permitted in the trial and the immaturity of the data; only 26% of events had occurred by the data cut-off point. In the economic modelling, the most significant concerns related to the analysis

  15. Examining the relationships between challenge and threat cognitive appraisals and coaching behaviours in football coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Martin; Turner, Martin J; Gillman, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    Previous research demonstrates that sports coaching is a stressful activity. This article investigates coaches' challenge and threat cognitive appraisals of stressful situations and their impact on coaching behaviour, using Blascovich and Mendes' (2000) biopsychosocial model as a theoretical framework. A cross-sectional correlational design was utilised to examine the relationships between irrational beliefs (Shortened general attitude and belief scale), challenge and threat appraisals (Appraisal of life events scale), and coaching behaviours (Leadership scale for sports) of 105 professional football academy coaches. Findings reveal significant positive associations between challenge appraisals and social support, and between threat appraisals and autocratic behaviour, and a significant negative association between threat appraisals and positive feedback. Results also show that higher irrational beliefs are associated with greater threat, and lesser challenge cognitive appraisals. However, no associations were revealed between irrational beliefs and challenge cognitive appraisals. Additionally, findings demonstrate a positive relationship between age and training and instruction. Results suggest that practitioners should help coaches to appraise stressful situations as a challenge to promote positive coaching behaviours.

  16. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  17. Intuitive Choices Lead to Intensified Positive Emotions: An Overlooked Reason for "Intuition Bias"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkebøen, Geir; Nordbye, Gro H H

    2017-01-01

    People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices. Since intuition is feeling based, we examine in particular if intuitive choices have stronger affective consequences than non-intuitive ones. Participants in two scenario studies ( N = 90; N = 126) rated the feelings of decision makers who experienced a conflict between two options, one intuitively appealing and another that appeared preferable on analytic grounds. Choosing the intuitive alternative was anticipated to lead to somewhat more regret after negative outcomes and, in particular, much more satisfaction with positive outcomes. In two autobiographical studies, one with psychology students ( N = 88) and the other with experienced engineers ( N = 99), participants were asked to provide examples of choice conflicts between an intuitive and a non-intuitive option from their own private or professional lives. Both groups showed a tendency to report stronger emotions, in particular positive, after intuitive choices. One well-established explanation for intuition bias focuses on the nature of people's anticipated negative counterfactual thoughts if their decisions were to turn out badly. The present data indicate that intuitive choices intensify positive emotions, anticipated and real, after successful outcomes much more than negative emotions after failures. Positive outcomes are also more commonly expected than negative ones, when we make choices. We argue that markedly amplified emotions, mediated by stronger personal involvement, in the

  18. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed/Medline, E...

  19. The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of daily stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, paccounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, paccounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. On biases in precise point positioning with multi-constellation and multi-frequency GNSS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mowafy, A; Deo, M; Rizos, C

    2016-01-01

    Various types of biases in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data preclude integer ambiguity fixing and degrade solution accuracy when not being corrected during precise point positioning (PPP). In this contribution, these biases are first reviewed, including satellite and receiver hardware biases, differential code biases, differential phase biases, initial fractional phase biases, inter-system receiver time biases, and system time scale offset. PPP models that take account of these biases are presented for two cases using ionosphere-free observations. The first case is when using primary signals that are used to generate precise orbits and clock corrections. The second case applies when using additional signals to the primary ones. In both cases, measurements from single and multiple constellations are addressed. It is suggested that the satellite-related code biases be handled as calibrated quantities that are obtained from multi-GNSS experiment products and the fractional phase cycle biases obtained from a network to allow for integer ambiguity fixing. Some receiver-related biases are removed using between-satellite single differencing, whereas other receiver biases such as inter-system biases are lumped with differential code and phase biases and need to be estimated. The testing results show that the treatment of biases significantly improves solution convergence in the float ambiguity PPP mode, and leads to ambiguity-fixed PPP within a few minutes with a small improvement in solution precision. (paper)

  1. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  2. Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J

    2016-11-01

    Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta-analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a "small" to "moderate" sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r +  = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta-analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27-51). These results compliment those from previous meta-analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605-613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Information Content Moderates Positivity and Negativity Biases in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M.; Popham, Lauren E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Emery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets. PMID:23421322

  4. Information content moderates positivity and negativity biases in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Dennis, Paul A; Emery, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets.

  5. Twice the negativity bias and half the positivity offset: Evaluative responses to emotional information in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the dual capacity to assign a slightly pleasant valence to neutral stimuli (the positivity offset) to encourage approach behaviors, as well as to assign a higher negative valence to unpleasant images relative to the positive valence to equally arousing and extreme pleasant images (the negativity bias) to facilitate defensive strategies. We conducted an experimental psychopathology study to examine the extent to which the negativity bias and the positivity offset differ in participants with and without major depression.. Forty-one depressed and thirty-six healthy participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure implicit affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. The negativity bias was significantly higher and the positivity offset was significantly lower in depressed relative to healthy participants.. Entry criteria enrolling medication-free participants with minimal DSM-IV comorbidity may limit generalizability of the findings. This study advances our understanding of the positive and negative valence systems in depression, highlighting the irregularities in the positive valence system.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Ben J; Auton, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has shown that challenge stressors (work characteristics associated with potential personal gain) tend to have positive outcomes, whereas hindrance stressors (those which obstruct goals) have negative outcomes. However, typical research methods assume that stressors allocated to these categories are appraised consistently by different people and across different situations. We validate new measures of challenge and hindrance appraisals and demonstrate their utility in stress research. We used a cross-sectional survey of American employees (Study 1, n = 333), a diary survey of Australian employees (Study 2, n = 241), and a survey of Australian college students whose performance was evaluated independently (Study 3, n = 350). Even after accounting for the effects of stressors, challenge and hindrance appraisals consistently explained unique variance in affective states, with indications that stressors have indirect effects via appraisals. Such effects were seen within- as well as between-participants (Study 2). Appraisals also had expected associations with specific coping behaviors (Study 1), while challenge appraisal was associated with task performance (Study 3). The scales of challenge and hindrance appraisals were psychometrically sound across multiple contexts. RESULTS highlight the merit of considering appraisal in stress research.

  7. Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidio, John F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined how social appearance and affective factors can influence social categorization and intergroup bias. Positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one. Subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the members to feel less like…

  8. Positive bias is a defining characteristic of aging to the same extent as declining performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Teresa; Suengas, Aurora G; Ruiz-Gallego-Largo, Trinidad; Bandrés, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether one of the supposed gains of aging--positive bias--discriminates between young and older participants to the same extent as some of the losses in cognitive performance--recall and source monitoring--that come with age. Two age groups (N = 120)--young (M = 22.08, SD = 3.30) and older (M = 72.78, SD = 6.57)--carried out three tasks with varying levels of difficulty that included recall, recognition, and source monitoring using pictures, faces, and personal descriptors exchanged in a conversation as stimuli. The results of the discriminant analysis performed on 20 dependent variables indicated that six of them were key in discriminating between young and older participants. Younger participants outperformed older participants in recalling pictures, and in recognizing the descriptors exchanged in a conversation, as well as in monitoring their source. Just as important in discriminating between the two groups were the ability to recognize previously seen pictures, the likability rating they produced, and the recognition of faces with positive expressions--all superior in older participants. Thus, variables related to a positive bias--likability ratings and recognition of positive expressions--characterize the differences as a function of age as well as variables related to cognitive performance, such as recall and source monitoring. In addition, the likability ratings evoked by both pictures and faces were also significantly higher in the older participants with better cognitive performance than in those who performed poorly. This effect was not present in younger participants. The results are interpreted within the framework of socioemotional selectivity theory as evidence for a positive bias in old age. The connection between a positive bias and the maintenance of cognitive performance is also discussed.

  9. The emotional content of life stories: Positivity bias and relation to personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette

    2014-01-01

    . Three hundred ten students and 160 middle-aged adults completed a measure of personality traits and identified chapters as well as past and future events in their life story. All life story components were rated on emotion and age. Negative future events were less likely to be a continuation of chapters...... and were more temporally distant than positive future events. Extraversion and Conscientiousness were related to more positive life stories, and Neuroticism was related to more negative life stories. This suggests that the life story is positively biased by minimising the negative future...

  10. Attentional Bias for Threat in Older Adults: Moderation of the Positivity Bias by Trait Anxiety and Stimulus Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lewina O.; Knight, Bob G.

    2009-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that emotion regulation goals motivate older adults to preferentially allocate attention to positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. This study examined whether anxiety moderates the effect of the positivity bias on attention for threat. We employed the dot probe task to compare subliminal and supraliminal attention for threat in 103 young and 44 older adults. Regardless of anxiety, older but not younger adults demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant response to angry faces. Anxiety influenced older adults’ attention such that anxious individuals demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant reaction to sad faces, but an avoidant-vigilant reaction to negative words. PMID:19739931

  11. Positively Biased Processing of Mother's Emotions Predicts Children's Social and Emotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Meghan Rose; Goodman, Sherryl H; Tully, Erin C

    Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children ( N =82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother's emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children's prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother's positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother's positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children's attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems.

  12. Does a Positive Bias Relate to Social Behavior in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnea, Kate; Hoza, Betsy; Tomb, Meghan; Kaiser, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether positively biased self-perceptions relate to social behaviors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to control children. The social behaviors of children with ADHD (n = 87) were examined relative to control children (CTL; n = 38) during a laboratory-based dyadic social interaction…

  13. Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susannah E; Clare O'Donoghue, M; Drazich, Erin H S; Blackwell, Simon E; Christina Nobre, Anna; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-11-30

    Positive affect and optimism play an important role in healthy ageing and are associated with improved physical and cognitive health outcomes. This study investigated whether it is possible to boost positive affect and associated positive biases in this age group using cognitive training. The effect of computerised imagery-based cognitive bias modification on positive affect, vividness of positive prospective imagery and interpretation biases in older adults was measured. 77 older adults received 4 weeks (12 sessions) of imagery cognitive bias modification or a control condition. They were assessed at baseline, post-training and at a one-month follow-up. Both groups reported decreased negative affect and trait anxiety, and increased optimism across the three assessments. Imagery cognitive bias modification significantly increased the vividness of positive prospective imagery post-training, compared with the control training. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no difference between the training groups in negative interpretation bias. This is a useful demonstration that it is possible to successfully engage older adults in computer-based cognitive training and to enhance the vividness of positive imagery about the future in this group. Future studies are needed to assess the longer-term consequences of such training and the impact on affect and wellbeing in more vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias toward negative feedback to undermine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, a situational pressure individuals experience when they fear confirming a negative group stereotype, engenders a cascade of physiological stress responses, negative appraisals, and performance monitoring processes that tax working memory resources necessary for optimal performance. Less is known, however, about how stereotype threat biases attentional processing in response to performance feedback, and how such attentional biases may undermine performance. Women received feedback on math problems in stereotype threatening compared to stereotype-neutral contexts while continuous EEG activity was recorded. Findings revealed that stereotype threatened women elicited larger midline P100 ERPs, increased phase locking between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (two regions integral for attentional processes), and increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback compared to positive feedback and women in stereotype-neutral contexts. Increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback predicted underperformance on the math task among stereotype threatened women only. Women in stereotype-neutral contexts exhibited the opposite trend. Findings suggest that in stereotype threatening contexts, neural networks integral for attention and working memory are biased toward negative, stereotype confirming feedback at very early speeds of information processing. This bias, in turn, plays a role in undermining performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beam determination of quadrupole misalignments and beam position monitor biases in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Seeman, J.T.; Atwood, W.B.; Himel, T.M.; Petersen, A.; Adolphsen, C.E.

    1988-09-01

    Misalignments of magnetic quadrupoles and biases in beam position monitors (BPMs) in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac can lead to a situation in which the beam is off-center in the disk-loaded waveguide accelerator structure. The off-center beam produces wakefields which can limit SLC performance by causing unacceptably large emittance growth. We present a general method for determining quadrupole misalignments and BPM biases in the SLC linac by using beam trajectory measurements. The method utilizes both electron and positron beams on opposite rf cycles in the same linac lattice to determine simultaneously magnetic quadrupole misalignments and BPM biases. The two-beam trajectory data may be acquired without interrupting SLC colliding beam operations. 2 refs., 5 figs

  16. Expectancy bias in a selective conditioning procedure: trait anxiety increases the threat value of a blocked stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddez, Yannick; Vervliet, Bram; Baeyens, Frank; Lauwers, Stephanie; Hermans, Dirk; Beckers, Tom

    2012-06-01

    In a blocking procedure, a single conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as electric shock, in the first stage. During the subsequent stage, the CS is presented together with a second CS and this compound is followed by the same US. Fear conditioning studies in non-human animals have demonstrated that fear responding to the added second CS typically remains low, despite its being paired with the US. Accordingly, the blocking procedure is well suited as a laboratory model for studying (deficits in) selective threat appraisal. The present study tested the relation between trait anxiety and blocking in human aversive conditioning. Healthy participants filled in a trait anxiety questionnaire and underwent blocking treatment in the human aversive conditioning paradigm. Threat appraisal was measured through shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance. As hypothesized, trait anxiety was positively associated with shock expectancy ratings to the blocked stimulus. In skin conductance responding, no significant effects of stimulus type could be detected during blocking training or testing. The current study does not allow strong claims to be made regarding the theoretical process underlying the expectancy bias we observed. The observed shock expectancy bias might be one of the mechanisms leading to non-specific fear in individuals at risk for developing anxiety disorders. A deficit in blocking, or a deficit in selective threat appraisal at the more general level, indeed results in fear becoming non-specific and disconnected from the most likely causes or predictors of danger. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First Contact: the intersection of demographics, knowledge, and appraisal of treatment at the initial infertility visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHILDRESS, Krista J.; LAWSON, Angela K.; GHANT, Marissa S.; MENDOZA, Gricelda; CARDOZO, Eden R.; CONFINO, Edmond; MARSH, Erica E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the initial infertility visit on treatment-related knowledge, patient anxiety, and appraisals of treatment. Study Design Prospective survey. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 234 English-speaking women, ages 18-50, attending their first infertility visit Intervention(s) Participants completed a survey assessing health literacy, knowledge, anxiety, and appraisals of the treatment process before and after their infertility visit. Main Outcome Measure(s) 1) Knowledge of infertility and treatment and, 2) Anxiety and appraisal scores. Results Most participants were white and earned >$100,000/year and had at least a college education. Baseline knowledge of reproductive anatomy, ART, and fertility factors was modest, but improved after the initial visit. Factors associated with higher knowledge included higher education and income, White or Asian ethnicity, and English as their primary language. Patient appraisals of treatment represented by the positive (Challenge) and negative (Threat and Loss) subscale scores on the Appraisal of Life Events (ALE) scale, changed from the pre-visit survey to the post-visit survey. Negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety scores decreased and positive appraisals of treatment increased after the initial visit. Lower knowledge was associated with higher positive appraisal scores lower health literacy was associated with higher anxiety and appraisal scores (positive and negative) post-visit. Black women had higher Challenge scores compared to White and Asian women. Hispanic women had higher anxiety scores than non-Hispanic women. Conclusions Infertility patients have modest baseline knowledge of fertility and infertility treatment. The initial infertility visit can improve this knowledge and decrease both negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety levels. Differences in knowledge and appraisal were seen across ethnic groups and other demographic variables. Physicians should individualize

  18. Overgeneral autobiographical memory bias in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A; Jackson, Mike; Chadwick, Paul

    2018-03-14

    Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions. It may limit access to autobiographical information that could be helpful in re-appraising distressing experiences, including voices. We investigated the possible links between OGM and distressing voices in psychosis by comparing three groups: (1) clinical voice-hearers (N = 39), (2) non-clinical voice-hearers (N = 35) and (3) controls without voices (N = 77) on a standard version of the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers also completed a newly adapted version of the task, designed to assess voices-related memories (vAMT). As hypothesised, the clinical group displayed an OGM bias by retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories on the AMT compared with both the non-clinical and control groups, who did not differ from each other. The clinical group also showed an OGM bias in recall of voice-related memories on the vAMT, compared with the non-clinical group. Clinical voice-hearers display an OGM bias when compared with non-clinical voice-hearers on both general and voices-specific recall tasks. These findings have implications for the refinement and targeting of psychological interventions for psychosis.

  19. Delineating the relationship between stress mindset and primary appraisals: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, Christopher J; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-01-01

    Stress mindset theory suggests that positive stress beliefs lead to positive, rather than negative, outcomes when engaging with stressors. Similarly, the Transactional Model of Stress predicts that perceiving a stressor as challenging leads to positive outcomes whereas negative perceptions of the stressor as threatening invoke negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data examining the nature of the relationship between stress mindset and primary appraisals. It was predicted that positive beliefs about stress would be associated with perceiving a stressful situation as more challenging, and inversely related to perceptions of threat. Participants (N = 124) initially completed measures assessing stress mindset, lifetime and current perceived stress, trait anxiety, and self-efficacy. Then participants received a set of instructions regarding a stressful mathematics task, followed by completion of post-manipulation stress mindset and primary appraisals measures, prior to completing the mathematics task. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that participants who held a greater number of positive beliefs (as opposed to negative beliefs) about stress also perceived the stressor as being more challenging. However, there was no significant relationship between valence of beliefs and threat appraisals. These findings provide initial evidence for the nature of the relationship between valence of stress beliefs and challenge appraisals. Further research is needed to understand how stress beliefs impact on the way in which an individual copes with stressful situations.

  20. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Michelle R; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-05-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.

  1. Metacognition moderates the relationship between dysfunctional self-appraisal and social functioning in prolonged schizophrenia independent of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alison V; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; George, Sunita; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-08-01

    Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder. Three forms of self-appraisal were used: self-esteem, hope and self-efficacy. Metacognition was assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, and social functioning with the Quality of Life Scale. Measures of psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were also gathered for use as potential covariates. A single index of self-appraisal was generated from subjecting the assessments of self-appraisal to a principal components analysis. Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for severity of psychopathology, metacognition moderated the effect of the self-appraisal factor score upon social functioning. A median split of metacognition and the self-appraisal index yielded four groups. ANCOVA analyses revealed that participants with higher levels of metacognition and more positive self-appraisal had greater capacities for social relatedness than all other participants, regardless of levels of positive and negative symptoms. Correlational analyses revealed that metacognition but not self-appraisal was related to the frequencies of social contact independent of the effects of psychopathology. Assessments of social cognition and neurocognition were not significantly linked with social dysfunction. Greater social functioning is made possible by a combination of both more positive self-appraisals and greater metacognitive capacity. Individuals with

  2. Electrophysiological Evidence for Elimination of the Positive Bias in Elderly Adults with Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs.MethodsParticipants were 14 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. We collected event-related potentials of their brain compared to that of 14 healthy aged-matched adults. The late positive potential (LPP was used to examine cognitive-affective processes associated with judgment of emotional facial expressions between the two groups.ResultsOld adults with depressive symptoms have much smaller amplitude than healthy older adults irrespective of the prime types. When processing the targets, the two groups showed different patterns regarding the LPP. The healthy control group revealed no differences between ambiguous and happy primes, irrespective of whether the targets were sad or happy facial expressions. However, significant differences were found between happy and sad and between ambiguous and sad primes. Such a pattern indicates a positive bias in healthy elderly adults. Regarding the elderly with depressive symptoms, there were no significant differences between ambiguous versus happy, ambiguous versus sad primes, and happy versus sad primes. Concerning reaction times, there was no group difference. Thus, the findings provide some support for cognitive theories of depression.ConclusionThe current study shows that there is an association

  3. ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Sterne, Jonathan AC; Hern?n, Miguel A; Reeves, Barnaby C; Savovi?, Jelena; Berkman, Nancy D; Viswanathan, Meera; Henry, David; Altman, Douglas G; Ansari, Mohammed T; Boutron, Isabelle; Carpenter, James R; Chan, An-Wen; Churchill, Rachel; Deeks, Jonathan J; Hr?bjartsson, Asbj?rn

    2016-01-01

    Non-randomized studies of the effects of interventions are critical to many areas of health care evaluation, but their results may be biased. It is therefore important to understand and appraise their strengths and weaknesses. We developed ROBINS-I (“Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions”), a new tool for evaluating risk of bias in estimates of the comparative effectiveness (harm or benefit) of interventions from studies that did not use randomization to allocate units (in...

  4. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  5. Dismissing Children's Perceptions of Their Emotional Experience and Parental Care: Preliminary Evidence of Positive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; David, Daryn H.; Crowley, Michael J.; Snavely, Jonathan E.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The tendency to perceive caregivers in highly positive terms and to perceive the self as strong and problem-free are two facets of the positive bias characteristic of a dismissing attachment classification in adulthood. However, this link has not yet been examined in children. We evaluated the association between dismissing attachment and positive…

  6. Mixture models reveal multiple positional bias types in RNA-Seq data and lead to accurate transcript concentration estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tuerk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of transcript quantification with RNA-Seq is negatively affected by positional fragment bias. This article introduces Mix2 (rd. "mixquare", a transcript quantification method which uses a mixture of probability distributions to model and thereby neutralize the effects of positional fragment bias. The parameters of Mix2 are trained by Expectation Maximization resulting in simultaneous transcript abundance and bias estimates. We compare Mix2 to Cufflinks, RSEM, eXpress and PennSeq; state-of-the-art quantification methods implementing some form of bias correction. On four synthetic biases we show that the accuracy of Mix2 overall exceeds the accuracy of the other methods and that its bias estimates converge to the correct solution. We further evaluate Mix2 on real RNA-Seq data from the Microarray and Sequencing Quality Control (MAQC, SEQC Consortia. On MAQC data, Mix2 achieves improved correlation to qPCR measurements with a relative increase in R2 between 4% and 50%. Mix2 also yields repeatable concentration estimates across technical replicates with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 47% and reduced standard deviation across the full concentration range. We further observe more accurate detection of differential expression with a relative increase in true positives between 74% and 378% for 5% false positives. In addition, Mix2 reveals 5 dominant biases in MAQC data deviating from the common assumption of a uniform fragment distribution. On SEQC data, Mix2 yields higher consistency between measured and predicted concentration ratios. A relative error of 20% or less is obtained for 51% of transcripts by Mix2, 40% of transcripts by Cufflinks and RSEM and 30% by eXpress. Titration order consistency is correct for 47% of transcripts for Mix2, 41% for Cufflinks and RSEM and 34% for eXpress. We, further, observe improved repeatability across laboratory sites with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 44% and reduced standard deviation.

  7. Knowledge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szymona-Pałkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social support and knowledge of the disease have been shown to facilitate adaptation to a chronic disease. However, the adaptation process is not fully understood. We hypothesized that these factors can contribute to better adaptation to the disease through their impact on disease-related cognitive appraisal. To analyze the links between social support and the knowledge of the disease, on one hand, and disease-related appraisals, on the other hand, one hundred fifty-eight women with stress UI, aged 32 to 79, took part in the study. Questionnaire measures of knowledge of UI, social support, and disease-related appraisals were used in the study. The level of knowledge correlated significantly negatively with the appraisal of the disease as Harm. The global level of social support correlated significantly positively with three disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, and Value. Four subgroups of patients with different constellations of social support and knowledge of the disease were identified in cluster analysis and were demonstrated to differ significantly on four disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, Harm, and Value. Different cognitive appraisals of UI may be specifically related to social support and knowledge of the disease, with social support affective positive disease-related appraisals, and the knowledge affecting the appraisal of Harm.

  8. Citation bias favoring positive clinical trials of thrombolytics for acute ischemic stroke: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-09-28

    Citation bias occurs when positive trials involving a medical intervention receive more citations than neutral or negative trials of similar quality. Several large clinical trials have studied the use of thrombolytic agents for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with differing results, thereby presenting an opportunity to assess these trials for evidence of citation bias. We compared citation rates among positive, neutral, and negative trials of alteplase (tPA) and other thrombolytic agents for stroke. We used a 2014 Cochrane Review of thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute stroke to identify non-pilot, English-language stroke trials published in MEDLINE-indexed journals comparing thrombolytic therapy with control. We classified trials as positive if there was a statistically significant primary outcome difference favoring the intervention, neutral if there was no difference in primary outcome, or negative for a significant primary outcome difference favoring the control group. Trials were also considered negative if safety concerns supported stopping the trial early. Using Scopus, we collected citation counts through 2015 and compared citation rates according to trial outcomes. Eight tPA trials met inclusion criteria: two were positive, four were neutral, and two were negative. The two positive trials received 9080 total citations, the four neutral trials received 4847 citations, and the two negative trials received 1096 citations. The mean annual per-trial citation rates were 333 citations per year for positive trials, 96 citations per year for neutral trials, and 35 citations per year for negative trials. Trials involving other thrombolytic agents were not cited as often, though as with tPA, positive trials were cited more frequently than neutral or negative trials. Positive trials of tPA for ischemic stroke are cited approximately three times as often as neutral trials, and nearly 10 times as often as negative trials, indicating the presence of

  9. Insights into Flood-Coping Appraisals of Protection Motivation Theory: Empirical Evidence from Germany and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Philip; Wouter Botzen, W J; Laudan, Jonas; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Thieken, Annegret H

    2017-11-17

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards. More insight into flood-coping appraisals of PMT, therefore, are needed to better understand the decision-making process of individuals and to develop effective risk communication strategies. This study presents the results of two surveys among more than 1,600 flood-prone households in Germany and France. Five hypotheses were tested using multivariate statistics regarding factors related to flood-coping appraisals, which were derived from the PMT framework, related literature, and the literature on social vulnerability. We found that socioeconomic characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain flood-coping appraisals. Particularly, observational learning from the social environment, such as friends and neighbors, is positively related to flood-coping appraisals. This suggests that social norms and networks play an important role in flood-preparedness decisions. Providing risk and coping information can also have a positive effect. Given the strong positive influence of the social environment on flood-coping appraisals, future research should investigate how risk communication can be enhanced by making use of the observed social norms and network effects. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y.; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2018-01-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e. positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e. secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in Previously Institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving. PMID:28401841

  11. Systematic spatial bias in DNA microarray hybridization is caused by probe spot position-dependent variability in lateral diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Doris; Berry, David; Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random spatial variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic spatial bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-dependent variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a strong influence of microarray well geometry on the spatial bias. Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization.

  12. Why employees with higher challenging appraisals style are more affectively engaged at work? The role of challenging stressors: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Huei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Lung Hung

    2014-10-01

    Challenging stressors have been positively linked to various work outcomes. However, the role of individual differences in stress appraisal in shaping the function of challenging stressors and work outcomes has been rarely discussed. Drawing on the individual differences perspective, the authors propose that employees higher in challenge appraisal are more likely to have challenging stressors and are more responsive to such stressors to have a higher positive affect at work. Results obtained from 117 employees supported the hypotheses. The results indicated that challenge appraisal is positively related to challenging stressors. In addition, challenging stressors has a positive association with positive affect at work when challenge appraisal is high but has a null association when challenge appraisal is low. The findings suggest that challenging stressors does not necessarily bring positive work outcomes as suggested in past studies and highlight the importance of considering dispositional tendency in stress appraisal when looking into the function of challenging stressors and work outcomes. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Cognitive appraisals of alcohol use in early adolescence: Psychosocial predictors and reciprocal associations with alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Trucco, Elisa M; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I

    2017-04-01

    Early adolescence is a dynamic period for the development of alcohol appraisals (expected outcomes of drinking and subjective evaluations of expected outcomes), yet the literature provides a limited understanding of psychosocial factors that shape these appraisals during this period. This study took a comprehensive view of alcohol appraisals and considered positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies, as well as subjective evaluations of expected outcomes. Developmental-ecological theory guided examination of individual, peer, family, and neighborhood predictors of cognitive appraisals of alcohol and use. A community sample of 378 adolescents (mean age 11.5 years at Wave 1, 52% female) was assessed annually for 4 years. Longitudinal path analysis suggested that the most robust predictors of alcohol appraisals were peer norms. Furthermore, perceived likelihood of positive and negative alcohol outcomes prospectively predicted increases in drinking. There was limited support for appraisals operating as mediators of psychosocial risk and protective factors.

  14. Emotionality and self-regulation, threat appraisal, and coping in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N; West, S G; Wolchik, S A; Curran, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model of the effects of children's temperament (negative and positive emotionality, impulsivity and attention focusing) on post-divorce threat appraisals, coping (active and avoidant), and psychological symptoms (depression and conduct problems) was investigated. The study utilized a sample of 223 mothers and children (ages 9 to 12 years) who had experienced divorce within the last two years. Evidence was found of direct effects of child-report negative emotionality on children's threat perceptions and of child-report positive emotionality and impulsivity on children's coping. Indirect effects of negative emotionality on active and avoidant coping through threat appraisal were found. Direct effects of the temperament variables on symptoms were also found. Cross group analyses indicated that the models were robust to age differences, but gender differences were found in the relation between negative emotionality and depression. The results of this study indicate that temperament and threat appraisals are important predictors of children's post-divorce symptoms, and that temperament is a predictor of children's appraisal and coping process.

  15. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  16. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  17. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  18. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...

  19. Potential biases in colorectal cancer screening using faecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riboe, Dea Grip; Dogan, Tilde Steen; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    of this paper was to scrutinize these trials for potential biases and assess their influence on the screening trials. METHODS: The four RCTs were reviewed based on the principles of 'Critical Appraisal of the Medical Literature'. Principal investigators of the four RCTs were contacted to clarify uncertainties...... in their study. Data were collected from The Danish Data Archives. Authors of the Cochrane review were contacted. RESULTS: Six biases were identified, of which five favour screening. Three of the biases identified were specific to CRC screening: type of diagnostic method, place of surgery and diagnostic delay....... CONCLUSION: The 16% RRR in CRC mortality found in the updated Cochrane review's meta-analysis is overestimated....

  20. Audit of annual medical appraisal and revalidation activity across the UK Defence Medical Services 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Louisa E; Withnall, Rdj

    2017-02-01

    To provide the first annual audit of Defence Medical Services (DMS) medical appraisal and revalidation activity. A questionnaire-based survey of appraisal and revalidation activity within the 2013-2014 appraisal year (1 April 2013 - 1 March 2014) across the Royal Navy (RN), Army, Royal Air Force (RAF) and Ministry of Defence (MOD) and Defence Postgraduate Medical Deanery (DPMD) Designated Bodies (DBs). Mandatory annual medical appraisal of all DMS doctors was introduced in 2002. The General Medical Council (GMC) introduced licences to practise in November 2011. Revalidation went live in December 2012. In the 2013-2014 appraisal year, there were 1379 DMS doctors. The Responsible Officers (ROs) of the RN, Army, RAF, MOD and Defence Postgraduate Medical Deanery (DPMD) provide appraisal and revalidation services for doctors within their DBs. In the 2013-2014 appraisal year, 82% of DMS doctors completed an annual appraisal. ROs provided positive revalidation recommendations for 90% of DMS doctors without the need for additional supporting information. Additional supporting evidence was required for 10% of DMS trained doctors, but ultimately 100% of DMS doctors due revalidation in the 2013-2014 appraisal year received a positive recommendation. To assist DMS compliance with GMC quality assurance requirements, HQ Surgeon General now maintains a central database of appraisal and revalidation data across the five DMS DBs. Appropriately targeted appraiser training and 'revalidation ready top-up' training should be provided to ensure the demand for military appraisers is met, and that DMS appraisers appropriately maintain their skills. MOD now maintains a central live database for ongoing appraisal and revalidation monitoring. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Appraisal Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimann, Finn; Enemark, Ulrika; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Appraisal of continued support to Ghana's health sector for a third phase covering 2003 - 2007. Funding recommended with DKK 340 million over five years.......Appraisal of continued support to Ghana's health sector for a third phase covering 2003 - 2007. Funding recommended with DKK 340 million over five years....

  2. Achievement Goals, Competition Appraisals, and the Psychological and Emotional Welfare of Sport Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and th...

  3. COMMUNICATION OPENNESS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEMS ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between communication openness in performance appraisal systems and job satisfaction. A survey method was employed to gather data from employees who have worked in a privatized postal company in Sarawak, Malaysia. SmartPLS version 2.0 was used to determine the validity and reliability of instrument and test the research hypotheses. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed that explanation and feedback were positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. This result confirms that the ability of appraisers to clearly explain the performance appraisal practices and adequately provide feedback in determining performance scores have been important predictors of appraises’ job satisfaction in the studied organization. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  4. The effect of positive and negative memory bias on anxiety and depression symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Cheng, Joseph; Dai, Darren Wai Tong; Tam, Titian; Hui, Otilia

    2018-02-28

    To examine the interaction effect of anxiety and depression on the intentional forgetting of positive and negative valence words. One hundred fifty-five grade 7 to grade 10 students participated in the study. The item-method directed forgetting paradigm was used to examine the intentional forgetting of positive-valence, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Negative-valence words were recognized better than either positive-valence or neutral-valence words. The results revealed an anxiety main effect (p = .01, LLCI = -.09, and ULCI = -.01) and a depression main effect (p = .04, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .24). The anxiety score was negative, whereas the depression score was positively related to the directed forgetting of negative-valence words. Regression-based moderation analysis revealed a significant anxiety × depression interaction effect on the directed forgetting of positive-valence words (p = .02, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .01). Greater anxiety was associated with more directed forgetting of positive-valance words only among participants with high depression scores. With negative-valence words, the anxiety × depression interaction effect was not significant (p = .15, LLCI = - .00, and ULCI = .01). Therapeutic strategies to increase positive memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms only among those with high depression scores. Interventions to reduce negative memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms irrespective of levels of depression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Personal resilience, cognitive appraisals, and coping: an integrative model of adjustment to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, B; Richards, C; Cooper, M L; Cozzarelli, C; Zubek, J

    1998-03-01

    We hypothesized that the effects of personality (self-esteem, control, and optimism) on postabortion adaptation (distress, well-being, and decision satisfaction) would be fully mediated by preabortion cognitive appraisals (stress appraisals and self-efficacy appraisals) and postabortion coping. We further proposed that the effects of preabortion appraisals on adaptation would be fully mediated by postabortion coping. Results of a longitudinal study of 527 women who had first-trimester abortions supported our hypotheses. Women with more resilient personalities appraised their abortion as less stressful and had higher self-efficacy for coping with the abortion. More positive appraisals predicted greater acceptance/reframing coping and lesser avoidance/denial, venting, support seeking, and religious coping. Acceptance-reframing predicted better adjustment on all measures, whereas avoidance-denial and venting related to poorer adjustment on all measures. Greater support seeking was associated with reduced distress, and greater religious coping was associated with less decision satisfaction.

  6. SOCIAL-COMPARISON OF HEALTH RISKS - LOCUS OF CONTROL, THE PERSON-POSITIVITY BIAS, AND UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOORENS, [No Value; BUUNK, BP

    1993-01-01

    People typically attribute lower health risks to themselves than to others, a phenomenon referred to as unrealistic optimism. The present study tested the person positivity bias as a previously unexamined explanation of the phenomenon and analyzed the relationship between unrealistic optimism and

  7. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  8. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goneppanavar Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  9. Positively Biased Processing of Mother’s Emotions Predicts Children’s Social and Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Meghan Rose; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Tully, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother’s emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children (N=82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children’s attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother’s emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children’s prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother’s positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother’s positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children’s attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother’s emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems. PMID:28348456

  10. Risk of bias assessment of randomised controlled trials in high-impact ophthalmology journals and general medical journals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Lazar; Koucheki, Robert; Popovic, Marko; Ahmed, Yusuf; Schlenker, Matthew B; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-10-01

    Evidence-based treatments in ophthalmology are often based on the results of randomised controlled trials. Biased conclusions from randomised controlled trials may lead to inappropriate management recommendations. This systematic review investigates the prevalence of bias risk in randomised controlled trials published in high-impact ophthalmology journals and ophthalmology trials from general medical journals. Using Ovid MEDLINE, randomised controlled trials in the top 10 high-impact ophthalmology journals in 2015 were systematically identified and critically appraised for the prevalence of bias risk. Included randomised controlled trials were assessed in all domains of bias as defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. In addition, the prevalence of conflict of interest and industry sponsorship was investigated. A comparison with ophthalmology articles from high-impact general medical journals was performed. Of the 259 records that were screened from ophthalmology-specific journals, 119 trials met all inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. In total, 29.4% of domains had an unclear risk, 13.8% had a high risk and 56.8% had a low risk of bias. In comparison, ophthalmology articles from general medical journals had a lower prevalence of unclear risk (17.1%), higher prevalence of high risk (21.9%) and a higher prevalence of low risk domains (61.9%). Furthermore, 64.7% of critically appraised trials from ophthalmology-specific journals did not report any conflicts of interest, while 70.6% did not report an industry sponsor of their trial. In closing, it is essential that authors, peer reviewers and readers closely follow published risk of bias guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Automatic affective appraisal of sexual penetration stimuli in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijding, Jorg; Borg, Charmaine; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Current psychological views are that negative appraisals of sexual stimuli lie at the core of sexual dysfunctions. It is important to differentiate between deliberate appraisals and more automatic appraisals, as research has shown that the former are most relevant to controllable behaviors, and the latter are most relevant to reflexive behaviors. Accordingly, it can be hypothesized that in women with vaginismus, the persistent difficulty to allow vaginal entry is due to global negative automatic affective appraisals that trigger reflexive pelvic floor muscle contraction at the prospect of penetration. To test whether sexual penetration pictures elicited global negative automatic affective appraisals in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia and to examine whether deliberate appraisals and automatic appraisals differed between the two patient groups. Women with persistent vaginismus (N = 24), dyspareunia (N = 23), or no sexual complaints (N = 30) completed a pictorial Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST), and then made a global affective assessment of the EAST stimuli using visual analogue scales (VAS). The EAST assessed global automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli, while the VAS assessed global deliberate affective appraisals of these stimuli. Automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli tended to be positive, independent of the presence of sexual complaints. Deliberate appraisals of the same stimuli were significantly more negative in the women with vaginismus than in the dyspareunia group and control group, while the latter two groups did not differ in their appraisals. Unexpectedly, deliberate appraisals seemed to be most important in vaginismus, whereas dyspareunia did not seem to implicate negative deliberate or automatic affective appraisals. These findings dispute the view that global automatic affect lies at the core of vaginismus and indicate that a useful element in therapeutic interventions may be the modification of

  12. Naturalizing aesthetics: brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Gao, Xiaoqing; Tisdelle, Loren; Eickhoff, Simon B; Liotti, Mario

    2011-09-01

    We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Radiosonde Daily Bias by Comparing Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained from Global Positioning System and Radiosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geun Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the precipitable water vapor (PWV data derived from the radiosonde observation data at Sokcho Observatory and the PWV data at Sokcho Global Positioning System (GPS Observatory provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, from 0000 UTC, June 1, 2007 to 1200 UTC, May 31, 2009, and analyzed the radiosonde bias between the day and the night. In the scatter diagram of the daytime and nighttime radiosonde PWV data and the GPS PWV data, dry bias was found in the daytime radiosonde observation as known in the previous study. In addition, for all the rainfall events, the tendency that the wet bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV decreased and the dry bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV increased was significantly less distinctive in nighttime than in daytime. The quantitative analysis of the bias and error of the radiosonde PWV data showed that the mean bias decreased in the second year, regardless of nighttime or daytime rainfall, and the non-rainfall root mean square error (RMSE was similar to that of the previous studies, while the rainfall RMSE was larger to a certain extent.

  14. Appraisal in a Team Context: Perceptions of Cohesion Predict Competition Importance and Prospects for Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Svenja A; Eys, Mark A; Sadler, Pamela; Kleinert, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Athletes' precompetitive appraisal is important because it determines emotions, which may impact performance. When part of a team, athletes make their appraisal within a social context, and in this study we examined whether perceived team cohesion, as a characteristic of this context, related to appraisal. We asked 386 male and female intercollegiate team-sport athletes to respond to measures of cohesion and precompetitive appraisal before an in-season game. For males and females, across all teams, (a) an appraisal of increased competition importance was predicted by perceptions of higher task cohesion (individual level), better previous team performance, and a weaker opponent (team level) and (b) an appraisal of more positive prospects for coping with competitive demands was predicted by higher individual attractions to the group (individual level). Consequently, athletes who perceive their team as more cohesive likely appraise the pending competition as a challenge, which would benefit both emotions and performance.

  15. Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive bias modification on emotional vulnerability†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Ben; MacLeod, Colin; Rudaizky, Daniel; Holmes, Emily A; Salemink, Elske; Fox, Elaine; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-11-01

    If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al 's conclusions in light of these findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  16. Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-06-01

    Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.

  17. Emotional bias of sleep-dependent processing shifts from negative to positive with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany J; Schultz, Kurt S; Adams, Sydney; Baran, Bengi; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-09-01

    Age-related memory decline has been proposed to result partially from impairments in memory consolidation over sleep. However, such decline may reflect a shift toward selective processing of positive information with age rather than impaired sleep-related mechanisms. In the present study, young and older adults viewed negative and neutral pictures or positive and neutral pictures and underwent a recognition test after sleep or wake. Subjective emotional reactivity and affect were also measured. Compared with waking, sleep preserved valence ratings and memory for positive but not negative pictures in older adults and negative but not positive pictures in young adults. In older adults, memory for positive pictures was associated with slow wave sleep. Furthermore, slow wave sleep predicted positive affect in older adults but was inversely related to positive affect in young adults. These relationships were strongest for older adults with high memory for positive pictures and young adults with high memory for negative pictures. Collectively, these results indicate preserved but selective sleep-dependent memory processing with healthy aging that may be biased to enhance emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  19. 76 FR 72306 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... disciplinary action in any state in which the appraiser is certified; * * * * * (c) * * * (1) Appraisers subject to state disciplinary action. An appraiser whose state certification in any state has been revoked, suspended, or surrendered as a result of a state disciplinary action is automatically suspended from the...

  20. Critically appraising qualitative research: a guide for clinicians more familiar with quantitative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Stephen; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Papers using qualitative methods are increasingly common in psychiatric journals. This overview is an introduction to critically appraising a qualitative paper for clinicians who are more familiar with quantitative methods. Qualitative research uses data from interviews (semi-structured or unstructured), focus groups, observations or written materials. Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data, rather than the more deductive, hypothesis centred approach of quantitative research. This overview compares and contrasts quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias and generalisability have qualitative equivalents. These include triangulation, trustworthiness, saturation, reflexivity and applicability. Reflexivity also shares features of transference. Qualitative approaches include: ethnography, action-assessment, grounded theory, case studies and mixed methods. Qualitative research can complement quantitative approaches. An understanding of both is useful in critically appraising the psychiatric literature.

  1. Formal appraisal of undergraduate medical students: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah G; Levene, Malcolm I

    2004-02-01

    Medical student stress is most often related to difficulties of adjusting to university academic standards, and work-social life balance. Faculty systems identify academically failing students for counselling, whilst the majority of students do not have opportunities for individual discussion about progress. This study reports a pilot formal appraisal process for first-year undergraduates. Preparatory material required students to reflect on their academic performance, factors contributing to their university life and satisfaction with career choice. Individual appraisal sessions were held with trained, experienced senior faculty staff, with completion of an appraisal record to document agreed outcomes. Individualized study skills advice was the commonest documented outcome on appraisal records. Students were overwhelmingly positive about the experience, reporting both enhanced perceptions of faculty and reduced anxiety about academic performance. Medical schools have responsibilities to consider ways to optimize students' performance; attainment can be related more to personal and motivational factors than academic ability.

  2. An appraisal profile of nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Bruder, Martin; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-03-05

    The authors aimed to (a) identify the cognitive appraisals underlying nostalgia and (b) compare nostalgia with other emotions in terms of its appraisal profile. In Study 1, participants (N = 1,125) generated narratives. Next, they reported the level of nostalgia and 31 other emotions that these narratives elicited. Subsequently, participants evaluated the narrative events on several cognitive appraisals. Events that elicited nostalgia were pleasant, involved an irretrievable loss, felt psychologically distant, and were unique-an appraisal profile that differed from all other emotions. In Study 2 (N = 1,261), the authors experimentally varied these appraisals in a vignette paradigm and measured anticipated nostalgia and 10 other emotions. Participants anticipated most nostalgia when events were pleasant, involved irretrievable loss, were distant, and were unique-a profile shared only with longing. In Study 3 (N = 994), the authors used a guided autobiographical recall procedure in which they manipulated appraisals and measured the resultant emotions. Corroborating Studies 1-2, nostalgia was most intense for events that were pleasant, irretrievably lost, temporally distant, and unique. This appraisal profile was not shared by other emotions. The findings delineate the distinguishing cognitive appraisal profile of nostalgia. Nostalgia occupies a special place in the pantheon of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  4. The Myth of Offenders' Deception on Self-Report Measure Predicting Recidivism: Example from the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Loza-Fanous, Amel; Heseltine, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the vulnerability of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) to deception and self-presentation biases. The SAQ is a self-report measure used to predict recidivism and guide institutional and program assignments. In the first study, comparisons were made between 429 volunteer offenders who completed the SAQ…

  5. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking and... appraise the property in question. All appraisals will include consideration of the potential effects from... value of the collateral. For additional guidance and information concerning the completion of real...

  6. Breakup-related appraisals and the psychological well-being of young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglarek, Peter; Darbes, Lynae; Stephenson, Rob; Bauermeister, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Participation in romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood provides opportunities to explore one's sexuality, yet may also cause distress once these relationships dissolve. Although researchers have asserted that participation in same-sex relationships may be beneficial for young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) psychosocial well-being, less is known about YGBM appraisals of breakups after participating in same-sex relationships. We examined the association between self-reported psychological well-being (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety; self-esteem, sense of personal competency) and YGBM's negative and positive appraisals of breakups within a sample of single YGBM (N=1,040; ages 18-24) who reported prior serious same-sex relationships. Negative appraisals were associated with lower psychological well-being. Positive appraisals were associated with greater anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and sense of personal competency. Our findings highlight the need to acknowledge how YGBM's differential responses to breakups may be associated with their psychological well-being.

  7. Influence of Provider Communication on Women's Delivery Expectations and Birth Experience Appraisal: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Womack, Jasmyne J; Hodge, Joshua A

    2016-07-01

    Although current research suggests that patient-provider prenatal communication and expectation-setting affects women's outcomes, more needs to be understood about the kinds of communication experiences that shape women's expectations, the nature of expectations that women hold, and how those expectations influence their appraisal of labor and delivery. The goal of this study is to draw connections between provider communication, birth experience expectations, and birth experience appraisals. Recently delivered mothers (n=36) were recruited at a mid-Atlantic community hospital. Using a grounded theory approach, interviews were systematically analyzed to uncover how participants perceived provider communication during their prenatal care, how participants described their expectations of the birth experience, and how expectations affected appraisals of the experience. Mothers recognize providers' use of patient-centered communication in messages of empowerment, emotional support, explanation, decision making, and elicitation. Findings posit that it is the inflexibility or flexibility of expectations that may determine mothers' appraisals of the birth experience. Mothers continue to rely on providers as partners in health care. Through patient-centered communication, providers can help mothers develop flexible expectations of the birth experience, which in turn can result in positive appraisals of delivery.

  8. Influence of white light illumination on the performance of a-IGZO thin film transistor under positive gate-bias stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lan-Feng; Yu, Guang; Lu, Hai; Wu, Chen-Fei; Qian, Hui-Min; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    The influence of white light illumination on the stability of an amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor is investigated in this work. Under prolonged positive gate bias stress, the device illuminated by white light exhibits smaller positive threshold voltage shift than the device stressed under dark. There are simultaneous degradations of field-effect mobility for both stressed devices, which follows a similar trend to that of the threshold voltage shift. The reduced threshold voltage shift under illumination is explained by a competition between bias-induced interface carrier trapping effect and photon-induced carrier detrapping effect. It is further found that white light illumination could even excite and release trapped carriers originally exiting at the device interface before positive gate bias stress, so that the threshold voltage could recover to an even lower value than that in an equilibrium state. The effect of photo-excitation of oxygen vacancies within the a-IGZO film is also discussed. Project supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB301900 and 2011CB922100) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  9. A field study of discrete emotions: athletes' cognitive appraisals during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive-motivational-relational theory (CMRT) emphasizes that cognitive appraisal components and core relational themes (in which the 6 separate appraisal judgments are brought together as 1) are the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. This study aimed to explore appraisals associated with discrete emotions experienced by athletes during competition by adopting a naturalistic, qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table-tennis players. Qualitative inductive and deductive content analyses were conducted on the participants' transcripts. Content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego involvement, blame or credit, coping potential, and future expectations) were associated with a range of positive and negative discrete emotions: self-, other-, and environmental-oriented anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, hope, and pride. Hierarchical content analyses also provided some support for the concept of core relational themes. Findings of the present study are consistent with a CMRT approach and highlight that primary and secondary appraisals as well as core relational themes are associated with discrete emotions experienced by athletes while competing. Limitations and practical applications of this study are discussed.

  10. Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence.

  11. Appraisal of Student-Teacher's Attitude Toward Teaching Profession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposition of teachers within and outside the school will in no little amount positively affect the academic achievement of students. Thus, this paper is a descriptive survey which sought to appraise the attitude of student-teacher's relationship across teacher training institutes in Lagos State, Nigeria. This study was ...

  12. THE EFFECT OF PERSON-JOB FIT ON THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: A RESEARCH IN KONYA TEXTILE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Şükrü ÇETİNKAYA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of person-job fit may be one of the possible reasons for the symptoms of absence at work, increase in social loafing, employee turnover, burnout, stress etc. among employees in an organization. The compatibility of knowledge level, skills and personal traits with job characteristics determines the level of employee job satisfaction, effectiveness, productivity and performance. Performance appraisal practices, which assess employee performance level, enable organizations get aware of the importance of person-job fit. This quantitative research aimed to determine the effect of person-job fit on performance appraisal in organizations. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques were employed to test the proposed hypotheses based on 223 valid responses gathered through questionnaire from textile enterprises operating in Konya province. Research findings revealed that both person fit and job fit components of the person-job fit structure have positive effect on performance appraisal. Results revealed that when person-job fit was satisfied, employees have positive attitude against performance appraisal practices.

  13. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.44 Fee appraisals. (a) Definitions and procedures. (1) The complete and.... The keynote of this approach lies in the sound development of a proper rate. The appraiser must have a...

  14. Conducting effective performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    According to experts, performance appraisals rate just below firing someone as the least favorite thing managers do. Many factors contribute to this view--one is that current systems do a poor job of evaluating performance and in fact often impede both evaluation and performance. When used as part of an ongoing supportive process of goal setting and feedback, performance appraisals can enhance performance and morale. One alternative to traditional employee evaluation methods is full-circle or 360-degree feedback. Contained in this issue are practical suggestions for preparing employees for performance appraisals which, when followed daily, encourage employees to put their best feet forward as part of their regular routine. Also included is a template specific to assessing the performance of clinical laboratory technologists . Additionally, numerous resources are provided to help you refine appraisal systems to fit your needs. Full-circle feedback is proving to be a boon to managers. It relieves them from being the exclusive "heavies" in evaluating performance, integrates appraisal input from several sources, and incorporates increasing employee skills, competencies, and satisfaction, thus improving productivity of people and processes. And aren't integration and continuous improvement what the laboratory is all about?

  15. Investigation on the electrical characteristics of a pentacene thin-film transistor and its reliability under positive drain bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Chiu, Ping-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Chiang, Chin-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically investigates the effects of pentacene deposition rates and channel lengths on the electrical characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and the performance degradation of OTFTs under the positive drain bias stress. With a slower deposition rate of the pentacene channel layer, the larger grain size is formed, and it improves the performance of pentacene-based OTFTs. As the channel length decreases, the threshold voltage (V TH ) shifts toward the positive direction and the field-effect mobility (µ FE ) decreases, which are due to the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and the lower mobility in the active channel near the region of source/drain electrodes, respectively. In addition, we also propose a mechanism to present the channel length dependence on the field-effect mobility. Results also show that the pentacene-based OTFTs, which are under positive drain bias stress, exhibit greater performance degradation than those under negative drain bias stress. The greater performance degradation, the decreasing I ON and the larger V TH shift are due to the greater trap state density (N trap ) created in the bulk channel by the large lateral electrical field and the carriers injected into the gate insulator by the large vertical electrical field, respectively

  16. Caregiving Appraisal in Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caregiving appraisal is a multidimensional concept, which has positive and negative aspects. By taking into account all aspects of this concept, one can better understand and ultimately has a more comprehensive assessment of the status of caregivers, and implement effective interventions towards improving the health of this group.

  17. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  18. Fear appeals motivate acceptance of recommendations: evidence for a positive bias in the processing of persuasive messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; de Wit, J.B.F.; Stroebe, W.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that tested the hypothesis that the use of fear appeals in health persuasion may lead to positively biased systematic processing of a subsequent action recommendation aimed at reducing the health threat and, consequently, to more persuasion, regardless of the quality

  19. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  20. The Power of Developmental Performance Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Salim Alghanabousi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of employee performance is a must that any organization should take into account to be a successful in achieving its goals. However, the tools of developing that performance are varying based on the type of the organization and the nature of the work performed. Performance appraisal is one of the effective tools that help the organization to measure the accomplishment of its goals, if implemented effectively. In education, it became evident that performance appraisal of educators is an essential element of the development of any educational institution. To make the performance appraisal fruitful, the development element should be dominant in the sense that other elements of the appraisal should serve the broad aim of the appraisal process. Therefore, a well-designed and comprehensive system is needed to cover all the aspects of appraisal process that include of the goals, criteria, instruments, and continuous support.

  1. Calibrating the sociometer: the relationship between interpersonal appraisals and state self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, M R; Haupt, A L; Strausser, K S; Chokel, J T

    1998-05-01

    Four experiments examined the functional relationship between interpersonal appraisal and subjective feelings about oneself. Participants imagined receiving one of several positive or negative reactions from another person (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or actually received interpersonal evaluations (Experiment 4), then completed measures relevant to state self-esteem. All 4 studies showed that subjective feelings were a curvilinear, ogival function of others' appraisals. Although trait self-esteem correlated with state reactions as a main effect, it did not moderate participants' reactions to interpersonal feedback.

  2. How "Does" the Comforting Process Work? An Empirical Test of an Appraisal-Based Model of Comforting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susanne M.; Wirtz, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Burleson and Goldsmith's (1998) comforting model suggests an appraisal-based mechanism through which comforting messages can bring about a positive change in emotional states. This study is a first empirical test of three causal linkages implied by the appraisal-based comforting model. Participants (N=258) talked about an upsetting event with a…

  3. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  4. Importance of change appraisal for employee well-being during organizational restructuring: findings from the Finnish paper industry's extensive transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Väänänen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppänen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal.

  5. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...

  6. Appraised leadership styles, psychosocial work factors, and musculoskeletal pain among public employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Ylva; Osterberg, Mia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Karlqvist, Lena; Bildt, Carina

    2007-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the associations between appraised leadership styles, psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain among subordinates in four different public service sectors from an epidemiological perspective. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted; data from 2,403 public sector employees in subordinate positions (86% women) were analysed. The appraised leadership styles were measured through items from a modified version of the CPE questionnaire (C change, P production/structure, E employee/relation). The structure validity of the CPE-model was examined by principal component analysis (PCA). Univariate and multivariate analyses of associations between levels of musculoskeletal pain and appraised leadership styles and with psychosocial work factors were conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% were used as a measure of associations. There were small variations in the appraisals of the immediate manager among the subordinates. However, the associations between musculoskeletal pain and leadership styles varied according to sector. Poor appraisals (low scores) on "change" and "employee relation" dimensions were associated with high levels of musculoskeletal pain in two sectors: home and health care services. In the domestic catering services, poor appraisals of managers in the "production/structure" dimension had the strongest association with high levels of pain. In general, poor appraisals of the "change" dimension was most strongly associated with high levels of musculoskeletal pain. "High work demands" had the strongest association with high levels of pain, particularly among the men. Poor appraisals of managers and their leadership styles were associated with high levels of musculoskeletal pain among both female and male subordinates in different public service sectors. There is therefore a great need of further studies of the mechanisms behind the relationships between the leadership

  7. Life stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in women after cancer: The mediating effect of stress appraisal and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Porter-Steele, Janine; Ng, Shu-Kay; Turner, Jane; McGuire, Amanda; McDonald, Nicole; Balaam, Sarah; Yates, Patsy; McCarthy, Alexandra; Anderson, Debra

    2018-04-06

    This paper examines the direct and intermediary relationships between life stress, stress appraisal, and resilience, and increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in Australian women after cancer treatment. Data examined from 278 women aged 18 years and older previously treated for breast, gynaecological, or blood cancer, participating in the Australian Women's Wellness after Cancer Program. Serial mediation models interrogated the effect of stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences-Modified) mediated by appraisal and coping (Perceived Stress Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), on symptoms of anxiety and depression (Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Over one-quarter (30.2%) of participants reported 1 or more stressful life events, other than their cancer, in the previous 6 months. Results indicate that perceived stress fully mediated the relationships between life stress, anxiety (indirect effect = 0.09, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.18, Percent mediation = 0.51), and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.11, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.23, Percent mediation = 0.71) and accounted for more than half of the relationship between predictor and outcome. Findings indicate that stress appraisal mediated the relationship between past life stressors and anxiety and depressive symptoms. This analysis also highlights the need to consider wellness within a broader care context to identify potentially vulnerable patients to possibly avert future health concerns. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Photovoltaic Bias Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an... Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing wrapped-wire side of circuit board...3 Fig. 4 Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing component side of circuit board

  9. Domain wall engineering through exchange bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The control of the structure and position of magnetic domain walls is at the basis of the development of different magnetic devices and architectures. Several nanofabrication techniques have been proposed to geometrically confine and shape domain wall structures; however, a fine tuning of the position and micromagnetic configuration is hardly achieved, especially in continuous films. This work shows that, by controlling the unidirectional anisotropy of a continuous ferromagnetic film through exchange bias, domain walls whose spin arrangement is generally not favored by dipolar and exchange interactions can be created. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the domain wall width, position and profile can be tuned by establishing an abrupt change in the direction and magnitude of the exchange bias field set in the system. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic simulations study domain walls in exchange biased thin films. • Novel domain wall configurations can be stabilized via exchange bias. • Domain walls nucleate at the boundary of regions with different exchange bias. • Domain wall width and spin profile are controlled by tuning the exchange bias.

  10. Using functional analysis in archival appraisal a practical and effective alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Marcus C

    2014-01-01

    In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.

  11. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  12. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part must be appraised at their fair market value by an appraiser selected by APHIS. APHIS may decline... veterinarian in charge may grant a reasonable time for the presentation of their registration papers. [67 FR...

  13. Internet-based attention bias modification for social anxiety: a randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Johanna; Leek, Linda; Matson, Lisa; Holmes, Emily A; Browning, Michael; MacLeod, Colin; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2013-01-01

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (dwithin  = 0.63-1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463137.

  14. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  16. Lost in translation: Review of identification bias, translation bias and research waste in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To review how articles are retrieved from bibliographic databases, what article identification and translation problems have affected research, and how these problems can contribute to research waste and affect clinical practice. This literature review sought and appraised articles regarding identification- and translation-bias in the medical and dental literature, which limit the ability of users to find research articles and to use these in practice. Articles can be retrieved from bibliographic databases by performing a word or index-term (for example, MeSH for MEDLINE) search. Identification of articles is challenging when it is not clear which words are most relevant, and which terms have been allocated to indexing fields. Poor reporting quality of abstracts and articles has been reported across the medical literature at large. Specifically in dentistry, research regarding time-to-event survival analyses found the allocation of MeSH terms to be inconsistent and inaccurate, important words were omitted from abstracts by authors, and the quality of reporting in the body of articles was generally poor. These shortcomings mean that articles will be difficult to identify, and difficult to understand if found. Use of specialized electronic search strategies can decrease identification bias, and use of tailored reporting guidelines can decrease translation bias. Research that cannot be found, or cannot be used results in research waste, and undermines clinical practice. Identification- and translation-bias have been shown to affect time-to-event dental articles, are likely affect other fields of research, and are largely unrecognized by authors and evidence seekers alike. By understanding that the problems exist, solutions can be sought to improve identification and translation of our research. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Health risk perception, optimistic bias, and personal satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    To examine change in risk perception and optimistic bias concerning behavior-linked health threats and environmental health threats between adolescence and young adulthood and how these factors related to personal satisfaction. In 1996 and 2002, 1624 adolescents responded to a mailed questionnaire. Adolescents showed strong positive optimistic bias concerning behaviorlinked risks, and this optimistic bias increased with age. Increase in optimistic bias over time predicted increase in personal satisfaction. The capacity to process and perceive potential threats in a positive manner might be a valuable human ability positively influencing personal satisfaction and well-being.

  19. Increasing Gender Diversity in Senior Roles in HE: Who Is Afraid of Positive Action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Manfredi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Higher Education Institutions should adopt positive action in recruitment and promotion to tackle women’s under-representation in senior leadership roles. In a tie-break situation where two candidates are “as qualified as each other”, section 159 of the UK Equality Act 2010 allows employers to give preference to a candidate from an under-represented group. The use of this measure, however, is often contested on the grounds that it is a form of reverse discrimination, it is tokenistic and that it can undermine meritocracy. This article seeks to challenge these objections and suggests that, far from undermining meritocracy, the use of positive action in recruitment and promotion could prove a useful tool to tackle gender bias, unpack stereotypes and re-appraise how merit is defined and assessed.

  20. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.I.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the

  1. Double attention bias for positive and negative emotional faces in clinical depression: evidence from an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Almudena; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2015-03-01

    According to cognitive models, attentional biases in depression play key roles in the onset and subsequent maintenance of the disorder. The present study examines the processing of emotional facial expressions (happy, angry, and sad) in depressed and non-depressed adults. Sixteen unmedicated patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 34 never-depressed controls (ND) completed an eye-tracking task to assess different components of visual attention (orienting attention and maintenance of attention) in the processing of emotional faces. Compared to ND, participants with MDD showed a negative attentional bias in attentional maintenance indices (i.e. first fixation duration and total fixation time) for sad faces. This attentional bias was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the MDD group spent a marginally less amount of time viewing happy faces compared with the ND group. No differences were found between the groups with respect to angry faces and orienting attention indices. The current study is limited by its cross-sectional design. These results support the notion that attentional biases in depression are specific to depression-related information and that they operate in later stages in the deployment of attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of valence focus and appraisal overlap in emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Emotion differentiation refers to the level of specificity with which people distinguish between their emotional states and is considered to play an important role for psychological well-being. Yet, not much is known about what characterizes people high or low in emotion differentiation and what underlies these differences. In 2 studies involving experience sampling (Studies 1-2) and lab based (Study 2) methods, we investigated how emotion differentiation is related to individual differences in valence focus and the overlap in appraisal patterns between emotions. In line with expectations, results showed that high levels of both positive and negative emotion differentiation are related to lower levels of valence focus and lower levels of appraisal overlap between emotions. These findings suggest that individuals who are low in emotion differentiation mainly emphasize the valence aspect of emotions while individuals who are high in emotion differentiation make stronger distinctions between emotions in terms of their underlying appraisal profiles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses

  4. HOW APPRAISERS DEVELOP FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ŠKODA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  5. Analysis of Appraising Agricultural Intangible Asset Value by Cost Method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Juan

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of describing the connotation of agricultural intangible asset and cost method, the technical ideas of appraising by cost method are introduced. The article analyzes the advantages (simple appraisal principle and easy to understand and grasp; overall consideration of various factors related to appraisal result value) and disadvantages (high appraisal cost; difficult to appraise and grasp various appraisal factors) of appraising by cost method. The article also summarizes the prec...

  6. Is Positive Bias in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder a Function of Low Competence or Disorder Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Yuko; Owens, Julie S.; Serrano, Verenea; Evans, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a positive bias (PB), defined as an over-estimation of one's own ability as compared with actual ability. However, it is possible that the larger discrepancy (i.e., PB) in children with ADHD is accounted for by lower competence levels rather…

  7. Internet-Based Attention Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Training towards Negative and Training Towards Positive Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Johanna; Leek, Linda; Matson, Lisa; Holmes, Emily A.; Browning, Michael; MacLeod, Colin; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2013-01-01

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (dwithin  = 0.63–1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed. Trial Registration Clinical

  8. Internet-based attention bias modification for social anxiety: a randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Boettcher

    Full Text Available Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD. The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (dwithin  = 0.63-1.24, with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed

  9. The appraisal rationalisation of real estate expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ciuna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian appraisal practice is characterized by valuations developed in subjective opinions formulated by the valuers, according to the experience and the competence rather than on the survey of the market data of comparable properties. This practice makes up for the lack of information on the real estate market and to the consequent absence of systematic collections of market data. This tradition is in the cadastral appraisal for the rural (1886 and urban properties (1939. The assessed income is appraised for a representative property and wide to all the other properties with arbitrary scores (pure number. The assessed value is derived from the income with fixed multipliers. The reform of the cadastral appraisals (2013 provides the employment of predetermined statistic functions rather than the automated valuation models applied in the mass appraisal. There are therefore ample spaces to rationalize the Italian valuations. For the market appraisal the process of rationalization is based on the comparison between the expertise and the market comparison approach. For the cadastral appraisal the process of rationalization is based on the statistic application to the fixed functions with the survey of a sample of market prices and the ratios study according to the valuation standards.

  10. How Should an Effective Performance Appraisal Be: EFL Teachers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is set to examine EFL teachers’ perceptions, views about what makes an effective performance appraisal system by adopting a quantitative survey design for data collection. A total number of 45 college instructors in the Sultanate of Oman responded to survey on: how is an effective performance appraisal perceived by EFL teachers? How do teachers perceive their participation in developing the appraisal system? And how might the present performance appraisal practices be improved? The result reveals that staff participation in developing performance appraisal system and goals, feedback confidentiality, quality appraiser, quality of place and time of appraisal, appraiser-appraisee relationships, and developmental nature of performance appraisal would help in making effective appraisal and the overall PA effectiveness depends mostly on these factors. The result has a significant implication for improving the process of teacher performance appraisal in Oman and enriches the body knowledge of PA in general. The study puts forwards suggestions and recommendations for improving PA practices and exercises in EFL contexts.

  11. Modifying Adolescent Interpretation Biases Through Cognitive Training: Effects on Negative Affect and Stress Appraisals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telman, M.D.; Holmes, E.A; Lau, J.Y.F

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of

  12. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: associations with fear, anxiety and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa M; Hunter, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Despite the well-documented success of cognitive restructuring techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is still little clarity on which cognitions underpin fear and anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether certain cognitive appraisals, known to be associated with fear and anxiety in typically developing groups, may help explain these emotions in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. It also investigated relations between these cognitive appraisals and theory of mind. Appraisals, fear and anxiety were assessed using a vignette approach in 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 22 typically developing children. The two groups differed significantly on all four appraisal types. Anxiety was negatively correlated with future expectancy and positively with problem-focused coping potential in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group but was not correlated with appraisals in the typically developing group. The two appraisals associated with fear were emotion-focused coping potential (in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group only) and self-accountability (in the typically developing group only). Linear regression analysis found that appraisals of emotion-focused coping potential, problem-focused coping potential and future expectancy were significant predictors of theory-of-mind ability in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders group. These findings indicate that specific, problematic patterns of appraisal may characterise children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  13. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2012-06-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one's own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy that resulted. The more a situation was appraised as undeserved, the more participants experienced malicious envy. Benign envy was experienced more when the situation was not undeserved, and the most when the situation was appraised as both deserved and controllable. The current research also clarifies how the types of envy differ from the related emotions admiration and resentment.

  14. Cognitive moderators of children's adjustment to stressful divorce events: the role of negative cognitive errors and positive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Virdin, L; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether children's cognitive appraisal biases moderate the impact of stressful divorce-related events on psychological adjustment in 355 children ages 9 to 12, whose families had experienced divorce within the past 2 years. Multiple regression indicated that endorsement of negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderates the relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only for older children. Positive illusions buffer the effects of stressful divorce events on child-reported depression and mother-reported externalizing problems. Implications of these results for theories of stress and coping, as well as for interventions for children of divorced families, are discussed.

  15. A Model of International Communication Media Appraisal and Exposure: A Comprehensive Test in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki

    A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…

  16. Current practices in economic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    By means of economic appraisal, the costs and the benefits of health, environment and safety management can be made clear, both at the national level and at the company level. As such it is a tool in advocating good practices. This paper explores the possibilities of economic appraisal for policy

  17. Appraisal of Transport Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    and robustness measures have been elaborated, which examine the subjective part of the MCDA (in form of criteria weights) and its role in decision support making. For this purpose both deterministic and stochastic sensitivity analyses have been developed. In addition, the focus has been formulating a framework...... into account the interests and preferences of different stakeholders. These various interests and preferences have been revealed by the use of decision conferencing, which engage the stakeholders and provide a common platform for understanding the decision problem. Leading up to this framework, this thesis has......, as robustness of a recommended solution is major concern in the final steps of decision making. As mentioned, the appraisal of transport projects is a complex issues involving conflict of various interests and this calls for new approaches to the practice of appraisal. The presented appraisal framework...

  18. APPRAISAL ANALYSIS IN FREEDOM WRITERS MOVIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Hidayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to find out conveyed messages in the movie from the realization of the appraisal and narrative structure as well as to describe the use of the Appraisal System to express LaGravenese's (a Attitudes, (bEngagement & (c Graduation towards the main characters in Freedom Writers movie screenplay. Using both quantitative and qualitative descriptive approach for discourse appraisal system analysis, the result of this study reveals several messages of tolerance, earning respect and trust, honor diversity, and striving for success and trust from the realization of Appraisal and Narrative Structure either in the dialogues or monologues of Freedom Writers’ characters. The result from the Appraisal Devices realizing (a Attitudes reveals that LaGravenese likes to express characters’ negative emotion explicitly than implicitly. He likes to express characters’ negative capability than other kinds of Judgments. He appreciates the characters using more Negative Value which denotes that in his opinion, they see each other negatively. (bEngagement used in the screenplay describes that he emphasizes more on characters’ denial towards each other’s opinion and existence with the use of more Disclaim Heterogloss in the screenplay. (cGraduation used in the screenplay describes that the use of more Sharpening Focus indicates he emphasizes on characters’ category boundary more than scaling of intensity. Keywords: Appraisal Devices, Attitude, Engagement, and Graduation.

  19. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  20. The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care Chambers Ruth et al The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care 189pp Radcliffe Publishing 9781857756029 1857756029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-02

    The principles and frameworks demonstrated in this book could be used in many other healthcare settings. The text is divided neatly into nine chapters and addresses practical issues such as being an effective appraiser, developing and demonstrating competence, linking appraisal with career development, and evaluation of the appraisal process. The comprehensive approach to all aspects of appraisal makes this a must-have book for all health professionals and managers undertaking appraisals. It should also appeal to clinical governance leads and individuals being appraised. There are excellent tips on how to prepare for appraisals and how to link this with reflection, lifelong learning, career direction, and so on. The book is well referenced and contains an appendix with useful examples for the appraiser.

  1. Is the Positive Bias an ADHD Phenomenon? Reexamining the Positive Bias and its Correlates in a Heterogeneous Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Owens, Julie S; Dawson, Anne E; Evans, Steven W; Langberg, Joshua M; Flory, Kate; Lorch, Elizabeth P

    2017-11-25

    The goals of this study were to (a) evaluate the presence of the positive bias (PB) in elementary-school-aged children with and without ADHD when PB is defined at the individual level through latent profile analysis and (b) examine the extent to which several correlates (i.e., social functioning, aggression, depression, and anxiety) are associated with the PB. Participants were 233 youth (30% female; 8 to 10 years of age), 51% of whom met criteria for ADHD. During an individual evaluation, children and parents completed a battery of questionnaires to assess child competence, depression, anxiety, and aggression. Children also participated in a novel group session with same-sex unfamiliar peers (half of the group was comprised of children with ADHD) to engage in group problem-solving tasks and free play activities. After the group session, peers and staff completed ratings of each child's behavior (e.g., likeability, rule following). The best fitting LPA model for parent and self-ratings of competence revealed four profiles: High Competence/Self-Aware; Variable Competence/Self-Aware; Low Competence/Self-Aware; and Low Competence/PB, in which the PB was present across domains. Only 10% of youth showed a PB and youth with ADHD were no more likely to display the PB than their non-ADHD peers with similar levels of low competence. Lastly, the Low Competence/Self-Aware profile demonstrated higher levels of anxiety and depression than the Low Competence/PB profile; the profiles did not differ on aggression or peer or staff ratings of social/behavioral functioning. Implications for understanding the PB in children with and without ADHD are discussed.

  2. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  3. Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F Mueller

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before

  4. Cancer-related fatigue and depression in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy: Different associations with optimism and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovich, Inbar; Cohen, Miri; Pollack, Shimon; Drumea, Karen; Fried, Georgeta

    2015-10-01

    Symptoms of depression and cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are common among breast cancer patients postchemotherapy and may seriously impair quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to assess the relationship between depression and CRF in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy and to examine their relationships to optimism and to threat and challenge appraisals. Participants included 95 breast cancer patients (stages 1-3) 1 to 6 months after completion of chemotherapy. Patients submitted personal and medical details and completed the following: physical symptom questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, and QLQ-BR23), a symptoms of depression questionnaire (CES-D), the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI), the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and a stress appraisals questionnaire. We found levels of depression, CRF, and appraisals of cancer as a threat to bemoderate and levels of optimism and appraisals of cancer as a challenge to be high. Depression and CRF were positively associated. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that 51% of the CRF variancewas explained; physical symptoms and threat appraisal were significantly associated with CRF. A 67% of the CRF variance of depression was explained; challenge and threat appraisals were significantly associated with depression [corrected]. Although CRF and depression were often experienced simultaneously and both were found to be higher among individuals who gave higher appraisals of cancer as a threat, only depression was related to optimism and challenge appraisals, while CRF was related mainly to intensity of physical symptoms. The different pattern of associations between optimism and appraisals warrants further clinical attention as well as future study.

  5. Negativity bias and task motivation: testing the effectiveness of positively versus negatively framed incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kelly; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economists, and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals' task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared with when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people's intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation as a result of the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The System of Employee Appraisal in a Company

    OpenAIRE

    Vaverová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor study called "The System of Employee Appraisal in a Company" deals with a general subscription of a personal process "Employee appraisal". It describes the principles of the system of employee appraisal and also covers the conditions necessary for its efficiency and operation. The bachelor study is focused on the system of employee appraisal centrally implemented in company ČEZ, a. s. This system is analyzed and compared with generally stated theoretical principles. The study in...

  7. Research report appraisal: how much understanding is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2014-07-01

    When appraising research papers, how much understanding is enough? More specifically, in deciding whether research results can inform practice, do appraisers need to substantively understand how findings are derived or is it sufficient simply to grasp that suitable analytic techniques were chosen and used by researchers? The degree or depth of understanding that research appraisers need to attain before findings can legitimately/sensibly inform practice is underexplored. In this paper it is argued that, where knowledge/justified beliefs derived from research evidence prompt actions that materially affect patient care, appraisers have an epistemic duty to demand high (maximal) rather than low (minimal) levels of understanding regards finding derivation (i.e. appraisers have a duty to seek a superior epistemic situation). If this argument holds assumptions about appraiser competence/ability and the feasibility of current UK conceptions of evidence based practice are destabilized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Better than I thought: positive evaluation bias in hypomania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Mason

    Full Text Available Mania is characterised by increased impulsivity and risk-taking, and psychological accounts argue that these features may be due to hypersensitivity to reward. The neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we examine reinforcement learning and sensitivity to both reward and punishment outcomes in hypomania-prone individuals not receiving pharmacotherapy.We recorded EEG from 45 healthy individuals split into three groups by low, intermediate and high self-reported hypomanic traits. Participants played a computerised card game in which they learned the reward contingencies of three cues. Neural responses to monetary gain and loss were measured using the feedback-related negativity (FRN, a component implicated in motivational outcome evaluation and reinforcement learning.As predicted, rewards elicited a smaller FRN in the hypomania-prone group relative to the low hypomania group, indicative of greater reward responsiveness. The hypomania-prone group also showed smaller FRN to losses, indicating diminished response to negative feedback.Our findings indicate that proneness to hypomania is associated with both reward hypersensitivity and discounting of punishment. This positive evaluation bias may be driven by aberrant reinforcement learning signals, which fail to update future expectations. This provides a possible neural mechanism explaining risk-taking and impaired reinforcement learning in BD. Further research will be needed to explore the potential value of the FRN as a biological vulnerability marker for mania and pathological risk-taking.

  9. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Astrid

    2012-08-16

    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  10. Wind power or uranium mine: Appraisal of two energy-related environmental changes in a local context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Johansson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the individual's appraisal of anticipated environmental changes caused by energy production facilities. The study took place in a Swedish village where exploratory drilling, that could eventually lead to a uranium mine, was being conducted at the same time as a wind farm was approved. Results from the survey, which included the total population, were interpreted in the light of cognitive stress theory. Most residents thought that the wind farm would have a positive impact on the village but that the uranium drilling would have a negative impact; these opinions were closely related to attitudes towards wind and nuclear power. Perceiving the wind farm as positive was further predicted by young age, high education, being an ordinary rather than a committed recycler and having attended a meeting about the wind farm. A negative view of uranium drilling was predicted by the individual valuing closeness to nature, being a recycler, and having attended the uranium meeting. Psychological factors such as concerns for the environment (manifested as pro-environmental behaviour), valuing closeness to nature, and involvement impinge on the appraisal process and should be considered when new developments are presented. - Highlights: ► We studied the appraisal of proposed local environmental changes due to energy facilities. ► A wind farm was appraised as beneficial and drilling for uranium mine as threatening. ► Attitudes towards wind and nuclear power were strongly associated with appraisal outcome. ► Concern for the environment, closeness to nature and participation also played a role.

  11. On the Borders of Harmful and Helpful Beauty Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agthe; Maria Strobel; Matthias Spörrle; Michaela Pfundmair; Jon K. Maner

    2016-01-01

    Research with European Caucasian samples demonstrates that attractiveness-based biases in social evaluation depend on the constellation of the sex of the evaluator and the sex of the target: Whereas people generally show positive biases toward attractive opposite-sex persons, they show less positive or even negative biases toward attractive same-sex persons. By examining these biases both within and between different ethnicities, the current studies provide new evidence for both the generaliz...

  12. Handbook for Conducting Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) B and C Appraisals, Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayes, Will; Miluk, Gene; Ming, Lisa; Glover, Margaret; Bisgrove, Jane; Cort, Corrine; Penn, Lynn; Jacobson, Nils; Beynon, Don; Allgood, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) provides a well-defined, publicly available set of methodologies for providing appraisals relative to Capability Maturity Model (trademark) Integration (CMMI) models...

  13. Leveraging position bias to improve peer recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lerman

    Full Text Available With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation.

  14. Use of a journal club and letter-writing exercise to teach critical appraisal to medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R; White, M; Gray, J; Fischbacher, C

    2001-07-01

    There is growing interest in methods of teaching critical appraisal skills at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. We describe an approach using a journal club and subsequent letter writing to teach critical appraisal and writing skills to medical undergraduates. The exercise occurs during a 3-week public health medicine attachment in the third year of the undergraduate curriculum. Students work in small groups to appraise a recently published research paper, present their findings to their peers in a journal club, and draft a letter to the journal editor. Evaluation took place through: informal and formal feedback from students; number of letters written, submitted and published, and a comparison of marks obtained by students submitting a literature review assignment with and without critical appraisal teaching during the public health attachment. Feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. In the first 3(1/2) years, 26 letters have been published or accepted for publication, and 58 letters published on the Internet. There were no significant differences in overall marks or marks for the critical appraisal component of the literature review assignments between the two student groups. We believe our approach is an innovative and enjoyable method for teaching critical appraisal and writing skills to medical students. Lack of difference in marks in the literature review between the student groups may reflect its insensitivity as an outcome measure, contamination by other critical appraisal teaching, or true ineffectiveness.

  15. Student Teachers’ Self-Appraised Problem-Solving Ability and Willingness to Engage in Troubleshooting Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Iorzer Labe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of student teachers’ willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities and their technological problem-solving self-appraised ability. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design to collect data from 310 purposively random sampled students from three universities in Northern Nigeria. Results of data analyses indicated that student teachers from the universities surveyed reported a moderate willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities as well as a moderately positive self-appraisal of their problem-solving ability. The student teachers’ willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities was also significantly related to the pattern of their self-appraised problem-solving ability. It was therefore concluded that the findings from this research do not support the pedestrian view that students from Nigerian universities are reluctant to engage in problem-solving activities.

  16. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V; Walker, Michael M

    2009-09-22

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within +/-29 degrees of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft.

  17. The effects of familiarity and complexity on appraisal of complex songs by cochlear implant recipients and normal hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Christ, Aaron; Knutson, John; Witt, Shelley; Mehr, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a test of complex song appraisal that would be suitable for use with adults who use a cochlear implant (assistive hearing device) and (b) to compare the appraisal ratings (liking) of complex songs by adults who use cochlear implants (n = 66) with a comparison group of adults with normal hearing (n = 36). The article describes the development of a computerized test for appraisal, with emphasis on its theoretical basis and the process for item selection of naturalistic stimuli. The appraisal test was administered to the 2 groups to determine the effects of prior song familiarity and subjective complexity on complex song appraisal. Comparison of the 2 groups indicates that the implant users rate 2 of 3 musical genres (country western, pop) as significantly more complex than do normal hearing adults, and give significantly less positive ratings to classical music than do normal hearing adults. Appraisal responses of implant recipients were examined in relation to hearing history, age, performance on speech perception and cognitive tests, and musical background.

  18. Attentional Bias Predicts Increased Reward Salience and Risk Taking in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Liam; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J; Bentall, Richard P; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-02-15

    There is amassing evidence that risky decision-making in bipolar disorder is related to reward-based differences in frontostriatal regions. However, the roles of early attentional and later cognitive processes remain unclear, limiting theoretical understanding and development of targeted interventions. Twenty euthymic bipolar disorder and 19 matched control participants played a Roulette task in which they won and lost money. Event-related potentials and source analysis were used to quantify predominantly sensory-attentional (N1), motivational salience (feedback-related negativities [FRN]), and cognitive appraisal (P300) stages of processing. We predicted that the bipolar disorder group would show increased N1, consistent with increased attentional orienting, and reduced FRN, consistent with a bias to perceive outcomes more favorably. As predicted, the bipolar disorder group showed increased N1 and reduced FRN but no differences in P300. N1 amplitude was additionally associated with real-life risk taking, and N1 source activity was reduced in visual cortex but increased activity in precuneus, frontopolar, and premotor cortex, compared to those of controls. These findings demonstrate an early attentional bias to reward that potentially drives risk taking by priming approach behavior and elevating reward salience in the frontostriatal pathway. Although later cognitive appraisals of these inputs may be relatively intact in remission, interventions targeting attention orienting may also be effective in long-term reduction of relapse. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Kalla

    Full Text Available The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  20. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Joshua L; Aronow, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  1. Advance care planning in 21st century Australia: a systematic review and appraisal of online advance care directive templates against national framework criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Bhattarai, Priyanka; Phillips, Jane; Agar, Meera; Currow, David; Krastev, Yordanka; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-11-01

    A drive to promote advance care planning at a population level has led to a proliferation of online advance care directive (ACD) templates but little information to guide consumer choice. The current study aimed to appraise the quality of online ACD templates promoted for use in Australia. A systematic review of online Australian ACD templates was conducted in February 2014. ACD templates were identified via Google searches, and quality was independently appraised by two reviewers against criteria from the 2011 report A National Frameworkfor Advance Care Directives. Bias either towards or against future medical treatment was assessed using criteria designed to limit subjectivity. Fourteen online ACD templates were included, all of which were available only in English. Templates developed by Southern Cross University best met the framework criteria. One ACD template was found to be biased against medical treatment--the Dying with Dignity Victoria Advance Healthcare Directive. More research is needed to understand how online resources can optimally elicit and record consumers' individual preferences for future care. Future iterations of the framework should address online availability and provide a simple rating system to inform choice and drive quality improvement.

  2. Attentional Bias for Pain and Sex, and Automatic Appraisals of Sexual Penetration: Differential Patterns in Dyspareunia vs Vaginismus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Reinhilde J; Dewitte, Marieke D; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Peters, Madelon M L; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Current information processing models propose that heightened attention bias for sex-related threats (eg, pain) and lowered automatic incentive processes ("wanting") may play an important role in the impairment of sexual arousal and the development of sexual dysfunctions such as genitopelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). Differential threat and incentive processing may also help explain the stronger persistence of coital avoidance in women with vaginismus compared to women with dyspareunia. As the first aim, we tested if women with GPPPD show (1) heightened attention for pain and sex, and (2) heightened threat and lower incentive associations with sexual penetration. Second, we examined whether the stronger persistence of coital avoidance in vaginismus vs dyspareunia might be explained by a stronger attentional bias or more dysfunctional automatic threat/incentive associations. Women with lifelong vaginismus (n = 37), dyspareunia (n = 29), and a no-symptoms comparison group (n = 51) completed a visual search task to assess attentional bias, and single target implicit-association tests to measure automatic sex-threat and sex-wanting associations. There were no group differences in attentional bias or automatic associations. Correlational analysis showed that slowed detection of sex stimuli and stronger automatic threat associations were related to lowered sexual arousal. The findings do not corroborate the view that attentional bias for pain or sex contributes to coital pain, or that differences in coital avoidance may be explained by differences in attentional bias or automatic threat/incentive associations. However, the correlational findings are consistent with the view that automatic threat associations and impaired attention for sex stimuli may interfere with the generation of sexual arousal. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Forgetting feelings: Opposite biases in reports of the intensity of past emotion and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robin L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Safer, Martin A

    2016-04-01

    Memory for feelings is subject to fading and bias over time. In 2 studies, the authors examined whether the magnitude and direction of bias depend on the type of feeling being recalled: emotion or mood. A few days after the U.S. Presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, participants reported how they felt about the election outcome (emotion) and how they felt in general (mood). A month after the elections, participants recalled their feelings. The intensity of past emotion was recalled more accurately than the intensity of past mood. Participants underestimated the intensity of emotion but overestimated the intensity of mood. Participants' appraisals of the importance of the election, which diminished over time, contributed to underestimating the intensity of emotion. In contrast, participants' strong emotional response to the election contributed to overestimating the intensity of mood. These opposing biases have important implications for decision making and clinical assessment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS... interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an...

  5. Effects of standard and explicit cognitive bias modification and computer-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy on cognitive biases and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Sirous; Mackintosh, Bundy; Illingworth, Jo; Gega, Lina; Langdon, Peter; Hoppitt, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the effects of a single session of Cognitive Bias Modification to induce positive Interpretative bias (CBM-I) using standard or explicit instructions and an analogue of computer-administered CBT (c-CBT) program on modifying cognitive biases and social anxiety. A sample of 76 volunteers with social anxiety attended a research site. At both pre- and post-test, participants completed two computer-administered tests of interpretative and attentional biases and a self-report measure of social anxiety. Participants in the training conditions completed a single session of either standard or explicit CBM-I positive training and a c-CBT program. Participants in the Control (no training) condition completed a CBM-I neutral task matched the active CBM-I intervention in format and duration but did not encourage positive disambiguation of socially ambiguous or threatening scenarios. Participants in both CBM-I programs (either standard or explicit instructions) and the c-CBT condition exhibited more positive interpretations of ambiguous social scenarios at post-test and one-week follow-up as compared to the Control condition. Moreover, the results showed that CBM-I and c-CBT, to some extent, changed negative attention biases in a positive direction. Furthermore, the results showed that both CBM-I training conditions and c-CBT reduced social anxiety symptoms at one-week follow-up. This study used a single session of CBM-I training, however multi-sessions intervention might result in more endurable positive CBM-I changes. A computerised single session of CBM-I and an analogue of c-CBT program reduced negative interpretative biases and social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. LANGUAGE APPRAISAL ON ATTITUDINAL SYSTEMS FOR EXPLORING IDEOLOGY IN DEATH PENALTY IN SYDNEY MORNING HERALD AND HERALD SUN EDITORIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyida Ekawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the ideology represented by newspaper editorials. It is from the idea that every language use is never neutral and not ideology-free. Language is used to convey meanings in a broad sense. There are meanings related to the opinions through the language as resources of evaluation. Editorial is one practice of language use full of opinions towards a certain issue on people or things. Sydney Morning Herald and Herald Sun are used as both Australian newspaper posit themselves as the high-rank newspaper in terms of circulation and online accessed. This article tries to uncover the ideologies represented by both newspaper editorials concerning death penalty of Bali Nine executed in Indonesia. Attitudinal perspective proposed by Martin and White (2005 in term of affect, judgement, and appreciation of language appraisal is used to explore ideology in the newspaper. From appraisal analysis, it is found that Indonesia dominantly appraised in negative There is no positive appreciation for Indonesia in both newspaper editorials. judgement while Australia is portrayed in positive view for the issue of death penalty in Indonesia.

  7. Evaluation of Life Events in Major Depression: Assessing Negative Emotional Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, Laura; Driver-Linn, Erin; Miller, Gregory A; Deldin, Patricia J

    2017-05-01

    Overly negative appraisals of negative life events characterize depression but patterns of emotion bias associated with life events in depression are not well understood. The goal of this paper is to determine under which situations emotional responses are stronger than expected given life events and which emotions are biased. Depressed (n = 16) and non-depressed (n = 14) participants (mean age = 41.4 years) wrote about negative life events involving their own actions and inactions, and rated the current emotion elicited by those events. They also rated emotions elicited by someone else's actions and inactions. These ratings were compared with evaluations provided by a second, 'benchmark' group of non-depressed individuals (n = 20) in order to assess the magnitude and direction of possible biased emotional reactions in the two groups. Participants with depression reported greater anger and disgust than expected in response to both actions and inactions, whereas they reported greater guilt, shame, sadness, responsibility and fear than expected in response to inactions. Relative to non-depressed and benchmark participants, depressed participants were overly negative in the evaluation of their own life events, but not the life events of others. A standardized method for establishing emotional bias reveals a pattern of overly negative emotion only in depressed individuals' self-evaluations, and in particular with respect to anger and disgust, lending support to claims that major depressives' evaluations represent negative emotional bias and to clinical interventions that address this bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, L.J.; Burggraf, L.K.; Reece, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling

  9. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one’s own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy ...

  10. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  11. Relationship between mental toughness, stress appraisal, and innovation performance of R&D personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and two R&D personnel were surveyed through questionnaires to study the relationship between mental toughness, stress appraisal (including experience of stress and stress control, and innovation performance. The findings reveal a significant negative correlation between mental toughness and stress experience and a significant positive correlation between mental toughness and both stress control and innovation performance. Furthermore, although the experience of stress was negatively correlated with innovation performance, stress control had the opposite effect. Experience of stress and stress control were the mediating variables for mental toughness and innovation performance, respectively. There was also a significant interaction effect between stress appraisal and mental toughness.

  12. The effect of cognitive appraisal for stressors on the oral health-related QOL of dry mouth patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Saito, Ichiro; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth is very common symptom, and psychological factors have an influence on this symptom. Although the influence of emotional factor related to patients with oral dryness has been examined in previous studies, the cognitive factors have not been examined thus far. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cognitive factors on patients with oral dryness. The participants were 106 patients complaining of oral dryness. They were required to complete a questionnaire measuring subjective oral dryness, oral-related QOL, cognition for stressors, and mood state. Correlational analyses revealed that OHIP-14 is significantly related to oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment. These correlations were maintained even after controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Using oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment, cluster analysis was done and three clusters (cluster-1, severe oral dryness; cluster-2, positive cognitive style: cluster-3, negative cognitive style) were extracted. The results of ANOVA showed that the group with severe oral dryness (cluster-1) had a significantly higher score on OHIP-14 than the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups with positive (cluster-2) and negative (cluster-3) cognitive style. Although the group of patients with positive cognitive style complained of more severe oral dryness than the group with negative cognitive style, no significant difference was observed between these two groups in OHIP-14. These results indicate that cognitive factors would be a useful therapeutic target for the improvement of the oral-related QOL of patients with oral dryness.

  13. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  14. Fear appeals motivate acceptance of recommendations: evidence for a positive bias in the processing of persuasive messages

    OpenAIRE

    Das, E.; de Wit, J.B.F.; Stroebe, W.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that tested the hypothesis that the use of fear appeals in health persuasion may lead to positively biased systematic processing of a subsequent action recommendation aimed at reducing the health threat and, consequently, to more persuasion, regardless of the quality of the arguments in the recommendation. The levels of participants' vulnerability to as well as the seventy of a health risk were varied independently, followed by a manipulation of the quality of t...

  15. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... appraiser shall be engaged directly by the regulated institution or its agent, and have no direct or...

  16. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the amount of partial loss, or damage to, or any reduction in the fair market value as a result..., any reduction in the fair market value of, the indemnified item(s). The appraisers' agreement with... appropriate, such reduction in the fair market value. Disputes between the appraisers with respect to partial...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by independent qualified fee appraisers will be required on all property that will serve as collateral. In the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-42.40 - When is an appraisal necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Appraisals § 102-42.40 When is an appraisal necessary? An appraisal is necessary when— (a) An employee indicates an interest in purchasing a gift or decoration. In this situation, the appraisal must be obtained before the gift or decoration is reported to...

  19. Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive bias modification on emotional vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grafton, B.; MacLeod, C.; Rudaizky, D.; Holmes, E.A.; Salemink, E.; Fox, E.; Notebaert, L.

    2017-01-01

    If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al

  20. Theoretical foundations of shareholders' right to appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shareholders' right to appraisal represents a controversial topic of corporation law, which is why a relatively small number of countries accept it. In this article, the authors analyze the goals that are supposed to be achieved with the introduction of shareholders' appraisal rights. In this respect, traditional and modern explanations for the introduction or maintaining of this right have been presented. In the second part of this article, shareholders' right to appraisal has been critically examined, mostly from corporations' perspective. Afterwards, several potential causes of inefficiency of using this right have been identified. Perceiving pros and cons of shareholders' right to appraisal is of particular importance for Serbia, in order to draw a conclusion about harmonization of our legislative solutions with the theoretical foundations of this right.

  1. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  2. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  3. Implications of reflected appraisals of interpersonal insecurity for suspicion and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Dudley, Kari L

    2009-12-01

    In three studies, the authors tested a model positing that chronically insecure individuals often believe that their relationship partners view them as highly insecure. In turn, because of expectations regarding the social consequences of expressing insecurities, these reflected appraisals of insecurity are thought to predict suspicion of partners' authenticity and feelings of powerlessness within relationships. Results supported these predictions. Self-esteem, attachment anxiety, neuroticism, proclivity for anger, and proclivity for hurt feelings predicted reflected appraisals of insecurity independently of whether partners detected insecurity. In turn, chronically insecure participants were suspicious of their partners' authenticity and felt powerless in their relationships partly because they believed they were viewed as insecure. This research suggests that beliefs that one is perceived as insecure, even when they are misguided, can partially explain interpersonal cognitions associated with actually being insecure.

  4. Ensemble clustering in visual working memory biases location memories and reduces the Weber noise of relative positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Timothy F; Vul, Edward

    2015-01-01

    People seem to compute the ensemble statistics of objects and use this information to support the recall of individual objects in visual working memory. However, there are many different ways that hierarchical structure might be encoded. We examined the format of structured memories by asking subjects to recall the locations of objects arranged in different spatial clustering structures. Consistent with previous investigations of structured visual memory, subjects recalled objects biased toward the center of their clusters. Subjects also recalled locations more accurately when they were arranged in fewer clusters containing more objects, suggesting that subjects used the clustering structure of objects to aid recall. Furthermore, subjects had more difficulty recalling larger relative distances, consistent with subjects encoding the positions of objects relative to clusters and recalling them with magnitude-proportional (Weber) noise. Our results suggest that clustering improved the fidelity of recall by biasing the recall of locations toward cluster centers to compensate for uncertainty and by reducing the magnitude of encoded relative distances.

  5. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmei Luo

    Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  6. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria. Keywords : annual equivalent value, benefit cost ratio, composite performance index, valuation appraisal

  7. Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Performance Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... appraisal conducting style, the relation between the performance appraisal system and task ... the article first explains the theory model which is based expectancy theory. II. ... which in return lead to rewards. According to [12],.

  8. Attention bias to emotional information in children as a function of maternal emotional disorders and maternal attention biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Forrest, Kylee; Peters, Rosie-Mae; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Children of parents with emotional disorders have an increased risk for developing anxiety and depressive disorders. Yet the mechanisms that contribute to this increased risk are poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine attention biases in children as a function of maternal lifetime emotional disorders and maternal attention biases. There were 134 participants, including 38 high-risk children, and their mothers who had lifetime emotional disorders; and 29 low-risk children, and their mothers without lifetime emotional disorders. Mothers and children completed a visual probe task with emotional face pairs presented for 500 ms. Attention bias in children did not significantly differ solely as a function of whether or not their mothers had lifetime emotional disorders. However, attention bias in high-risk children was significantly related to their mothers' attention bias. Specifically, children of mothers with lifetime emotional disorders showed a greater negative attention bias if their mothers had a greater tendency to direct attention away from positive information. This study was cross-sectional in nature, and therefore unable to assess long-term predictive effects. Also, just one exposure duration of 500 ms was utilised. Attention bias for negative information is greater in offspring of mothers who have lifetime emotional disorders and a reduced positive bias, which could be a risk marker for the development of emotional disorders in children.

  9. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, J.W.; Nathan, A.; Barquinha, P.; Pereira, L.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.; Cobb, B.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We

  10. The dynamic interplay between appraisal and core affect in daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKuppens

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Appraisals and core affect are both considered central to the experience of emotion. In this study we examine the bidirectional relationships between these two components of emotional experience by examining how core affect changes following how people appraise events and how appraisals in turn change following how they feel in daily life. In an experience sampling study, participants recorded their core affect and appraisals of ongoing events; data were analyzed using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Valence-appraisal relationships were found to be characterized by congruency: The same appraisals that were associated with a change in pleasure-displeasure (motivational congruency, other-agency, coping potential, and future expectancy, changed themselves as a function of pleasure-displeasure. In turn, mainly secondary appraisals of who is responsible and how one is able to cope with events were associated with changes in arousal, which itself is followed by changes in the future appraised relevance of events. These results integrate core affect and appraisal approaches to emotion by demonstrating the dynamic interplay of how appraisals are followed by changes in core affect which in turn change our basis for judging future events.

  11. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. 528.2a Section 528.2a Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings...

  12. Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  13. Reconsidering the psychometrics of quality of life assessment in light of response shift and appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Carolyn E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed.

  14. Reconsidering the psychometrics of quality of life assessment in light of response shift and appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2004-01-01

    The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL) assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:15038830

  15. Pertuzumab for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Pandor, Abdullah; Thokala, Praveen; Stevens, John W; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Clowes, Mark; Coleman, Robert; Wyld, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Perjeta ® ; Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost- effectiveness for the neoadjuvant treatment of women with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer when used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. High-risk women included those with locally advanced (including inflammatory) breast cancer and women with high-risk early-stage breast cancer (classified as T2/3 or N1). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the Evidence Review Group and the outcome of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance. The clinical data were mainly taken from a phase II, randomised, open-label, active controlled study (NeoSphere), which reported a significant advantage in terms of pathological complete response rates of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy, compared with trastuzumab alone with chemotherapy (45.8 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.0141). The company did not make any indirect comparisons. A meta-analysis of 12 neoadjuvant studies investigating the relationship between pathological complete response and event-free survival was used to extrapolate the outcomes reported in the NeoSphere study. A cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA) demonstrated the safety of pertuzumab. The company undertook a model-based economic evaluation of neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and docetaxel compared with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel over a lifetime horizon from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. The probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be £20,104 per quality-adjusted life-year gained for pertuzumab

  16. Effects of interpretation training on hostile attribution bias and reactivity to interpersonal insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kirsten A; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-09-01

    Research suggests that individuals high in anger have a bias for attributing hostile intentions to ambiguous situations. The current study tested whether this interpretation bias can be altered to influence anger reactivity to an interpersonal insult using a single-session cognitive bias modification program. One hundred thirty-five undergraduate students were randomized to receive positive training, negative training, or a control condition. Anger reactivity to insult was then assessed. Positive training led to significantly greater increases in positive interpretation bias relative to the negative group, though these increases were only marginally greater than the control group. Negative training led to increased negative interpretation bias relative to other groups. During the insult, participants in the positive condition reported less anger than those in the control condition. Observers rated participants in the positive condition as less irritated than those in the negative condition and more amused than the other two conditions. Though mediation of effects via bias modification was not demonstrated, among the positive condition posttraining interpretation bias was correlated with self-reported anger, suggesting that positive training reduced anger reactivity by influencing interpretation biases. Findings suggest that positive interpretation training may be a promising treatment for reducing anger. However, the current study was conducted with a non-treatment-seeking student sample; further research with a treatment-seeking sample with problematic anger is necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Biased lineup instructions and face identification from video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Burt; Johnson, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Previous eyewitness memory research has shown that biased lineup instructions reduce identification accuracy, primarily by increasing false-positive identifications in target-absent lineups. Because some attempts at identification do not rely on a witness's memory of the perpetrator but instead involve matching photos to images on surveillance video, the authors investigated the effects of biased instructions on identification accuracy in a matching task. In Experiment 1, biased instructions did not affect the overall accuracy of participants who used video images as an identification aid, but nearly all correct decisions occurred with target-present photo spreads. Both biased and unbiased instructions resulted in high false-positive rates. In Experiment 2, which focused on video-photo matching accuracy with target-absent photo spreads, unbiased instructions led to more correct responses (i.e., fewer false positives). These findings suggest that investigators should not relax precautions against biased instructions when people attempt to match photos to an unfamiliar person recorded on video.

  18. Adolescent Appraisals of Family Security as a Mediator of the Effect of Family Instability on Adolescent Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Merkaš, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this two-wave study was to examine the mediating role of adolescent appraisals of family security in the relation between family instability and adolescent self-esteem in a sample of 377 adolescents and their mothers. Mothers' reports of family instability at Time 1 were significantly and positively associated with adolescent appraisals of family insecurity at Time 1 and Time 2. Adolescent self-esteem at Time 2 was significantly and negatively related to family...

  19. ROBIS: A new tool to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews was developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Savović, Jelena; Higgins, Julian P T; Caldwell, Deborah M; Reeves, Barnaby C; Shea, Beverley; Davies, Philippa; Kleijnen, Jos; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To develop ROBIS, a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). We used four-stage approach to develop ROBIS: define the scope, review the evidence base, hold a face-to-face meeting, and refine the tool through piloting. ROBIS is currently aimed at four broad categories of reviews mainly within health care settings: interventions, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology. The target audience of ROBIS is primarily guideline developers, authors of overviews of systematic reviews ("reviews of reviews"), and review authors who might want to assess or avoid risk of bias in their reviews. The tool is completed in three phases: (1) assess relevance (optional), (2) identify concerns with the review process, and (3) judge risk of bias. Phase 2 covers four domains through which bias may be introduced into a systematic review: study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; and synthesis and findings. Phase 3 assesses the overall risk of bias in the interpretation of review findings and whether this considered limitations identified in any of the phase 2 domains. Signaling questions are included to help judge concerns with the review process (phase 2) and the overall risk of bias in the review (phase 3); these questions flag aspects of review design related to the potential for bias and aim to help assessors judge risk of bias in the review process, results, and conclusions. ROBIS is the first rigorously developed tool designed specifically to assess the risk of bias in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mood-congruent attention and memory bias in dysphoria: Exploring the coherence among information-processing biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi; Leyman, Lemke; De Lissnyder, Evi

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that depression is characterized by mood-congruent attention bias at later stages of information-processing. Moreover, depression has been associated with enhanced recall of negative information. The present study tested the coherence between attention and memory bias in dysphoria. Stable dysphoric (n = 41) and non-dysphoric (n = 41) undergraduates first performed a spatial cueing task that included negative, positive, and neutral words. Words were presented for 250 ms under conditions that allowed or prevented elaborate processing. Memory for the words presented in the cueing task was tested using incidental free recall. Dysphoric individuals exhibited an attention bias for negative words in the condition that allowed elaborate processing, with the attention bias for negative words predicting free recall of negative words. Results demonstrate the coherence of attention and memory bias in dysphoric individuals and provide suggestions on the influence of attention bias on further processing of negative material. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful flank appraisal with a horizontal well: a Niger Delta example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanele, C.; Emelumadu, U.

    1998-12-31

    Case study of a horizontal well successfully drilled in 1994 by Shell Oil in the Niger Delta is described. The well was drilled with the objectives of improving drainage of the major D3.1 reservoir and appraising the poorly defined eastern flank for structure and fluid content of the overlying D3.0 sand. The well was optimized by 3D reservoir and hydrocarbon modeling of these reservoirs. Combining the development and appraisal objectives in one horizontal well proved to be the optimal solution, both from a cost as well as a production consideration. The well proved up over 50 MMstb of additional reserves. The structural flank proved to be significantly shallower than previously mapped and had a positive effect not only on the D3.0 reserves, but also on the the D3.1. 6 figs.

  2. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  3. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one’s own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and

  4. Environmental justice and the distributional deficit in policy appraisal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G P

    2007-01-01

    Environmental justice brings a particular set of concerns to the policy process in asking not only what the environmental impacts of a new policy, programme or regulation might be, but also how these impacts are likely to be distributed across different social groups. This letter evaluates the extent to which appraisal tools currently used to inform environmental and related decision-making in the UK incorporate the analysis of such distributional effects. It reports on research that assessed the existence of requirements for distributional analysis across 16 different appraisal tools, the depth of guidance that is provided for those using the tool and the scope of its coverage. It is concluded that there is distributional deficit in current policy and impact appraisal tools, particularly in the context of the breadth of definition of environmental justice being applied in the UK and the range of population groups with which this is concerned. Only in the health area and in the use of health impact assessment can more positive conclusions be reached. Research evaluating the use of tools in practice is needed and a number of steps to improve on the current situation are discussed

  5. How to design the cost-effectiveness appraisal process of new healthcare technologies to maximise population health: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Kasper M; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J; Wailoo, Allan J

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyse the design of the cost-effectiveness appraisal process of new healthcare technologies. The framework characterises the appraisal processes as a diagnostic test aimed at identifying cost-effective (true positive) and non-cost-effective (true negative) technologies. Using the framework, factors that influence the value of operating an appraisal process, in terms of net gain to population health, are identified. The framework is used to gain insight into current policy questions including (a) how rigorous the process should be, (b) who should have the burden of proof, and (c) how optimal design changes when allowing for appeals, price reductions, resubmissions, and re-evaluations. The paper demonstrates that there is no one optimal appraisal process and the process should be adapted over time and to the specific technology under assessment. Optimal design depends on country-specific features of (future) technologies, for example, effect, price, and size of the patient population, which might explain the difference in appraisal processes across countries. It is shown that burden of proof should be placed on the producers and that the impact of price reductions and patient access schemes on the producer's price setting should be considered when designing the appraisal process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Biases in casino betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sundali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the field are consistent with biased beliefs, although we observe significant individual heterogeneity in the population. A second contribution is to separately identify these biases within a given individual, then to examine their within-person correlation. We find a positive and significant correlation across individuals between hot hand and gambler's fallacy biases, suggesting a common (root cause of the two related errors. We speculate as to the source of this correlation (locus of control, and suggest future research which could test this speculation.

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Appraisal and Emotion on Consumer Behavior: The Critical Role of Recollection in the Luxury Cruise Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Eunkyung; Shin, Hyejin; Kim, Insin; Choi, Jinsung; Jang, Junhwa; Hyun, Sunghyup

    2016-01-01

    Abstract de la ponencia [EN] The purposes of this study were: (1) to integrate the cognitive appraisal theory and script theory; (2) to examine the bonding character of recollection; and (3) to assess the relationships between consumers ‘appraisals, positive/negative emotions, recollection, storytelling and repurchase intention. A review of previous studies revealed 14 theoretical hypotheses. The proposed hypotheses were tested utilizing data collected from 300 luxury cru...

  8. A Positive Emotional Bias in Confabulatory False Beliefs about Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H.; Berry, Helen; Evans, Cathryn E.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Some neurological patients with medial frontal lesions exhibit striking confabulations. Most accounts of the cause of confabulations are cognitive, though the literature has produced anecdotal suggestions that confabulations may not be emotionally neutral, having a ("wish-fulfillment") bias that shapes the patient's perception of reality in a more…

  9. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  10. The neural evidence of the reflected appraisal process as a main path for learning about one's self-knowledge of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Yufang; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Self-knowledge has been defined as the accurate self-perceptions about how one typically thinks, feels, and behaves, and awareness of how those patterns are interpreted by others. Previous research has noted that the introspection and the reflected appraisal processes are two main avenues for learning about the self and that self-knowledge might be fully realized through the use of reflected appraisal from close others. However, due to the methodological difficulty in linking people's ratings on a trait to their behaviors, accuracy research using a behavioral criterion is quite limited. The current work examined the main source of learning about one's self-knowledge by investigating the time course of attention deployment both in the process of introspection and that of reflected appraisal. Twenty-five college students were first asked to rate their impressions of their classmates as well as a familiar other using personality-trait adjectives. Their electrophysiological data were then collected using the event-related potential (ERP) technology while they judged to which extent (1) an adjective can describe the self, (2) an adjective can describe a familiar other, (3) they agree with an adjective that their classmates believe can describe the self, and (4) they agree with an adjective that their classmates believe can describe a familiar other. Our electrophysiological data showed that classmates' positive evaluation of one's own trait elicited larger P2 than the positive self-evaluation of one's own trait. Further, classmates' negative evaluation of one's own trait elicited larger late positive component (LPC) than the negative self-evaluation of one's own trait. Results suggest that people allocate more attention to the process of reflected appraisal compared to the process of introspection, which further suggests that the reflected appraisal process might be the main source in learning about one's self-knowledge of personality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  11. Ironic effects of racial bias during interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A; Salvatore, Jessica; Trawalter, Sophie

    2005-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that Blacks like White interaction partners who make an effort to appear unbiased more than those who do not. We tested the hypothesis that, ironically, Blacks perceive White interaction partners who are more racially biased more positively than less biased White partners, primarily because the former group must make more of an effort to control racial bias than the latter. White participants in this study completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of racial bias and then discussed race relations with either a White or a Black partner. Whites' IAT scores predicted how positively they were perceived by Black (but not White) interaction partners, and this relationship was mediated by Blacks' perceptions of how engaged the White participants were during the interaction. We discuss implications of the finding that Blacks may, ironically, prefer to interact with highly racially biased Whites, at least in short interactions.

  12. 5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405... appraisals of their relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period..., requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise to ensure that they clearly link to...

  13. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral valuation. Each Bank shall determine the value of collateral securing the Bank's advances in accordance with...

  14. Combining Emotion Appraisal Dimensions and Individual Differences to Understand Emotion Effects on Gift Giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, De I.E.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have revealed that emotion appraisal dimensions can predict the effects of emotions on decision making. For example, givers' intention to buy gifts depends on whether they feel positive or negative (valence) and on whether the feeling is caused by the givers themselves or by gift

  15. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicke, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from the

  16. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicke, G.J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from

  17. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under positive gate bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niang, K. M.; Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Cambridge University, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, P. M. C.; Martins, R. F. P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, B. [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Powell, M. J. [252, Valley Drive, Kendal LA9 7SL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-29

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) employing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel layer exhibit a positive shift in the threshold voltage under the application of positive gate bias stress (PBS). The time and temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shift was measured and analysed using the thermalization energy concept. The peak energy barrier to defect conversion is extracted to be 0.75 eV and the attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. These values are in remarkable agreement with measurements in a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS) reported recently (Flewitt and Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 134501 (2014)). This suggests that the same physical process is responsible for both PBS and NBIS, and supports the oxygen vacancy defect migration model that the authors have previously proposed.

  18. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Performance appraisal of coaches: Acomparative study | Surujlal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the sport environment, the performance appraisal of coaches continues to be an issue. The performance appraisal of coaches is critical to sport organizations since major decisions like rewarding or terminating coaches is based on it. The purpose of this study was to examine whether any differences exist with regard ...

  20. Evidence appraisal: a scoping review, conceptual framework, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew; Venker, Eric; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-11-01

    Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence. After title and abstract review, 121 articles were included in the analysis. We performed qualitative thematic analysis to describe the evidence appraisal architecture and its issues and opportunities. From this analysis, we derived a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We identified 68 themes in 10 categories. This analysis revealed that the practice of evidence appraisal is quite common but is rarely subjected to documentation, organization, validation, integration, or uptake. This is related to underdeveloped tools, scant incentives, and insufficient acquisition of appraisal data and transformation of the data into usable knowledge. The gaps in acquiring appraisal data, transforming the data into actionable information and knowledge, and ensuring its dissemination and adoption can be addressed with proven informatics approaches. Evidence appraisal faces several challenges, but implementing an informatics research agenda would likely help realize the potential of evidence appraisal for improving the rigor and value of clinical evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. The role of cognitive biases in short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Ortega, Diana; Ambresin, Gilles; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves

    2018-06-01

    The concept of biased thinking - or cognitive biases - is relevant to psychotherapy research and clinical conceptualization, beyond cognitive theories. The present naturalistic study aimed to examine the changes in biased thinking over the course of a short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and to discover potential links between these changes and symptomatic improvement. This study focuses on 32 self-referred patients consulting for Adjustment Disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The therapists were experienced psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists and psychotherapists. Coding of cognitive biases (using the Cognitive Errors Rating Scale; CERS) was made by external raters based on transcripts of interviews of psychotherapy; the reliability of these ratings on a randomly chosen 24% of all sessions was established. Based on the Symptom Check List SCL-90-R given before and after, the Reliable Change Index (RCI) was used. The assessment of cognitive errors was done at three time points: early (session 4-7), mid-treatment (session 12-17), and close to the end (after session 20) of the treatment. The results showed that the total frequency of cognitive biases was stable over time (p = .20), which was true both for positive and for negative cognitive biases. In exploring the three main subscales of the CERS, we found a decrease in selective abstraction (p = .02) and an increase in personalization (p = .05). A significant link between RCI scores (outcome) and frequency of positive cognitive biases was found, suggesting that biases towards the positive might have a protective function in psychotherapy. Therapists may be attentive to changes in biased thinking across short-term dynamic psychotherapy for adjustment disorder. Therapists may foster the emergence of positive cognitive biases at mid-treatment for adjustment disorder. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. An S-shaped relationship between changes in appraisals and changes in emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Bishop, George D

    2009-12-01

    Previous research on appraisal theories of emotion has shown that emotions and appraisals are related but has not specified the nature of the relationships. This research examined the functional forms of appraisal-emotion relationships and demonstrated that for all seven appraisals studied, appraisals relate to emotions in an S-shaped (ogival) fashion: Changes in appraisals at extreme levels are associated with only small changes in emotions, but changes at moderate levels are associated with substantial changes in emotions. With a few exceptions, ogival relationships were found for the relationships between seven appraisals (Goal Achievement Expectancy, Agency, Control, Certainty, Fairness, Pleasantness, and Motive Congruence) and numerous relevant emotions across different sample-types, cultures, and methods.

  4. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Ranming Yang; Ranming Yang; Lixia Cui; Feng Li; Jing Xiao; Qin Zhang; Tian P. S. Oei; Tian P. S. Oei

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three...

  5. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary shall make fair market value appraisals of areas administered by the Service within five years... reappraised on a schedule of at least once every five years. Until areas are appraised, the fair market value... fee lands added to such areas after that date shall be on the basis of fair market value. ...

  6. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  7. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  8. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  9. Sustainability Appraisal of Water Governance Regimes: The Case of Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzdas, Christopher; Wiek, Arnim; Warner, Benjamin; Vignola, Raffaele; Morataya, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Sustainability appraisals produce evidence for how well water governance regimes operate and where problems exist. This evidence is particularly relevant for regions that face water scarcity and conflicts. In this study, we present a criteria-based and participatory sustainability appraisal of water governance in a region with such characteristics—the dry tropics of NW Costa Rica. Data collection included 47 interviews and three stakeholder workshops. The appraisal was conducted through a collaborative and iterative process between researchers and stakeholders. Out of the 25 sustainability criteria used, seven posed a significant challenge for the governance regime. We found challenges faced by the governance regime primarily clustered around and were re-enforced by failing coordination related to the use, management, and protection of groundwater resources; and inadequate leadership to identify collective goals and to constructively deliberate alternative ways of governing water with diverse groups. The appraisal yielded some positive impact in the study area, yet we found its application provided only limited strategic information to support broader problem-solving efforts. Insights from this study suggest key starting points for sustainable water governance in the Central American dry tropics, including investing in increasingly influential collective organizations that are already active in water governance; and leveraging policy windows that can be used to build confidence and disperse more governing authority to regional and local governing actors that are in-tune with the challenges faced in the dry tropics. We conclude the article with reflections on how to produce research results that are actionable for sustainable water governance.

  10. Bias against research on gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislak, Aleksandra; Formanowicz, Magdalena; Saguy, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    The bias against women in academia is a documented phenomenon that has had detrimental consequences, not only for women, but also for the quality of science. First, gender bias in academia affects female scientists, resulting in their underrepresentation in academic institutions, particularly in higher ranks. The second type of gender bias in science relates to some findings applying only to male participants, which produces biased knowledge. Here, we identify a third potentially powerful source of gender bias in academia: the bias against research on gender bias. In a bibliometric investigation covering a broad range of social sciences, we analyzed published articles on gender bias and race bias and established that articles on gender bias are funded less often and published in journals with a lower Impact Factor than articles on comparable instances of social discrimination. This result suggests the possibility of an underappreciation of the phenomenon of gender bias and related research within the academic community. Addressing this meta-bias is crucial for the further examination of gender inequality, which severely affects many women across the world.

  11. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Galdos,Mariana; Simons,Claudia J.P.; Wichers,Marieke; Fernandez-Rivas,Aranzazu; Martinez-Azumendi,Oscar; Lataster,Tineke; Amer,Guillermo; Myin-Germeys,Inez; Gonzalez-Torres,Miguel Angel; Os,Jim van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. METHOD: Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30) and a reference control group (n=310) were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task). The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals w...

  12. Are there individual and sibling differences in appraisals of interparental conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; George, Melissa W

    2017-10-01

    Despite decades of empirical literature documenting the harmful effects of frequent, intense, violent, and unresolved interparental conflict on children's adjustment, there is considerable variability in the extent to which marital conflict contributes to the development of children's emotional and behavioral problems. Past research has documented links between properties of interparental conflict itself (e.g., intensity, frequency), children's appraisals of conflict, and children's outcomes, yet less is known about the role of individual and family characteristics in predicting children's conflict appraisals. Sibling studies may be especially helpful in understanding these individual differences yet are notably lacking in marital conflict research. The current study examines individual- and family-characteristic predictors of adolescents' appraisals of conflict in a study of 153 adolescents as well as sibling similarities in conflict appraisals in a subsample of 50 pairs of siblings. Controlling for parent reports of the frequency, intensity, and resolution of interparental conflict, parent-child relationship quality and stressful life events predicted conflict appraisals. In addition, there was nonindependence of sibling appraisals of conflict properties, but self-blame and threat appraisals appeared independent across siblings. Greater discrepancies in siblings' conflict appraisals were related to more negative marital conflict and discrepancies in parent-child relationship quality, and were found in mixed-sex sibling dyads. Implications for future studies on factors that impact children's appraisals of conflict and in particular making use of sibling studies to examine shared environmental and individual influences on appraisals is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [Evaluation of Wits appraisal with superimposition method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    1999-07-01

    To compare the conventional Wits appraisal with superimposed Wits appraisal in evaluation of sagittal jaw relationship change between pre and post orthodontic treatment. The sample consists of 48-case pre and post treatment lateral head films. Computerized digitizing is used to get the cephalometric landmarks and measure conventional Wits value, superimposed Wits value and ANB angle. The correlation analysis among these three measures was done by SAS statistical package. The change of ANB angle has higher correlation with the change of superimposed Wits than that of the conventional Wits. The r-value is as high as 0.849 (P < 0.001). The superimposed Wits appraisal reflects the change of sagittal jaw relationship more objectively than the conventional one.

  14. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social behavior, interaction appraisals, and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: The dangers of being alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Holden, Jason L.; Swendsen, Joel; Granholm, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention to social appraisals in suicide risk, the interpersonal correlates of suicidal thoughts and behavior in schizophrenia are not well understood. Ecological momentary assessment could reveal whether dysfunctional social appraisals and behavior are evident in people with schizophrenia with suicidal ideation. A total of 93 outpatients with diagnoses of schizophrenia with (n = 18, 19%) and without (N = 75; 81%) suicidal ideation participated in one week of intensive daily monitoring via mobile devices, generating real-time reports on the quantity of social interactions and appraisals about them, as well as information concerning concurrent affect and symptoms. The presence of suicidal ideation was not associated with the quantity of social interactions or time spent alone, but it was associated with the anticipation of being alone as well as greater negative and lower positive affect when alone. Despite this aversive experience of being alone, people with suicidal ideation reported negative appraisals about the value of recent and potential social interactions. These findings suggest that suicidal ideation in schizophrenia may not be associated with the quantity of social interactions, but with negative expectations about the quality of social interactions coupled with an aversive experience of being alone. Cognitive therapy interventions that address negative expectations and pleasure about social interactions, especially when alone, may reduce suicidal ideation. PMID:26948502

  16. Appraisal tools for clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Siering

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines can improve healthcare processes and patient outcomes, but are often of low quality. Guideline appraisal tools aim to help potential guideline users in assessing guideline quality. We conducted a systematic review of publications describing guideline appraisal tools in order to identify and compare existing tools.Among others we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1995 to May 2011 for relevant primary and secondary publications. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant publications. On the basis of the available literature we firstly generated 34 items to be used in the comparison of appraisal tools and grouped them into thirteen quality dimensions. We then extracted formal characteristics as well as questions and statements of the appraisal tools and assigned them to the items.We identified 40 different appraisal tools. They covered between three and thirteen of the thirteen possible quality dimensions and between three and 29 of the possible 34 items. The main focus of the appraisal tools were the quality dimensions "evaluation of evidence" (mentioned in 35 tools; 88%, "presentation of guideline content" (34 tools; 85%, "transferability" (33 tools; 83%, "independence" (32 tools; 80%, "scope" (30 tools; 75%, and "information retrieval" (29 tools; 73%. The quality dimensions "consideration of different perspectives" and "dissemination, implementation and evaluation of the guideline" were covered by only twenty (50% and eighteen tools (45% respectively.Most guideline appraisal tools assess whether the literature search and the evaluation, synthesis and presentation of the evidence in guidelines follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. Although conflicts of interest and norms and values of guideline developers, as well as patient involvement, affect the trustworthiness of guidelines, they are currently insufficiently considered. Greater focus should be

  17. Effects of limiter biasing on the ATF torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Baylor, L.R.; Bell, J.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; England, A.C.; Harris, J.H.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Lyon, J.F.; Ma, C.H.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Wilgen, J.B.; Aceto, S.C.; Zielinski, J.J.

    1992-09-01

    Positive limiter biasing on the currentless Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron produces a significant increase in the particle confinement with no improvement in the energy confinement. Experiments have been carried out in 1-T plasmas with ∼400 kill of electron cyclotron heating ECM. Two rail limiters located at the last closed flux surface (LCFS), one at the top and one at the bottom of the device, are biased at positive and negative potentials with respect to the vessel. When the limiters are positively biased at up to 300 V, the density increases sharply to the ECH cutoff value. At the same time, the H α radiation drops, indicating that the particle confinement improves. When the density is kept constant, the H α radiation is further reduced and there is almost no change in the plasma stored energy. Under these conditions, the density profile becomes peaked and the electric field becomes outward-pointing outside the LCFS and more negative inside the LCFS. In contrast, negative biasing yields some reduction of the density and stored energy at constant gas feed, and the plasma potential profile remains the same. Biasing has almost no effect on the intrinsic impurity levels in the plasma

  18. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Probabilistic endowment appraisal system based upon the formalization of geologic decisions. General description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.; Carrigan, F.J.

    1980-04-01

    The objectives of this study include the design of an appraisal system which has the following features: estimates uranium endowment, not resources; formalizes the geologist's geoscience and assists the geologist in the exercise of his geoscience; describes the probability distribution for uranium endowment; diminishes or at least does not contribute to psychometric biases; provides for anonymous exchange among multiple experts of tenets of geoscience, but not the exchange of endowment estimates; provides an endowment estimate based upon geoscience only; is not easily gamed or manipulated; and provides for a quick and easy review of geoscience and resource information. This report is reflective of its title, a general description. The appraisal system resulting from this research is complex in the detail of its design and use. However, the major concepts which are reflected by the system are simple. The purpose of this report is to establish clearly these major concepts and the manner in which the system applies these concepts. Many details, refinements, and caveats are purposefully suppressed in order to provide this general description. While this suppression is a loss to some readers, it is a benefit to a wider spectrum of readers. Those interested in the nuts and bolts of the system will also want to read the user's manual which accompanies this general description

  20. Appraisal patterns of emotions in human-product interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir, E.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Hekkert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional design, i.e., designing with an intention to evoke or to prevent a particular emotion, can be facilitated by understanding the processes underlying emotions. A promising approach to understanding these processes in the current psychological literature is appraisal theory. Appraisal theory

  1. The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Michael; Holmes, Emily A; Harmer, Catherine J

    2010-03-01

    A negative bias in the deployment of attention to emotional stimuli is commonly found in both anxiety and depression. Recent work has highlighted that such biases are causally related to emotional vulnerability, suggesting that interventions that ameliorate them may be therapeutic. Here, we review the evidence that attentional bias can be modified using both pharmacological and psychological interventions. We highlight the behavioral and neuroimaging studies that suggest that these interventions impact upon attention via alteration of distinct neural mechanisms. Specifically, pharmacological interventions appear to influence the initial deployment of attention via an effect on the amygdala-based stimulus appraisal system, whereas psychological interventions influence attention at later time points and may alter activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Finally, we suggest a conceptual framework that embraces both pharmacological and psychological approaches and consider the possible implications of this work for future research and treatment development.

  2. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, Mariana; Simons, Claudia J P; Wichers, Marieke; Fernandez-Rivas, Aranzazu; Martinez-Azumendi, Oscar; Lataster, Tineke; Amer, Guillermo; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; van Os, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30) and a reference control group (n=310) were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task). The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals were mediated by neurocognitive alterations was analyzed. The EASS task displayed convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to controls, patients displayed blunted emotional appraisal of social situations (B=0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74, Ppsychotic disorder may underlie misrepresentation of the social world, mediated by altered emotion recognition. A task assessing the social impact of cognitive alterations in clinical practice may be useful in detecting key alterations very early in the course of psychotic illness.

  3. Social influence bias: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchnik, Lev; Aral, Sinan; Taylor, Sean J

    2013-08-09

    Our society is increasingly relying on the digitized, aggregated opinions of others to make decisions. We therefore designed and analyzed a large-scale randomized experiment on a social news aggregation Web site to investigate whether knowledge of such aggregates distorts decision-making. Prior ratings created significant bias in individual rating behavior, and positive and negative social influences created asymmetric herding effects. Whereas negative social influence inspired users to correct manipulated ratings, positive social influence increased the likelihood of positive ratings by 32% and created accumulating positive herding that increased final ratings by 25% on average. This positive herding was topic-dependent and affected by whether individuals were viewing the opinions of friends or enemies. A mixture of changing opinion and greater turnout under both manipulations together with a natural tendency to up-vote on the site combined to create the herding effects. Such findings will help interpret collective judgment accurately and avoid social influence bias in collective intelligence in the future.

  4. Carbon doping induced giant low bias negative differential resistance in boron nitride nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Liu, J.B.; Gao, G.Y.; Yao, K.L.

    2014-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's function combined with density functional theory, we investigated the electronic transport properties of carbon-doped armchair boron nitride nanoribbons. Obvious negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with giant peak-to-valley ratio up to the order of 10 4 –10 6 is found by tuning the doping position and concentration. Especially, with the reduction of doping concentration, NDR peak position can enter into mV bias range and even can be expected lower than mV bias. The negative differential resistance behavior is explained by the evolution of the transmission spectra and band structures with applied bias. - Highlights: • Negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with giant peak-to-valley ratio is found. • Doping concentration changes the NDR peak position significantly. • NDR peak position can enter into mV bias range and even lower than mV bias. • The results are explained by the bias-dependent transmission spectra and band structures

  5. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  6. DYNAMIC SYSTEM APPROACH IN PSYCHOLOGY: PROPOSITION AND APPLICATION IN THE STUDY OF EMOTION, APPRAISAL AND COGNITIVE ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano M. A. Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychological processes are difficult to be studied due to their complexity. The dynamic system approach shows itself as a good tool for psychology to deal with this complexity issue. We propose two fundamental contributions of the dynamic system approach to psychology and apply it in the study of achievement emotions, appraisal and cognitive achievement. Two hypotheses were investigated: 1 More than one correlation pattern between test achievement, appraisal and emotion will be found; 2 Test achievement, appraisal and emotion form a dynamic system which will be explained by a latent variable that is dependent on the previous state of the system. A sample of thirteen students from seventh to ninth grades performed an inductive reasoning test, appraised their achievement, and declared their emotional valences (from extreme positive to extreme negative. Each variable was measured in 20 different occasions. One correlation matrix of each individual was generated and seven qualitative profiles were identified. Then four different states of relations between the variables were identified through a hidden Markov model. The two hypotheses were not refuted. It’s concluded that the dynamic system approach brings new possibilities to the study of psychological processes.

  7. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  8. The impact of mass deworming programmes on schooling and economic development: an appraisal of long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Sophie; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Documents from advocacy and fund-raising organizations for child mass deworming programmes in low- and middle-income countries cite unpublished economic studies claiming long-term effects on health, schooling and economic development. Methods: To summarize and appraise these studies, we searched for and included all long-term follow-up studies based on cluster-randomized trials included in a 2015 Cochrane review on deworming. We used Cochrane methods to assess risk of bias, and appraised the credibility of the main findings. Where necessary we contacted study authors for clarifications. Results: We identified three studies (Baird 2016, Ozier 2016 and Croke 2014) evaluating effects more than 9 years after cluster-randomized trials in Kenya and Uganda. Baird and Croke evaluate short additional exposures to deworming programmes in settings where all children were dewormed multiple times. Ozier evaluates potential spin-off effects to infants living in areas with school-based deworming. None of the studies used pre-planned protocols nor blinded the analysis to treatment allocation. Baird 2016 has been presented online in six iterations. The work is at high risk of reporting bias and selective reporting, and there are substantive changes between versions. The main cited effects on secondary school attendance and job sector allocation are from post hoc subgroup analyses, which the study was not powered to assess. The study did not find any evidence of effect on nutritional status, cognitive tests or school grades achieved, but these are not reported in the abstracts. Ozier 2016 has been presented online in four iterations, without substantive differences between versions. Higher cognitive test scores were associated with deworming, but the appropriate analysis was underpowered to reliably detect these effects. The size of the stated effect seems inconsistent with the short and indirect nature of the exposure to deworming, and a causal pathway for this

  9. On the Borders of Harmful and Helpful Beauty Biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agthe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research with European Caucasian samples demonstrates that attractiveness-based biases in social evaluation depend on the constellation of the sex of the evaluator and the sex of the target: Whereas people generally show positive biases toward attractive opposite-sex persons, they show less positive or even negative biases toward attractive same-sex persons. By examining these biases both within and between different ethnicities, the current studies provide new evidence for both the generalizability and the specificity of these attractiveness-based social perception biases. Examining within-ethnicity effects, Study 1 is the first to demonstrate that samples from diverse ethnic backgrounds parallel the finding of European Caucasian samples: The advantageous or adverse effects of attractiveness depend on the gender constellation of the evaluator and the evaluated person. Examining between-ethnicity effects, Study 2 found that these attractiveness-based biases emerge almost exclusively toward targets of the evaluator’s own ethnic background; these biases were reduced or eliminated for cross-ethnicity evaluations and interaction intentions. We discuss these findings in light of evolutionary principles and reflect on potential interactions between culture and evolved cognitive mechanisms.

  10. Evaluating School Health Appraisal scheme in Primary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study assessed school health appraisal implementation in primary schools within Abakaliki Metropolis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study of the forms of health appraisal in all 31 primary schools in Abakaliki metropolis. Relevant information was obtained from the head ...

  11. Problems of Clinical Nurse Performance Appraisal System: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nikpeyma

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that the nurse performance appraisal system confronts with various problems. Some of these problems are related to organizational context while the others concerned structure, process and results of the performance appraisal system. In order to achieve high quality of patient care as the final goal of performance appraisal, changing and revision of this system is necessary.

  12. The appraisal of intrusive thoughts in relation to obsessional-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that although intrusive thoughts occur universally, the majority of individuals do not view intrusive thoughts as being problematic (Freeston, Ladouceur, Thibodeau, & Gagnon, 1991; Rachman & de Silva, 1978; Salkovskis & Harrison, 1984). Thus, it is not the presence of intrusive thoughts that leads to obsessional problems but rather some other factor that plays a role in the development of abnormal obsessions. According to the cognitive model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) put forth by Salkovskis (1985), the crucial factor that differentiates between individuals with OCD and those without is the individual's appraisal of the naturally occurring intrusive thoughts. This study aimed to test Salkovskis's model by examining the role of cognitive biases (responsibility, thought-action fusion, and thought control) as well as distress in the relationship between intrusive thoughts and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an undergraduate sample of 326 students. An existing measure of intrusive thoughts (the Revised Obsessional Intrusions Inventory) was modified for this study to include a scale of distress associated with each intrusive thought in addition to the current frequency scale. When the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used as the measure of OCD symptoms, a significant interaction effect of frequency and distress of intrusive thoughts resulted. Additionally, a significant three-way interaction of Frequency × Distress × Responsibility was found when the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised was used as the measure of OCD symptoms. These results indicate that the appraisal of intrusive thoughts is important in predicting OCD symptoms, thus providing support for Salkovskis's model of OCD.

  13. B plant/WESF integrated annual safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.K.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides the results of the Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Integrated Safety Appraisal of the B Plant and Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The appraisal was conducted in August and September 1990, by the Defense Waste Disposal Safety group, in conjunction with Health Physics and Emergency Preparedness. Reports of these three organizations for their areas of responsibility are presented. The purpose of the appraisal was to determine if the areas being appraised meet US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements and current industry standards of good practice. A further purpose was to identify areas in which program effectiveness could be improved. In accordance with the guidance of WHC Management Requirements and Procedures 5.6, previously identified deficiencies which are being resolved by line management were not repeated as Findings or Observations unless progress or intended disposition was considered to be unsatisfactory. The overall assessment is that there are no major safety problems associated with current operations. Programs are in place to provide the necessary safety controls, evaluations, overviews, and support. In most respects these programs are being implemented effectively. However, there are a number of deficiencies in details of program design and implementation. The appraisal identified a total of 23 Findings and 27 Observations of deficiencies. All Observations are Seriousness Category 3. Fifteen Findings were Category 2 and 8 were Category 3. Most of the Category 2 Findings were so categorized on the basis of noncompliance with mandatory DOE Orders or WHC policies and procedures, rather than potential risk to personnel

  14. Biased divertor performance under auxiliary heating conditions on the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoste, R.; Lachambre, J.L.; Demers, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma biasing has been shown on TdeV in the ohmic regime to be very promising for divertor applications. Negative biasing, with shortened SOL density gradients, improves the divertor performance, whereas positive biasing, with longer gradients, does not do much for the divertor. The next objectives were to extrapolate those results to auxiliary heated plasmas and optimize/simplify the biasing geometry for future upgrades. New results are now available with an improved divertor geometry and auxiliary heating/current drive provided by a new lower hybrid (LH) system. The new geometry, optimized for positive biasing with predictably acceptable negative biasing performances, allows for a fair comparison between the two polarities. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  15. A Field Study of Discrete Emotions: Athletes' Cognitive Appraisals during Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive-motivational-relational theory (CMRT) emphasizes that cognitive appraisal components and core relational themes (in which the 6 separate appraisal judgments are brought together as 1) are the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. This study aimed to explore appraisals associated with discrete emotions experienced by…

  16. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandman, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on implementation, or of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to and even the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it. A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to or even implementation. This paper presents an overview of the implications of different outcomes

  17. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  18. Mechanism for and method of biasing magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, David R.

    2007-12-04

    A magnetic sensor package having a biasing mechanism involving a coil-generated, resistor-controlled magnetic field for providing a desired biasing effect. In a preferred illustrated embodiment, the package broadly comprises a substrate; a magnetic sensor element; a biasing mechanism, including a coil and a first resistance element; an amplification mechanism; a filter capacitor element; and an encapsulant. The sensor is positioned within the coil. A current applied to the coil produces a biasing magnetic field. The biasing magnetic field is controlled by selecting a resistance value for the first resistance element which achieves the desired biasing effect. The first resistance element preferably includes a plurality of selectable resistors, the selection of one or more of which sets the resistance value.

  19. Perfectionism in school teachers: Relations with stress appraisal, coping styles,and burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Rennert, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Many school teachers suffer from stress and burnout, and perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been associated with increased stress, maladaptive coping, and burnout. Recent findings, however, show that perfectionism has both positive and negative facets. To investigate how these facets are related to stress, coping, and burnout in teachers, a sample of 118 secondary school teachers completed multidimensional measures of perfectionism, stress appraisals, coping styles, and bu...

  20. Emissive limiter bias experiment for improved confinement of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Pribyl, P.A.; Liberati, J.R.; Taylor, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in Ohmic discharges of the UCLA CCT tokamak with a LaB 6 biased limiter, capable of emitting energetic electrons as a technique to improve confinement in tokamaks. To study the effects of emitted electrons, the limiter position, bias voltage, and plasma position were varied. The results have shown that the plasma positioning with respect to the emissive limiter plays an important role in obtaining H-mode plasmas. The emissive cathode must be located close to the last closed flux surface in order to charge up the plasma. As the cathode is moved closer to the wall, the positioning of the plasma becomes more critical since the plasma can easily detach from the cathode and reattach to the wall, resulting in the termination of H-mode. The emissive capability appears to be important for operating at lower bias voltage and reducing impurity levels in the plasma. With a heated cathode, transition to H-mode was observed for V bias ≤ 50 V and I inj ≥ 30 A. At a lower cathode heater current, a higher bias voltage is required for the transition. Moreover, with a lower cathode heater current, the time delay for inducing H-mode becomes longer, which can be attributed to the required time for the self-heating of the cathode to reach the emissive temperature. From this result, we conclude that the capacity for emission can significantly improve the performance of limiter biasing for inducing H-mode transition. With L-mode plasmas, the injection current flowing out of the cathode was generally higher than 100 A

  1. Cumulative Trauma and Adjustment in Women Exposed to a Campus Shooting: Examining the Role of Appraisals and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Derrecka M; Dunn, Qweandria T; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-05-01

    Experiencing repeated trauma can have increasingly detrimental effects on psychosocial functioning after subsequent stressors. These effects may be intensified for victims of interpersonal traumas given that these events are often associated with heightened risk for adverse outcomes. To better understand this relationship, the present study prospectively examined the effect of pre-shooting trauma exposure (i.e., interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal trauma) on psychological functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression) following a mass campus shooting. Based on previous research, it was expected that negative appraisals and social support would mediate this relationship. A sample of 515 college women reporting prior trauma exposure was assessed at four time points following the shooting (i.e., pre-shooting, 1-month, 6-months, and 12-months post-shooting). Bootstrap analyses with bias-corrected confidence intervals were conducted. Contrary to expectation, pre-shooting trauma exposure was unrelated to 12-month post-shooting outcomes and neither negative appraisals nor social support at 6-months post-shooting emerged as mediators. Interestingly, a history of non-interpersonal trauma was associated with greater post-shooting family and friend support than a history of interpersonal trauma. Ad hoc analyses showed that pre-shooting symptom severity and level of exposure to the shooting had indirect effects on post-shooting outcomes via post-shooting negative appraisals. These findings support that cumulative trauma, regardless of type, may not have an additive effect unless individuals develop clinically significant symptoms following previous trauma. Trauma severity also appears to play a meaningful role.

  2. Employee performance appraisal and productivity levels in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this study was on performance appraisal of academic staff of Universities in Nigeria and their productivity levels. The prime problem that necessitated this study was to examine the effectiveness of the subjective methods used in appraising qualitative work attributes of the employees and to assess the extent to ...

  3. Affective bias as a rational response to the statistics of rewards and punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Browning, Michael

    2017-10-04

    Affective bias, the tendency to differentially prioritise the processing of negative relative to positive events, is commonly observed in clinical and non-clinical populations. However, why such biases develop is not known. Using a computational framework, we investigated whether affective biases may reflect individuals' estimates of the information content of negative relative to positive events. During a reinforcement learning task, the information content of positive and negative outcomes was manipulated independently by varying the volatility of their occurrence. Human participants altered the learning rates used for the outcomes selectively, preferentially learning from the most informative. This behaviour was associated with activity of the central norepinephrine system, estimated using pupilometry, for loss outcomes. Humans maintain independent estimates of the information content of distinct positive and negative outcomes which may bias their processing of affective events. Normalising affective biases using computationally inspired interventions may represent a novel approach to treatment development.

  4. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.

  5. Lax decision criteria lead to negativity bias: evidence from the emotional stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guofang; Xin, Ziqiang; Lin, Chongde

    2014-06-01

    Negativity bias means that negative information is usually given more emphasis than comparable positive information. Under signal detection theory, recent research found that people more frequently and incorrectly identify negative task-related words as having been presented originally than positive words, even when they were not presented. That is, people have lax decision criteria for negative words. However, the response biases for task-unrelated negative words and for emotionally important words are still unclear. This study investigated response bias for these two kinds of words. Study 1 examined the response bias for task-unrelated negative words using an emotional Stroop task. Proportions of correct recognition to negative and positive words were assessed by non-parametric signal detection analysis. Participants have lower (i.e., more lax) decision criteria for task-unrelated negative words than for positive words. Study 2 supported and expanded this result by investigating participants' response bias for highly emotional words. Participants have lower decision criteria for highly emotional words than for less emotional words. Finally, possible evolutionary sources of the response bias were discussed.

  6. Emotional Reactivity and Appraisal of Food in Relation to Eating Disorder Cognitions and Behaviours: Evidence to Support the Motivational Conflict Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Hebert, Karen R; Benning, Stephen D

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are associated with both negative and positive emotional reactions towards food. Individual eating disorder symptoms may relate to distinct emotional responses to food, which could necessitate tailored treatments based on symptom presentation. We examined associations between eating disorder symptoms and psychophysiological responses to food versus neutral images in 87 college students [mean (SD) age = 19.70 (2.09); mean (SD) body mass index = 23.25(2.77)]. Reflexive and facial electromyography measures tapping negative emotional reactivity (startle blink reflex) and appraisal (corrugator muscle response) as well as positive emotional reactivity (postauricular reflex) and appraisal (zygomaticus muscle response) were collected. Eating disorder cognitions correlated with more corrugator activity to food versus neutral images, indicating negative appraisals of food. Binge eating was associated with increased postauricular reflex reactivity to food versus neutral images, suggesting enhanced appetitive motivation to food. The combination of cognitive eating disorder symptoms and binge eating may result in motivational conflict towards food. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Fear appeals motivate acceptance of action recommendations: evidence for a positive bias in the processing of persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny H H J; de Wit, John B F; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    Three experiments are reported that tested the hypothesis that the use of fear appeals in health persuasion may lead to positively biased systematic processing of a subsequent action recommendation aimed at reducing the health threat and, consequently, to more persuasion, regardless of the quality of the arguments in the recommendation. The levels of participants' vulnerability to as well as the severity of a health risk were varied independently, followed by a manipulation of the quality of the arguments in the subsequent action recommendation. The dependent variables included measures of persuasion (attitude, intention, and action), negative affect, and cognitive responses. The results show that participants who felt vulnerable to the health threat were more persuaded, experienced more negative emotions, and had more favorable cognitive responses. Both negative emotions concerning one's vulnerability and positive thoughts concerning the recommendation mediated the effects of vulnerability on persuasion.

  8. Transmission of Cognitive Bias and Fear From Parents to Children: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmerswaal, Danielle; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the role of parents in the development of a cognitive bias and subsequent fear levels in children. In Experiment 1, nonclinical children ages 8-13 (N = 122) underwent a training during which they worked together with their mothers on an information search task. Mothers received instructions to induce either a positive or negative information search bias in their children. Experiment 2 investigated to what extent mothers own cognitive bias predicted children's information search bias. Mothers of 49 nonclinical children ages 9-12 received no explicit training instructions before working together with their child on an information search task. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mothers had a significant impact on children's cognitive bias and fear. More precisely, children who had received a negative parental training displayed an increase in negative information search bias and fear, whereas children who had received a positive parental training showed an increase in positive information search bias and a decrease in fear. In Experiment 2, it was found that children's information search biases after working together with their mothers were predicted by their mothers' initial cognitive bias scores. These findings can be taken as support for the intergenerational transmission of cognitive biases from mothers to children.

  9. MASS APPRAISAL AND REAL ESTATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONIN V. О.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The government at the legislative level fixed the definition of market value for tax purposes as mandatory in the implementation of real estate transactions. In order to meet the requirements of objectivity, uniformity and consistency of the results obtained during the evaluation procedures, as well as minimize the influence of subjective factors, there is a need to develop a methodology for evaluating an automated procedure for determining the estimated value of the property based on its market value. To solve this problem, we use special techniques and methods of mass appraisal that incorporates computer-supported statistical analyses, such as multiple regression analysis and adaptive estimation procedure for use in the field of property valuation and property rights. Purpose. Realization of this goal involves the development of the concept of a computer-assisted mass appraisal. The basis of this concept is an adaptive hybrid models of market pricing in different market segments that incorporates software adaptive algorithms for determining the market value by the three evaluation approaches using the results of a multi-level real estate market analysis. It was proposed the utility automated valuation models which is intended for the implementation of a computerized real estate valuation based on the developed software adaptive algorithms. Con-clusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used concepts underlying of computerized mass appraisal. The basis of this concept is adaptive hybrid pricing models in various segments of the real estate market of Ukraine. The problem is solved by the application of the developed software-based adaptive algorithms for determining the market value of three evaluation approaches using the results of a multi-level analysis of the real estate market. It was pro-posed the model of automated appraisal, according to it was implemented computerization of appraisal procedures on the

  10. Ecological Momentary Assessment of social functioning in schizophrenia: impact of performance appraisals and affect on social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Longitudinal study of appraisal at Three Mile Island: implications for life event research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K; Goldsteen, K S

    1989-01-01

    This study tests a path model which indicates the occurrence of appraisal following the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). The model posits a causal relationship between trust in TMI-related authorities, perceived danger, perceived harm to health, and psychological distress. The implications of the findings for life event research are discussed in terms of the etiological significance of meaning, event consequences, and control.

  12. Cognitive bias in action: evidence for a reciprocal relation between confirmation bias and fear in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmerswaal, Danielle; Huijding, Jorg; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Brouwer, Marlies; Muris, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Some cognitive models propose that information processing biases and fear are reciprocally related. This idea has never been formally tested. Therefore, this study investigated the existence of a vicious circle by which confirmation bias and fear exacerbate each other. One-hundred-and-seventy-one school children (8-13 years) were first provided with threatening, ambiguous, or positive information about an unknown animal. Then they completed a computerized information search task during which they could collect additional (negative, positive, or neutral) information about the novel animal. Because fear levels were repeatedly assessed during the task, it was possible to examine the reciprocal relationship between confirmation bias and fear. A reciprocal relation of mutual reinforcement was found between confirmation bias and fear over the course of the experiment: increases in fear predicted subsequent increases in the search for negative information, and increases in the search for negative information further enhanced fear on a later point-in-time. In addition, the initial information given about the animals successfully induced diverging fear levels in the children, and determined their first inclination to search for additional information. As this study employed a community sample of primary school children, future research should test whether these results can be generalized to clinically anxious youth. These findings provide first support for the notion that fearful individuals may become trapped in a vicious circle in which fear and a fear-related confirmation bias mutually strengthen each other, thereby maintaining the anxiety pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bias in patient satisfaction surveys: a threat to measuring healthcare quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsch, Felipe; Evans, David K; Macis, Mario; Wang, Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are an increasingly common element of efforts to evaluate the quality of healthcare. Many patient satisfaction surveys in low/middle-income countries frame statements positively and invite patients to agree or disagree, so that positive responses may reflect either true satisfaction or bias induced by the positive framing. In an experiment with more than 2200 patients in Nigeria, we distinguish between actual satisfaction and survey biases. Patients randomly assigned to receive negatively framed statements expressed significantly lower levels of satisfaction (87%) than patients receiving the standard positively framed statements (95%-pquality of health services. Providers and policymakers wishing to gauge the quality of care will need to avoid framing that induces bias and to complement patient satisfaction measures with more objective measures of quality.

  14. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Jeremy G.; White, Iain; Richards, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context

  15. Impacts of gate bias and its variation on gamma-ray irradiation resistance of SiC MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Koichi; Mitomo, Satoshi; Matsuda, Takuma; Yokoseki, Takashi [Saitama University, Sakuraku (Japan); National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Takasaki (Japan); Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Takeyama, Akinori; Ohshima, Takeshi [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Takasaki (Japan); Okubo, Shuichi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kandori, Mikio; Yoshie, Toru [Sanken Electric Co., Ltd., Niiza, Saitama (Japan); Hijikata, Yasuto [Saitama University, Sakuraku (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Gamma-ray irradiation into vertical type n-channel hexagonal (4H)-silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) was performed under various gate biases. The threshold voltage for the MOSFETs irradiated with a constant positive gate bias showed a large negative shift, and the shift slightly recovered above 100 kGy. For MOSFETs with non- and a negative constant biases, no significant change in threshold voltage, V{sub th}, was observed up to 400 kGy. By changing the gate bias from positive bias to either negative or non-bias, the V{sub th} significantly recovered from the large negative voltage shift induced by 50 kGy irradiation with positive gate bias after only 10 kGy irradiation with either negative or zero bias. It indicates that the positive charges generated in the gate oxide near the oxide-SiC interface due to irradiation were removed or recombined instantly by the irradiation under zero or negative biases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Self-reference modulates the processing of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Paul; Herbert, Beate M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-referential evaluation of emotional stimuli has been shown to modify the way emotional stimuli are processed. This study aimed at a new approach by investigating whether self-reference alters emotion processing in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects spontaneously viewed a series of emotional and neutral nouns. Nouns were preceded either by personal pronouns (‘my’) indicating self-reference or a definite article (‘the’) without self-reference. The early posterior negativity, a brain potential reflecting rapid attention capture by emotional stimuli was enhanced for unpleasant and pleasant nouns relative to neutral nouns irrespective of whether nouns were preceded by personal pronouns or articles. Later brain potentials such as the late positive potential were enhanced for unpleasant nouns only when preceded by personal pronouns. Unpleasant nouns were better remembered than pleasant or neutral nouns when paired with a personal pronoun. Correlation analysis showed that this bias in favor of self-related unpleasant concepts can be explained by participants’ depression scores. Our results demonstrate that self-reference acts as a first processing filter for emotional material to receive higher order processing after an initial rapid attention capture by emotional content has been completed. Mood-congruent processing may contribute to this effect. PMID:20855295

  17. Simply Imagining Sunshine, Lollipops and Rainbows Will Not Budge the Bias: The Role of Ambiguity in Interpretive Bias Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Notebaert, Lies; Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Macleod, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Imagery-based interpretive bias modification (CBM-I) involves repeatedly imagining scenarios that are initially ambiguous before being resolved as either positive or negative in the last word/s. While the presence of such ambiguity is assumed to be important to achieve change in selective interpretation, it is also possible that the act of repeatedly imagining positive or negative events could produce such change in the absence of ambiguity. The present study sought to examine whether the ambiguity in imagery-based CBM-I is necessary to elicit change in interpretive bias, or, if the emotional content of the imagined scenarios is sufficient to produce such change. An imagery-based CBM-I task was delivered to participants in one of four conditions, where the valence of imagined scenarios were either positive or negative, and the ambiguity of the scenario was either present (until the last word/s) or the ambiguity was absent (emotional valence was evident from the start). Results indicate that only those who received scenarios in which the ambiguity was present acquired an interpretive bias consistent with the emotional valence of the scenarios, suggesting that the act of imagining positive or negative events will only influence patterns of interpretation when the emotional ambiguity is a consistent feature.

  18. Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.

  19. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranming Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC.Methods:Seventy-six undergraduate participants with high social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS ≥ 30 were randomly assigned to four groups: CBM-A (n = 20, CBM-I (n = 20, AIM (n = 16, and CC (n = 20.Results: The results showed that the effects of CBM training, CBM-I training, or AIM training vs. CC for attention yielded no significant differences in dot-probe attention bias scores. The CBM-I group showed significantly less threat interpretation and more benign interpretation than the CC group on interpretation bias scores.Conclusions: The present results supported the feasibility of delivering CBM-I via smartphones, but the effectiveness of CBM-A and AIM training via smartphones was limited.

  20. Attention bias modification training under working memory load increases the magnitude of change in attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Branson, Sonya; Chen, Nigel T M; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Salemink, Elske; MacLeod, Colin; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-12-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias. Bias change was assessed among 122 participants in response to one of four ABM tasks given by the two experimental factors of ABM training procedure delivered either with or without working memory load, and training direction of either attend-negative or avoid-negative. Findings revealed that avoid-negative ABM procedure under working memory load resulted in significantly greater reductions in attentional bias compared to the equivalent no-load condition. The current findings will require replication with clinical samples to determine the utility of the current task for achieving emotional benefits. These present findings are consistent with the position that the addition of a working memory load may facilitate change in attentional bias in response to an ABM training procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Appraisal- Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and High-Performance Home Attributes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    element of any new plan should be to reset the nature of interactions with the industry, with the goal a more collaborative, two-way discussion to help improve outsiders’ understanding of the valuation process. It is not only the appraiser that needs to be engaged and could benefit from awareness raising. Homeowners, builders, lenders, utilities, insurance companies should also provide input on how green/HP factors impact property valuations and ways to accurately reflect these considerations in appraisals and real estate transactions more broadly. Given extensive inertia within the appraisal industry and a mixed history of interactions with the non-appraisal stakeholders, it is unlikely that the status quo will achieve much unless followed with more coordinated and persistent efforts. Workshops, studies, and memoranda of understanding will not on their own have much impact, and do not address deeper structural issues. Expectations are often unrealistic and not attentive to real-world constraints faced by appraisers. The report identifies key barriers impeding more thorough consideration of green/HP factors in residential real estate appraisals, and solutions for mitigating them. Barriers • Although industry standards of practice caution against bias of any sort, a skeptical predisposition towards “green” is reinforced by information deficiencies. • Information deficiencies result from the lack or difficulty of obtaining usable data on green/HP features in subject properties as well as valid sales comparisons or cashflow analyses. • Competency deficiencies, such as lack of conversancy in relevant technical topics, leads to oversights, and disjointed treatment of relevant information. • Time/cost pressure and process commoditization (e.g., template-based approaches) result from highly constrained budgets, quick turn-around times expected of appraisers, and standardized practices that were not developed with green/HP considerations in mind. • Professional

  2. Electrode and limiter biasing experiments on the tokamak ISTTOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.; Figueiredo, H.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Nedzelsky, I.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution limiter and electrode biasing experiments are compared, in particular in what concerns their effects on the edge plasma parameters. For electrode AC bias a substantial increase (>50%) in the average plasma density is observed with positive voltage, without significant changes in the edge density, leading to steeper profiles. The ratio n e /Hα also increases significantly (>20%), indicating an improvement in gross particle confinement. The plasma potential profile is strongly modified as both the edge E r and its shear increase significantly. For positive limiter bias an increase in the average plasma density and the radiation losses is observed, resulting in almost no modification, or a slight, in particle confinement. Preliminary results of simultaneous electrode and limiter bias experiments show that the control of the plasma potential profile is very limited, since negative voltages do not modify the plasma parameters significantly. (author)

  3. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  4. ORIGINAL Is the Role of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aware of the purposes of the current teacher performance appraisal. However, the ... building, and expensive equipment (Daniel,. 2009). ... development of teachers, teachers' job ...... Appraisers' tend to rate high a person who is similar.

  5. Parental Appraisal of the Family Impact of Childhood Developmental Disability: Times of Sadness and Times of Joy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trute, Barry; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Levine, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Background: Parental positive and negative appraisals of the family impact of childhood disability are tested as early predictors of parental self-esteem and overall family adjustment in households with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Within 103 Canadian families, 103 mothers and 55 fathers independently…

  6. Biases in GNSS-Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, S. C.; Dach, R.; Lutz, S.; Meindl, M.; Beutler, G.

    2010-12-01

    Within the Global Positioning System (GPS) traditionally different types of pseudo-range measurements (P-code, C/A-code) are available on the first frequency that are tracked by the receivers with different technologies. For that reason, P1-C1 and P1-P2 Differential Code Biases (DCB) need to be considered in a GPS data processing with a mix of different receiver types. Since the Block IIR-M series of GPS satellites also provide C/A-code on the second frequency, P2-C2 DCB need to be added to the list of biases for maintenance. Potential quarter-cycle biases between different phase observables (specifically L2P and L2C) are another issue. When combining GNSS (currently GPS and GLONASS), careful consideration of inter-system biases (ISB) is indispensable, in particular when an adequate combination of individual GLONASS clock correction results from different sources (using, e.g., different software packages) is intended. Facing the GPS and GLONASS modernization programs and the upcoming GNSS, like the European Galileo and the Chinese Compass, an increasing number of types of biases is expected. The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is monitoring these GPS and GLONASS related biases for a long time based on RINEX files of the tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and in the frame of the data processing as one of the global analysis centers of the IGS. Within the presentation we give an overview on the stability of the biases based on the monitoring. Biases derived from different sources are compared. Finally, we give an outlook on the potential handling of such biases with the big variety of signals and systems expected in the future.

  7. Communicating Truthfully and Positively in Appraising Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)

  8. Anxiety and burnout in young athletes: The mediating role of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A R; Faria, S; Vilela, C

    2017-12-01

    This study tested the relationship between trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and athletes' burnout proposing two hypotheses: (a) there is a direct relationship between athletes' trait anxiety and cognitive appraisal and burnout, and (b) cognitive appraisal mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and burnout, and this mediation occurs despite the competitive level and sport records of athletes. The study included 673 young athletes and provided measures of trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that cognitive appraisal mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and burnout, confirming hypothesis 2, and this model provided better fit than the direct model of hypothesis 1. However, the mediation also indicated that the direct relationship between trait anxiety and burnout should be considered. The mediating model was invariant according to competitive levels and sport records. In conclusion, cognitive appraisal is an important variable in explaining athletes' burnout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenze, Susan J; Gunthert, Kathleen C; German, Ramaris E

    2012-07-01

    The authors used experience sampling to investigate biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with varying levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants who were higher in depression symptoms demonstrated stronger (more pessimistic) negative mood prediction biases, marginally stronger negative mood recall biases, and weaker (less optimistic) positive mood prediction and recall biases. Participants who were higher in anxiety symptoms demonstrated stronger negative mood prediction biases, but positive mood prediction biases that were on par with those who were lower in anxiety. Anxiety symptoms were not associated with mood recall biases. Neither depression symptoms nor anxiety symptoms were associated with bias in event prediction. Their findings fit well with the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Results are also consistent with the conceptualization of anxiety as a "forward-looking" disorder, and with theories that emphasize the importance of pessimism and general negative information processing in depressive functioning.

  10. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Affecting others: social appraisal and emotion contagion in everyday decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda

    2009-08-01

    In a diary study of interpersonal affect transfer, 41 participants reported on decisions involving other people over 3 weeks. Reported anxiety and excitement were reliably related to the perceived anxiety and excitement of another person who was present during decision making. Risk and importance appraisals partially mediated effects of other's anxiety on own anxiety as predicted by social appraisal theory. However, other's emotion remained a significant independent predictor of own emotion after controlling for appraisals, supporting the additional impact of more direct forms of affect transfer such as emotion contagion. Significant affect-transfer effects remained even after controlling for participants' perceptions of the other's emotion in addition to all measured appraisals, confirming that affect transfer does not require explicit registration of someone else's feelings. This research provides some of the clearest evidence for the operation of both social appraisal and automatic affect transfer in everyday social life.

  12. Are the memories of older adults positively biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra; Ross, Michael; Wiegand, Melanie; Schryer, Emily

    2008-06-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about whether a "positivity effect" in memory performance exists in older adults. To assess the generalizability of the effect, the authors examined memory for autobiographical, picture, and word information in a group of younger (17-29 years old) and older (60-84 years old) adults. For the autobiographical memory task, the authors asked participants to produce 4 positive, 4 negative, and 4 neutral recent autobiographical memories and to recall these a week later. For the picture and word tasks, participants studied photos or words of different valences (positive, negative, neutral) and later remembered them on a free-recall test. The authors found significant correlations in memory performance, across task material, for recall of both positive and neutral valence autobiographical events, pictures, and words. When the authors examined accurate memories, they failed to find consistent evidence, across the different types of material, of a positivity effect in either age group. However, the false memory findings offer more consistent support for a positivity effect in older adults. During recall of all 3 types of material, older participants recalled more false positive than false negative memories.

  13. Forecasts: uncertain, inaccurate and biased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Ambrasaite, Inga; Salling, Kim Bang

    2012-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is the dominating methodology for appraisal of transport infrastructure projects across the globe. In order to adequately assess the costs and benefits of such projects two types of forecasts are crucial to the validity of the appraisal. First are the forecasts of cons....... It is recommended that more attention is given to monitoring completed projects so future forecasts can benefit from better data availability through systematic ex-post evaluations, and an example of how to utilize such data in practice is presented.......Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is the dominating methodology for appraisal of transport infrastructure projects across the globe. In order to adequately assess the costs and benefits of such projects two types of forecasts are crucial to the validity of the appraisal. First are the forecasts...... of construction costs, which account for the majority of total project costs. Second are the forecasts of travel time savings, which account for the majority of total project benefits. The latter of these is, inter alia, determined by forecasts of travel demand, which we shall use as a proxy for the forecasting...

  14. Student feedback on an adapted appraisal model in resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. An appraisal model, a type of formal mentorship programme for a cohort of student doctors, is used at the University of Leeds, UK. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa implemented an adapted version of the appraisal process that uses fewer resources. Objective. To explore ...

  15. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  16. Self-esteem of young adults with chronic health conditions: appraising the effects of perceived impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireys, H T; Gross, S S; Werthamer-Larsson, L A; Kolodner, K B

    1994-12-01

    The relationships between selected condition characteristics and self-esteem were investigated in a randomly drawn, community-based sample of 286 young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. Whether appraisals of the impact of the condition mediated relationships between condition characteristics and self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, was also measured. As a group, the youth in this sample reported positive self-esteem. When sociodemographic and condition-related variables were considered simultaneously, maternal education, unpredictability of symptoms, prognosis, sensory impairment, and the presence of a co-occurring learning disability were found to have direct effects on esteem. Perceived impact mediated the relationship between condition characteristics and self-esteem. The results are discussed in relation to the role of impact appraisal in determining the emotional well-being of young adults with chronic illnesses.

  17. Effects of sertraline, duloxetine, vortioxetine, and idazoxan in the rat affective bias test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Louise Konradsen; Haubro, Kia; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Affective biases seemingly play a crucial role for the onset and development of depression. Acute treatment with monoamine-based antidepressants positively influence emotional processing, and an early correction of biases likely results in repeated positive experiences that ultimately...... lead to improved mood. Objectives Using two conventional antidepressants, sertraline and duloxetine, we aimed to forward the characterization of a newly developed affective bias test (ABT) for rats. Further, we examined the effect of vortioxetine, a recently approved antidepressant, and the α2...... adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan on affective biases....

  18. Appraising and comparing pressure ulcer guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Peter; van Zelm, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Whilst considerable activity has been related to guideline development for nurses regarding pressure ulcer prevention and management, no attempt has been made to comparatively evaluate these guidelines against some form of quality indicators. To compare and contrast four national pressure ulcer guidelines, and identify similarities and differences in their quality and content. An international comparative appraisal method, using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) instrument, was undertaken to appraise four published pressure ulcer guidelines. Two further domains were added to the AGREE instrument to assess comparability of the guidelines and their perceived contribution to practice. An international group undertook the comparative appraisal. The domain scores for each guideline show some but not total agreement among reviewers. One particular set of guidelines was identified as scoring highest in a majority of AGREE domains. Overall, evidence of variability exists between pressure ulcer guidelines and common areas of development to consider for all guidelines. The results raise many questions concerning the "best" pressure ulcer guideline to use, particularly related to the AGREE scoring. Some notable shortcomings exist in all the pressure ulcer guidelines reviewed and these shortcomings need to be addressed from a quality perspective. However, other issues such as style of reporting and potential contribution to practice might more fully affect choice by practitioners as opposed to guideline developers. Notable differences exist among the four guidelines that are possibly explained by different approaches to development and also because of different cultural factors and intentions for use. Whilst the AGREE tool identifies the quality of the guideline development process it still requires local engagement with practitioners to determine which guideline should be implemented.

  19. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria.

  20. Managing employees’ talk about problems in work in performance appraisal interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Performance appraisal interviews are carried out on the basis of known-in-advance written materials such as preparation forms and interview guides. This article demonstrates how participants manage interviews by following a question–answer–response format fit to address interview guide entries one...... norms emanating from literature on management communication. Results obtained in interviews are put down in writing along the way and subsequently summarized in documents to be signed by both participants, that is, employee and supervisor. The article demonstrates how participants use positive...

  1. Affective bias in visual working memory is associated with capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Li, Huanhuan; Ying, Xiangyu; Zhu, Shiyou; Fu, Rong; Zou, Yingmin; Cui, Yanyan

    2017-11-01

    How does the affective nature of task stimuli modulate working memory (WM)? This study investigates whether WM maintains emotional information in a biased manner to meet the motivational principle of approaching positivity and avoiding negativity by retaining more approach-related positive content over avoidance-related negative content. This bias may exist regardless of individual differences in WM functionality, as indexed by WM capacity (overall bias hypothesis). Alternatively, this bias may be contingent on WM capacity (capacity-based hypothesis), in which a better WM system may be more likely to reveal an adaptive bias. In two experiments, participants performed change localisation tasks with emotional and non-emotional stimuli to estimate the number of items that they could retain for each of those stimuli. Although participants did not seem to remember one type of emotional content (e.g. happy faces) better than the other type of emotional content (e.g. sad faces), there was a significant correlation between WM capacity and affective bias. Specifically, participants with higher WM capacity for non-emotional stimuli (colours or line-drawing symbols) tended to maintain more happy faces over sad faces. These findings demonstrated the presence of a "built-in" affective bias in WM as a function of its systematic limitations, favouring the capacity-based hypothesis.

  2. Artificial Neural Networks and the Mass Appraisal of Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer, artificial intelligence and big data technology, artificial neural networks have become one of the most powerful machine learning algorithms. In the practice, most of the applications of artificial neural networks use back propagation neural network and its variation. Besides the back propagation neural network, various neural networks have been developing in order to improve the performance of standard models. Though neural networks are well known method in the research of real estate, there is enormous space for future research in order to enhance their function. Some scholars combine genetic algorithm, geospatial information, support vector machine model, particle swarm optimization with artificial neural networks to appraise the real estate, which is helpful for the existing appraisal technology. The mass appraisal of real estate in this paper includes the real estate valuation in the transaction and the tax base valuation in the real estate holding. In this study we focus on the theoretical development of artificial neural networks and mass appraisal of real estate, artificial neural networks model evolution and algorithm improvement, artificial neural networks practice and application, and review the existing literature about artificial neural networks and mass appraisal of real estate. Finally, we provide some suggestions for the mass appraisal of China's real estate.

  3. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  4. Evidence-based review and appraisal of the use of droperidol in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Droperidol is a short-acting, potent dopamine D2 antagonist that can pass through the blood–brain barrier. A black box warning was issued for droperidol by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2001 because of a risk of development of torsades de pointes induced by QT prolongation. Many experts feel that the incidence of arrhythmia is overestimated, and low-dose droperidol is almost always used by anesthesiologists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review, we used evidence-based analysis to appraise high-quality studies with a low risk of bias published after 2001 on the use of droperidol in the emergency department (ED. Droperidol appears not only efficacious but also safe to treat patients with nausea/vomiting, acute psychosis, and migraine in the ED. For these conditions, droperidol may be an option for shared decision-making.

  5. [Informed consent right of the appraised individuals in forensic clinical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju-Ping; Han, Wei; Gu, Shan-Zhi; Chen, Teng

    2015-02-01

    Informed consent right is not just for basic ethical consideration, but is important for protecting patient's right by law, which is expressed through informed consent contract. The appraised individuals of forensic clinical examination have the similar legal status as the patients in medical system. However, the law does not require informed consent right for the appraised individuals. I recommend giving certain informed consent right to the appraised individuals in the forensic clinical examination. Under the contracted relationship with the institution, the appraised individuals could participate in the examination process, know the necessary information, and make a selected consent on the examination results, which can assure the justice and fairness of judicial examination procedure.

  6. Biased limiter experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Durst, R.D.; McCool, S.C.; Richards, B.; Gentle, K.W.; Schoch, P.; Forster, J.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments using an electrically biased limiter have been performed on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). A small movable limiter is inserted past the main poloidal ring limiter (which is electrically connected to the vacuum vessel) and biased at V Lim with respect to it. The floating potential, plasma potential and shear layer position can be controlled. With vertical strokeV Lim vertical stroke ≥ 50 V the plasma density increases. For V Lim Lim > 0 the results obtained are inconclusive. Variation of V Lim changes the electrostatic turbulence which may explain the observed total flux changes. (orig.)

  7. Attentional bias for pain and sex, and automatic appraisals of sexual penetration : Differential patterns in dyspareunia versus vaginismus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, Reinhilde J.; Dewitte, Marieke D.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Peters, Madelon M.L.; Jong, de Peter J.

    Introduction Current information processing models propose that heightened attention bias for sex-related threats (eg, pain) and lowered automatic incentive processes (“wanting”) may play an important role in the impairment of sexual arousal and the development of sexual dysfunctions such as

  8. Effects of appraisal purpose and rating format on performance appraisal accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Marta L.

    1989-01-01

    The principle of encoding specificity states that effective information retrieval relies upon consistency of encoding and retrieval cues. The present study generalized this principle to a complex social interaction in order to investigate the relation between certain combinations of pre- and post-observational cues and their effects on information categorization, recognition accuracy, and judgment accuracy. It was hypothesized that two experimental factors, appraisal pur...

  9. Looking on the bright side: biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Ridgewell, Anna; Ashwin, Chris

    2009-05-22

    Humans differ in terms of biased attention for emotional stimuli and these biases can confer differential resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders. Selective processing of positive emotional information, for example, is associated with enhanced sociability and well-being while a bias for negative material is associated with neuroticism and anxiety. A tendency to selectively avoid negative material might also be associated with mental health and well-being. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these cognitive phenotypes are currently unknown. Here we show for the first time that allelic variation in the promotor region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is associated with differential biases for positive and negative affective pictures. Individuals homozygous for the long allele (LL) showed a marked bias to selectively process positive affective material alongside selective avoidance of negative affective material. This potentially protective pattern was absent among individuals carrying the short allele (S or SL). Thus, allelic variation on a common genetic polymorphism was associated with the tendency to selectively process positive or negative information. The current study is important in demonstrating a genotype-related alteration in a well-established processing bias, which is a known risk factor in determining both resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders.

  10. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a) Upon ordering an estate to be probated, the court shall appoint a disinterested and competent person as an...

  11. 107 an appraisal of the scope of provisions under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    EZE & EZE: An Appraisal of the Scope of Provisions Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution for the Control of Pollution. Arising from the Oil and Gas Industry. AN APPRAISAL OF THE .... However, in a historic judgment, a Federal High Court sitting in Benin-City and presided over by Nwokorie J, held that continued gas flaring ...

  12. 242-A Evaporator crystallizer facility integrated annual safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the results of the Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 Annual Integrated Safety Appraisal of the 242-A Evaporator Crystallizer Facility in the Hanford 200 East Area. The appraisal was conducted in December 1990 and January 1991, by the Waste Tank Safety Assurance (WTSA) organizations in conjunction with Radiological Engineering, Criticality Safety, Packaging and Shipping Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Environmental Compliance, and Quality Assurance. Reports of these eight organizations are presented as Sections 2 through 7 of this report. The purpose of the appraisal was to verify that the 242-A Evaporator meets US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements and current industry standards of good practice for the areas being appraised. A further purpose was to identify areas in which program effectiveness could be improved. In accordance with the guidance of WHC Management Requirements and Procedures (MRP)5.6, previously identified deficiencies which are being resolved by line management were not repeated as Findings or Observations unless progress or intended disposition was considered to be unsatisfactory

  13. Negative appraisals and fear extinction are independently related to PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Palmer, Matthew A; Gray, Kate E; Hsu, Chia-Ming K; Nicholson, Emma L; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has revealed impaired fear extinction to be a significant predictor of PTSD. Fear extinction is also considered the primary mechanism of exposure therapy, and a critical factor in PTSD recovery. The cognitive theory of PTSD proposes that symptoms persist due to excessive negative appraisals about the trauma and its sequelae. Research has not yet examined the relationship between fear extinction and negative appraisals in PTSD. A cross-sectional sample of participants with PTSD (n =21), and trauma-exposed controls (n =33) underwent a standardized differential fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, with skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude serving as the index of conditioned responses. The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) was used to index catastrophic negative appraisals. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a slower decrease in overall SCR responses during extinction and greater negative appraisals compared to the group. A moderation analysis revealed that both negative trauma-relevant appraisals and fear extinction learning were independently associated with PTSD symptoms, but there was no moderation interaction. The current study was limited by a modest sample size, leading to the inclusion of participants with subclinical PTSD symptoms. Further, the current study only assessed fear extinction learning; including a second day extinction recall task may show alternative effects. These findings indicate that negative appraisals and fear extinction did not interact, but had independent relationships with PTSD symptoms. Here we show for the first time in an experimental framework that negative appraisals and fear extinction play separate roles in PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional Flexibility in Women's Commitment-Skepticism Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If a woman overestimates her romantic partner's commitment, the cost to her fitness—reproduction without an investing partner—can be considerable. Error Management Theory predicts that women have an evolved bias to be skeptical of men's commitment in a relationship, which reduces the likelihood of making a costly false positive error. However, because error probabilities are inversely related, this commitment-skepticism bias simultaneously increases the likelihood of missed opportunities, or false negatives. False positives when gauging a partner's commitment are the more costly error for women, but missing an opportunity to secure a genuinely high-quality mate can also be quite costly. We predicted and found that women's mating cognitions are functionally flexible, such that women do not exhibit the commitment-skepticism bias when faced with behavioral evidence that a male partner is willing to commit (Study 1. This suggests that relationship-enhancing behaviors are one contextual cue that may lessen the bias. However, not all relationship-enhancing behaviors are equally diagnostic of a person's true commitment intent. When comparing men and women's commitment thresholds, we found that women require more behavioral evidence than men do to feel certain of their partner's commitment to them (Study 2.

  15. Positivity bias in judging ingroup members' emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerus, Talya; Ingbretsen, Zachary A; Stolier, Ryan M; Freeman, Jonathan B; Cikara, Mina

    2016-12-01

    We investigated how group membership impacts valence judgments of ingroup and outgroup members' emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, participants, randomized into 2 novel, competitive groups, rated the valence of in- and outgroup members' facial expressions (e.g., fearful, happy, neutral) using a circumplex affect grid. Across all emotions, participants judged ingroup members' expressions as more positive than outgroup members' expressions. In Experiment 2, participants categorized fearful and happy expressions as being either positive or negative using a mouse-tracking paradigm. Participants exhibited the most direct trajectories toward the "positive" label for ingroup happy expressions and an initial attraction toward positive for ingroup expressions of fear, with outgroup emotion trajectories falling in between. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 and demonstrated that the effect could not be accounted for by targets' gaze direction. Overall, people judged ingroup faces as more positive, regardless of emotion, both in deliberate and implicit judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Automatic Affective Appraisal of Sexual Penetration Stimuli in Women with Vaginismus or Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, Jorg; Borg, Charmaine; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J.

    Introduction. Current psychological views are that negative appraisals of sexual stimuli lie at the core of sexual dysfunctions. It is important to differentiate between deliberate appraisals and more automatic appraisals, as research has shown that the former are most relevant to controllable

  17. Self-perceived recovery status among Danish people with low back problems; what influences their appraisal after 12 months?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Boyle, Eleanor; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    /trauma and positive coping experiences. Those unsure of their status, tended to do so on the basis of cognitive dissonance regarding the meaning of recovery and paradoxical scepticism of pain-free periods. Retrospective self-appraisal appears to be filtered through the individual’s understanding of the nature...

  18. Media Bias and Advertising: Evidence from German Car Magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Heimeshoff, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of a possible media bias by analyzing the impact of automobile manufactures' advertisements on automobile reviews in German car magazines. By accounting for both endogeneity and sample selection we find a positive impact of advertising volumes on test scores. Moreover, also a home bias in terms of higher scores for German cars is observable. We account these results as some evidence for a media bias, induced by the two-sidedness of the markets.

  19. Variations in the serotonin-transporter gene are associated with attention bias patterns to positive and negative emotion faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Gorodetsky, Elena; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-03-01

    Both attention biases to threat and a serotonin-transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) have been linked to heightened neural activation to threat and the emergence of anxiety. The short allele of 5-HTTLPR may act via its effect on neurotransmitter availability, while attention biases shape broad patterns of cognitive processing. We examined individual differences in attention bias to emotion faces as a function of 5-HTTLPR genotype. Adolescents (N=117) were classified for presumed SLC6A4 expression based on 5-HTTLPR-low (SS, SL(G), or L(G)L(G)), intermediate (SL(A) or L(A)L(G)), or high (L(A)L(A)). Participants completed the dot-probe task, measuring attention biases toward or away from angry and happy faces. Biases for angry faces increased with the genotype-predicted neurotransmission levels (low>intermediate>high). The reverse pattern was evident for happy faces. The data indicate a linear relation between 5-HTTLPR allelic status and attention biases to emotion, demonstrating a genetic mechanism for biased attention using ecologically valid stimuli that target socioemotional adaptation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification for Pay Purposes § 1330.405 Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (a) General. To... senior employees based on appraisals of their relative performance against performance expectations in... responsibilities— (A) The performance standards, requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise to...

  1. Health system guidance appraisal--concept evaluation and usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Arrey, Denis E; Brouwers, Melissa C; Lavis, John N; Giacomini, Mita K

    2016-01-05

    Health system guidance (HSG) provides recommendations aimed to address health system challenges. However, there is a paucity of methods to direct, appraise, and report HSG. Earlier research identified 30 candidate criteria (concepts) that can be used to evaluate the quality of HSG and guide development and reporting requirements. The objective of this paper was to describe two studies aimed at evaluating the importance of these 30 criteria, design a draft HSG appraisal tool, and test its usability. This study involved a two-step survey process. In step 1, respondents rated the 30 concepts for appropriateness to, relevance to, and priority for health system decisions and HSG. This led to a draft tool. In step 2, respondents reviewed HSG documents, appraised them using the tool, and answered a series of questions. Descriptive analyses were computed. Fifty participants were invited in step 1, and we had a response rate of 82 %. The mean response rates for each concept within each survey question were universally favorable. There was also an overall agreement about the need for a high-quality tool to systematically direct the development, appraisal, and reporting of HSG. Qualitative feedback and a consensus process by the team led to refinements to some of the concepts and the creation of a beta (draft) version of the HSG tool. In step 2, 35 participants were invited and we had a response rate of 74 %. Exploratory analyses showed that the quality of the HSGs reviewed varied as a function of the HSG item and the specific document assessed. A favorable consensus was reached with participants agreeing that the HSG items were easy to understand and easy to apply. Moreover, the overall agreement was high for the usability of the tool to systematically direct the development (85 %), appraisal (92 %), and reporting (81 %) of HSG. From this process, version 1.0 of the HSG appraisal tool was generated complete with 32 items (and their descriptions) and 4 domains. The final

  2. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles.

  3. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal Politics and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance appraisal politics are viewed as a vital human resource management issuewhere it consists of two salient features: motivational motive and punishment motive. The ability ofappraisers (e.g., immediate bosses/managers to properly implement such appraisal politics inallocating performance ratings may have significant impact on job satisfaction. Although the nature ofthis relationship is important, little is known about the role of performance appraisal politics as apredicting variable in the performance appraisal models. Therefore, this study was conducted toexamine the effect of performance appraisal politics on job satisfaction using 150 usablequestionnaires gathered from employees who have worked in a national postal company in Sarawak,Malaysia. In initial data analysis, the results of exploratory factor analysis confirmed that themeasurement scales used in this study satisfactorily met the standards of validity and reliabilityanalyses. Further, in hypothesis testing, the outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed thatperformance appraisal politics (i.e., motivational motive and punishment motive significantlycorrelated with job satisfaction. Statistically, this result confirms that performance appraisal politicsact as important predictors of job satisfaction in the studied organization. In addition, discussion,implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  4. Decision making biases in the communication of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. B.; Steacy, S.; Begg, S. H.; Navarro, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    L'Aquila, with 6 scientists convicted of manslaughter, shocked the scientific community, leading to urgent re-appraisal of communication methods for low-probability, high-impact events. Before the trial, a commission investigating the earthquake recommended risk assessment be formalised via operational earthquake forecasts and that social scientists be enlisted to assist in developing communication strategies. Psychological research has identified numerous decision biases relevant to this, including hindsight bias, where people (after the fact) overestimate an event's predictability. This affects experts as well as naïve participants as it relates to their ability to construct a plausible causal story rather than the likelihood of the event. Another problem is availability, which causes overestimation of the likelihood of observed rare events due to their greater noteworthiness. This, however, is complicated by the 'description-experience' gap, whereby people underestimate probabilities for events they have not experienced. That is, people who have experienced strong earthquakes judge them more likely while those who have not judge them less likely - relative to actual probabilities. Finally, format changes alter people's decisions. That is people treat '1 in 10,000' as different from 0.01% despite their mathematical equivalence. Such effects fall under the broad term framing, which describes how different framings of the same event alter decisions. In particular, people's attitude to risk depends significantly on how scenarios are described. We examine the effect of biases on the communication of change in risk. South Australian participants gave responses to scenarios describing familiar (bushfire) or unfamiliar (earthquake) risks. While bushfires are rare in specific locations, significant fire events occur each year and are extensively covered. By comparison, our study location (Adelaide) last had a M5 quake in 1954. Preliminary results suggest the description

  5. An appraisal of the quality of published qualitative dental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Thaliath, Ebin T; Bower, Elizabeth J; Newton, J Timothy

    2011-06-01

    To appraise the quality of published qualitative research in dentistry and identify aspects of quality, which require attention in future research. Qualitative research studies on dental topics were appraised using the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) appraisal framework for qualitative research. The percentage of CASP criteria fully met during the assessment was used as an indication of the quality of each paper. Individual criteria were not weighted. Forty-three qualitative studies were identified for appraisal of which 48% had a dental public health focus. Deficiencies in detail of reporting, research design, methodological rigour, presentation of findings, reflexivity, credibility of findings and relevance of study were identified. Problems with quality were apparent irrespective of journal impact factor, although papers from low impact factor journals exhibited the most deficiencies. Journals with the highest impact factors published the least qualitative research. The quality of much of the qualitative research published on dental topics is mediocre. Qualitative methods are underutilized in oral health research. If quality guidelines such as the CASP framework are used in the context of a thorough understanding of qualitative research design and data analysis, they can promote good practice and the systematic assessment of qualitative research. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Development and validation of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (ITAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Frank J; Skovlund, Søren E; Pouwer, Frans

    2007-01-01

    . Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and item-total correlations were determined to test the reliability of the instrument. Concurrent validity was examined by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients between the different measures. Discriminant validity was examined...... 20-item scale was 0.89, suggesting high homogeneity and allowing for calculation of an overall score. Item-total correlations were in the range of 0.46-0.74 for the negative and 0.34 - 0.53 for the positive appraisal scale. The item pertaining to weight gain, as part of the negative appraisal...... subscale, showed low communality and deserves further testing. Concurrent validity was confirmed with low to moderate correlations in the expected direction between ITAS and WHO-5 and PAID. Discriminant validity was confirmed by the fact that patients using insulin had significantly less negative...

  7. Satisfaction of staff of Swiss insurance companies with medical appraisals: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyr Niklaus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high quality of timely delivered medical appraisals is crucial for social and other insurances to judge possible occupational reintegration measures for patients with medical conditions who are in danger to lose their job. However, little is known about the satisfaction of staff of insurance companies with medical appraisals that they have commissioned. Our questionnaire survey prospectively included all medical appraisals arriving at Swiss insurances from FEB to APR 2008. We assessed the satisfaction of the commissioner with medical appraisals performed by medical assessors. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of several factors to overall satisfaction. The unit of sample was the medical appraisal. Findings We analysed 3165 medical appraisals, 2444 (77% of them from the public disability insurance, 678 (22% from private accident, liability and loss of income insurances and 43 (1% from other insurances. Overall satisfaction of staff of insurance companies in Switzerland was high, but satisfaction of the disability insurance with appraisals was generally lower compared to satisfaction of private insurances. The staff of the disability insurance judged time for preparation as too long in 30%. For staff of private insurance companies 20% of appraisals were not "worth its price". Well-grounded and comprehensible conclusions were the single most important factor for high overall satisfaction (OR 10.1; 95%-CI: 1.1-89.3. Conclusions From the viewpoint of staff of insurance companies, a relevant part of medical appraisals arrives too late. Medical assessors have to take the specific needs of insurances into account, to perform more appraisals with sound conclusions in due time.

  8. Health systems guidance appraisal--a critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Arrey, Denis E; Brouwers, Melissa C; Lavis, John N; Giacomini, Mita K

    2016-01-22

    Health systems guidance (HSG) are systematically developed statements that assist with decisions about options for addressing health systems challenges, including related changes in health systems arrangements. However, the development, appraisal, and reporting of HSG poses unique conceptual and methodological challenges related to the varied types of evidence that are relevant, the complexity of health systems, and the pre-eminence of contextual factors. To address this gap, we are conducting a program of research that aims to create a tool to support the appraisal of HSG and further enhance HSG development and reporting. The focus of this paper was to conduct a knowledge synthesis of the published and grey literatures to determine quality criteria (concepts) relevant for this process. We applied a critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) approach to knowledge synthesis that enabled an iterative, flexible, and dynamic analysis of diverse bodies of literature in order to generate a candidate list of concepts that will constitute the foundational components of the HSG tool. Using our review questions as compasses, we were able to guide the search strategy to look for papers based on their potential relevance to HSG appraisal, development, and reporting. The search strategy included various electronic databases and sources, subject-specific journals, conference abstracts, research reports, book chapters, unpublished data, dissertations, and policy documents. Screening the papers and data extraction was completed independently and in duplicate, and a narrative approach to data synthesis was executed. We identified 43 papers that met eligibility criteria. No existing review was found on this topic, and no HSG appraisal tool was identified. Over one third of the authors implicitly or explicitly identified the need for a high-quality tool aimed to systematically evaluate HSG and contribute to its development/reporting. We identified 30 concepts that may be relevant to the

  9. Online Coaching of Emotion-Regulation Strategies for Parents: Efficacy of the Online Rational Positive Parenting Program and Attention Bias Modification Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Oana A; Capris, David; Jarda, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Parenting programs are currently treatment of choice for behavioral disorders in children and one of their main components is reducing the negativity bias in the child-parent dyad. The Rational Positive Parenting Program (rPPP) is a program with a special focus on parent emotion-regulation functional reappraisal strategies, which has recently received consistent support for reducing child externalizing and internalizing disorders. In the last years, online interventions were proliferated and the Attention Bias Modification (ABM) becoming a promising implicit therapeutic intervention based on attention deployment emotion-regulation strategy, or adjunctive module to usual treatments, with results in multiple domains, varying from pain to self-esteem and emotional disorders (e.g., anxiety). We conducted two studies to investigate (1) the efficacy of the ABM procedures applied to parents and (2) the efficacy of the online version of the rPPP augmented with an ABM module. A total of 42 parents of children aged 2-12 years old participated in the first study, being allocated either to the ABM training or wait-list. Positive results were reported by the parents participating in the ABM group for own distress, satisfaction, positive interactions with the child, and child's strengths. In the second study, 53 parents and their children were allocated either in the rPPP group or in the rPPP + ABM group. Results show that ABM training can boost the effects of the rPPP on the strengths of children reported by the parents after the intervention. Findings are discussed in the light of limited research on using online tools for coaching effective emotion-regulation strategies for parents.

  10. Appraising into the Sun: Six-State Solar Home Paired-Sale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2015-11-12

    Although residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have proliferated, PV systems on some U.S. homes still receive no value during an appraisal because comparable home sales are lacking. To value residential PV, some previous studies have employed paired-sales appraisal methods to analyze small PV home samples in depth, while others have used statistical methods to analyze large samples. Our first-of-its-kind study connects the two approaches. It uses appraisal methods to evaluate sales price premiums for owned PV systems on single-unit detached houses that were also evaluated in a large statistical study. Independent appraisers evaluated 43 recent home sales pairs in six states: California, Oregon, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. We compare these results with contributory-value estimates—based on income (using the PV Value® tool), gross cost, and net cost—as well as hedonic modeling results from the recent statistical study. The results provide strong, appraisal-based evidence of PV premiums in all states. More importantly, the results support the use of cost- and incomebased PV premium estimates when paired-sales analysis is impossible. PV premiums from the paired-sales analysis are most similar to net PV cost estimates. PV Value® income results generally track the appraised premiums, although conservatively. The appraised premiums are in agreement with the hedonic modeling results as well, which bolsters the suitability of both approaches for estimating PV home premiums. Therefore, these results will benefit valuation professionals and mortgage lenders who increasingly are encountering homes equipped with PV and need to understand the factors that can both contribute to and detract from market value.

  11. 12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries. 564.8 Section 564.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.8 Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and...

  12. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Orok Duke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.

  13. The elimination of positive priming with increasing prime duration reflects a transition from perceptual fluency to disfluency rather than bias against primed words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin W; Donkin, Chris; Huber, David E

    2018-03-01

    With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Many theories explain positive priming following short duration primes as reflecting increased perceptual fluency for the primed target (i.e., decreased identification latency). However, most studies only examine either accuracy or response times, rather than considering the joint constraints of response times and accuracy to properly address the role of decision biases and response caution. This is a critical oversight because several theories propose that the transition to negative priming following a long duration prime reflects a decision strategy to compensate for the effect of increased perceptual fluency. In contrast, the nROUSE model of Huber and O'Reilly (2003) explains this transition as reflecting perceptual habituation, and thus a change to perceptual disfluency. We confirmed this prediction by applying a sequential sampling model (the diffusion race model) to accuracy and response time distributions from a new single item same-different version of the priming task. In this way, we measured strategic biases and perceptual fluency in each condition for each subject. The nROUSE model was only applied to accuracy from the original forced-choice version of the priming task. This application of nROUSE produced separate predictions for each subject regarding the degree of fluency and disfluency in each condition, and these predictions were confirmed by the drift rate parameters (i.e., fluency) from the response time model in contrast to the threshold parameters (i.e., bias). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Source Biasing Approach in ADVANTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevill, Aaron M.; Mosher, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    The ADVANTG code has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to generate biased sources and weight window maps for MCNP using the CADIS and FW-CADIS methods. In preparation for an upcoming RSICC release, a new approach for generating a biased source has been developed. This improvement streamlines user input and improves reliability. Previous versions of ADVANTG generated the biased source from ADVANTG input, writing an entirely new general fixed-source definition (SDEF). Because volumetric sources were translated into SDEF-format as a finite set of points, the user had to perform a convergence study to determine whether the number of source points used accurately represented the source region. Further, the large number of points that must be written in SDEF-format made the MCNP input and output files excessively long and difficult to debug. ADVANTG now reads SDEF-format distributions and generates corresponding source biasing cards, eliminating the need for a convergence study. Many problems of interest use complicated source regions that are defined using cell rejection. In cell rejection, the source distribution in space is defined using an arbitrarily complex cell and a simple bounding region. Source positions are sampled within the bounding region but accepted only if they fall within the cell; otherwise, the position is resampled entirely. When biasing in space is applied to sources that use rejection sampling, current versions of MCNP do not account for the rejection in setting the source weight of histories, resulting in an 'unfair game'. This problem was circumvented in previous versions of ADVANTG by translating volumetric sources into a finite set of points, which does not alter the mean history weight ((bar w)). To use biasing parameters without otherwise modifying the original cell-rejection SDEF-format source, ADVANTG users now apply a correction factor for (bar w) in post-processing. A stratified-random sampling approach in ADVANTG is under

  15. Technical safety appraisal of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health Office of Safety Appraisals TSAs are one of the ititiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report presents the results of a TSA of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The appraisal was conducted by a team of exerts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisal and was conducted during onsite visits of June 26-30 and July 10-21, 1989. West Valley, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, New York is the location of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility operated in the United States. Nuclear Fuels Services, Inc. (NFS) operated the plant from 1966 to 1972 and processed about 640 metric tons of spent reactor fuel. The reprocessing operation generated about 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste, which was transferred into underground tanks for storage. In 1972 NFS closed the plant and subsequently decided not to reopen it

  16. Cognitive bias in rats evoked by ultrasonic vocalizations suggests emotional contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yumi; Yuki, Shoko; Seki, Yoshimasa; Kagawa, Hiroko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    Emotional contagion occurs when an individual acquires the emotional state of another via social cues, and is an important component of empathy. Empathic responses seen in rodents are often explained by emotional contagion. Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in positive contexts, and emit 22kHz USVs in negative contexts. We tested whether rats show positive or negative emotional contagion after hearing conspecific USVs via a cognitive bias task. We hypothesized that animals in positive emotional states would perceive an ambiguous cue as being good (optimistic bias) whereas animals in negative states would perceive the same cue as being bad (pessimistic bias). Rats were trained to respond differently to two sounds with distinct pitches, each of which signaled either a positive or a negative outcome. An ambiguous cue with a frequency falling between the two stimuli tested whether rats interpreted it as positive or negative. Results showed that rats responded to ambiguous cues as positive when they heard the 50kHz USV (positive vocalizations) and negative when they heard the 22kHz USV (negative vocalizations). This suggests that conspecific USVs can evoke emotional contagion, both for positive and negative emotions, to change the affective states in receivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Jillian, E-mail: jillian.becker@health.qld.gov.au [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Bridge, Pete [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet [Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  18. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce

  19. Patients' appraisals of public and private healthcare: a qualitative study of physiotherapy and osteopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katherine J; Bishop, Felicity L; Yardley, Lucy; Lewith, George

    2013-10-01

    Patients have previously reported differences in their experiences of treatments received in the public and private sectors; it remains unclear whether such perceived differences are particular to or shared across different interventions. This study explored whether patients' appraisals of public and private treatments are similar when appraising a complementary therapy (osteopathy) compared to a mainstream therapy (physiotherapy). Thirty-five qualitative interviews were analysed thematically. Patients' appraisals varied by health-care sector and therapy type: physiotherapy was appraised more negatively in the National Health Service than the private sector but osteopathy was appraised similarly within both health-care sectors. Potential reasons for this are discussed.

  20. Preliminary ethical appraisal of a trial - what's it all about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipi, Helena

    Preliminary ethical appraisal of medical trials is often based on the following four principles: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Preliminary ethical appraisal should, however, not be understood solely as application of these four principles to practice. Ethical committees will inevitably interpret the principles and make decisions about their reciprocal importance in connection with each trial. Reasoning does not always proceed from above towards practical recommendations of action, but can instead also be based on a moral rule or practice relating to a certain action. A good preliminary ethical appraisal will also take into account everyday standards of morality, law and shared moral values of the society.

  1. Nonlinear Appraisal Modeling: An Application of Machine Learning to the Study of Emotion Production

    OpenAIRE

    Meuleman, Ben; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    Appraisal theory of emotion claims that emotions are not caused by "raw" stimuli, as such, but by the subjective evaluation (appraisal) of those stimuli. Studies that analyzed this relation have been dominated by linear models of analysis. These methods are not ideally suited to examine a basic assumption of many appraisal theories, which is that appraisal criteria interact to differentiate emotions, and hence show nonlinear effects. Studies that did model interactions were either l...

  2. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 31 March 2006. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisal are currently under study. Administrative Circular No 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  3. Revealed preferences towards the appraisal of orphan drugs in Poland - multi criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Zwolinski, Krzysztof Miroslaw; Zah, Vladimir; Kaló, Zoltán; Lewandowski, Tadeusz

    2018-04-27

    A Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) technique was adopted to reveal the preferences of the Appraisal Body of the Polish HTA agency towards orphan drugs (OMPs). There were 34 positive and 23 negative HTA recommendations out of 54 distinctive drug-indication pairs. The MCDA matrix consisted of 13 criteria, seven of which made the most impact on the HTA process. Appraisal of clinical evidence, cost of therapy, and safety considerations were the main contributors to the HTA guidance, whilst advancement of technology and manufacturing costs made the least impact. MCDA can be regarded as a valuable tool for revealing decision makers' preferences in the healthcare sector. Given that only roughly half of all criteria included in the MCDA matrix were deemed to make an impact on the HTA process, there is certainly some room for improvement with respect to the adaptation of a new approach towards the value assessment of OMPs in Poland.

  4. Financial capital appraisal in the system of industrial enterprise development management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtyamov M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies an objective appraisal of financial capital value in industrial enterprise development management. The authors draw attention to a limited scope of work in the area of financial management under application of a traditional approach to appraisal of enterprise financial capital value and describe a new advanced approach to this problem solving. The paper focuses on reformation of balance sheet statement, in which economic benefit and reserves of financial capital are included by the authors; the author’s methodology for appraisal of financial capital value and its application sphere are denoted. In accordance with a case study, we confirm possibility of more accurate appraisal of enterprise investment opportunities by taking into account economic benefit from reserve of liquidity and borrowing capacity, which increases financial capital value. The practical approval results affirm that application of proprietary methodology for appraisal of financial capital and its elements has practical utility in solving problems of determination of required amount of attracted foreign investments and problems of determination of fair value of company take of an external investor, which are aimed at minimizing risks of corporate ownership dissemination and improving managerial efficiency of an industrial enterprise.

  5. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition. No relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory control was found. Self-report measures indicated that paranormal beliefs were associated to being raised in a spiritual family and to anomalous experiences during childhood. Thereby this study suggests that paranormal beliefs are related to specific cognitive biases that in turn are shaped by socio-cultural factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... type of properties (such as large farms and business property) requiring valuation. For Farmer Programs... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Use of Contractors to Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County...

  7. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP... contributory value of any interest in land such as water rights, minerals, or timber, to the extent they are... the physical characteristics of the land being appraised; a statement of all encumbrances; title...

  8. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  9. (Un)ethical behavior and performance appraisal: the role of affect, support, and organizational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, G.; Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Performance appraisals are widely used as an HR instrument. This study among 332 police officers examines the effects of performance appraisals from a behavioral ethics perspective. A mediation model relating justice perceptions of police officers’ last performance appraisal to their work affect,

  10. Critical appraisal of the role of ruxolitinib in myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barosi G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Barosi,1 Vittorio Rosti,1 Robert Peter Gale2 1Center for the Study of Myelofibrosis, IRCCS Policlinico S Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy; 2Haematology Research Centre, Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: The recent approval of molecular-targeted therapies for myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis (MPN-MF has dramatically changed its therapeutic landscape. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is now widely used for first- and second-line therapy in persons with MPN-MF, especially those with disease-related splenomegaly, intermediate- or high-risk disease, and constitutional symptoms. The goal of this work is to critically analyze data supporting use of ruxolitinib in the clinical settings approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. We systematically reviewed the literature and analyzed the risk of biases in the two randomized studies (COMFORT I and COMFORT II on which FDA and EMA approval was based. Our strategy was to apply the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach by evaluating five dimensions of evidence: (1 overall risk of bias, (2 imprecision, (3 inconsistency, (4 indirectness, and (5 publication bias. Based on these criteria, we downgraded the evidence from the COMFORT I and COMFORT II trials for performance, attrition, and publication bias. In the disease-associated splenomegaly sphere, we upgraded the quality of evidence because of large effect size but downgraded it because of comparator choice and outcome indirectness (quality of evidence, low. In the sphere of treating persons with intermediate- or high-risk disease, we downgraded the evidence because of imprecision in effect size measurement and population indirectness. In the sphere of disease-associated symptoms, we upgraded the evidence because of the large effect size, but downgraded it

  11. 76 FR 41441 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... verifiable education in the appraisal requirements established by FHA. Under amended section 202(g) of the... areas and hinder use of FHA single-family programs at a time when use of those programs has increased... higher education and experience standards that HERA sought to be used for FHA-insured transactions (all...

  12. How Adolescents Search for and Appraise Online Health Information: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jaimie L; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Bennett, Patricia A; Scott, Karen M

    2018-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the evidence concerning whether and how adolescents search for online health information and the extent to which they appraise the credibility of information they retrieve. A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC) was performed. Reference lists of included papers were searched manually for additional articles. Included were studies on whether and how adolescents searched for and appraised online health information, where adolescent participants were aged 13-18 years. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. In line with the research questions, 2 key concepts were identified within the papers: whether and how adolescents search for online health information, and the extent to which adolescents appraise online health information. Four themes were identified regarding whether and how adolescents search for online health information: use of search engines, difficulties in selecting appropriate search strings, barriers to searching, and absence of searching. Four themes emerged concerning the extent to which adolescents appraise the credibility of online health information: evaluation based on Web site name and reputation, evaluation based on first impression of Web site, evaluation of Web site content, and absence of a sophisticated appraisal strategy. Adolescents are aware of the varying quality of online health information. Strategies used by individuals for searching and appraising online health information differ in their sophistication. It is important to develop resources to enhance search and appraisal skills and to collaborate with adolescents to ensure that such resources are appropriate for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Friends' knowledge of youth internalizing and externalizing adjustment: accuracy, bias, and the influences of gender, grade, positive friendship quality, and self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P; Rose, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth's psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth. The study extends prior work by considering the degree to which friends' reports of youth adjustment are accurate (i.e., predicted by youths' actual adjustment) versus biased (i.e., predicted by the friend reporters' own adjustment). Findings indicated stronger bias effects than accuracy effects, but the accuracy effects were significant for both internalizing and externalizing adjustment. Additionally, friends who perceived their relationships as high in positive quality, friends in relationships high in disclosure, and girls perceived youths' internalizing symptoms most accurately. Knowledge of externalizing adjustment was not influenced by gender, grade, relationship quality, or self-disclosure. Findings suggest that friends could play an important role in prevention efforts.

  14. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C; de Dreu, Carsten K W; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases.

  15. Think Leader, Think White? Capturing and Weakening an Implicit Pro-White Leadership Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases. PMID:24416181

  16. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Gündemir

    Full Text Available Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1 or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3 were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3. Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4. This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4. This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases.

  17. Analysis of appraisal tool of system security engineering capability maturity based on component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenghai; Yang Xiaohua; Zou Shuliang; Liu Yachun; Xiao Jiantian; Liu Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Spent Fuel Reprocessing is a part of nuclear fuel cycle and is the inevitably choice of nuclear power sustainable development. Reprocessing needs to face with radiological, criticality, chemical hazards. Besides using the tradition appraisal methods based on the security goals, it is a beneficial supplement that using the appraisal method of system security engineering capability maturity model based on the process. Experts should check and approve large numbers of documents during the appraisal based on system security engineering capability maturity model, so it is necessary that developing a tool to assist the expert to complete the appraisal. The method of developing software based on component is highly effective, nimble and reliable. Component technology is analyzed, the methods of extraction model domain components and general components is introduced, and the appraisal system is developed based on component technology. (authors)

  18. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appraisal report shall be divided into four parts as outlined below: PART I—INTRODUCTION 1. TITLE PAGE. This... photograph. The use of color film and photographs is encouraged, especially wherein development cost either...

  19. Linking the Teacher Appraisal Process to the School Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddekopp, Therese

    2007-01-01

    If a school improvement plan includes input from all stakeholders and focuses on data-driven processes that are linked to teacher appraisal, it can be powerful in leading the school toward the common mission of achieving student success. Linking the school improvement plan to the teacher appraisal process creates a system whereby all individuals…

  20. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  1. Reward and attitudes: The unintended outcomes of an effective performance appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon M. Semakula-Katende

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Focus was on the role of reward and attitudes as major determinants in enhancing the effectiveness of performance appraisal systems. Research purpose: To develop a structural model from the qualitative and quantitative findings from which to address the identified gaps in order to improve the effectiveness of appraisals. Motivation for the study: The attention that role players tended to give to the rewarding of employees during the appraisal process made it appear as the only important determinant of an appraisal’s success. In appraisals in many public institutions, reward has been given unnecessary prominence over other drivers, such as management and development. That led most key role players (leaders, managers and employees to perceive the current employee performance management and development system (EPMDS to be purely for monetary (salary increments and cash bonuses and non-monetary (promotion purposes, which, in turn, compromised its effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: Structural equation modelling (SEM was utilised as a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. This allowed both confirmatory and exploratory modelling to be undertaken, which is suited to both theory testing and theory development. A triangulation of quantitative (questionnaire and qualitative (interview study was conducted. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed to nine government hospitals in the Free State province, namely Mofumahadi Manapo Mopeli, Dihlabeng, and Boitumelo regional hospitals, as well as Elizabeth Ross, Thebe, Phekolong, Mpumelelo, Reitz and Ficksburg district hospitals. There was a high response rate of 96 per cent, a total of 287 completed questionnaires. Respondents ranged from top executives, middle management, line management, to employees of all categories. Main findings: Reward and attitudes were found to

  2. Anomalous degradation behaviors under illuminated gate bias stress in a-Si:H thin film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Lin, Kun-Yao; Wu, Yi-Chun; Huang, Shih-Feng; Chiang, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Po-Lin; Lai, Tzu-Chieh; Lo, Chang-Cheng; Lien, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of gate bias stress with and without light illumination in a-Si:H thin film transistors. It has been observed that the I–V curve shifts toward the positive direction after negative and positive gate bias stress due to interface state creation at the gate dielectric. However, this study found that threshold voltages shift negatively and that the transconductance curve maxima are anomalously degraded under illuminated positive gate bias stress. In addition, threshold voltages shift positively under illuminated negative gate bias stress. These degradation behaviors can be ascribed to charge trapping in the passivation layer dominating degradation instability and are verified by a double gate a-Si:H device. - Highlights: • There is abnormal V T shift induced by illuminated gate bias stress in a-Si:H thin film transistors. • Electron–hole pair is generated via trap-assisted photoexcitation. • Abnormal transconductance hump is induced by the leakage current from back channel. • Charge trapping in the passivation layer is likely due to the fact that a constant voltage has been applied to the top gate

  3. Bias and discriminability during emotional signal detection in melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Matthew; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2014-04-27

    Cognitive disturbances in depression are pernicious and so contribute strongly to the burden of the disorder. Cognitive function has been traditionally studied by challenging subjects with modality-specific psychometric tasks and analysing performance using standard analysis of variance. Whilst informative, such an approach may miss deeper perceptual and inferential mechanisms that potentially unify apparently divergent emotional and cognitive deficits. Here, we sought to elucidate basic psychophysical processes underlying the detection of emotionally salient signals across individuals with melancholic and non-melancholic depression. Sixty participants completed an Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) task across negative, positive and neutral target stimuli blocks. We employed hierarchical Bayesian signal detection theory (SDT) to model psychometric performance across three equal groups of those with melancholic depression, those with a non-melancholic depression and healthy controls. This approach estimated likely response profiles (bias) and perceptual sensitivity (discriminability). Differences in the means of these measures speak to differences in the emotional signal detection between individuals across the groups, while differences in the variance reflect the heterogeneity of the groups themselves. Melancholic participants showed significantly decreased sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli compared to those in the non-melancholic group, and also had a significantly lower discriminability than healthy controls during the detection of neutral signals. The melancholic group also showed significantly higher variability in bias to both positive and negative emotionally salient material. Disturbances of emotional signal detection in melancholic depression appear dependent on emotional context, being biased during the detection of positive stimuli, consistent with a noisier representation of neutral stimuli. The greater heterogeneity of the bias across the melancholic

  4. Improving positive and negative bias illumination stress stability in parylene passivated IGZO transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiazadeh, Asal [Department of Materials Science, i3N/CENIMAT, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Universidade do Algarve, FCT, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Henrique L. [Universidade do Algarve, FCT, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); IT-Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Jorge; Rovisco, Ana; Pinto, Joana V.; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira [Department of Materials Science, i3N/CENIMAT, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-08-01

    The impact of a parylene top-coating layer on the illumination and bias stress instabilities of indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) is presented and discussed. The parylene coating substantially reduces the threshold voltage shift caused by continuous application of a gate bias and light exposure. The operational stability improves by 75%, and the light induced instability is reduced by 35%. The operational stability is quantified by fitting the threshold voltage shift with a stretched exponential model. Storage time as long as 7 months does not cause any measurable degradation on the electrical performance. It is proposed that parylene plays not only the role of an encapsulation layer but also of a defect passivation on the top semiconductor surface. It is also reported that depletion-mode TFTs are less sensitive to light induced instabilities. This is attributed to a defect neutralization process in the presence of free electrons.

  5. Communication Efficacy and Couples' Cancer Management: Applying a Dyadic Appraisal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Checton, Maria G; Venetis, Maria K; Greene, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply Berg and Upchurch's (2007) developmental-conceptual model to understand better how couples cope with cancer. Specifically, we hypothesized a dyadic appraisal model in which proximal factors (relational quality), dyadic appraisal (prognosis uncertainty), and dyadic coping (communication efficacy) predicted adjustment (cancer management). The study was cross-sectional and included 83 dyads in which one partner had been diagnosed with and/or treated for cancer. For both patients and partners, multilevel analyses using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) indicated that proximal contextual factors predicted dyadic appraisal and dyadic coping. Dyadic appraisal predicted dyadic coping, which then predicted dyadic adjustment. Patients' confidence in their ability to talk about the cancer predicted their own cancer management. Partners' confidence predicted their own and the patient's ability to cope with cancer, which then predicted patients' perceptions of their general health. Implications and future research are discussed.

  6. The Impact of Performance Appraisal on the Motivational Level of the Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Hemani, Amir Ali

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to highlight the impact of performance appraisal on the motivational level of the employees. It is of great importance for an organization to retain its employees; this can be done by giving them opportunities and appraisals. The agenda of the study is to identify the relationship of compensation, promotion and motivation with performance appraisal. The research aims at the executive and labor class in the Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Open-ended structured interviews were conducted...

  7. Modifications of plasma edge electric field and confinement properties by limiter biasing on the KT-5C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Gao; Kan Zhai; Yizhi Wen; Shude Wan; Guiding Wang; Changxun Yu

    1995-01-01

    Experiments using a biased multiblock limiter in the KT-5C tokamak show that positive biasing is more effective than negative biasing in modifying the edge electric field, suppressing fluctuations and improving plasma confinement. The biasing effect varies with the limiter area, the toroidal magnetic field and the biasing voltage. By positive biasing, the edge profiles of the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density become steeper, resulting in a reduced edge particle flux, an increased global particle confinement time and lower fluctuation levels of the edge plasma. (author)

  8. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koops Willem JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students’ activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students’ decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Methods Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students’ postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Results Twenty-four papers (51.6% were revised after the online discussion. The

  9. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Willem J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; de Leng, Bas A; Snoeckx, Luc H E H

    2012-08-20

    Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT) task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students' activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students' decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students' postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Twenty-four papers (51.6%) were revised after the online discussion. The discussions of the revised papers showed significantly higher

  10. Electrophysiology of blunted emotional bias in psychopathic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Patrick L; Jaspers-Fayer, Fern; Asmaro, Deyar T; Douglas, Kevin S; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Diminished emotional capacity is a core characteristic of psychopathic personality. We examined behavioral and electrophysiological differences in attentional bias to emotional material in 34 healthy individuals rated high or low in psychopathic traits using the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (18 high-trait, 16 low-trait). While performing an emotional Stroop task, high-trait participants displayed reduced emotional modulation of the late positive potential (LPP, 400-600 ms), and early anterior positivity (EAP, 200-300 ms) amplitudes. Results suggest blunted bias to affective content in psychopathic personality, characterized by diminished early capture to emotional salience (EAP) and dampened cognitive emotional processing (LPP). Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Sex-dependent dissociation between emotional appraisal and memory: a large-scale behavioral and fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Klara; Fastenrath, Matthias; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Coynel, David; Frey, Julia; Gschwind, Leo; Hartmann, Francina; van der Maarel, Nadine; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique; Milnik, Annette

    2015-01-21

    Extensive evidence indicates that women outperform men in episodic memory tasks. Furthermore, women are known to evaluate emotional stimuli as more arousing than men. Because emotional arousal typically increases episodic memory formation, the females' memory advantage might be more pronounced for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Here, we report behavioral data from 3398 subjects, who performed picture rating and memory tasks, and corresponding fMRI data from up to 696 subjects. We were interested in the interaction between sex and valence category on emotional appraisal, memory performances, and fMRI activity. The behavioral results showed that females evaluate in particular negative (p pictures, as emotionally more arousing (pinteraction recall females outperformed males not only in positive (p picture recall (p pictures (pinteraction memory advantage during free recall was absent in a recognition setting. We identified activation differences in fMRI, which corresponded to the females' stronger appraisal of especially negative pictures, but no activation differences that reflected the interaction effect in the free recall memory task. In conclusion, females' valence-category-specific memory advantage is only observed in a free recall, but not a recognition setting and does not depend on females' higher emotional appraisal. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350920-16$15.00/0.

  12. Not so critical appraisal of dapagliflozin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doggrell SA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheila A Doggrell School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaA recent review by Salvo et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence concerned dapagliflozin, and was titled “Patient considerations in the management of type 2 diabetes – critical appraisal of dapagliflozin”.1 Having read the article, I do not consider it to be a critical appraisal of dapagliflozin. Thus, after comparing dapagliflozin with other oral antidiabetic medications, the authors concluded that “Dapagliflozin’s noted blood pressure reduction, weight loss, and low potential to cause hypoglycemia are advantageous, when compared with currently available oral medications”.1 This statement is not supported by the content of the review and/or the literature. Read the original article 

  13. Analysis of the Bias on the Beidou GEO Multipath Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yafei; Yuan, Yunbin; Chai, Yanju; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The Beidou navigation satellite system is a very important sensor for positioning in the Asia-Pacific region. The Beidou inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites have been analysed in some studies previously conducted by other researchers; this paper seeks to gain more insight regarding the geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. Employing correlation analysis, Fourier transformation and wavelet decomposition, we validate whether there is a systematic bias in their multipath combinations. These biases can be observed clearly in satellites C01, C02 and C04 and have a great correlation with time series instead of elevation, being significantly different from those of the Beidou IGSO and MEO satellites. We propose a correction model to mitigate this bias based on its daily periodicity characteristic. After the model has been applied, the performance of the positioning estimations of the eight stations distributed in the Asia-Pacific region is evaluated and compared. The results show that residuals of multipath series behaves random noise; for the single point positioning (SPP) and precise point positioning (PPP) approaches, the positioning accuracy in the upward direction can be improved by 8 cm and 6 mm, respectively, and by 2 cm and 4 mm, respectively, for the horizontal component. PMID:27509503

  14. Analysis of the Bias on the Beidou GEO Multipath Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Ning

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Beidou navigation satellite system is a very important sensor for positioning in the Asia-Pacific region. The Beidou inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO and medium Earth orbit (MEO satellites have been analysed in some studies previously conducted by other researchers; this paper seeks to gain more insight regarding the geostationary earth orbit (GEO satellites. Employing correlation analysis, Fourier transformation and wavelet decomposition, we validate whether there is a systematic bias in their multipath combinations. These biases can be observed clearly in satellites C01, C02 and C04 and have a great correlation with time series instead of elevation, being significantly different from those of the Beidou IGSO and MEO satellites. We propose a correction model to mitigate this bias based on its daily periodicity characteristic. After the model has been applied, the performance of the positioning estimations of the eight stations distributed in the Asia-Pacific region is evaluated and compared. The results show that residuals of multipath series behaves random noise; for the single point positioning (SPP and precise point positioning (PPP approaches, the positioning accuracy in the upward direction can be improved by 8 cm and 6 mm, respectively, and by 2 cm and 4 mm, respectively, for the horizontal component.

  15. How trait anxiety, interpretation bias and memory affect acquired fear in children learning about new animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Zoë C; Field, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive models of vulnerability to anxiety propose that information processing biases such as interpretation bias play a part in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, at present little is known about the role of memory in information processing accounts of child anxiety. The current study investigates the relationships between interpretation biases, memory and fear responses when learning about new stimuli. Children (aged 8-11 years) were presented with ambiguous information regarding a novel animal, and their fear, interpretation bias, and memory for the information was measured. The main findings were: (1) trait anxiety and interpretation bias significantly predicted acquired fear; (2) interpretation bias did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and acquired fear; (3) interpretation bias appeared to be a more important predictor of acquired fear than trait anxiety per se; and (4) the relationship between interpretation bias and acquired fear was not mediated by the number of negative memories but was mediated by the number of positive and false-positive memories. The findings suggest that information processing models of child anxiety need to explain the role of positive memory in the formation of fear responses.

  16. Friendship Characteristics, Threat Appraisals, and Varieties of Jealousy About Romantic Partners’ Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Worley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of friendship sex composition, friendship history, and threat appraisals in the experience of jealousy about a romantic partner’s involvement in extradyadic friendships. Using a survey, 201 individuals responded to scenarios describing a romantic partner’s involvement in a significant friendship outside the romantic dyad. A partner’s involvement in a cross-sex friendship was associated with greater perceptions of threat to both the existence and quality of the romantic relationship than was a partner’s involvement in a same-sex friendship. Further, the specific forms of jealousy experienced about partners’ friendships were dependent on the threat appraisals individuals associated with the friendships. Appraisals of relational existence threat mediated the influence of friendship characteristics (i.e., sex composition and history on sexual jealousy and companionship jealousy, while appraisals of relational quality threat mediated the influence of friendship characteristics on intimacy jealousy, power jealousy, and companionship jealousy. This study points toward the central role of threat appraisals in mediating associations between rival characteristics and various forms of jealousy about a partner’s friendships.

  17. The role of appraisal distortion, contempt, and morality in couple conflict: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B

    2008-01-01

    A common goal of couples' therapy is to help individuals modify their view of each other and the relationship. Distorted views and appraisals contribute to conflict, and these can be manifest by use of rationalization or denial. This study explored appraisal distortion as an evaluative and moral process that occurs during partner conflict, particularly when it becomes contemptuous and aggressive. Using a philosophical base that is grounded in the ethical relationship, a model of appraisal distortion and couple conflict was created using constructivist grounded theory methods. The theoretical concepts derived from the data show relationships between one's relational stance, appraisal distortion, and verbal and physical aggression. This model implies that helping individuals take responsibility for appraisals is important in treating conflict.

  18. Positivity of the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  19. Positivity of the English language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Kloumann

    Full Text Available Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1 What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2 Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.

  20. Sex differences in outcomes and harasser characteristics associated with frightening sexual harassment appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Isis H; Buchanan, Nicole T; Yap, Stevie C Y; Harrell, Zaje A T

    2014-04-01

    This study examined data from U.S. military personnel (1,764 men; 4,540 women) to determine whether appraisals of sexual harassment as frightening mediate the relationship between perpetrator characteristics (perpetrator sex and rank) and three psychological/job outcomes (psychological distress, role limitations, and work satisfaction), and whether these relationships were stronger for women than men. Results indicated that frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator rank and all outcomes for both sexes. However, frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator sex and outcomes only for women. As predicted, having a male perpetrator or a higher status perpetrator was more strongly related to frightening appraisals for women than men. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between frightening appraisals and more psychological distress, more role limitations, and less work satisfaction was stronger for men than women. We discuss the results in terms of expectancy norm violations and sexual harassment as a form of dominance.

  1. Personal Audiovisual Aptitude Influences the Interaction Between Landscape and Soundscape Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kang; Echevarria Sanchez, Gemma M; De Coensel, Bert; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Talsma, Durk; Botteldooren, Dick

    2018-01-01

    It has been established that there is an interaction between audition and vision in the appraisal of our living environment, and that this appraisal is influenced by personal factors. Here, we test the hypothesis that audiovisual aptitude influences appraisal of our sonic and visual environment. To measure audiovisual aptitude, an auditory deviant detection experiment was conducted in an ecologically valid and complex context. This experiment allows us to distinguish between accurate and less accurate listeners. Additionally, it allows to distinguish between participants that are easily visually distracted and those who are not. To do so, two previously conducted laboratory experiments were re-analyzed. The first experiment focuses on self-reported noise annoyance in a living room context, whereas the second experiment focuses on the perceived pleasantness of using outdoor public spaces. In the first experiment, the influence of visibility of vegetation on self-reported noise annoyance was modified by audiovisual aptitude. In the second one, it was found that the overall appraisal of walking across a bridge is influenced by audiovisual aptitude, in particular when a visually intrusive noise barrier is used to reduce highway traffic noise levels. We conclude that audiovisual aptitude may affect the appraisal of the living environment.

  2. Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence T Hunt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample. We collected a large novel dataset from 32,445 human subjects, making over 3 million decisions, who played a gambling task designed to measure the latent causes and extent of information-sampling biases. We identified three novel approach-related biases, formalized by comparing subject behavior to a dynamic programming model of optimal information gathering. These biases reflected the amount of information sampled ("positive evidence approach", the selection of which information to sample ("sampling the favorite", and the interaction between information sampling and subsequent choices ("rejecting unsampled options". The prevalence of all three biases was related to a Pavlovian approach-avoid parameter quantified within an entirely independent economic decision task. Our large dataset also revealed that individual differences in the amount of information gathered are a stable trait across multiple gameplays and can be related to demographic measures, including age and educational attainment. As well as revealing limitations in cognitive processing, our findings suggest information sampling biases reflect the expression of primitive, yet potentially ecologically adaptive, behavioral repertoires. One such behavior is sampling from options that will eventually be chosen, even when other sources of information are more pertinent for guiding future action.

  3. Young children seek out biased information about social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Harriet; Eggleston, Adam; Bell, Jenny; Dunham, Yarrow

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group. In a third study, we show that children choose to present biased information to others, thus demonstrating that the effects of information selection can start to propagate through social networks. In Studies 4 and 5, we further investigate the nature of children's selective information seeking and show that children prefer ingroup-favouring information to other types of biased information and even to balanced, unbiased information. Together, this work shows that children are not merely passively recipients of social information; they play an active role in the creation and transmission of intergroup attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Social anxiety is characterized by biased learning about performance and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Leonie; Schneider, Rebecca; Ashar, Yoni K; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Landy, Lauren; Moscovitch, David A; Wager, Tor D; Arch, Joanna J

    2017-12-01

    People learn about their self from social information, and recent work suggests that healthy adults show a positive bias for learning self-related information. In contrast, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by a negative view of the self, yet what causes and maintains this negative self-view is not well understood. Here the authors use a novel experimental paradigm and computational model to test the hypothesis that biased social learning regarding self-evaluation and self-feelings represents a core feature that distinguishes adults with SAD from healthy controls. Twenty-one adults with SAD and 35 healthy controls (HCs) performed a speech in front of 3 judges. They subsequently evaluated themselves and received performance feedback from the judges and then rated how they felt about themselves and the judges. Affective updating (i.e., change in feelings about the self over time, in response to feedback from the judges) was modeled using an adapted Rescorla-Wagner learning model. HCs demonstrated a positivity bias in affective updating, which was absent in SAD. Further, self-performance ratings revealed group differences in learning from positive feedback-a difference that endured at an average of 1 year follow up. These findings demonstrate the presence and long-term endurance of positively biased social learning about the self among healthy adults, a bias that is absent or reversed among socially anxious adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Economic scenarios for the real estate market: Incorporating uncertainty and risk in real estate appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Lausberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Real estate appraisal is usually regarded as both a science and an art: “science” because the appraiser uses mathematical calculations and other objective elements, “art” because he also uses his experience and other subjective elements. This dual character requires—among others—that new insights from other disciplines and current trends are taken into account. The central proposition of the article is that this requirement is not met. The author provides evidence that real estate risk management has made tremendous progress since the mid-1990s which has not found its way into appraisal practice, thereby creating a situation where appraisals by risk analysts differ greatly from appraisals by real estate appraisers. According to the author the gap between real estate appraisal and risk analysis should be closed from both sides. The article begins with an overview of the most important trends which will impact real estate values in the future. From these trends, an exemplary economic scenario for European real estate markets is derived in order to demonstrate that scenario writing is a powerful tool for risk management. After that the author discusses some other methods of risk management and their potential benefits for real estate appraisal.

  6. Communication Efficacy and Couples’ Cancer Management: Applying a Dyadic Appraisal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Checton, Maria G.; Venetis, Maria K.; Greene, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply Berg and Upchurch’s (2007) developmental-conceptual model to understand better how couples cope with cancer. Specifically, we hypothesized a dyadic appraisal model in which proximal factors (relational quality), dyadic appraisal (prognosis uncertainty), and dyadic coping (communication efficacy) predicted adjustment (cancer management). The study was cross-sectional and included 83 dyads in which one partner had been diagnosed with and/or treated for cancer. For both patients and partners, multilevel analyses using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) indicated that proximal contextual factors predicted dyadic appraisal and dyadic coping. Dyadic appraisal predicted dyadic coping, which then predicted dyadic adjustment. Patients’ confidence in their ability to talk about the cancer predicted their own cancer management. Partners’ confidence predicted their own and the patient’s ability to cope with cancer, which then predicted patients’ perceptions of their general health. Implications and future research are discussed. PMID:25983382

  7. Affective Biases in Humans and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E S J; Roiser, J P

    Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research. This chapter discusses the clinical evidence supporting a cognitive neuropsychological model of depression and antidepressant efficacy, and how this information may be usefully translated to pre-clinical investigation. Studies using neuropsychological tests in depressed patients and at risk populations have revealed basic negative emotional biases and disrupted reward and punishment processing, which may also impact on non-affective cognition. These affective biases are sensitive to antidepressant treatments with early onset effects observed, suggesting an important role in recovery. This clinical work into affective biases has also facilitated back-translation to animals and the development of assays to study affective biases in rodents. These animal studies suggest that, similar to humans, rodents in putative negative affective states exhibit negative affective biases on decision-making and memory tasks. Antidepressant treatments also induce positive biases in these rodent tasks, supporting the translational validity of this approach. Although still in the early stages of development and validation, affective biases in depression have the potential to offer new insights into the clinical condition, as well as facilitating the development of more translational approaches for pre-clinical studies.

  8. Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Ma, Denise; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Perceptual Bias and Loudness Change: An Investigation of Memory, Masking, and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N.

    Loudness is a fundamental aspect of human auditory perception that is closely associated with a sound's physical acoustic intensity. The dynamic quality of intensity change is an inherent acoustic feature in real-world listening domains such as speech and music. However, perception of loudness change in response to continuous intensity increases (up-ramps) and decreases (down-ramps) has received relatively little empirical investigation. Overestimation of loudness change in response to up-ramps is said to be linked to an adaptive survival response associated with looming (or approaching) motion in the environment. The hypothesised 'perceptual bias' to looming auditory motion suggests why perceptual overestimation of up-ramps may occur; however it does not offer a causal explanation. It is concluded that post-stimulus judgements of perceived loudness change are significantly affected by a cognitive recency response bias that, until now, has been an artefact of experimental procedure. Perceptual end-level differences caused by duration specific sensory adaptation at peripheral and/or central stages of auditory processing may explain differences in post-stimulus judgements of loudness change. Experiments that investigate human responses to acoustic intensity dynamics, encompassing topics from basic auditory psychophysics (e.g., sensory adaptation) to cognitive-emotional appraisal of increasingly complex stimulus events such as music and auditory warnings, are proposed for future research.

  10. Why is discrimination stressful? The mediating role of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kimberly R

    2005-08-01

    This study attempts to shed light on past findings that experiences of racial and gender discrimination are associated with poor psychological and physical health outcomes by investigating the role of cognitive appraisal as a mediator of the relationship between experiences of discrimination and affective stress reactions. African American female college students (N = 115) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in which they overheard 2 European American male classmates make negative evaluations of them. Participants then completed measures of causal attributions, cognitive appraisal, and affective stress reactions. Multiple regression analyses supported the hypotheses that attributions to racism and to discrimination that combines racism and sexism were associated with increased stress reactions. This relationship was mediated by cognitive appraisals of centrality. (c) 2005 APA

  11. Re-examining the Evidence in Radiation Dermatitis Management Literature: An Overview and a Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email.rchan@gmail.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Queensland, and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation, Griffith University (Australia); Larsen, Emily; Chan, Philip [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview and a critical appraisal of systematic reviews (SRs) of published interventions for the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis. Methods and Materials: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We also manually searched through individual reference lists of potentially eligible articles and a number of key journals in the topic area. Two authors screened all potential articles and included eligible SRs. Two authors critically appraised and extracted key findings from the included reviews using AMSTAR (the measurement tool for 'assessment of multiple systematic reviews'). Results: Of 1837 potential titles, 6 SRs were included. A number of interventions have been reported to be potentially beneficial for managing radiation dermatitis. Interventions evaluated in these reviews included skin care advice, steroidal/nonsteroidal topical agents, systemic therapies, modes of radiation delivery, and dressings. However, all the included SRs reported that there is insufficient evidence supporting any single effective intervention. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, and methodological shortfalls in these reviews might create biases to the overall results or recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusions: An up-to-date high-quality SR in the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis is needed to guide practice and direction for future research. We recommend that clinicians or guideline developers critically evaluate the information of SRs in their decision making.

  12. Re-examining the Evidence in Radiation Dermatitis Management Literature: An Overview and a Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Larsen, Emily; Chan, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview and a critical appraisal of systematic reviews (SRs) of published interventions for the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis. Methods and Materials: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We also manually searched through individual reference lists of potentially eligible articles and a number of key journals in the topic area. Two authors screened all potential articles and included eligible SRs. Two authors critically appraised and extracted key findings from the included reviews using AMSTAR (the measurement tool for “assessment of multiple systematic reviews”). Results: Of 1837 potential titles, 6 SRs were included. A number of interventions have been reported to be potentially beneficial for managing radiation dermatitis. Interventions evaluated in these reviews included skin care advice, steroidal/nonsteroidal topical agents, systemic therapies, modes of radiation delivery, and dressings. However, all the included SRs reported that there is insufficient evidence supporting any single effective intervention. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, and methodological shortfalls in these reviews might create biases to the overall results or recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusions: An up-to-date high-quality SR in the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis is needed to guide practice and direction for future research. We recommend that clinicians or guideline developers critically evaluate the information of SRs in their decision making.

  13. Critical appraisal skills training for health care professionals: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN46272378

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Paul E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Critical appraisal skills are believed to play a central role in an evidence-based approach to health practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a critical appraisal skills educational intervention aimed at health care professionals. Methods This prospective controlled trial randomized 145 self-selected general practitioners, hospital physicians, professions allied to medicine, and healthcare managers/administrators from the South West of England to a half-day critical appraisal skills training workshop (based on the model of problem-based small group learning or waiting list control. The following outcomes were assessed at 6-months follow up: knowledge of the principles necessary for appraising evidence; attitudes towards the use of evidence about healthcare; evidence seeking behaviour; perceived confidence in appraising evidence; and ability to critically appraise a systematic review article. Results At follow up overall knowledge score [mean difference: 2.6 (95% CI: 0.6 to 4.6] and ability to appraise the results of a systematic review [mean difference: 1.2 (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.4] were higher in the critical skills training group compared to control. No statistical significant differences in overall attitude towards evidence, evidence seeking behaviour, perceived confidence, and other areas of critical appraisal skills ability (methodology or generalizability were observed between groups. Taking into account the workshop provision costs and costs of participants time and expenses of participants, the average cost of providing the critical appraisal workshops was approximately £250 per person. Conclusions The findings of this study challenge the policy of funding 'one-off' educational interventions aimed at enhancing the evidence-based practice of health care professionals. Future evaluations of evidence-based practice interventions need to take in account this trial's negative findings

  14. Depression reduces perceptual sensitivity for positive words and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ilardi, Stephen S; Young, Keith M; Stroupe, Natalie N; O'Hare, Aminda J; Bistricky, Steven L; Collison, Elizabeth; Gibson, Linzi; Schuster, Jonathan; Lepping, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of maladaptive attentional biases for lexical information (e.g., Atchley, Ilardi, & Enloe, 2003; Atchley, Stringer, Mathias, Ilardi, & Minatrea, 2007) and for pictographic stimuli (e.g., Gotlib, Krasnoperova, Yue, & Joormann, 2004) among patients with depression. The current research looks for depressotypic processing biases among depressed out-patients and non-clinical controls, using both verbal and pictorial stimuli. A d' measure (sensitivity index) was used to examine each participant's perceptual sensitivity threshold. Never-depressed controls evidenced a detection bias for positive picture stimuli, while depressed participants had no such bias. With verbal stimuli, depressed individuals showed specific decrements in the detection of positive person-referent words (WINNER), but not with positive non-person-referent words (SUNSHINE) or with negative words. Never-depressed participants showed no such differences across word types. In the current study, depression is characterised both by an absence of the normal positivistic biases seen in individuals without mood disorders (consistent with McCabe & Gotlib, 1995), and by a specific reduction in sensitivity for person-referent positive information that might be inconsistent with depressotypic self-schemas.

  15. The mediating role of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care in black mothers' stress-resilience process following loss to gun violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Annette; Sharma, Manoj; Jubin, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Although much attention has been granted to the perpetrators and victims of gun violence, limitations exist in our understanding of the psychological well-being of parents grieving children lost to gun violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care on the relationship between traumatic stress and resilience among Black mothers bereaving children to gun violence. A cross-sectional design and network sampling method were used to recruit 48 Black mothers living in a large Canadian city. Participants completed a survey either by phone or in person. Social support and positive appraisal were found to be protective factors of resilience for study participants. The traumatic stress experienced by the sample decreased with increased social support (beta = -.291, p = .045), leading to an increase of their resilience (beta = .297, p = .032). With positive appraisal of the loss, the stress levels of study participants decreased (beta = -.334, p = .023), leading to increased resilience (beta = .441, p = .003). Quality health care showed a significant positive relationship with the resilience of the women (beta = .313, p = .023) but did not mediate the relationship between their stress and resilience. For Black mothers who experience loss of a child to gun violence, policy and social change efforts should focus on strengthening their access to formal and informal supports and improving their abilities to find meaning in their loss.

  16. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Appraisal Psychology, Neurobiology, and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the confluence of stimulus appraisal and social cognition that is effected by the neural system in the brain has important implications for language and learning theories. Describes the anatomy and functions of this neural system and discusses how it may operate in motivation for second language acquisition and how in conjunction…

  18. Bias temperature instability in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizubayashi, Wataru; Mori, Takahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Morita, Yukinori; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yongxun; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the bias temperature instability (BTI) of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The positive BTI and negative BTI mechanisms in TFETs are the same as those in metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). In TFETs, although traps are generated in high-k gate dielectrics by the bias stress and/or the interface state is degraded at the interfacial layer/channel interface, the threshold voltage (V th) shift due to BTI degradation is caused by the traps and/or the degradation of the interface state locating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) region near the source/gate edge. The BTI lifetime in n- and p-type TFETs is improved by applying a drain bias corresponding to the operation conditions.

  19. Looking For Value in All The Wrong Places. Toward Expanded Consideration of Green and High Performance Attributes in Non-residential Property Appraisals in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Large numbers of commercial buildings have sought to improve their energy and environmental performance, with half of all leasable U.S. offices now designated at some level of “green”. All proper/es fall somewhere on the green/high-­performance spectrum (above and below average) whether or not they bear a formal label or ra/ng.1 Variations in the level of performance can either positively or negatively influence value. This component of value can be shaped by many factors, from utility costs to tenant/owner preferences that translate into income (rent levels, vacancy rates, lease-­up /mes, etc.). Occupant perceptions of indoor environmental quality are another potential influence on value. While there has been little uptake of this thinking by practicing appraisers, the increased prevalence of green/HP practices combined with concerns about appraiser competency are compelling the industry to adapt their traditional techniques to this new driver of value. However, the overly narrow focus of policymakers on appraisal of labeled or rated exemplary buildings (e.g., LEED or ENERGY STAR Certified) represents a significant missed opportunity. Any level of green or energy performance can in fact influence value, including below-­average performance (a.k.a. “brown discount”), irrespec/ve of whether or not the building has been formally rated. Another surmountable challenge is the limitations to non-­appraisers’ understanding of the appraisal process (and constraints therein). A crucial byproduct of this is unrealistic expectations of what appraisers can and will do in the marketplace. This report identifies opportunities for catalyzing improvement of the green/HP appraisal process, which apply to all involved actors—from owner, report-­ordering client, the appraiser, and the appraisal reviewer—and fostering more demand for appraisals that recognize green/HP property attributes. The intended audience is primarily the public policy community and other

  20. Indirect assessment of an interpretation bias in humans: Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eSchick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Affective state can influence cognition leading to biased information processing, interpretation, attention, and memory. Such bias has been reported to be essential for the onset and maintenance of different psychopathologies, particularly affective disorders. However, empirical evidence has been very heterogeneous and little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive bias and its time-course. We therefore investigated the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as indicators of biased information processing with an ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm. In an acquisition phase, participants learned to discriminate two tones of different frequency, which acquired emotional and motivational value due to subsequent feedback (monetary gain or avoidance of monetary loss. In the test phase, three additional tones of intermediate frequencies were presented, whose interpretation as positive (approach of reward or negative (avoidance of punishment, indicated by a button press, was used as an indicator of the bias. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this paradigm while a 64-channel electroencephalogram was recorded. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing individual differences in depression and rumination. Overall, we found a small positive bias, which correlated negatively with reflective pondering, a type of rumination. As expected, reaction times were increased for intermediate tones. ERP amplitudes between 300 – 700 ms post-stimulus differed depending on the interpretation of the intermediate tones. A negative compared to a positive interpretation led to an amplitude increase over frontal electrodes. Our study provides evidence that in humans, as in animal research, the ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm is a valid procedure for indirectly assessing ambiguous cue interpretation and a potential interpretation bias, which is sensitive to individual differences in affect-related traits.

  1. The Roles of Dyadic Appraisal and Coping in Couples With Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Karen S; Miller, Lyndsey M; McCarthy, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Given the high symptom burden and low survivability of lung cancer, patients and their spouses have been found to experience poor mental health. The current study examined the roles of dyadic appraisal and dyadic coping on the mental health of 78 couples living with non-small cell lung cancer. Multilevel modeling revealed that spouses, on average, reported significantly worse mental health than patients. Dyadic appraisal and dyadic coping played important roles in predicting mental health, controlling for known developmental and contextual covariates. Dyadic appraisal of the patient's pain and fatigue was significantly associated with spouse mental health, albeit in opposite directions. Dyadic coping significantly predicted patient mental health. The study underlines the need to incorporate routine screening of both patient and spouse mental health, and highlights the complex role of appraisal within the couple in a life-threatening context. Viewing the couple as a unit, rather than separate individuals, raises important awareness about the role of disparate illness appraisals and coping strategies within the dyad on the health of both members. Nurses are particularly well situated to engage in a collaborative family-focused approach to the couple with cancer that promotes communication and health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Sex differences in the appraisal of traumatic events and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2017-09-01

    The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives. It was hypothesized that the relationship between traumatic experiences and mental disorder symptoms would be stronger in women than in men, and also that cognitive appraisal, in interaction with gender, would be related to the severity of the symptoms. Women showed higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but lower levels of externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms than men. Still, the correlation between cumulative trauma and both types of symptoms was stronger in women. For all types of trauma, women reported a stronger negative appraisal of the event than men. Interaction of sex and cognitive appraisal was demonstrated to be related to the severity of internalizing disorders. In the present study, women, as compared with men, evaluated traumatic events more negatively (for all types of trauma) and the relationship between trauma and mental disorder symptoms was also stronger in women. These results show the importance of the appraisal of trauma in the development of psychiatric symptoms in women and men following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective

  4. Positive and negative exchange bias effects from magnetization reversal in Ho{sup 3+} doped YFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.R., E-mail: shiliran1127@126.com [College of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Wei, C.X.; Wang, Z.; Ju, L.; Xu, T.S.; Li, T.X.; Yan, X.W. [College of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Xia, Z.C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The dual magnetization reversal is observed in Y{sub 1−x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. • The EB field transforms from negative to positive and then to negative. • A large exchange bias effect induced by Ho{sup 3+} doping is obtained in Y{sub 1−x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The polycrystalline ceramics of Y{sub 1−x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) are synthesized by a sol-gel method. The magnetization reversal and exchange bias effect are investigated in single phase bulk Y{sub 1−x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. Magnetic Ho{sup 3+} ion as a dopant is introduced into the system to confirm the influence of A-site ion on the magnetic interactions. The dual reversal of exchange bias field for x = 0.05 is observed, and its characteristic temperatures are corresponding to the compensation temperatures of magnetization reversal. The exchange bias field of x = 0.1 is found to be ∼10.03 kOe at 4 K, revealing a large value compared with that of x = 0. A schematic diagram based on the competition between the single ion anisotropy and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction, and the antiparallel coupling between the Ho{sup 3+} moments and the canted Cr{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+} moments, is used to understand the dual reversal phenomenon of magnetization and exchange bias effect.

  5. SCAMPI Lead Appraiser (Service Mark) Body of Knowledge (SLA BOK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    University. 34 | CMU/SEI-2007-TR-019 CC 3 Project Planning and Management Moeller, Robert R. COSO Enterprise Risk Management : Understanding the...appraisal participants) to specific amounts of time when the sponsor agrees to having the appraisal. CMP 3.1.2 Employing risk management techniques...contingency and management reserves appropriately • Ensuring the risk management strategy accounts for the OU’s process improvement history • Assessing

  6. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-05-01

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the extent of non-stationary biases in GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jannatun; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-06-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the main tools for estimating changes in the climate for the future. The imperfect representation of climate models introduces biases in the simulations that need to be corrected prior to their use for impact assessments. Bias correction methods generally assume that the bias calculated over the historical period does not change and can be applied to the future. This study investigates this assumption by considering the extent and nature of bias non-stationarity using 20th century precipitation and temperature simulations from six CMIP5 GCMs across Australia. Four statistics (mean, standard deviation, 10th and 90th quantiles) in monthly and seasonal biases are obtained for three different time window lengths (10, 25 and 33 years) to examine the properties of bias over time. This approach is repeated for two different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which is known to have strong influences on the Australian climate. It is found that bias non-stationarity at decadal timescales is indeed an issue over some of Australia for some GCMs. When considering interdecadal variability there are significant difference in the bias between positive and negative phases of the IPO. Regional analyses confirmed these findings with the largest differences seen on the east coast of Australia, where IPO impacts tend to be the strongest. The nature of the bias non-stationarity found in this study suggests that it will be difficult to modify existing bias correction approaches to account for non-stationary biases. A more practical approach for impact assessments that use bias correction maybe to use a selection of GCMs where the assumption of bias non-stationarity holds.

  8. Continual training of attentional bias in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songwei; Tan, Jieqing; Qian, Mingyi; Liu, Xinghua

    2008-08-01

    Using the dot-probe paradigm, it has been shown that high social anxiety is associated with an attentional bias toward negative information. In the present study, individuals with high social anxiety were divided into two groups randomly. One group was the attentional bias training group (Group T), and the other was the control group (Group C). For Group T, 7 days' continuous training of attentional bias was conducted using the dot-probe paradigm to make socially anxious individuals focus more on positive face pictures. The results showed that the training was effective in changing attentional bias in Group T. Scores of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in Group T were reduced compared to Group C, while the scores of Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and scores of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) showed no difference between the two groups, which suggested a limited reduction of social anxiety.

  9. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  10. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  11. A Friendly Turn: Advertising Bias in the News Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ruenzi, Stefan; Focke, Florens; Niessen-Ruenzi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether newspapers report more favorably about advertising corporate clients than about other firms. Our identification strategy based on high-dimensional fixed effects and high frequency advertising data shows that advertising leads to more positive press coverage. This advertising bias in reporting is found among local and national newspapers. Further results show that advertising bias manifests particularly in less negative reporting after bad news events such as ne...

  12. Associations of Coping and Appraisal Styles with Emotion Regulation during Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based…

  13. Confirmation bias in human reinforcement learning: Evidence from counterfactual feedback processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Germain; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning. We carried out two experiments: in the factual learning experiment, participants learned from partial feedback (i.e., the outcome of the chosen option only); in the counterfactual learning experiment, participants learned from complete feedback information (i.e., the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option were displayed). In the factual learning experiment, we replicated previous findings of a valence-induced bias, whereby participants learned preferentially from positive, relative to negative, prediction errors. In contrast, for counterfactual learning, we found the opposite valence-induced bias: negative prediction errors were preferentially taken into account, relative to positive ones. When considering valence-induced bias in the context of both factual and counterfactual learning, it appears that people tend to preferentially take into account information that confirms their current choice. PMID:28800597

  14. Confirmation bias in human reinforcement learning: Evidence from counterfactual feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Stefano; Lefebvre, Germain; Kilford, Emma J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning. We carried out two experiments: in the factual learning experiment, participants learned from partial feedback (i.e., the outcome of the chosen option only); in the counterfactual learning experiment, participants learned from complete feedback information (i.e., the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option were displayed). In the factual learning experiment, we replicated previous findings of a valence-induced bias, whereby participants learned preferentially from positive, relative to negative, prediction errors. In contrast, for counterfactual learning, we found the opposite valence-induced bias: negative prediction errors were preferentially taken into account, relative to positive ones. When considering valence-induced bias in the context of both factual and counterfactual learning, it appears that people tend to preferentially take into account information that confirms their current choice.

  15. Internet-based cognitive bias modification for obsessive compulsive disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Alishia D; Pajak, Rosanna; O'Moore, Kathleen; Andrews, Gavin; Grisham, Jessica R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions have demonstrated efficacy in augmenting core biases implicated in psychopathology. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification intervention

  16. Student-generated questions during chemistry lectures: Patterns, self-appraisals, and relations with motivational beliefs and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Bradley W.

    Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how students evaluate their questions, and the relations among questions, motivations, and achievement. This study examined the questions undergraduate students (N = 103) generated during 8 lectures in an introductory chemistry course. Students recorded and appraised their question in daily question logs and reported lecture-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy, personal interest, goal orientations, and other motivational self-beliefs were measured before and after the unit. Primary analyses included testing path models, multiple regressions, and latent class analyses. Overall, results indicated that several characteristics of student questioning during lectures were significantly related to various motivations and achievement. Higher end-of-class self-efficacy was associated with fewer procedural questions and more questions that reflected smaller knowledge deficits. Lower exam scores were associated with questions reflecting broader knowledge deficits and students' appraisals that their questions had less value for others than for themselves. Individual goal orientations collectively and positively predicted question appraisals. The questions students generated and their relations with motivational variables and achievement are discussed in light of the learning task and academic context.

  17. Technology-assisted risk of bias assessment in systematic reviews: a prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the RobotReviewer machine learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the reliability of RobotReviewer's risk of bias judgments. In this prospective cross-sectional evaluation, we used RobotReviewer to assess risk of bias among 1,180 trials. We computed reliability with human reviewers using Cohen's kappa coefficient and calculated sensitivity and specificity. We investigated differences in reliability by risk of bias domain, topic, and outcome type using the chi-square test in meta-analysis. Reliability (95% CI) was moderate for random sequence generation (0.48 [0.43, 0.53]), allocation concealment (0.45 [0.40, 0.51]), and blinding of participants and personnel (0.42 [0.36, 0.47]); fair for overall risk of bias (0.34 [0.25, 0.44]); and slight for blinding of outcome assessors (0.10 [0.06, 0.14]), incomplete outcome data (0.14 [0.08, 0.19]), and selective reporting (0.02 [-0.02, 0.05]). Reliability for blinding of participants and personnel (P < 0.001), blinding of outcome assessors (P = 0.005), selective reporting (P < 0.001), and overall risk of bias (P < 0.001) differed by topic. Sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) ranged from 0.20 (0.18, 0.23) to 0.76 (0.72, 0.80) and from 0.61 (0.56, 0.65) to 0.95 (0.93, 0.96), respectively. Risk of bias appraisal is subjective. Compared with reliability between author groups, RobotReviewer's reliability with human reviewers was similar for most domains and better for allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, and overall risk of bias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and

  19. Is trait resilience characterized by specific patterns of attentional bias to emotional stimuli and attentional control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Heinrich, Anke; Zimmermann, Peter; Siegel, Stefan; Schönfeld, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Attentional processes have been suggested to play a crucial role in resilience defined as positive adaptation facing adversity. However, research is lacking on associations between attentional biases to positive and threat-related stimuli, attentional control and trait resilience. Data stem from the follow-up assessment of a longitudinal study investigating mental health and related factors among German soldiers. Trait resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and attentional control with the Attentional Control Scale. A subset of n = 198 soldiers also completed a dot probe task with happy, neutral and threatening faces. Attentional control was positively related to trait resilience. Results revealed no associations between both attentional biases and trait resilience. However, there was a negative association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was low and a positive association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was high. No such associations were found for attentional bias to positive stimuli. Generalizability to other populations may be limited since we exclusively focused on male soldiers. Also, the cross-sectional design does not allow for causal conclusions. Findings suggest that attentional processing may promote trait resilience. Future research on preventive interventions should consider these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the nature of real and perceived bias in the mainstream media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Elejalde

    Full Text Available News consumers expect news outlets to be objective and balanced in their reports of events and opinions. However, there is a growing body of evidence of bias in the media caused by underlying political and socio-economic viewpoints. Previous studies have tried to classify the partiality of the media, but there is little work on quantifying it, and less still on the nature of this partiality. The vast amount of content published in social media enables us to quantify the inclination of the press to pre-defined sides of the socio-political spectrum. To describe such tendencies, we use tweets to automatically compute a news outlet's political and socio-economic orientation. Results show that the media have a measurable bias, and illustrate this by showing the favoritism of Chilean media for the ruling political parties in the country. This favoritism becomes clearer as we empirically observe a shift in the position of the mass media when there is a change in government. Even though relative differences in bias between news outlets can be observed, public awareness of the bias of the media landscape as a whole appears to be limited by the political space defined by the news that we receive as a population. We found that the nature of the bias is reflected in the vocabulary used and the entities mentioned by different news outlets. A survey conducted among news consumers confirms that media bias has an impact on the coverage of controversial topics and that this is perceivable by the general audience. Having a more accurate method to measure and characterize media bias will help readers position outlets in the socio-economic landscape, even when a (sometimes opposite self-declared position is stated. This will empower readers to better reflect on the content provided by their news outlets of choice.

  1. On the nature of real and perceived bias in the mainstream media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elejalde, Erick; Ferres, Leo; Herder, Eelco

    2018-01-01

    News consumers expect news outlets to be objective and balanced in their reports of events and opinions. However, there is a growing body of evidence of bias in the media caused by underlying political and socio-economic viewpoints. Previous studies have tried to classify the partiality of the media, but there is little work on quantifying it, and less still on the nature of this partiality. The vast amount of content published in social media enables us to quantify the inclination of the press to pre-defined sides of the socio-political spectrum. To describe such tendencies, we use tweets to automatically compute a news outlet's political and socio-economic orientation. Results show that the media have a measurable bias, and illustrate this by showing the favoritism of Chilean media for the ruling political parties in the country. This favoritism becomes clearer as we empirically observe a shift in the position of the mass media when there is a change in government. Even though relative differences in bias between news outlets can be observed, public awareness of the bias of the media landscape as a whole appears to be limited by the political space defined by the news that we receive as a population. We found that the nature of the bias is reflected in the vocabulary used and the entities mentioned by different news outlets. A survey conducted among news consumers confirms that media bias has an impact on the coverage of controversial topics and that this is perceivable by the general audience. Having a more accurate method to measure and characterize media bias will help readers position outlets in the socio-economic landscape, even when a (sometimes opposite) self-declared position is stated. This will empower readers to better reflect on the content provided by their news outlets of choice.

  2. [Influence of Uncertainty and Uncertainty Appraisal on Self-management in Hemodialysis Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyung Suk; Lee, Chang Suk; Yang, Young Hee

    2015-04-01

    This study was done to examine the relation of uncertainty, uncertainty appraisal, and self-management in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and to identify factors influencing self-management. A convenience sample of 92 patients receiving hemodialysis was selected. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and medical records. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. The participants showed a moderate level of uncertainty with the highest score being for ambiguity among the four uncertainty subdomains. Scores for uncertainty danger or opportunity appraisals were under the mid points. The participants were found to perform a high level of self-management such as diet control, management of arteriovenous fistula, exercise, medication, physical management, measurements of body weight and blood pressure, and social activity. The self-management of participants undergoing hemodialysis showed a significant relationship with uncertainty and uncertainty appraisal. The significant factors influencing self-management were uncertainty, uncertainty opportunity appraisal, hemodialysis duration, and having a spouse. These variables explained 32.8% of the variance in self-management. The results suggest that intervention programs to reduce the level of uncertainty and to increase the level of uncertainty opportunity appraisal among patients would improve the self-management of hemodialysis patients.

  3. Performance Appraisal at Four and Five Star Hotels: Ankara Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Arslantürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism establishments developing human resources and motivating will make it easier to reach their goals and those who cannot mange to do this will be obsolete in the ever-changing nature of the tourism business. The most important feature of the tourism sector is that it is based on human element and it s labor-intensive. Hence, human element is of great importance. This being the case, the customer satisfaction in accommodation establishments will be greatly dependent on the success of the personnel. Performance appraisal in this regard is a tool used to measure the performance of the employees in establishing job satisfaction and enhancing success. Performance appraisal indicates the performance of the individuals and gives insights as to what should be done to improve the performance. As well as promoting the communication between the employees and the establishment. From the perspectives of the managers, it paves the way for an efficient information flow about the performance of the personnel and makes job planning more rationally. This study first examines performance and performance appraisal. Then, through a field study, deficiencies in the application of performance appraisal were determined in the four and five star hotel establishments. According to the results obtained, some suggestions were put forward.

  4. Embodied Appraisals and Non-emotional States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-223 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB900090802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : embodied appraisal * non-emotional mental states * valence * emotion Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Sympathetic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J

    2008-06-01

    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation.

  6. Forgiveness and the appraisal-coping process in response to relationship conflicts: implications for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2009-03-01

    The present investigation assessed the mediating role of appraisal-coping processes in the relation between forgiveness and depressive symptoms associated with intimate relationship conflicts. Study 1 assessed the role of forgiveness in the context of a severe relationship stressor, namely women experiencing dating abuse, along with the appraisal-coping responses and depressive symptoms associated with such a stressor. Study 2 evaluated the function served by forgiveness among men and women in response to non-abusive relationship stressors, including the dissolution of the relationship, and also assessed the relations among forgiveness, appraisal-coping processes, and depressive symptoms. Women who encountered dating abuse were less likely to forgive their partners, and this was linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms. The relation between forgiveness and lower depressive symptoms was partially mediated by lower threat appraisals, secondary appraisals of the effectiveness of emotion-focused coping, and the reduced endorsements of this coping strategy (Study 1). Appraisal-coping processes similarly mediated the relation between forgiveness and depressive symptoms among men and women reporting conflict in an ongoing (non-abusive) relationship or a relationship break-up (Study 2). It is suggested that the relation between forgiveness and diminished distress operates primarily by guiding individuals' appraisals of the conflict and by diminishing the reliance on emotion-focused coping.

  7. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Efficacy of Performance Appraisal to Increase Employees’ Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iranita Hervi Mahardayani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the effectiveness of implementation performance appraisal toward job satisfaction of employees UMKM Bordir Dahlia in Kabupaten Kudus. Sampling was done by using population studies to 16 employees of UMKM embroidery Dahlia Kudus. The type of this research is quantitative with pra experiment approached by One group pre and posttest design method. Data analysis on this research using non parametric with different test techniques Wilcoxon t-tes. The analysis result of different test scale job satisfaction before and after handling obtained Z = - 1,268, with p = 0,205 (p>0,05, so that there is no differences on job satisfaction on employees of embroidery Dahlia before and after treatment by giving performance appraisal. It means treatment by giving performance appraisal unable to increase employees job satisfaction. Therefore, the hypothesis on this research is rejected.

  9. The Falsehood of a Single Appraisal System: The Case of the Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the appraisal system, popularly called the Employee Performance Management and Development System (EPMDS) of the Free State Health Department. The objective of the study was to establish gaps in the successful application of performance appraisals, and identify the major factors required for ...

  10. Attentional Bias to Food Cues in Youth with Loss of Control Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Vollstadt-Klein S, et al. 2012. Impairment of inhibitory control in response to food - associated cues and attentional bias of obese participants...on the obesity epidemic? Int. J. Eat. Disord. 34:S117-20 104. Yokum S, Ng J, Stice E. 2011. Attentional bias to food images associated with...bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight

  11. Healthcare librarians and the delivery of critical appraisal training: barriers to involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden-Jenkins, Michelle

    2011-03-01

      Many healthcare librarians are undertaking training in critical appraisal but a significant number are not cascading the training to their end-users.   To examine the barriers to healthcare librarian involvement in delivering critical appraisal training.   A questionnaire survey of 57 library services across 48 NHS Trust Library Services in north west England followed up with 21 semi-structured interviews.   Two types of barriers were noted: extrinsic barriers (organisational, environmental, training, role expectations) and intrinsic barriers (knowledge, skills, attitude).   These barriers are not mutually exclusive and by overcoming one of them it does not necessarily follow that healthcare librarians will engage in delivering critical appraisal skills training. The challenge lies in developing strategies to deal effectively with these barriers to encourage and support healthcare librarians in the delivery of critical appraisal training at a level at which they feel confident and able. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Investigation of the gate-bias induced instability for InGaZnO TFTs under dark and light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.C.; Chang, T.C.; Hsieh, T.Y.; Tsai, C.T.; Chen, S.C.; Lin, C.S.; Jian, F.Y.; Tsai, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism of the instability for indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors caused by gate-bias stress performed in the dark and light illumination was investigated in this paper. The parallel V t shift with no degradation of subthreshold swing (S.S) and the fine fitting to the stretched-exponential equation indicate that charge trapping model dominates the degradation behavior under positive gate-bias stress. In addition, the significant gate-bias dependence of V t shift demonstrates that electron trapping effect easily occurs under large gate-bias since the average effective energy barrier of electron injection decreases with increasing gate bias. Moreover, the noticeable decrease of threshold voltage (V t ) shift under illuminated positive gate-bias stress and the accelerated recovery rate in the light indicate that the charge detrapping mechanism occurs under light illumination. Finally, the apparent negative V t shift under illuminated negative gate-bias stress was investigated in this paper. The average effectively energy barrier of electron and hole injection were extracted to clarify that the serious V t degradation behavior comparing with positive gate-bias stress was attributed to the lower energy barrier for hole injection.

  13. Healthcare librarians and the delivery of critical appraisal training: attitudes, level of involvement and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden-Jenkins, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    Although healthcare librarians are undertaking training in critical appraisal skills, what is not so clear is the impact of the training on the understanding and dissemination of these skills. This study aims to examine the attitudes of healthcare librarians towards delivering critical appraisal training and their level of involvement. A questionnaire survey of 57 library services across 48 NHS Trust Library Services in north-west England followed up with 21 semi-structured interviews. Seventy-three per cent of respondents felt that they ought to be involved in delivering critical appraisal training, however less than a third (29%) are actually involved. Librarians are involved in critical appraisal facilitation at various levels. Debate continues over the extent of librarian involvement in delivering critical appraisal training. As long as healthcare librarians recognise their own capabilities and identify the boundaries within which they feel comfortable then there is no reason why they should not be involved in delivering critical appraisal training. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Understanding how appraisal of doctors produces its effects: a realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Nicola; Bryce, Marie; Pearson, Mark; Wong, Geoff; Cooper, Chris; Archer, Julian

    2014-06-23

    UK doctors are now required to participate in revalidation to maintain their licence to practise. Appraisal is a fundamental component of revalidation. However, objective evidence of appraisal changing doctors' behaviour and directly resulting in improved patient care is limited. In particular, it is not clear how the process of appraisal is supposed to change doctors' behaviour and improve clinical performance. The aim of this research is to understand how and why appraisal of doctors is supposed to produce its effect. Realist review is a theory-driven interpretive approach to evidence synthesis. It applies realist logic of inquiry to produce an explanatory analysis of an intervention that is, what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects. Using a realist review approach, an initial programme theory of appraisal will be developed by consulting with key stakeholders in doctors' appraisal in expert panels (ethical approval is not required), and by searching the literature to identify relevant existing theories. The search strategy will have a number of phases including a combination of: (1) electronic database searching, for example, EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, ASSIA, (2) 'cited by' articles search, (3) citation searching, (4) contacting authors and (5) grey literature searching. The search for evidence will be iteratively extended and refocused as the review progresses. Studies will be included based on their ability to provide data that enable testing of the programme theory. Data extraction will be conducted, for example, by note taking and annotation at different review stages as is consistent with the realist approach. The evidence will be synthesised using realist logic to interrogate the final programme theory of the impact of appraisal on doctors' performance. The synthesis results will be written up according to RAMESES guidelines and disseminated through peer-reviewed publication and presentations. The protocol is registered with

  15. Combination of biased forecasts: Bias correction or bias based weights?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Most of the literature on combination of forecasts deals with the assumption of unbiased individual forecasts. Here, we consider the case of biased forecasts and discuss two different combination techniques resulting in an unbiased forecast. On the one hand we correct the individual forecasts, and on the other we calculate bias based weights. A simulation study gives some insight in the situations where we should use the different methods.

  16. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  17. Citation bias and selective focus on positive findings in the literature on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), life stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Y A; Roest, A M; Franzen, M; Munafò, M R; Bastiaansen, J A

    2016-10-01

    Caspi et al.'s 2003 report that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the influence of life stress on depression has been highly influential but remains contentious. We examined whether the evidence base for the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction has been distorted by citation bias and a selective focus on positive findings. A total of 73 primary studies were coded for study outcomes and focus on positive findings in the abstract. Citation rates were compared between studies with positive and negative results, both within this network of primary studies and in Web of Science. In addition, the impact of focus on citation rates was examined. In all, 24 (33%) studies were coded as positive, but these received 48% of within-network and 68% of Web of Science citations. The 38 (52%) negative studies received 42 and 23% of citations, respectively, while the 11 (15%) unclear studies received 10 and 9%. Of the negative studies, the 16 studies without a positive focus (42%) received 47% of within-network citations and 32% of Web of Science citations, while the 13 (34%) studies with a positive focus received 39 and 51%, respectively, and the nine (24%) studies with a partially positive focus received 14 and 17%. Negative studies received fewer citations than positive studies. Furthermore, over half of the negative studies had a (partially) positive focus, and Web of Science citation rates were higher for these studies. Thus, discussion of the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction is more positive than warranted. This study exemplifies how evidence-base-distorting mechanisms undermine the authenticity of research findings.

  18. Bias-stress characterization of solution-processed organic field-effect transistor based on highly ordered liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, M.; Iino, H.; Hanna, J.

    2017-06-01

    Bias-stress effects in solution-processed, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10) field effect transistors (FETs) are studied under negative and positive direct current bias. The bottom gate, bottom contact polycrystalline Ph-BTBT-10 FET with a hybrid gate dielectric of polystyrene and SiO2 shows high field effect mobility as well as a steep subthreshold slope when fabricated with a highly ordered smectic E liquid crystalline (SmE) film as a precursor. Negative gate bias-stress causes negative threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) for Ph-BTBT-10 FET in ambient air, but ΔVth rapidly decreases as the gate bias decreases and approaches to near zero when the gate bias goes down to 9 V in amplitude. In contrast, positive gate bias-stress causes negligible ΔVth even with a relatively high bias voltage. These results conclude that Ph-BTBT-10 FET has excellent bias-stress stability in ambient air in the range of low to moderate operating voltages.

  19. Estimation bias and bias correction in reduced rank autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2017-01-01

    This paper characterizes the finite-sample bias of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in a reduced rank vector autoregression and suggests two simulation-based bias corrections. One is a simple bootstrap implementation that approximates the bias at the MLE. The other is an iterative root...

  20. 14 CFR 1253.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 1253.425 Section 1253.425 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... § 1253.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall...

  1. 36 CFR 1211.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 1211.425 Section 1211.425 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling...

  2. 38 CFR 23.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 23.425 Section 23.425 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Activities Prohibited § 23.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  3. 13 CFR 113.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 113.425 Section 113.425 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Activities Prohibited § 113.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  4. 44 CFR 19.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 19.425 Section 19.425 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and...

  5. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  6. Reducing Prejudice With Labels: Shared Group Memberships Attenuate Implicit Bias and Expand Implicit Group Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, W Anthony; Mackie, Diane M; Allen, Thomas J; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, we used a novel Implicit Association Test procedure to investigate the impact of group memberships on implicit bias and implicit group boundaries. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that categorizing targets using a shared category reduced implicit bias by increasing the extent to which positivity was associated with Blacks. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that shared group membership, but not mere positivity of a group membership, was necessary to reduce implicit bias. Quadruple process model analyses indicated that changes in implicit bias caused by shared group membership are due to changes in the way that targets are evaluated, not to changes in the regulation of evaluative bias. Results from Experiment 3 showed that categorizing Black targets into shared group memberships expanded implicit group boundaries. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Physical attractiveness, issue agreement, and assimilation effects in candidate appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, James N; Curran, Margaret Ann; Strungaru, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the cognitive and affective factors of candidate appraisal by manipulating candidate attractiveness and levels of issue agreement with voters. Drawing upon research in evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience, this analysis proposes that automatic processing of physical appearance predisposes affective disposition toward more attractive candidates, thereby influencing cognitive processing of issue information. An experimental design presented attractive and unattractive candidates who were either liberal or conservative in a mock primary election. The data show strong partial effects for appearance on vote intention, an interaction between appearance and issue agreement, and a tendency for voters to assimilate the dissimilar views of attractive candidates. We argue that physical appearance is important in primary elections when the differences in issue positions and ideology between candidates is small.

  8. Linguistic intergroup bias in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Zurloni, Valentino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.

  9. Hispanic nurses' experiences of bias in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moceri, Joane T

    2014-01-01

    The continuing issue of health inequity for Hispanics highlights the importance of retaining Hispanic nurses in the workplace. This article describes the use of short answers such as "Describe the bias you experienced" and "If a patient refused care, what was the reason given?" to increase understandings about bias through the descriptions of Hispanic nurses. In this study, bias was defined as those implicit negative stereotypes and attitudes that negatively affect judgments about, evaluations of, and actions toward others. For this qualitative component of a descriptive study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods, 111 Hispanic nurses responded to open-ended questions about experiences of bias that were included with a survey tool and demographic questionnaire. Three themes emerged: being overlooked and undervalued, having to prove competency, and living with "only-ness." Respect was an overarching concept. The written descriptions of bias provided depth and understanding to the quantitative findings. Nurse leaders are well positioned to develop and implement strategies to more effectively support Hispanic nurses and to promote nonbiased interactions in the workplace. Retaining Hispanic nurses is a vital component to address issues of health inequity for Hispanic patients.

  10. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    The Nigerian media has been playing an active role in instituting democratic structures since the ... mass media eventually yielded positive result when on the 29th of May 1999 the ... presence of democratic or special bias in the media may have profound effect. Public ..... Issues in the 2011 general elections in Nigeria.

  11. Perceptual and cognitive biases in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2008-01-01

    Given the extreme focus on perceived physical defects in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we expected that perceptual and cognitive biases related to physical appearance would be associated with BDD symptomology. To examine these hypotheses, participants ( N = 70) high and low in BDD symptoms completed tasks assessing visual perception and cognition. As expected, there were significant group differences in self-, but not other-, relevant cognitive biases. Perceptual bias results were mixed, with some evidence indicating that individuals high (versus low) in BDD symptoms literally see themselves in a less positive light. Further, individuals high in BDD symptoms failed to demonstrate a normative self-enhancement bias. Overall, this research points to the importance of assessing both cognitive and perceptual biases associated with BDD symptoms, and suggests that visual perception may be influenced by non-visual factors.

  12. Non-financial analysis in project appraisal – an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Nuno; Lopes, MDS

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature has been emphasising the need to take both financial and nonfinancial aspects into consideration when considering capital budgeting decisions. This is to be done since the early stages of project appraisal, and not only when risks become reality. We wanted to know to what extent portuguese companies are aware of the importance of non financial aspects at their project appraisal processes, and, in their practices, what exactly they are doing and considering as more or less i...

  13. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers

    OpenAIRE

    van Schaaijk, A.; Boschman, J. S.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Method Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance worker...

  14. Fail or flourish? Cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judith B

    2008-09-01

    When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo.

  15. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  16. 24 CFR 3.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 3.425 Section 3.425 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Activities Prohibited § 3.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  17. 29 CFR 36.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 36... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of...

  18. 31 CFR 28.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 28.425 Section 28.425 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the....425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not...

  19. 10 CFR 1042.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on...

  20. 34 CFR 106.36 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.36 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling or...