WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive work environment

  1. Work-to-Family Conflict, Positive Spillover, and Boundary Management: A Person-Environment Fit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…

  2. Positive work environments of early-career registered nurses and the correlation with physician verbal abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Obeidat, Rana F; Budin, Wendy C

    2013-01-01

    Verbal abuse in the workplace is experienced by registered nurses (RNs) worldwide; physicians are one of the main sources of verbal abuse. To examine the relationship between levels of physician verbal abuse of early-career RNs and demographics, work attributes, and perceived work environment. Fourth wave of a mailed national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. RNs' perception of verbal abuse by physicians was significantly associated with poor workgroup cohesion, lower supervisory and mentor support, greater quantitative workload, organizational constraints, and nurse-colleague verbal abuse, as well as RNs' lower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay. RNs working in unfavorable work environments experience more physician abuse and have less favorable work attitudes. Causality is unclear: do poor working conditions create an environment in which physicians are more likely to be abusive, or does verbal abuse by physicians create an unfavorable work environment? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Positive Effect of Resilience on Stress and Business Outcomes in Difficult Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatté, Andrew; Perlman, Adam; Smith, Brad; Lynch, Wendy D

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether resilience has a protective effect in difficult work environments. A survey of 2063 individuals measured individual resilience, stress, burnout, sleep problems, likelihood of depression, job satisfaction, intent to quit, absences, and productivity. It also measured work characteristics: job demands, job influence, and social support. Multivariate and logistic regression models examined the main effects and interactions of resilience and job characteristics. High strain work environments (high demand, low influence, and low support) have an unfavorable effect on all outcomes. Resilience has a protective effect on all outcomes. For stress, burnout, and sleep, higher resilience has a more protective effect under low-strain conditions. For depression, absence and productivity, resilience has a more protective effect when job strain is high. Workers with high resilience have better outcomes in difficult work environments.

  4. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  5. Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....

  6. The farrier's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, Lotta; Pinzke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The horse industry in Sweden has rapidly expanded in recent years. This increasing number of horses implies a greater need for more farriers. Shoeing a horse is hard physical work, and includes awkward work postures and repetitive movements. It is well known that hard physical work increases the risk of injuries and musculoskeletal problems. The risk is especially high for musculoskeletal disorders when certain movements are constantly repeated. Heavy or repeated unilateral loads lead to considerable stress on the muscles, which can lead to rupture and fatigue that can cause long term problems. A case study showed that farriers worked 75% of their work time with their backs in bent positions (often more than 70 degrees). Farriers are also exposed to risk factors in their physical environment like dust, noise and poor lighting. Risk of kicks and bites, eye injuries and burns are other factors that make their work environment hazardous. There are only a few studies available that have documented the farriers' working environment and these are not of recent date. A US study from 1984 described kicks and bites from horses, metal splinters in the eyes, heat exhaustion and problematic postures to be perceived as the greatest risks in their work. The back, knees and wrists were the most exposed body regions. There is a need for more current and in-depth studies investigating the farriers' working conditions in order to gain more knowledge of their health and work environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the physical health and work environment of farriers. The investigation will use questionnaires, work load measurements and workplace analysis. The results will serve as a base for improvements concerning the design of the workplace, equipment, tools and aids as well as supplying recommendations about physical exercise and the correct work technique, etc. The results are planned to be incorporated in the education of farriers.

  7. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  8. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...

  9. Socioeconomic position, psychosocial work environment and disability in an ageing workforce: a longitudinal analysis of SHARE data from 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Wahrendorf, Morten; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Prevention of disability in the ageing workforce is essential for sustaining economic growth in Europe. In order to provide information on entry points for preventive measures, it is important to better understand sociodemographic, socioeconomic and work-related determinants of disability in older employees. We aimed to test the hypothesis that low socioeconomic position and exposure to a stressful psychosocial work environment at baseline contribute to later disability. We further assumed that the association of socioeconomic position with disability is partly mediated by exposure to adverse working conditions. We studied longitudinal data from the first two waves of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 11 European countries. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic and work-related factors (low control, effort-reward imbalance) and baseline disability of 2665 male and 2209 female employees aged between 50 and 64 years were used to predict disability 2 years later. Following the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), disability was subdivided into the components 'impairment' and 'restriction in activities and participation'. Two multilevel Poisson regressions were fitted to the data. After adjusting for baseline disability and relevant confounding variables, low socioeconomic position and chronic stress at work exerted significant effects on disability scores 2 years later. We found some support for the hypothesis that the association of socioeconomic position with disability is partly mediated by work stress. Investing in reduction of work stress and reducing social inequalities in health functioning are relevant entry points of policies that aim at maintaining work ability in early old age.

  10. Working for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This video looks at the work of the UKAEA which is concerned with environmental protection and covers 4 projects, the routine monitoring which ensures a constant check on the safe operation of nuclear plant, research into the ways radioactivity released routinely into the Irish Sea from Sellafield returns to land. Computer modelling of the large scale behaviour of radioactive releases to the environment and research into the behaviour of released chemicals and heavy metals into the food chain. (author)

  11. Flexibility trap – the effects of flexible working on the position of female professionals and managers within a corporate environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka; Křížková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 225-238 ISSN 1754-2413 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Gender stereotypes * Flexible working * Gender discrimination Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/GM-03-2014-0027

  12. Working Environment and Technological Development - An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    1997-01-01

    The chapter is concerned with the different departures, research questions, positions and controversies that is identified in the research programme: Working Environment and Technological Environment. The chapter counterposes positions from six different chapters and raises four themes for debate...... and further research. 1) Whast is planning? 2) Organisational change - learning or political processes? 3) Transformations of technology. 4) Strategies for considering working conditions....

  13. Working Environment and Technological Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Nielsen, Klaus T.; Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    and their and their concept of working environment2) Technology renewal, which considers the role of the working environment in connection with the development and use of concrete technologies3) Working environment planning, which considers the existing efforts to place the working environment in a planning process.......The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions...

  14. The Syndrome Burnout as Deterioration of Work Environment and the TST Position of the Use of the Principles And Concepts Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Fabiola Brito Tuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the applicability of environmental principles in cases of syndrome of "burnout". For this, it will analyze the concepts of general environment and its categories, highlighting the working environment in which the characteristics of its healthiness will be appointed. They will be treated also the concepts of degradation of environmental quality and pollution, and how they occur in the middle working environment, emphasizing the protection of quality of life and health of workers. So relate the "burnout" syndrome as the middle work environment degradation factor, and discussed the consequences of this framework. Finally, recent decisions will be presented the Superior Labor Court (TST about this psychological pathology.

  15. Global positioning site environment evaluator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, S.; Reeser, H.G.; Zaker, E.; Hansen, W.; Sikorski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of an innovative, integrated, automated system (Global Positioning Site Environment Evaluator - GPSEETM) for surveying contaminated waste sites is described. This system makes novel use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation for establishing specific locations and current times for surveying radioactive, hazardous, or mixed-waste sites. GPSEE may also be used for waste site contamination surveys after remediation activities to ensure environmental remediation is complete. A base station is established for collecting and recording data and directing field operations for field stations which may be located many miles from the base station. The field operators collect site surveying and contamination data utilizing a variety of chemical and radiological sensors. A major goal for the data collection process is to collect all data utilizing in situ sensors, thereby minimizing the need for collecting soil and water samples. Site contamination data is transmitted electronically to the base station for recording and processing. The GPSEE system is being developed for use at DOE/DOD and a variety of industrial facilities. 3 figs

  16. Work environment and school dropout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas

    Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...

  17. Work environments for employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, Jan; Ceylan, Canan

    2011-01-01

    Innovative organisations need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the effect of personal, social-organisational and physical factors on employee creativity. Based on this framework, an instrument to analyse the extent to which the work environment enhances creativity is developed. This instrument was applied to a sample of 409 employees and support was found for the hypothesis that a creative work environment enhances creative performance. This paper illustrates how the instrument can be used in companies to select and implement improvements. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The ergonomics discipline addresses the work environment mainly for improving health and safety and sometimes productivity and quality. This paper opens a new area for ergonomics: designing work environments for enhancing employee creativity in order to strengthen an organisation's capability for product and process innovation and, consequently, its competitiveness.

  18. Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Working environment in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers, of which 7 are devoted to nuclear power generation. They are concerned with the working environment in the controlled areas of the Bohunice nuclear power plant, the unsuitable design of the control rooms with respect to reliability and safety of operation of the nuclear power plant, optimization of the man-working conditions relation, operation of transport facilities, refuelling and fuel element inspection, the human factor and the probabilityy assessment of the nuclear power plant operating safety, a proposal to establish a universal ergonometric programme for the electric power distribution system, and physical factors in the ergonometric analysis of the working environment. (J.B.)

  20. Beliefs about motivation and work with quality, environment and working environment in small organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindmark, Camilla

    1999-01-01

    Three small organisations in Sweden were studied in order to describe found motives for and against work with quality, environment and working environment among people in a small organisation. Some motives for work within the three areas mainly expressed beliefs about increased production results and increased psychological well-being of people. The work was also thought to have a positive impact on the organisation in terms of coping with changes in the surrounding. Arguments why small organ...

  1. Work environments for employee creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dul, Jan; Ceylan, Canan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInnovative organisations need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the effect of personal, social-organisational and physical factors on employee creativity. Based on this framework an instrument to analyse the extent to which the work environment enhances creativity is developed. We apply this instrument to a sample of 409 employees and find support for the hypothesis that a creative work envir...

  2. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  3. Assessment of Combustor Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiyong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the remaining life of gas turbine critical components, it is vital to accurately define the aerothermodynamic working environments and service histories. As a part of a major multidisciplinary collaboration program, a benchmark modeling on a practical gas turbine combustor is successfully carried out, and the two-phase, steady, turbulent, compressible, reacting flow fields at both cruise and takeoff are obtained. The results show the complicated flow features inside the combustor. The airflow over each flow element of the combustor can or liner is not evenly distributed, and considerable variations, ±25%, around the average values, are observed. It is more important to note that the temperatures at the combustor can and cooling wiggle strips vary significantly, which can significantly affect fatigue life of engine critical components. The present study suggests that to develop an adequate aerothermodynamics tool, it is necessary to carry out a further systematic study, including validation of numerical results, simulations at typical engine operating conditions, and development of simple correlations between engine operating conditions and component working environments. As an ultimate goal, the cost and time of gas turbine engine fleet management must be significantly reduced.

  4. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin P. Burmeister

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working. Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  5. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Carolin P; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working). Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment ) and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure ) in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a) that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b) that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  6. Immigrants in the Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.

  7. Affectivating environments in creative work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    . Illustrations of these processes are offered from a study of craft creativity, more specifically the decoration of Easter eggs by Romanian folk artists in the historical region of Bucovina. Decorators learn their art through social interaction and observing their environment which is symbolically rich...

  8. The Public Schools as a Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Walter G.; Drummond, Robert J.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of elementary and secondary school teachers, and school board members, of the school as a work environment. The Work Environment Preferences Scale, an instrument based on Weber's components of bureaucratic organizations, was administered to all the teachers and board members of a small Maine school district. (Author)

  9. Microclimate risk evaluation in agroindustrial work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, D.; Porceddu, P.; Cecchini, M.; Babucci, V.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of workers' safety includes not only the prevention from accidents, as a result of improvements in the devices utilised, but also their welfare and comfort microclimate, i.e., the complex of parameters that affect the thermal exchange between workers and the surrounding environment is one of the main factors that affect the working environment. The paper describes the main risk assessment methodologies and the main actions to be taken for improving the working environment and workers' personal comfort [it

  10. Perceived nursing work environment of acute care pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzer, Anne Marie; Koepping, Dianne M; LeDuc, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Nurse job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon and includes elements of the work environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nurses' perception of their real (current) and ideal (preferred) work environment in a pediatric tertiary care setting. Using a descriptive survey design, a convenience sample of staff nurses from three inpatient units was surveyed using the Work Environment Scale (WES) by Moos (1994). The WES consists of 10 subscales characterizing three dimensions: Relationship, Personal Growth, and System Maintenance and Change. Overall, nurses affirmed a highly positive and supportive work environment on their units. Non-significant findings between the real and ideal scores for the Involvement and Managerial Control subscales suggest that staff are concerned about and committed to their work, and satisfied with their managers' use of rules and procedures. Statistically significant differences between selected real and ideal subscale scores will help target intervention strategies to enhance the nursing work environment.

  11. Employee satisfaction: creating a positive work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1990s, El Camino Hospital (ECH) streamlined its operations in order to remain competitive. In 1992, the hospital's District Board voted to turn the hospital's management over to a nonprofit company and it became an integrated delivery system (IDS). Hospital employees continued to suffer as their work and work schedules changed in ongoing efforts by the new administration to streamline. Finally, in early 1997, the IDS, Camino Healthcare, was dissolved. The director of radiology and radiation oncology services became aware of increasing employee problems, from high turnover rates and increased absenteeism, to morale and productivity issues. Employees also worried about job redesign, re-engineering and a lack of clear direction and expectations from department leadership. The director of the department created a task force to respond to the needs of staff members. With so much anger directed at department leadership, supervisory staff were not included in the task force. The task force worked first to identify rumors and innuendos and followed with a plan to resolve such issues. The second step was to agree to focus on issues that they could change and to let go of those they couldn't. They selected five priority issues or concerns. The group met weekly and made progress by replacing negative talk and attitudes with positive ones. Meanwhile, the director researched employee satisfaction issues so she would be prepared to discuss such issues and concerns with employees. She focused on a common theme, of having a personal mission or goal for one's self. She encouraged staff members to be aware of their own behavior when communicating with others. Although several informal surveys proved there was still much work to be done, there was positive response--a light at the end of the long tunnel.

  12. Nursing leadership and management effects work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Ann Marriner

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this literature search was to identify recent research related to nursing leadership and management effects on work environment using the 14 forces of magnetism. This article gives some historical perspective from the original 1983 American Academy of Nursing study through to the 2002 McClure and Hinshaw update to 2009 publications. Research publications were given a priority for references. The 14 forces of magnetism as identified by Unden and Monarch were: '1. Quality of leadership..., 2. Organizational structure..., 3. Management style..., 4. Personnel policies and programs..., 5. Professional models of care..., 6. Quality of care..., 7 Quality improvement..., 8. Consultation and resources..., 9. Autonomy..., 10. Community and the hospital..., 11. Nurse as teacher..., 12. Image of nursing..., 13. Interdisciplinary relationships... and 14. Professional development....'. Correlations have been found among positive workplace management initiatives, style of transformational leadership and participative management; patient-to-nurse ratios; education levels of nurses; quality of patient care, patient satisfaction, employee health and well-being programmes; nurse satisfaction and retention of nurses; healthy workplace environments and healthy patients and personnel. This article identifies some of the research that provides evidence for evidence-based nursing management and leadership practice.

  13. Encoder designed to work in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2007-05-15

    Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.

  14. Nursing work environment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the work environment as perceived by nurses in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The quality of patient care services has been associated with the quality of work environment of nurses. It is therefore important to assess the work environment in order to acquire baseline data and enable the institution to benchmark their status from established quality standards. This study used a descriptive survey with 1007 staff nurses across service units of a 1000-bed government-operated hospital. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Healthy Work Environment Assessment Questionnaire was used for data collection. Scores were aggregated and interpreted. Effective decision making, authentic leadership, appropriate staffing, true collaboration, skilled communication and meaningful recognition were rated as good (mean range 3.53-3.76). Healthy work environments mutually benefit patients, nurses, nurse managers, health care providers, the health team, administration, the institution and the community at large. Valuable baseline data on the status of the work environment in this setting were generated. This should allow administrators and staff to work together in improving weaknesses and strengthening further whatever gains that are attained to ensure consistent provision of safe and quality patient care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Work environment investments: outcomes from three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Alexis; Andersson, Ing-Marie

    2017-09-27

    Work environment investments are important in order to create a healthy and safe workplace. This article presents findings from a seven-step interventions process aimed at examining and following-up work environment investments in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with a particular focus on air contaminants. Three different cases were analyzed and included in the study: (a) an educational center for welding; (b) a paint station in furniture manufacturing; (c) a joinery in furniture manufacturing. The results show that the work environment investments were highly appreciated by the employees and managers, but at the same time the investment could be optimized through markedly decreased exposure levels for the worker. Factors such as follow-ups of the investment, education and training in how to use the equipment, worker involvement in the process and leadership engagement are important in order to optimize work environment investments.

  16. Nurses' work environment: indicators of satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Mohammad; Aljezawi, Maen

    2018-01-10

    This study aimed to investigate nurses' perceptions of the nursing work environment in Jordanian hospitals. Previous research has indicated a strong relationship between nurses' work environment and their satisfaction at work. However, little is known about the situation in Jordan. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A sample of 500 nurses was recruited. The study was conducted using the Individual Workload Perception Revised scale (IWPS-R). A sum of 382 out of 500 nurses from three health care sectors in Jordan responded to the questionnaires (response rate = 76.4%). The results indicate that nurses working in the public hospitals had significantly better perceptions about their work environment than nurses working in private and university hospitals. Older nurses with lower academic qualifications are more likely to be satisfied with their work. Furthermore, nurses who have good perceptions of support from their manager and peers, and a manageable workload are more likely to stay in their jobs. The public hospitals are currently considered a more suitable milieu for nurses in Jordan. Other health care sectors should work to enhance nurses' working conditions. Providing a supportive work environment with a manageable workload will encourage nurses to stay in their hospitals. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J. (Johannes); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  18. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement i...... at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees’ decision on early retirement....

  19. Nurse burnout and the working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Nuria

    2011-09-01

    This article examines levels of burnout experienced by emergency nurses and the characteristics of their work environment to determine if there is a relationship between the two. A literature review of recent articles on emergency nurses' burnout and contributing factors was undertaken. A quantitative study, in which nurses were asked to indicate the extent of their agreement with a series of statements on burnout and the working environment, was then undertaken, and the results were analysed to ascertain the extent to which the two topic are related. The results indicate that 52 per cent of nurses in an emergency department in Ireland experience high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, which are significantly related to the nature of their work environment. Improvements to the environment and to education are required to reduce the risk of nurses developing burnout in the future.

  20. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2006-05-01

    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed.

  1. Home health agency work environments and hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, Olga; Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T; Aiken, Linda H

    2014-10-01

    An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care.

  2. Jordanian Nursing Work Environments, Intent to Stay, and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Zaid; Manojlovich, Milisa; Tanima, Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among the nursing work environment, nurse job satisfaction, and intent to stay for nurses who practice in hospitals in Jordan. A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected through survey questionnaires distributed to 650 registered nurses (RNs) who worked in three hospitals in Jordan. The self-report questionnaire consisted of three instruments and demographic questions. The instruments were the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), the McCain Intent to Stay scale, and Quinn and Shepard's (1974) Global Job Satisfaction survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated for discrete measures of demographic characteristics of the study participants. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore relationships among the nursing work environment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay, adjusting for unit type. There was a positive association between nurses' job satisfaction and the nursing work environment (t = 6.42, p job satisfaction increased by 1.3 points, controlling for other factors. Overall, nurses employed in public hospitals were more satisfied than those working in teaching hospitals. The nursing work environment was positively associated with nurses' intent to stay (t = 4.83, p job satisfaction. More attention should be paid to create positive work environments to increase job satisfaction for nurses and increase their intent to stay. Hospital and nurse managers and healthcare policymakers urgently need to create satisfactory work environments supporting nursing practice in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  4. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009, which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relevance. The social environment component presented the highest score - 8.00 (1.50 points, followed by professional achievement - 7.11 (1.96 points, and physical environment - 6.89 (0.93 points. The salary and benefits provided by the orchestra presented the lowest score - 6.78 (1.56 points. In general, the musicians showed positive perceptions of the components related to work environment and working conditions. However, remuneration and social relevance are work bases that could contribute to improve the working conditions of these professionals.

  5. Work, work-life conflict and health in an industrial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, O; Bauer, G F

    2014-01-01

    Work-life conflict has been poorly studied as a cause of ill-health in occupational medicine. To study associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions, including work-life conflict on the one hand and general, physical and mental health outcomes on the other. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies in Switzerland. Physical work factors included five demands and exposures such as heavy loads, repetitive work and poor posture. Psychosocial factors included 14 demands and limited resources such as time pressure, overtime, monotonous work, job insecurity, low job autonomy, low social support and work-life conflict. Health outcomes studied were self-rated health, sickness absence, musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disorders, stress and burnout. There was a response rate of 49%; 2014 employees participated. All adverse working conditions were positively associated with several poor health outcomes in both men and women. After mutual adjustment for all work factors and additional covariates, only a few, mainly psychosocial work factors remained significant as risk factors for health. Work-life conflict, a largely neglected work-related psychosocial factor in occupational medicine, turned out to be the only factor that was significantly and strongly associated with all studied health outcomes and was consistently found to be the strongest or second strongest of all the studied risk factors. Even in an industrial work environment, psychosocial work factors, and particularly work-life conflict, play a key role and need to be taken into consideration in research and workplace health promotion.

  6. Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationships among nurse and work characteristics, job satisfaction, stress, burnout and the work environment of haemodialysis nurses. Haemodialysis nursing is characterised by frequent and intense contact with patients in a complex and intense environment. A cross-sectional online survey of 417 haemodialysis nurses that included nurse and work characteristics, the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure, Index of Work Satisfaction, Nursing Stress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Haemodialysis nurses reported an acceptable level of job satisfaction and perceived their work environment positively, although high levels of burnout were found. Nurses who were older and had worked in haemodialysis the longest had higher satisfaction levels, experienced less stress and lower levels of burnout than younger nurses. The in-centre type of haemodialysis unit had greater levels of stress and burnout than home training units. Greater satisfaction with the work environment was strongly correlated with job satisfaction, lower job stress and emotional exhaustion. Haemodialysis nurses experienced high levels of burnout even though their work environment was favourable and they had acceptable levels of job satisfaction. Targeted strategies are required to retain and avoid burnout in younger and less experienced nurses in this highly specialised field of nursing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Healthy work environment--a challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson von Vultée, Pia Hannele

    2015-01-01

    In Sweden, leave due to sickness was high during the 1990s. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency was able to decrease sick days in the period between 2000 and 2010 but sick days are rising again in Sweden, mostly due to psychological problems among women and partly due to their work environment. It is important to find methods to identify poor work settings to prevent absenteeism due to sickness. The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors created a web questionnaire focusing on the organizational setting and its impact on employee wellbeing--reported as mental energy, work-related exhaustion and work satisfaction. The questionnaire measures good and poor work environment factors to help managers improve organizational settings. The questionnaire was validated qualitatively and quantitatively. It is possible to measure individual wellbeing in an organizational context at an early stage. The authors followed a company undergoing organizational change and identified groups at risk of developing illness. Managers uncertain about employee mental status can measure employee wellbeing easily and cost effectively to prevent illness. The authors created a method, statistically evaluated, to proactively identify good and poor work environments to promote healthy co-workers.

  8. Gendered Learning Environments in Managerial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…

  9. Psychosocial work environment and building related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several

  10. Work Environment Satisfaction and Employee Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

      This paper investigates whether a satisfactory work environment can promote employee health even after controlling for socioeconomic status and life style factors. A dynamic panel model of health is estimated on worker samples from Denmark, France and Spain, employing both self-assessed general...

  11. Challenges of Working in a Multicultural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joan S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…

  12. Authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to showcase the relationship among authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments using a stress and coping lens. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to determine what situations contribute to nurse manager stress, what coping strategies they utilize, what health outcomes they report, and what decision-making processes they follow to address stressful situations in their roles. A purposive sample of 21 nurse managers employed at 3 US acute care hospitals completed a demographic questionnaire and 14-question interview incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted to identify differences in nurse manager narratives based upon differences in the organizational cultures where the managers worked. Of the 21 nurse managers studied, differences were evident in the organizational cultures reported. Nurse managers working in the positive organizational cultures (n = 12) generally worked in healthy work environments and engaged in more authentic leadership behaviors. Conversely, nurse managers working in the negative organizational cultures (n = 9) worked in unhealthy work environments and reported less optimism and more challenges engaging in authentic leadership practices. Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles.

  13. Lean and the working environment: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Bojesen, Anders; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    for the negative impact of lean on both the working environment and employee health and well-being in cases of manual work with low complexity. However, since examples of positive effects were also found in the literature, it is important to move from a simple cause-and-effect model to a more comprehensive model...... of manufacturing industry. The literature reflects, only to a limited extent, on the significance of implementation strategy and production context. Practical implications - Organizations working with lean should make efforts to avoid an impaired working environment for manual employees. Involvement of employees......Purpose - The effects of lean on employees have been debated ever since the concept was introduced. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature on the effects of lean on the working environment and employee health and well-being. Design/methodology/approach - Relevant databases...

  14. Protection of the disabled in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disabled enjoy special protection at work (in the work environment. The importance of this protection essentially determines the status of the disabled in the society, because it is connected with the work of the disabled with which get the means of life, but they are also brought into an equal position with other persons that do not have disability and whose working abilities are not reduced. There is a lot of vagueness in terms of terminological and meaning determination of the concept of disability, both in the international and the domestic law. We tried to elaborate the issue of disability in the paper firstly in the terminological and meaning sense and then to present international legal and domestic platform of their protection at work connected with the work, too (the work environment. Special emphasis was put on the concept of the disabled worker and their equal protection, with a critic review on the existing solutions in the effective law.

  15. Analysis of the moral habitability of the nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth H; Macfarlane, Amy V; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda L

    2004-08-01

    Following health reform, nurses have experienced the tremendous stress of heavy workloads, long hours and difficult professional responsibilities. In recognition of these problems, a study was conducted that examined the impact of the working environment on the health of nurses. After conducting focus groups across Canada with nurses and others well acquainted with nursing issues, it became clear that the difficult work environments described had significant ethical implications. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of research that examined the moral habitability of the nursing working environment. A secondary analysis was conducted using the theoretical work of Margaret Urban Walker. Moral practices and responsibilities from Walker's perspective cannot be extricated from other social roles, practices and divisions of labour. Moral-social orders, such as work environments in this research, must be made transparent to examine their moral habitability. Morally habitable environments are those in which differently situated people experience their responsibilities as intelligible and coherent. They also foster recognition, cooperation and shared benefits. Four overarching categories were developed through the analysis of the data: (1) oppressive work environments; (2) incoherent moral understandings; (3) moral suffering and (4) moral influence and resistance. The findings clearly indicate that participants perceived the work environment to be morally uninhabitable. The social and spatial positioning of nurses left them vulnerable to being overburdened by and unsure of their responsibilities. Nevertheless, nurses found meaningful ways to resist and to influence the moral environment. We recommend that nurses develop strong moral identities, make visible the inseparability of their proximity to patients and moral accountability, and further identify what forms of collective action are most effective in improving the moral habitability of their work

  16. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  17. Gendered learning environments in managerial work

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Maria; Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers’ learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that the male managers were provided with significantly richer opportunities to participate in activities conducive to learning and career development tha...

  18. Creating healthy work environments: a strategic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard.

  19. 30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each... standard when quartz is present), respirable dust sampling of designated work positions shall begin on the...

  20. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  1. Work environment, overtime and sleep among offshore personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2017-02-01

    Personnel working on North Sea oil/gas installations are exposed to remote and potentially hazardous environments, and to extended work schedules (typically, 14×12h shifts). Moreover, overtime (additional to the standard 84-h week) is not uncommon among offshore personnel. Evidence from onshore research suggests that long work hours and adverse environmental characteristics are associated with sleep impairments, and consequently with health and safety risks, including accidents and injuries. However, little is known about the extent to which long hours and a demanding work environment combine synergistically in relation to sleep. The present study sought to address this issue, using survey data collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N=551). The multivariate analysis examined the additive and interactive effects of overtime and measures of the psychosocial/physical work environment (job demands, job control, supervisor support, and physical stressors) as predictors of sleep outcomes during offshore work weeks. Control variables, including age and sleep during leave weeks, were also included in the analysis model. Sleep duration and quality were significantly impaired among those who worked overtime (54% of the participants) relative to those who worked only 12-h shifts. A linear relationship was found between long overtime hours and short sleep duration; personnel who worked >33h/week overtime reported job demands, and positively related to supervisor support, only among personnel who worked overtime. Poor sleep quality was predicted by the additive effects of overtime, low support and an adverse physical environment. These findings highlight the need to further examine the potential health and safety consequences of impaired sleep associated with high overtime rates offshore, and to identify the extent to which adverse effects of overtime can be mitigated by favourable physical and psychosocial work environment characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Quality of the working environment and productivity : research findings and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, M. de; Broek, K. van den; Jongkind, R.; Kenny, L.; Shechtman, O.; Kuhn, K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper, prepared by the Topic Centre on Research - Work and Health of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, is to look at the link between a good working environment and productivity. A better understanding of positive effects of a good working environment

  3. The work environment, stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P

    2010-12-01

    Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.

  4. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  5. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  6. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.

  7. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  8. SIMS depth profiling of working environment nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Morphology of working environment nanoparticles was analyzed using sample rotation technique in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The particles were collected with nine-stage vacuum impactor during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process of stainless steel and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of mild steel. Ion erosion of 300-400 nm diameter nanoparticles attached to indium substrate was performed with 2 keV, 100 μm diameter, Ar + ion beam at 45° ion incidence and 1 rpm sample rotation. The results show that both types of particles have core-shell morphology. A layer of fluorine, chlorine and carbon containing compounds covers stainless steel welding fume particles. The cores of these particles are enriched in iron, manganese and chromium. Outer shell of mild steel welding fume particles is enriched in carbon, potassium, chlorine and fluorine, while the deeper layers of these nanoparticles are richer in main steel components.

  9. SIMS depth profiling of working environment nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A

    2003-01-15

    Morphology of working environment nanoparticles was analyzed using sample rotation technique in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The particles were collected with nine-stage vacuum impactor during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process of stainless steel and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of mild steel. Ion erosion of 300-400 nm diameter nanoparticles attached to indium substrate was performed with 2 keV, 100 {mu}m diameter, Ar{sup +} ion beam at 45 deg. ion incidence and 1 rpm sample rotation. The results show that both types of particles have core-shell morphology. A layer of fluorine, chlorine and carbon containing compounds covers stainless steel welding fume particles. The cores of these particles are enriched in iron, manganese and chromium. Outer shell of mild steel welding fume particles is enriched in carbon, potassium, chlorine and fluorine, while the deeper layers of these nanoparticles are richer in main steel components.

  10. Cancer patients and positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how cancer patients experience the meaning of positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment such as architecture, decoration and the interior. Data were obtained at a general hospital in Denmark by interviewing six cancer patients at two different wards. The analysis...... process was guided by the hermeneutical–phenomenological theory of interpretation as presented by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Two main themes were identified: to preserve identity and positive thoughts and feelings. The participants experienced that positive sensory impressions in the hospital...... to recall some of their feelings of identity. This paper adds knowledge about how cancer patients experience sensory impressions in the hospital environment. An environment that provides homeliness and offers a view to nature seems to help some patients to preserve their identity. Furthermore, positive...

  11. Functional work breaks in a high-demanding work environment: an experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, André; Ghadiri, Argang; Singh, Usha; Wendsche, Johannes; Peters, Theo; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Work breaks are known to have positive effects on employees' health, performance and safety. Using a sample of twelve employees working in a stressful and cognitively demanding working environment, this experimental field study examined how different types of work breaks (boxing, deep relaxation and usual breaks) affect participants' mood, cognitive performance and neurophysiological state compared to a control condition without any break. In a repeated measures experimental design, cognitive performance was assessed using an auditory oddball test and a Movement Detection Test. Brain cortical activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Individual's mood was analysed using a profile of mood state. Although neurophysiological data showed improved relaxation of cortical state after boxing (vs. 'no break' and 'deep relaxation'), neither performance nor mood assessment showed similar results. It remains questionable whether there is a universal work break type that has beneficial effects for all individuals. Practitioner Summary: Research on work breaks and their positive effects on employees' health and performance often disregards break activities. This experimental field study in a stressful working environment investigated the effect of different work break activities. A universal work break type that is beneficial for this workplace could not be identified.

  12. Indicators of healthy work environments--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.

  13. Ecohealth Works: Health in Urban Environments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities attract millions of people seeking a better life and greater opportunities. ... By looking at urban environments ... Urban environments are changing, exposing people to new .... the river basin that are now actively engaged in promoting ...

  14. Potential producers of aflatoxin in working environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesenska, Z.; Polakova, O.; Polster, M.; Koskova, L.; Vaszilkova, A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been investigated the amount of the viable germs of A. flavus in the environment of the food-stuff establishment, where peanuts and hazel nuts, almonds, crushed coconuts, tea and other food-stuffs, imported from tropical and subtropical countries, were processed and packed. In the air of the store-hall have occurred the most 3.73 x 10(2) and in the air of the working-halls, where they were manipulating with food-stuffs - the most 6.2 x 10(3) germs of A. flavus/m3. From the samples of the sedimented dust were isolated at least 0.4 x 10(1), the most 1.3 x 10(4) colonies of A. flavus/g. From 57 investigated strains produced aflatoxin B1 64.9%. The authors are discussing about a professional risk for the workers of some establishments during the manipulation with food-stuffs or feeds, which are contaminated with germs of toxinogenic moulds and with mycotoxins.

  15. Ergonomic solutions to support forced static positions at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suszyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the available ergonomic constructions used for the support of the musculoskeletal system during static, prolonged work performed in forced positions. Possible evaluation methods are presented as well as ergonomic considerations of work performed in inclined positions, where there is no possibility of influencing the working plane. As a result of the presented work, a set of criteria has been proposed and the requirements for methods which can be used to evaluate the technical constructions supporting the worker during tasks performed in forced and static positions.

  16. New Perspectives on Regulation of the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries adopted new legislation on the working environment in the 1970s which moved away from detailed technical rules and towards a reflexive legisla-tion. In the following period the working environment got received higher political pri-ority in the society. Evaluating...... the development during the last 25-30 years, a number of successful improvements can be identified. However, the general development has not been as positive as expected. It seems that new problems are emerging while the traditionally physical and chemical problems are becoming under better control....... It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies for prevention and regulation. But that is also a difficult exercise due to the fairly different political interests of all the involved parties....

  17. Individual differences in satisfaction with activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan; Ernst, Anja F.; Albers, Casper; Mobach, Mark; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2018-01-01

    Satisfaction with activity-based work environments (ABW environments) often falls short of expectations, with striking differences among individual workers. A better understanding of these differences may provide clues for optimising satisfaction with ABW environments and associated organisational

  18. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and ...

  19. Chemistry of complexing molecules and environment. Report of the working group of the Cea ''mission environment''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Working group 'Chemistry of Complexing Molecules and Environment' of the Mission Environment (AG/ENV) identified themes for an original positioning of CEA on important issues of environmental research if a sufficiently strong demand appears. The research of CEA on the environment should be complementary to actions undertaken by other partners (official institutions, research organizations and industrial firms). The themes suggested are: the synthesis of new chelating molecules and new materials having specific properties, with the support of theoretical chemistry and modeling, analytical physical chemistry and speciation of species in relation to their eco-toxicity and their biogeochemical mobility in the natural environment. These themes, illustrated by examples of actions in progress at CEA or likely to be launched quickly, draw largely from recognized competences of the teams, generally developed for finalized nuclear applications: experimental, theoretical and instrumental competences. (author)

  20. Engineering subcultures and working environment in Danish enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Engineers' role in the management of working environment has been studied in 20 Danish enterprises based on questionnaires to 680 engineers. In general, engineers are not aware that they may influence the working environment of other people through their decisions. It is suggested that engineering...... subcultures be examined in order to change engineers' attitudes toward the working environment of workers and users....

  1. Evaluating a Gender Diversity Workshop to Promote Positive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, James; Lucassen, Mathijs F. G.; Hamilton, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data from an Aotearoa/New Zealand study of more than 230 secondary students, this article evaluates the potential of a 60-min gender diversity workshop to address bullying and promote positive environments for learning. Students completed pre- and postworkshop questionnaires. The authors used descriptive statistics to summarize results…

  2. Risk assessment: A regulatory strategy for stimulating working environment activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the Danish approach to workplace assessment (WPA) following European requirements to establish legislation on occupational health and safety. Quantitative studies show that WPA can be interpreted as a success within the larger Danish firms. However, data from qualitative studies...... modify this picture by showing how attention has been focussed on physical working environment problems whilst wider psycho-social problems have been ignored. The paper claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that workplace assessment - even though positively...

  3. Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. Due to the differences in

  4. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira; Fausto Kothe; Luis Felipe Dias Lopes; Érico Felden Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin) musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009), which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relev...

  5. Positive School and Classroom Environment: Precursors of Successful Implementation of Positive Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.

  6. PIXE analysis of work environment aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Fujimoto, Fuminori; Komaki, Kenichiro; Ootuka, Akio; Kobayashi, Koichi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    In labor environment, the quantity of chemical substances in the air is more, and their kinds are more diversified than in general home environment. It has been well known that some substances contained in the aerosol in labor environment (floating dust in the atmosphere) such as asbestos and hexavalent chromium have the possibility of causing serious injuries such as cancer of respiratory organ. In order to identify the harmful substances to which laborers are exposed and to take the measures for removing them, it is necessary to investigate in detail into many factors related to the effect of aerosol on human bodies, such as the composition of elements, chemical condition, concentration, the particle size of dust and temporal and spatial distributions. For the purpose, sampling and analysis must be carried out so that information can be extracted as much as possible from a minute amount of sample. The particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is very effective for this application. In this paper, the development of a PIXE analysis system and the knowledge obtained by the sampling and measurement of aerosol in indoor labor environment are reported. The labor environment selected is that of the workshop of Department of Liberal Arts, University of Tokyo. Sampling, the experimental apparatus, the method of data analysis and the results of analysis are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  8. Ironless Inductive Position Sensor for Harsh Magnetic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) are widely used for high-precision and high-accuracy linear position sensing in harsh environments, such as the LHC collimators at CERN. These sensors guarantee theoretically infinite resolution and long lifetimes thanks to contactless sensing. Furthermore, they offer very good robustness and ruggedness, as well as micrometer uncertainty over a range of centimeters when proper conditioning techniques are used (such as the three-parameter Sine-Fit algorithm). They can also be suitable for radioactive environments. Nevertheless, an external DC/slowly-varying magnetic field can seriously affect the LVDT reading, leading to position drifts of hundreds of micrometers, often unacceptable in high-accuracy applications. The effect is due to the presence of non-linear ferromagnetic materials in the sensor’s structure. A detailed Finite Element model of an LVDT is first proposed in order to study and characterize the phenomenon. The model itself becomes a powerful de...

  9. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J. (Johannes); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect

  10. Exploring the Influence of Nurse Work Environment and Patient Safety Culture on Attitudes Toward Incident Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon Sook; Kim, Kyoung Ja

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nurse work environments and patient safety culture on attitudes toward incident reporting. Patient safety culture had been known as a factor of incident reporting by nurses. Positive work environment could be an important influencing factor for the safety behavior of nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The structured questionnaire was administered to 191 nurses working at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Nurses' perception of work environment and patient safety culture were positively correlated with attitudes toward incident reporting. A regression model with clinical career, work area and nurse work environment, and patient safety culture against attitudes toward incident reporting was statistically significant. The model explained approximately 50.7% of attitudes toward incident reporting. Improving nurses' attitudes toward incident reporting can be achieved with a broad approach that includes improvements in work environment and patient safety culture.

  11. Adaptive algorithm for mobile user positioning based on environment estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujović Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges to realize an infrastructure independent and a low-cost positioning method in cellular networks based on RSS (Received Signal Strength parameter, auxiliary timing parameter and environment estimation. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using field measurements collected from GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications network, but it is technology independent and can be applied in UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems and LTE (Long-Term Evolution networks, also.

  12. Shift work in a security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide's explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker's response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work

  13. Positive organisation:  the role of leader behaviour in work engagement and retention

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Fallen; Stander, Marius W.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: The positive organisation creates a framework in which its elements can be investigated in relation to the retention of talent. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if leader empowering behaviour can positively impact on role clarity, psychological empowerment and work engagement, with the final outcome being the retention of talent. Motivation for the study: In the ever changing work environment organisations place great emphasis on their human ...

  14. Influence of colour in working environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrovšek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anton Trstenjak wrote: »Our life is practically sinking in the sea of light and colours.« Different colours create different psycho-physiological responses. That is why colours have various impacts on human experiences and arrangements of our attention. When we know how control the colours in our environment, we can influence human psychological and physiological well-being and attention in the space. In my thesis, I explore how colours affect our feelings, our body and attention. Knowing all...

  15. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  16. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  17. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and defines the conditions to ensure the trouble-free clamping lock. The circular and rhombic clamping of pallet is simultaneous. Further, a clamping load is calculated from the pallet mass (together with the work-piece and the geometric parameters of the pallet clamping.The paper reveals three movement stages of the clamping lock in a vertical plane when setting the pallet in work positioning:- a clamping lock free play till it encounters with the location bushing;- a clamping lock play length when the lead-in chamfer contacts the bushing chamfer;- a clamping lock play length over the circular surface of bushing.The study of this process has allowed us to calculate the time of pallet clamping and dynamic loads acting on the clamping lock. These calculations made it possible to calculate the required diameter of the clamping lock. The presented calculations allow a reasonable assigning the main design parameters of work positioning for the pallet automatic lines.

  18. Secondary Vocational Education in Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvido Melink

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a successful project of secondary vocational education carried out by our school for the occupation of a toolmaker and a machinist for the companies Domel, Indramat and Niko in Železniki, considering the modern methods of teaching adults and having consistently adjusted timetable of the lectures in accordance with the working hours of the candidates and the production process respectively. Lectures, training and practical work in the workshop were performed in the company and school's workshops and laboratories. In the additional chapter the authors draw attention to the problems of payment for the teachers of technical s ubjects, who enter the education process with great working experience from companies but start here as beginners since the school regulations do not define such cases.

  19. [Mobbing and working environment: towards an organizational prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Maria Giuseppina; Salerno, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Psychological violence in the workplaces is increasing and the Italian national health service and trade unions are mostly involved in single cases of diagnosis strategy. To analyse published mobbing cases using a mobbing prevention approach that takes account of the main civil rights violation in mobbing actions. 25 cases were analysed in order to identify the type of mobbing, gender, the professional position and the main civil rights that were violated. Seven main civil rights had been violated in the 25 mobbing cases: health, work, professional skills, equal treatment, legality, diversity, dignity. Men working in unhealthy conditions, mostly due to unhealthy working environments, were forced to leave under the pressure of moral violence. In women, equal treatment and diversity were the main rights that were violated. Co-worker support was absent in all cases. A civil rights assessment to prevent mobbing is considered. Italian legislation, particularly the Civil Code, can be the legislation key for prevention, with the employer responsible for providing a violence-free environment as indicated in European Directive 626/94.

  20. Human Error Mechanisms in Complex Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations...

  1. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying.

  2. Design of New Food Technology: Social Shaping of Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...... is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment....

  3. Stabilizing and destabilizing forces in the nursing work environment: a qualitative study on turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sandy Pin-Pin; Pang, Samantha Mei-Che; Cheung, Kin; Wong, Thomas Kwok-Shing

    2011-10-01

    The nursing work environment, which provides the context of care delivery, has been gaining increasing attention in recent years. A growing body of evidence points to an inseparable link between attributes of the nursing work environment and nurse and patient outcomes. While most studies have adopted a survey design to examine the workforce and work environment issues, this study employed a phenomenological approach to provide empirical evidence regarding nurses' perceptions of their work and work environment. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the phenomenon of increasing nurse turnover through exploring frontline registered nurses' lived experiences of working in Hong Kong public hospitals. A modified version of Van Kaam's controlled explication method was adopted. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 frontline nurses recruited from ten acute regional, district and non-acute public hospitals in Hong Kong. Their perspectives in regard to their work and work environment, such as workload, manpower demand and professional values, were extensively examined, and a hypothetical description relating the nursing work environment with nurses' turnover intention was posited. Contemplation of nurses' experiences revealed the vulnerable aspects of nursing work and six essential constituents of the nursing work environment, namely staffing level, work responsibility, management, co-worker relationships, job, and professional incentives. These essential constituents have contributed to two sets of forces, stabilizing and destabilizing forces, which originate from the attributes of the nursing work environment. Nurses viewed harmonious co-worker relationships, recognition and professional development as the crucial retaining factors. However, nurses working in an unfavorable environment were overwhelmed by destabilizing forces; they expressed frustration and demonstrated an intention to leave their work environment. The nursing

  4. Turning research on the psychosocial working environment into regulatory practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft; Starheim, Liv

    The psychosocial working environment is an expanding field of research. Within the last decades a lot of knowledge has been developed in the field. The question however remains how this knowledge can be, and is being, utilized in the regulation of the psychosocial working environment. This question...... we understand this process as a translation of knowledge into policies, tools and actors dealing with the psychosocial working environment. Drawing on this understanding we develop a model that illustrates the utility of different types of research on the psychosocial working environment...

  5. Safety in an international work environment: CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, K.

    1990-01-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) has recently completed a new accelerator. The installation of this accelerator and its experimental areas represents an example of harmonization of safety rules in supranational areas, as CERN is an international organization and the machine is housed in a tunnel of 26.7 km circumference, of which 20 km is on French territory and 6.7 km on Swiss territory. The work was carried out by a large number of firms from all over Europe, CERN staff and physicists and technicians from all over the world, and represented almost 4 million working hours. The safety organization chosen and applied with the agreement of the two host-State safety authorities is described and the resulting application, including the results in terms of accident statistics, from the installation of the machine, experimental areas and detectors are presented.

  6. Army Work Environment Questionnaire (WEQ) Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Paul J. Duff an DAHC l9-78-C-ý900 Glenda Y.lNogami rmy Researc -h-In~stitute)D W r_______-9V_-_( AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBEIRS McBer and Company...major stages are: 1. ScoutInF a. Identify potential users. b. Activ...y market services to gain awareness, interest, uses, and limitations of survey

  7. Motto: We work for people and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcik, M.

    1995-12-31

    This target has been under Danfoss realization for over 60 years, both in Denmark and all over the world. The operational range of the enterprise: is very wide. Danfoss manufactures a large assortment of products, starting from heat automatic control systems, through heat metering devices, industrial and refrigeration automatic control, compressors, flow meters, frequency converters, control systems, and monitoring. The four mainstays of the business activity are based on: high quality products; advanced manufacturing technology; care of the environment, and engagement of the staff. Since 1992 Danfoss has been manufacturing heat radiator thermostats in Poland. A unique solution - namely the use of a gas thermostatic head secures the highest energy savings and operational reliability. In 1993, Danfoss as the sixth company in Poland and the first in its business field, gained a ISO 9002 certificate.

  8. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  9. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  10. Towards needs-based work environments : Psychological needs affecting the use and appreciation of activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Gerard Hoendervanger

    2015-01-01

    Activity-Based Working (ABW) is supported by work environments that combine hot-desking with a variety of workplaces, designed to support different types of activities. While the advantages of these work environments in terms of efficiency are undisputed, their effectiveness with respect to job

  11. Towards needs-based work environments: psychological needs affecting the use and appreciation of activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Activity-Based Working (ABW) is supported by work environments that combine hot-desking with a variety of workplaces, designed to support different types of activities. While the advantages of these work environments in terms of efficiency are undisputed, their effectiveness with respect to job

  12. Work stress among university teachers: gender and position differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Maslić Seršić, Darja

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to stress at work in university teachers and see if there were differences between men and women as well as between positions. The study was carried out online and included a representative sample of 1,168 teachers employed at universities in Croatia. This included all teaching positions: assistants (50%), assistant professors (18%), associate professors (17%), and full professors (15%). Fifty-seven percent of the sample were women. The participants answered a questionnaire of our own design that measured six groups of stressors: workload, material and technical conditions at work, relationships with colleagues at work, work with students, work organisation, and social recognition and status. Women reported greater stress than men. Assistant professors, associate professors, and full professors reported greater stress related to material and technical conditions of work and work organisation than assistants, who, in turn, found relationships with colleagues a greater stressor. Full professors, reported lower exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants.

  13. Human error mechanisms in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Human error taxonomies have been developed from analysis of industrial incident reports as well as from psychological experiments. In this paper the results of the two approaches are reviewed and compared. It is found, in both cases, that a fairly small number of basic psychological mechanisms will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations. The implications for system safety and briefly mentioned, together with the implications for system design. (author)

  14. Human error mechanisms in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Danmarks Tekniske Hoejskole, Copenhagen)

    1988-01-01

    Human error taxonomies have been developed from analysis of industrial incident reports as well as from psychological experiments. In this paper the results of the two approaches are reviewed and compared. It is found, in both cases, that a fairly small number of basic psychological mechanisms will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations. The implications for system safety are briefly mentioned, together with the implications for system design. (author)

  15. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem...... at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life....

  16. Flourishing-at-Work: The Role of Positive Organizational Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelinghuys, Kleinjan; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Botha, Elrie

    2018-01-01

    The first aim of the study was to investigate the effects of flourishing at work (as measured by the Flourishing-at-Work Scale-Short Form) on intention to leave, performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. The second aim was to determine the prevalence of workplace flourishing and to examine differences in the perceived flourishing levels of teachers based on the positive practices they experience in their organization. A sample of 258 secondary school educators in the Gauteng province of South Africa was used in the cross-sectional design. The Flourishing-at-Work Scale-Short Form, Turnover Intention Scale, In-Role Behavior Scale, Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, and the Positive Practices Questionnaire were administered. The results showed acceptable psychometric properties for the short scale which measures flourishing. Workplace flourishing negatively predicted intention to leave, while positively predicting in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior. A total of 44.19% of the population flourished, while 49.22% were moderately mentally healthy and 6.59% languished. Positive organizational practices were associated with flourishing at work.

  17. Communicating Truthfully and Positively in Appraising Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)

  18. The Isis operation: working in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.

    1987-01-01

    After describing the upper internal support structures of the Chinon A3 reactor, difficulties of ISIS operation are presented. The different phases to sort out the problem are: in-core topography, conforming the full-scale mock-up to the repair area, learning on this mock-up and in-core reparation. Robots have a telescopic mast 11 m long, 0.22 m in diameter, completed by jointed arms reaching a radius of 2.7 m. The load carrying capacity is then 70 daN and the repeatability is 0.1 mm. Several tool heads are handled by the robot: telemeter and reconstruction, scouring, welding, screwing. A high level computerized control system is organized around central unit monitoring several local units. It allows automatic or semi-automatic working modes. Our experience in operation and possible improvements are described [fr

  19. The bedding environment, sleep position, and frequent wheeze in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Trevillian, Leigh; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2004-05-01

    Synthetic quilt use has been associated with increased childhood wheeze in previous studies. Our aim was to examine whether the adverse effect of synthetic quilt use on frequent wheeze differed by usual sleep position. A population-based cross-sectional study of 6378 (92% of those eligible) 7-year-olds in Tasmania, Australia, was conducted in 1995. Exercise-challenge lung function was obtained on a subset of 414 children from randomly selected schools. Child bedding including pillow and overbedding composition and usual sleep position by parental questionnaire. Frequent wheeze (>12 wheeze episodes over the past year), using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood parental questionnaire, and baseline and postexercise forced expiratory volume in 1 second lung-function measures. Frequent wheeze (n = 117) was positively associated with synthetic quilts, synthetic pillows, electric blankets, and sleeping in a bottom bunk bed but did not vary by sleep position. In a nested case-control analysis, the association between synthetic quilt use and frequent wheeze differed by sleep position. Among children who slept supine, synthetic (versus feather) quilt use was associated with frequent wheeze (adjusted odds ratio: 2.37 [1.08, 5.23]). However, among nonsupine sleepers, overlying synthetic quilt use was not associated with frequent wheeze (adjusted odds ratio: 1.06 [0.60, 1.88]). This difference in quilt effect by sleep position was highly significant. Similarly, synthetic quilt use was associated with lower postexercise forced expiratory volume in 1 second measures among supine but not nonsupine sleeping children. An increasing focus on the bedding environment immediately adjacent to the nose and mouth is required for respiratory disorders provoked by bedding, such as child asthma characterized by frequent wheeze.

  20. Working Environment In Nursing: Needs Improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Hanzeliková Pogrányivá

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowing the quality of life of professionals is important because it is related to job performance, better results, and greater productivity, which results in better patient care. Objective: To know the Professional Quality of Life perceived by the nurses at the Geriatric Hospital of Toledo (Spain. Method: A descriptive cross-section study was employed to measure the Professional Quality of Life of all healthcare nurses (69 in total at the Geriatric Hospital of Toledo. The questionnaire used as a measuring instrument was the Professional Quality of Life - 35. The data obtained was analyzed by means of: descriptive statistics, single-factor ANOVA variance analysis, T Student tests, and simple and multiple regression analysis. The study was approved by both the research commission and the ethics commission at the Hospital Complex of Toledo. Participation in the study on behalf of the nursing staff was voluntary. Results: In total, 45 responses were obtained (65.2%. The overall mean score measured the perceived Professional Quality of Life to be low. In relation to the three dimensions evaluated in the study, the highest average found was in “intrinsic motivation,” followed by “workload”, and then “management support.” In the multivariate analysis, “management support” was shown as the most influential factor in the Professional Quality of Life with a 23% influence (P<0.001, followed by workload with 9% (P = 0.01. Conclusions: The professionals at the participating center perceive their workplace as having an elevated degree of responsibility, a large quantity of work, a high occurrence of rushes and fatigue, and all this with little support on behalf of management. Promotions are scarce or the policies for receiving a promotion are inadequate. The perception of Professional Quality of Life in nursing is low. The obtained results indicate a need for an organizing cultural change based on participation, motivation, and

  1. Using a strengths-based approach to build caring work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Linda S; Henry, James D

    2007-12-01

    The current health care environment has a growing shortage of nurses and other health care professionals. Health care organizations face the twofold task of retaining employees and preventing "brain drain". A caring work environment can be instrumental in attracting and retaining productive and loyal employees, leading to increased employee and patient satisfaction and a positively impacted bottom line. A strengths-based approach powerfully and effectively promotes and nurtures a caring work environment in all health care specialties and organizations.

  2. Healthy mind and body in a healthy work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Padron, Manuel; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gomez-Santos, Gladys; Tsakos, Georgios; Lozano de Luacess, Vicente

    2010-12-01

    To assess the relationship between psychological distress and physical somatic symptoms as well as work environment conditions in the diverse population of dentists based in the Canary Islands (Spain). 203 dentists officially registered with the local General Dental Councils, returned the questionnaire delivered by mail. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, self-constructed questions like self-perceived environmental working conditions (location, access, temperature, humidity and pollution). They also completed the Spanish versions of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the revised version of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The GHQ-12 was used to assess psychological distress and the somatic physical symptoms were assessed with the 12-item somatic subscale extracted from the SCL-90-R. Three different linear regression models were constructed. Psychological distress was positively related to somatic symptoms in all the models even after adjusting for sex and age. This association also remained significant for self-perceived environmental working conditions in the two final models. 23% of the dentists had psychological distress. The mean score for the SCL-90-R somatic subscale was 0.55 points (Standard Deviation: 0.50). Self-perceived environmental working conditions were also associated with the strong relationship found between psychological distress and physical somatic symptoms among dentists.

  3. WWW-based environments for collaborative group work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been involved in the design and use of a series of WWW-based environments to support collaborative group work for students in a technical university in The Netherlands. These environments, and the course re-design that accompanies each new environment, began in April 1994 and

  4. Microbial ecology of artisanal Italian Cheese: environment and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioguardi, L.; Colombo, E.; Franzetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    In agro-food sector the structural features of working environments and consequently their hygienic conditions are of primary importance for a safe and quality food production and to ensure comfortable and ergonomic working conditions. In particular, as regards high-mountain dairy production, the environment is important because it can affect the development of typical microbial ecosystem. (Author)

  5. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same so...

  6. Microbial ecology of artisanal Italian Cheese: environment and working conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dioguardi, L.; Colombo, E.; Franzetti, L.

    2009-07-01

    In agro-food sector the structural features of working environments and consequently their hygienic conditions are of primary importance for a safe and quality food production and to ensure comfortable and ergonomic working conditions. In particular, as regards high-mountain dairy production, the environment is important because it can affect the development of typical microbial ecosystem. (Author)

  7. Wage, Work Environment, and Staffing: Effects on Nurse Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes—less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  8. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Health Prevention Program: the cornerstone for a safe work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Andrade, Augusto; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-07-01

    EnCana in Ecuador is deeply committed through the sustainable development by minimizing and controlling hazards, while contributing to the well being of the people and protecting the environment of the communities where we operate, the health and safety of our employees, as well as preventing any loss and ensuring business continuity. To ensure a safe work environment for all our employees and Contractors, the Company has conducted a complete Risk Evaluation, considering: physical, biological, chemical, ergonomics and psychosocial factors. Based on this Map of Risks, the exposure level and the age of the employee, the Medical Department established four different routines of medical exams (pre-occupational and occupational), which are conducted on a regular two years basis, or even in a shorter period of time, if required. Additionally, medical exams are conducted when an employee is transferred to a different position. All employees have their own records, which document their medical shape when enrolled, at any time while working, and when the person leaves the Company. This allows diagramming the history of employees, the following information: X Axis (horizontal) Age of the employee when enrolled, years (chronological) and position when the exams are conducted. Y Axis (vertical) Capability in terms of percentage, of different organs and physiology (audiometric, ears, lungs, etc.). All this information is processed by the EHS Department, which in conjunction with other departments, plan improvement Safety measures to avoid the exposure of the employees to those factors above mentioned, minimizing potential losses and reducing dramatically costs of accidents and absenteeism. Exactly the same concept is being implemented with Contractors, which must also comply with these requirements. Follow-up of all recommendations is conducted on a regular basis by the Employees, Contractors and Management (Executive) EHS Committees. (author)

  10. How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Skår, Randi

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and illuminates the meaning of nurses’ experiences with their work as a learning environment. A qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts of eleven graduate nurses. Three core themes emerged from these informants’ descriptions of their work as a learning environment: ‘participation in the work community’, ‘to engage in interpersonal relations’ and ‘accessing important...

  11. Association of the Nurse Work Environment, Collective Efficacy, and Missed Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica G; Morin, Karen H; Wallace, Leigh E; Lake, Eileen T

    2018-06-01

    Missed nursing care is a significant threat to quality patient care. Promoting collective efficacy within nurse work environments could decrease missed care. The purpose was to understand how missed care is associated with nurse work environments and collective efficacy of hospital staff nurses. A cross-sectional, convenience sample was obtained through online surveys from registered nurses working at five southwestern U.S. hospitals. Descriptive, correlational, regression, and path analyses were conducted ( N = 233). The percentage of nurses who reported that at least one care activity was missed frequently or always was 94%. Mouth care (36.0% of nurses) and ambulation (35.3%) were missed frequently or always. Nurse work environments and collective efficacy were moderately, positively correlated. Nurse work environments and collective efficacy were associated with less missed care (χ 2 = 10.714, p = .0054). Fostering collective efficacy in the nurse work environment could reduce missed care and improve patient outcomes.

  12. Effects of work environment and job characteristics on the turnover intention of experienced nurses: The mediating role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qiaoqin; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Weijiao; Shang, Shaomei

    2018-01-19

    To assess turnover intention among experienced nurses and explore the effects of work environment, job characteristics and work engagement on turnover intention. The nursing shortage is an urgent concern in China. A high turnover rate of experienced nurses could have serious effects on the quality of care, costs and the efficiency of hospitals. It is crucial to explore the predictors of turnover intention and develop strategies tailored to experienced nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design. A total of 778 experienced nurses from seven hospitals was surveyed on their work engagement, job characteristics, work environment and turnover intention in March-May 2017. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretical model and the hypotheses. The results showed that 35.9% of experienced nurses had high-level turnover intention. The final model explained 50% of the variance in experienced nurses' turnover intention and demonstrated that: (1) work environment was positively associated with higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement partially mediated the relationship between work environment and turnover intention; and (2) job characteristics were positively related to higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement fully mediated the relationship between job characteristics and turnover intention. The study confirms the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on work engagement posited by job demands-resources model. Theory-driven strategies to improve work environment, enhance job characteristics and promote wok engagement are needed to address the nursing shortage and high turnover intention among experienced nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  14. Daily fluctuations in positive affect positively co-vary with working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Annette; Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Another link to improving the working environment in acute care hospitals: registered nurses' spirit at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Ann-Marie; Wagner, Joan I

    2013-12-01

    Hospitals are situated within historical and socio-political contexts; these influence the provision of patient care and the work of registered nurses (RNs). Since the early 1990s, restructuring and the increasing pressure to save money and improve efficiency have plagued acute care hospitals. These changes have affected both the work environment and the work of nurses. After recognizing this impact, healthcare leaders have dedicated many efforts to improving the work environment in hospitals. Admirable in their intent, these initiatives have made little change for RNs and their work environment, and thus, an opportunity exists for other efforts. Research indicates that spirit at work (SAW) not only improves the work environment but also strengthens the nurse's power to improve patient outcomes and contribute to a high-quality workplace. In this paper, we present findings from our research that suggest SAW be considered an important component in improving the work environment in acute care hospitals.

  16. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Heerwagen, J.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  17. Work environments and organizational effectiveness: A call for integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.

    1994-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.

  18. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards.

  19. Evaluation of chosen determinants of the positive practice environments (PPE at Polish nursing wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kilańska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: At many Polish hospitals, insufficient attention is given to positive work environment. In many cases nurses, similarly to the representatives of other professional groups, are not provided with facilities or tools to perform their professional tasks in safe conditions. The aspects of recruitment and retention of employees are often ignored. The aim of this study has been to assess the chosen determinants of work environment of nurses in Poland using the concept of the Positive Practice Environments (PPE. Material and Methods: The survey was carried out from 2008 to 2011 among 1049 nursing students of 3 randomly selected public medical universities that provided nursing education at the graduate level of the Master of Science. All the people qualified for the study group were practising nurses or midwives. The Polish Nursing Association coordinated the project, obtained the tool, translated it and adjusted it to the Polish conditions. The areas covered in the survey were: a place of employment, selected physical and social elements influencing the work conditions, and biographical information. Results: Access to as many as 8 factors identified as attributes of friendly environments was found unsatisfactory by over 50% of the nurses. For the purpose of objective assessment, the results were compared with the results obtained in the group of nurses in England. Conclusions: The majority of the surveyed nurses were not satisfied with their work environments. Polish nurse managers should ensure that aspects of recognized attributes of friendly, positive practice environments for nurses are established to support nurses’ satisfaction as a pre-condition for patients’ safety. Med Pr 2016;67(1:11–19

  20. The relationship between healthy work environments and retention of nurses in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Desiree

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to determine the effect a healthy work environment has on the retention of nurses in a hospital setting. There is a nursing shortage that has been ongoing and is expected to continue, resulting in challenges for the healthcare system in the United States. The significance of this issue is the impact the nursing shortage will have on healthcare organizations and patients. The present paper included an extensive review of the current literature. The literature reviewed encompassed scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles. This article focused on nurses, work environments and the impact of the work environments on retention. Important issues that emerged from this analysis were the dangers of an unhealthy environment, the impact a healthy work environment has on patient outcomes and retention, the Magnet link to healthy work environments and the manager's role in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment. The literature provided evidence of the link between healthy work environments and the retention of nurses in a hospital setting. The implications for management are to implement changes now to create a healthy work environment that will recruit and retain nurses to secure their position in the future. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Improving work environments in health care: test of a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; Ishqaidef, Ghadir; May, Douglas R

    2009-01-01

    In light of high levels of staff turnover and variability in the quality of health care, much attention is currently being paid to the health care work environment and how it potentially relates to staff, patient, and organizational outcomes. Although some attention has been paid to staffing variables, more attention must be paid to improving the work environment for patient care. The purpose of this study was to empirically explore a theoretical model linking the work environment in the health care setting and how it might relate to work engagement, organizational commitment, and patient safety. This study also explored how the work environment influences staff psychological safety, which has been show to influence several variables important in health care. Clinical care providers at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed using a mail methodology. The overall response rate was 42%. This study analyzed perceptions of staff who provided direct care to patients. Using structural equation modeling, we found that different dimensions of the work environment were related to different outcome variables. For example, a climate for continuous quality improvement was positively related to organizational commitment and patient safety, and psychological safety partially mediated these relationships. Patient-centered care was positively related to commitment but negatively related to engagement. Health care managers need to examine how organizational policies and practices are translated into the work environment and how these influence practices on the front lines of care. It appears that care provider perceptions of their work environments may be useful to consider for improvement efforts.

  2. Burnout and nursing work environment in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso de; Guedes, Erika de Souza; Santos, Mariana Alvina Dos; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da

    2018-01-01

    to identify associations between the Burnout domains and the characteristics of the work environment. cross-sectional study with 745 nurses from 40 public health institutions in São Paulo. Nursing Work Index-Revised (NWI-R) and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. Similar institutions according to NWI-R were grouped by clustering and the Anova and Bonferroni tests were used in the comparative analyzes. there was significant and moderate correlation between emotional exhaustion and autonomy, control over the environment and organizational support; between reduced personal accomplishment, autonomy and organizational support; and between depersonalization and autonomy. The group that presented the worst conditions in the work environment differed on emotional exhaustion from the group with most favorable traits. emotional exhaustion was the trait of Burnout that was more consistently related to the group of institutions with more unfavorable working conditions regarding autonomy, organizational support and control over the environment.

  3. Work Environment and Productivity among Primary School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 5 (5), Serial No. ... work environment of Nigeria primary school teachers to greater productivity ... changes on the structure and curriculum, recommend and prescribed teaching methods and ...

  4. NIOSH Mobile Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Work Environment Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIOSH Mobile Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Work Environment Laboratory is a 2005 Wheeled Coach Type III ambulance mounted on a Ford E-450 cut-away van chassis....

  5. Commitment or Compliance? Institutional Logics of Work Environment Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt; Hasle, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and where it differs from the traditional organizational approach to work environment management. In this paper, we use the ‘institutional logics’ perspective to propose heuristic ideal types of two institutional logics of work environment management: The logic of compliance as the ideal type...... of the ‘traditional’ approach to work environment management and the logic of commitment as the human resource informed approach. Through a side-by-side comparison of key characteristics, we analyze the two ideal types as instantiations of institutional orders on the societal level with the compliance logic being...... rooted in the orders of the state and the corporation, and the commitment logic as based on the orders of the corporation. The paper ends with a discussion on the how the two logics can influence concrete work environment practices and approaches to management in organizations....

  6. Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria's maritime industry. ... Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2017) > ... employees and corporate organizations need to manage stress by identifying the stressors and stress levels.

  7. Relationships between work outcomes, work attitudes and work environments of health support workers in Ontario long-term care and home and community care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Laporte, Audrey; Perreira, Tyrone; Ginsburg, Liane; Dass, Adrian Rohit; Deber, Raisa; Baumann, Andrea; Cranley, Lisa; Bourgeault, Ivy; Lum, Janet; Gamble, Brenda; Pilkington, Kathryn; Haroun, Vinita; Neves, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Our overarching study objective is to further our understanding of the work psychology of Health Support Workers (HSWs) in long-term care and home and community care settings in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, we seek novel insights about the relationships among aspects of these workers' work environments, their work attitudes, and work outcomes in the interests of informing the development of human resource programs to enhance elder care. We conducted a path analysis of data collected via a survey administered to a convenience sample of Ontario HSWs engaged in the delivery of elder care over July-August 2015. HSWs' work outcomes, including intent to stay, organizational citizenship behaviors, and performance, are directly and significantly related to their work attitudes, including job satisfaction, work engagement, and affective organizational commitment. These in turn are related to how HSWs perceive their work environments including their quality of work life (QWL), their perceptions of supervisor support, and their perceptions of workplace safety. HSWs' work environments are within the power of managers to modify. Our analysis suggests that QWL, perceptions of supervisor support, and perceptions of workplace safety present particularly promising means by which to influence HSWs' work attitudes and work outcomes. Furthermore, even modest changes to some aspects of the work environment stand to precipitate a cascade of positive effects on work outcomes through work attitudes.

  8. The Association Between Psychosocial Work Environment and Satisfaction With Old Age Care Among Care Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth Bravell, Marie; Börjesson, Ulrika; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the association between nursing assistants' perceptions of their psychosocial work environment and satisfaction among older people receiving care in nursing homes and home care. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among people receiving care ( N = 1,535) and nursing assistants ( N = 1,132) in 45 nursing homes and 21 home care units within municipal old-age care. Better psychosocial work environment was related to higher satisfaction in old-age care among the recipients. Significant and stronger associations were more common in nursing homes than in home care. Perception of mastery and positive challenges at work were associated with higher recipient satisfaction both in home care and in nursing homes: social climate, perception of group work, perception of mastery, and positive challenges at work only in nursing homes. Findings suggest that recipient satisfaction may be increased by improving the psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants, both in nursing homes and in home care.

  9. Women's perceived work environment after stress-related rehabilitation: experiences from the ReDO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wästberg, Birgitta A; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate (a) if women's perceptions of their work environment changed during a 16-week rehabilitation period and at a 12-month follow-up; (b) whether such changes were related to outcomes in terms of return to work, well-being and valued occupations. Eighty-four gainfully employed women on sick-leave due to stress-related disorders responded to instruments assessing perceptions of the work environment, well-being (self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health) and perceived occupational value. Data about return to work were collected from registers. Non-parametric statistics were used. The increase in the women's ratings of their work environment was non-significant between baseline and completed rehabilitation but was statistically significant between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. No relationships were found between changes in perceptions of the work environment and outcomes after the rehabilitation. At the follow-up, however, there were associations between perceived work environment changes in a positive direction and return to work; improved self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived occupational value and self-rated health; and reduced stress. It seems important to consider the work environment in rehabilitation for stress-related problems, and a follow-up appears warranted to detect changes and associations not visible immediately after rehabilitation. Work environment Perceptions of the work environment seem important for return to work, although other factors are likely to contribute as well. Perceptions of the work environment are associated with several aspects of well-being. When developing rehabilitation interventions a focus on the clients' perceptions of their work environment seems vital.

  10. Creating LGBTQ-Inclusive Care and Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In considering the full depth of inclusion in care and work environments (and developing inclusive engagement skills for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning [LGBTQ] patients and their families), professional development leaders must bring these discussions and shared learnings into the open. Understanding the LGBTQ population's unique needs is essential to providing personalized health care, and inclusive work environments help to foster more inclusive care for this population. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2018;49(4):151-153. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  12. Psychosocial factors in GP work: the effects of taking a GP position or leaving GP work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Elovainio, Marko

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effects of leaving public sector general practitioner (GP) work and of taking a GP position on changes in work-related psychosocial factors, such as time pressure, patient-related stress, distress and work interference with family. In addition, we examined whether changes in time pressure and patient-related stress mediated the association of employment change with changes of distress and work interference with family. Participants were 1705 Finnish physicians (60% women) who responded to surveys in 2006 and 2010. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine the effect of employment change to outcome changes adjusted for gender, age and response format. Mediational effects were tested following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny. Employment change was significantly associated with all the outcomes. Leaving public sector GP work was associated with substantially decreased time pressure, patient-related stress, distress and work interference with family. In contrast, taking a position as a public sector GP was associated with an increase in these factors. Mediation tests suggested that the associations of employment change with distress change and work interference with family change were partially explained by the changes in time pressure and patient-related stress. Our results showed that leaving public sector GP work is associated with favourable outcomes, whereas taking a GP position in the public sector is associated with adverse effects. Primary health-care organizations should pay more attention to the working conditions of their GPs, in particular, to time pressure and patient-related stress.

  13. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription...... of antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self...

  15. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AS INDICATORS OF INADEQUATE WORK CONDITIONS AND WORK ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Babović

    2009-01-01

    Occupational accidents due to inadequate working conditions and work environment present a major problem in highly industrialised countries, as well as in developing ones. Occupational accidents are a regular and accompanying phenomenon in all human activities and one of the main health related and economic problems in modern societies.The aim of this study is the analysis of the connections of unfavourable working conditions and working environment on occupational accidents. Occurrence of oc...

  16. Environment Work as Fundamental Right and Civil Liability of Employer

    OpenAIRE

    Adélia Procópio Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Just as every citizen has the right to a balanced environment, essential to their quality of life, every worker is entitled to the protection rules to a safe and healthy work environment. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the working environment is part of the environmental  protection  system  of  the  Constitution  must  be  considered  in  its  true perspective, as a fundamental right. Under this analysis, it should carry this protection, taking responsibility for one wh...

  17. AACN's healthy work environment standards and an empowering nurse advancement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollers, Dawn; Hill, Edie; Roberts, Cynthia; Dambaugh, Lori; Brenner, Zara R

    2009-12-01

    An empowering clinical nurse advancement system can facilitate institutional behaviors that embrace all of AACN's healthy work environment standards and thus serve as a building block for developing a flourishing health care environment. The results generate positive outcomes that are evident to health care professionals, patients, patients' families, and health care organizations. Patients benefit from highly satisfied employees who work in a culture of caring and excellence.

  18. Work Environment on Job Satisfaction with mediating effect of Motivation among School Teachers in Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz M Imran Saeed; Nadia Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract—This study was aimed to assess the relationship between work environment, motivation and job satisfaction in private school teachers of Lahore, Pakistan. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect the data from 300 private school’s teachers. The data was analyzed through SPSS by using correlation, principle component analysis and multiple regression. The results indicates that there is a positive relationship between work environment and job satisfaction in school teachers. Res...

  19. Does job satisfaction mediate the relationship between healthy work environment and care quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinbing

    2016-01-01

    A healthy work environment can increase nurse-reported job satisfaction and patient care outcomes. Yet the associations between healthy work environment, nurse job satisfaction and QC have not been comprehensively examined in Chinese ICUs. To investigate the mediating effect of nurse job satisfaction on the relationship between healthy work environment and nurse-reported quality of care (QC) in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 706 nurses were recruited from 28 ICUs of 14 tertiary hospitals. The nurses completed self-reported questionnaires to evaluate healthy work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. Mediation analysis was conducted to explore the mediating effect between nurse-reported healthy work environment and QC. Nurse work environment showed positive correlations with nurse-reported QC in the ICUs. Nurse-reported job satisfaction showed full mediating effects between healthy work environment and QC in the medical-surgical ICUs, surgical ICUs and neonatal/paediatric ICUs and indicated a partial mediating effect in the medical ICUs. Significant mediating effects of nurse job satisfaction provide more support for thinking about how to use this mediator to increase nurse and patient care outcomes. Nurse administrators can design interventions to increase nurse work environment and patient care outcomes with this mediating factor addressed. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  20. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…

  1. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were

  2. A mobile robot for precision work in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malick, F.S.; Saluja, J.

    1987-01-01

    The programmable industrial robot on wheels which was built for use in the decontamination of the West Valley nuclear fuel reprocessing facility was further developed to be useful for remote maintenance. The vehicle is supported at the work site by screwjack outriggers to provide the stable base needed for precision work. The robot using a position sensor feels its position at the work site and sets up in its computer a rectilinear coordinate axis frame which is precisely aligned with the work site. It is then able to make precise movements with respect to the work site regardless of inaccuracies in the positioning of the vehicle. When using the robot as a manipulator, the operator can quickly call for a sequence of programmed moves to perform a repetitive part of a work task at a higher speed, with greater precision, with fewer errors and with less operator fatigue

  3. Challenges of work-life balance for women physicians/mothers working in leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Female leadership in medicine is still disproportionately small, which might be due to the barriers of combining work and family. The aim of this study was, first, to perform a strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and, second, to create a strategic concept for career development. In this study, all women in leadership positions in the health care system in Vienna, Austria, with at least 1 child (n = 8), were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of gender with regard to career development, the strengths and weaknesses of female leadership, and their work-life balance. Different factors that influenced the work-life balance were specified, and career strategies to realize adequate solutions were developed. The sporadic focus on career advancement, time-consuming child care, responsibility for family life, and a woman's tendency toward understatement were barriers to career development. Work-family enrichment has a positive spillover effect that spreads positive energy and helps to balance the work-life relationship. For each individual, the allocation and interaction of different resources such as time, money, scope of decision making, and physical, emotional, and social resources, were essential to maintain the individual work-life balance. In addition to the existing "glass ceiling," the predominant responsibility for child care is still borne by the woman. However, mentoring programs, coaching, networking, and support of the partner or of other people help to strengthen female "soft" skills and achieve a work-life balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q; Torén, A; Salomon, E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems.

  5. Working time intervals and total work time on nursing positions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kunecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the last few years a topic of overwork on nursing posts has given rise to strong discussions. The author has set herself a goal of answering the question if it is a result of real overwork of this particular profession or rather commonly assumed frustration of this professional group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the analysis of working time on chosen nursing positions in relation to measures of time being used as intervals in the course of conducting standard professional activities during one working day. Material and Methods: Research material consisted of documentation of work time on chosen nursing workplaces, compiled between 2007–2012 within the framework of a nursing course at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. As a method of measurement a photograph of a working day has been used. Measurements were performed in institutions located in 6 voivodeships in Poland. Results: Results suggest that only 6.5% of total of surveyed representatives of nurse profession spends proper amount of time (meaning: a time set by the applicable standards on work intervals during a working day. Conclusions: The scale of the phenomenon indicates excessive workload for nursing positions, which along with a longer period of time, longer working hours may cause decrease in efficiency of work and cause a drop in quality of provided services. Med Pr 2015;66,(2:165–172

  6. How to reduce turnover by creating a positive work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, R E

    1979-08-01

    Despite company attempts to reduce employee turnover by offering attractive salaries and benefits, Kushell notes that attrition continues at an alarming rate. He states that more than one of every three employees will change jobs over the next five years, a transition that will take its toll on company morale and productivity. The underlying factor, according to the author, is the quality of the working environment. A 1969 University of Michigan survey of 1,533 workers, at every occupation level, reported that all respondents ranked interesting work and authority to get the job done far ahead of good pay and job security. Sources of employee frustration include a stifling bureaucracy, excessive job expectations, and unsuitable jobs. The author suggests that top managers ask themselves whether they are missing out on or losing talented employees. If this is the case, there are several guidelines management should follow: improve communication between employees and top management; define expectations of the employee; and promote candor in the job interview. Kushell concludes that top executives can have an impact on turnover by paying attention to what employees really want rather than what management thinks they want.

  7. Impact of nurses' perceptions of work environment and communication satisfaction on their intention to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Özlem; Şantaş, Fatih; Şantaş, Gülcan; Şahin, Deniz Say

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association of nurses' perception of their work environment and communication satisfaction with their intention to quit. The implementation part of the study was conducted with nurses working in a public hospital in the city of Burdur, Turkey. Data were collected in January 2017 from 175 participants and then assessed. The analysis showed that perceptions of the work environment and communication satisfaction taken together explain the total variance of the intention to quit. While participants' perceptions of the work environment become increasingly positive, their communication satisfaction increases and their intention to quit decreases. The findings of this study suggest that making improvements to the nursing work environment and nurses' communication satisfaction will decrease their intention to quit. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. High-dependency care: experiences of the psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Naing, Lin; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah

    2017-11-23

    to explore high-dependency care nurses' experiences of their psychosocial work environment. four focus groups were conducted with 23 emergency and critical care hospital nurses in Brunei. All sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive-approach thematic analysis. three major themes were identified. 'Specialisation/specific skills' explained a fundamental requirement for the high-dependency care nurses to work effectively and efficiently in their workplace. 'Task completion' narrated the pressure they experienced to complete their tasks within time constraints exacerbated by a reduced number of staff. 'Acknowledgement' signified their need for fair and adequate reward for their hard work through career progression and promotion. this study facilitates the design of future interventions and policies that promote a healthy psychosocial work environment by ensuring nurses working in these areas have the required specialisation skills, there is a balance of workload and nurse-to-patient ratios, and they are offered fairness and equity in career progression and promotion.

  9. Development and Testing of the Healthy Work Environment Inventory: A Reliable Tool for Assessing Work Environment Health and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Sattler, Victoria P; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2016-10-01

    Fostering healthy work environments that enhance job satisfaction and reflect high levels of employee engagement and productivity is imperative for all organizations. This is especially true for health care organizations where unhealthy work conditions can lead to poor patient outcomes. A convenience sample of 520 nursing faculty and practice-based nurses in the United States participated in a study to test the psychometric properties of the Healthy Work Environment Inventory (HWEI). A factor analysis and other reliability analyses support the use of the HWEI as a valid and reliable instrument to measure perceptions of work environment health. The HWEI is a 20-item psychometrically sound instrument to measure perceptions of the health of the work environment. It may be completed either as an individual exercise or by all members of a team to compare perceptions of work environment health, to determine areas of strength and improvement, and to form the basis for interviewing. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(10):555-562.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Positive organisation: The role of leader behaviour in work engagement and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallen Mendes

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if leader empowering behaviour can positively impact on role clarity, psychological empowerment and work engagement, with the final outcome being the retention of talent. Motivation for the study: In the ever changing work environment organisations place great emphasis on their human capital. The positive organisation utilises specific elements to optimise human capital’s potential. It is therefore important to identify the elements contributing to a positive organisation as well as the elements which lead to the retention of talent. Research design, approach and method: A survey research design was used. A convenience sample (n = 179 was taken from a business unit in a chemical organisation. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measures of Role Clarity and Ambiguity Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Intention to Leave Scale were administered. Main findings: Leader empowering behaviour, role clarity and psychological empowerment predicted work engagement. Role clarity interacted with competence to affect employees’ dedication and interacted with the development of employees to affect absorption. Work engagement predicted employees’ intention to leave. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation if they want to retain their talent. Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to scientific knowledge about the effects of a positive organisation on retention.

  11. Exploring employee participation and work environment in hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Raymond; Harris, Candice; Knudsen, Herman

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relative impact of direct and representative forms of participation on quality of the work environment, based on multi-method case studies of two hotels each in New Zealand and Denmark. The degree of direct participation is higher at the New Zealand hotels, yet, workload and stress...... is higher than in the Danish ones. This confirms literature that questions whether participation is always beneficial to the work environment. On the other hand, representative forms of participation appear to offer greater opportunities for a better quality of work environment (QWE) since Danish employees...... in this study enjoy greater influence through collective bargaining and cooperation committees, and experience less workload stress than the New Zealanders....

  12. Adaptive Indoor Positioning Model Based on WLAN-Fingerprinting for Dynamic and Multi-Floor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Husni Alshami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints are one of the best choices for Indoor Positioning Systems because of their low cost, and high accuracy, however they have many drawbacks: creating radio maps is time consuming, the radio maps will become outdated with any environmental change, different mobile devices read the received signal strength (RSS differently, and peoples’ presence in LOS between access points and mobile device affects the RSS. This research proposes a new Adaptive Indoor Positioning System model (called DIPS based on: a dynamic radio map generator, RSS certainty technique and peoples’ presence effect integration for dynamic and multi-floor environments. Dynamic in our context refers to the effects of people and device heterogeneity. DIPS can achieve 98% and 92% positioning accuracy for floor and room positioning, and it achieves 1.2 m for point positioning error. RSS certainty enhanced the positioning accuracy for floor and room for different mobile devices by 11% and 9%. Then by considering the peoples’ presence effect, the error is reduced by 0.2 m. In comparison with other works, DIPS achieves better positioning without extra devices.

  13. The Action Plan Against Repetitive Work - An Industrial Relation Strategy for Improving the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels

    2001-01-01

    The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complicated working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation ot the Action Plan. The asseessment of the Action Plan...... indicates that a measurable reduction of repetitive work has been achieved, while recognizing the the new management strategies focusing on human resources development have also played an important role. These results are used to suggest that - under certain conditions - a combination of state regulation...... and industrial relation agreements can be used to regulate other working environment problems....

  14. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna

    2016-03-01

    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The experience of work in a call centre environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet Hauptfleisch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study explored the work experience in a call centre environment in an information technology call centre based in South Africa, which service foreign customers exclusively. Three data collection methods were used, namely narratives, in-depth interviews with call centre consultants, and observation. Following a grounded theory approach, four themes were elicited, namely the perceptions of team members, uncertainty created by a constantly changing environment, perceived distances due to management practices, and depersonalisation experienced while actually dealing with customers. In addition to this, the reported impact of these themes on work performance was explored and compared to existing research.

  16. Work Environment Dialogue in a Swedish Municipality — Strengths and Limits of the Nordic Work Environment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Frick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic work environment model, health risks at work are mainly to be managed in cooperation with the employees and their representatives. The model is based on strong trade unions and is supported by the state through participatory rights and funding to produce and disseminate knowledge on risks and solutions. The model is evident in the large Swedish municipal sector with its strong unions and extensive social dialogue. However, municipal employees also face widespread risks, mainly from mental and physical overload. They led the costly wave of rising sickness absence from the late 1990s. Municipal (and other employers therefore attempt to reduce the absence. The rural municipality of Leksand started a project Hälsosam with the broad objectives to half the absence, implement a national agreement on better dialogue, make Leksand an attractive employer, and improve employee influence and work environment. The article’s objective is to use Hälsosam’s intervention project to explore the limits of what the Nordic work environment model can achieve against risks rooted in the employers’ prerogative of organizing, resourcing, and managing the operations that create the conditions at work. Hälsosam’s practice focused on sickness absence and the forms of the new national agreement. The absence was halved by reducing cases of long-term sickness. There was also workplace health promotion and the safety reps were supported through regular meetings. However, little was done to the extensive mental and physical overload revealed in a survey. Nor was the mandatory work environment management improved, as was ordered by the municipal council. This remained delegated to first-line managers who had a limited ability to handle work risks. This limited practice implemented Leksand’s political priority to reduce the absenteeism, while other objectives had less political support. The difficulties to improve the work environment and its management

  17. [Does work have a meaning? Basis for a positive work culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapelli, G

    2010-01-01

    From the anthropological point of view work is the expression and fulfilment of the absolute spirit in the finite sense and is, by its essence, cooperation. This obliges us to reverse the question: "does work have a meaning?", to: "does work have a meaning for workers? Does it allow self-fulfilment?" Work has a meaning if the worker's psychophysical integrity is safeguarded, if by working the individual achieves self-fulfilment as a person, if it has a sense of community. Man as an "actor" achieves self-fulfilment through technical and professional competence, thereby overcoming organizational and social conflicts. Today reducing human and social relations to an economic transaction will lead to the destruction of the meaning of life and work. The study of suicide cases in France Telecom shows that a human being inserted in the working environment wants most of all to obtain recognition. He or she will accept praise or even punishment if this is done with transparency, because the person will acknowledge in such decisions a recognition of his/herself. Many enterprises and consequently many personnel managers do not, in their essence, perceive of any meaning of work, but consider only the instrumental element. The workforce cannot be considered as a commodity, work is embodied in human beings. So either people aim at self-fulfilment or fall into anomie and depression, even to the point of the destructive impulse of elimination. The re-humanization of work and the treatment of enterprises (which are "ill" because they no longer possess any meaning of work) is the challenge that awaits us.

  18. Engineers' Role in the Management of Working Environment in Danish Enterprises: Results of a National Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Nanette Juhler; Høgsbo, Mette Maribo

    1998-01-01

    training at engineering schools are very limited. As the engineers find it very important to teach working environment at engineering schools it must be considered what kind of curriculum would be most effective for the engineering career. Finally, the engineers do not perceive that management or others......This study confirms that many engineers are not aware that they influence the working environment of other people through their engineering. Also, it indicates that the extent of influence dependends on engineering domain and task content. Many engineers and enterprises have an espoused theory...... expressing a positive attitude towards working environment considerations in engineering. However, the theory-in-action seems to be quite different. Engineers do not know what to do in relation to working environment considerations. They mainly point to solidifying their knowledge in the area combined...

  19. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Working environment conditions in rural areas according to psychosocial indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study psychosocial working environment factors among farmers and other people living in rural areas. The study was carried out as a cross-section investigation. All persons visiting local occupational health service centres for a health check up have been asked to answer an inquiry which was based on the Karasek-Theorell questionnaire on job strain. Five extra items on worry about the future were added. The questionnaire was completed by over 3,800 persons. Three of four indices showed significant difference with respect to sex. Women experienced less stimulance at work, authority over work and had a greater fear of the future. Farmers had a significantly higher index for psychological demands, stimulance at work as well as authority over work than other occupational groups. The index for authority over work was very high in comparison with presented results for different occupations in other studies. With respect to worry about the future, the farmers had a significantly higher index than nearly all the other occupational groups. The low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among farmers reported in other studies can probably be related to good psychosocial working environment as measured by the indices in this study as well as other known life style factors.

  1. Talent Management for Creating a Performance Work Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the extent to which talent management can contribute towards creating a performance work environment (PWE) that can enhance sustainable talent identifi cation and development in the public service. The literature analysis results reveal that talent management is essential in creating a PWE in the ...

  2. Work-Life Balance in an Outsourcing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Dervent

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…

  3. Widening the scope of incident analysis in complex work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van W.; Kanse, L.; Manser, T.

    2003-01-01

    Incident analysis is commonly used as a tooi to provide information on how to improve health and safety in complex work environments. The effectiveness of this tooi, however, depends on how the analysis is actually carried out. The traditional view on incident analysis highlights the role of human

  4. Music Teachers in Turkey: Their Proficiency, Working Environments and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gursen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…

  5. Environment Work as Fundamental Right and Civil Liability of Employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Procópio Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Just as every citizen has the right to a balanced environment, essential to their quality of life, every worker is entitled to the protection rules to a safe and healthy work environment. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the working environment is part of the environmental  protection  system  of  the  Constitution  must  be  considered  in  its  true perspective, as a fundamental right. Under this analysis, it should carry this protection, taking responsibility for one who infringe. Thus, the risks of the project belong to the employer, and if it violates the middle of the work environment and exposes the risk your employee, should be held responsible, since the danger was created by the activity - even if it is not, at first, considered  harmful.  For  the  development  of  the  issue  will  be  used  observational- monographic method, from which works to query multiple reputable authors. There will be a comparison  between  the  various  schools  of  thought  as  well  as  the  jurisprudential understanding of.

  6. Working Environment Authority Interventions to Promote Well-Being at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Starheim, Liv

    How can working environment authorities intervene at workplace level to promote the well-being of employees? This issue is discussed in light of recent developments in the inspection strategies and methodologies of the Danish Working Environment Authority. Well-being at work – or the psychosocial...... for improvements, or a combination of the establishment of issue based working groups that cut across traditional workplace committees; to the direct involvement of employees in problem definitions and identification of solutions; and to the use of a concrete and everyday language in describing problems...

  7. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part......Objectives To identify differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between female and male employees in Denmark and to examine to what extent differences could be explained by work environment factors. Methods A cohort of 5026 employees (49.1% women, mean age 40.4 years; 50.9% men, mean age....... Results 298 workers (5.9%) received sickness absence compensation for 8 weeks or more. Women had an excess risk of 37% compared to men, when adjusting for age, family status and socio-economic position. Physical work environment exposures could not explain this difference, whereas differences...

  8. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... ... has positive and negative effects on social bonds in South African communities ... to contribute to positive social cohesion and to prevent violence. ... including shared values and identity, feelings of belonging, civic pa.

  9. The nurse manager's role in creating a healthy work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, K

    2001-08-01

    The role of nurse manager of an acute or critical care unit is one of the most difficult roles in healthcare today. This individual must juggle patient care issues, staff concerns, medical staff relationships, supply inadequacies, and organizational initiatives--and then balance all of this with a personal life. The only way in which any of this is remotely possible is if the patient care unit provides a supportive environment for patients, families, and staff. The nurse manager is a pivotal person in this effort: research repeatedly shows that people don't leave their jobs, they leave their managers. This article describes how the nurse manager of an acute neurosciences unit worked with her staff to define, create, and maintain a work environment in which patient care improved, people enjoyed working, and retention of staff increased.

  10. LANL Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) Self-Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Barbara C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    On December 21, 2012 Secretary of Energy Chu transmitted to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) revised commitments on the implementation plan for Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Action 2-5 was revised to require contractors and federal organizations to complete Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) selfassessments and provide reports to the appropriate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Headquarters Program Office by September 2013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) planned and conducted a Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) Self-Assessment over the time period July through August, 2013 in accordance with the SCWE Self-Assessment Guidance provided by DOE. Significant field work was conducted over the 2-week period August 5-16, 2013. The purpose of the self-assessment was to evaluate whether programs and processes associated with a SCWE are in place and whether they are effective in supporting and promoting a SCWE.

  11. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  12. Work of scientific and technological information under network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingxi; Huang Daifu; Yang Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    With the development of internet and information technology, the work of scientific and technological information is faced with great challenge. This article expounds the new changes of scientific and technological information in enterprise under network environment by giving a minute description on the situation the work faced and characteristic of the work. Not only does it carry out enthusiastic discussion upon problems which are present in the work of scientific and technological information in the company, but puts forward proposals and specific measures as well. Service theory is also offered by adjusting and reforming the resources construction, service ways and the job of providing contents. We should take vigorous action to the research work of scientific and technological information, changing the information directional service into knowledge providing service. (authors)

  13. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Rasmussen, Kurt; Kyed, Morten

    2012-01-01

    with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence of positive organizational support mechanisms that can prevent negative effects from the high levels of emotional demands....

  14. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  15. Nurses' Work Environment and Spirituality: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zastrow Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of care is a major health concern in the hospital setting. A work environment thatsupports professional nursing as well as the spirituality of nurses, or the meaning/purpose nurses find intheir work may contribute to quality of patient care. Yet, little is known about the nursing workenvironment and even less about the spirituality of nurses. Thus, the aims of this study were to measuremedical-surgical nurses’ perceived professional work environment score and perceived spiritual well-beingscore and determine if the two instruments are related. This cross-sectional survey consisted of aconvenience sample of 68 nurses who completed the Professional Practice Environment Scale (PPE andSpiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB on the hospital website during working hours. Several PPE subscalescores differed significantly among the various clinical units. As the nurse’s age, and years of clinicalexperience increased, specific PPE subscale scores also increased. The nurses’ mean SWB scores were allwithin the moderate range and did not differ significantly among the clinical units. The overall PPE andSWB scores were not significantly correlated. Nursing administrators can use the PPE scores from thisstudy to address the specific needs of individual clinical units. Older and more experienced nurses mayserve as resources for younger, less experienced nurses. Both instruments can be administered repeatedlyover time to monitor trends. Based on the SWB data, nurses in this study reported average levels ofspiritual well-being. However, there is a need to learn more about the specific spiritual needs of nurses.Spirituality of nurses as well as the nurse’s work environment are separate concepts that each merit furtherinvestigation and may add to the knowledge base for increased quality patient care.

  16. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2011-01-01

    psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management......BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from...... a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5...

  17. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry depart...

  18. Employee health-relevant personality traits are associated with the psychosocial work environment and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, Karin; Hasson, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about personality in relation to assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership. Therefore the objective of this study is to explore possible associations and differences in mean values between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behaviors. 754 survey responses from ten organizations were selected from a large-scale intervention study. The Health-relevant Personality 5 inventory was used to assess personality. Five dimensions of the psychosocial work environment were assessed with 38 items from the QPS Nordic and 6 items from the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire were used to assess leadership behavior. Positive correlations were found between Hedonic capacity (facet of Extraversion) and perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behavior. Negative correlations were found for Negative affectivity (facet of Neuroticism), Antagonism (facet of Agreeableness), Impulsivity (facet of Conscientiousness) and Alexithymia (facet of Openness). There were also significant differences in mean values of all work environment indicators between levels of health-relevant personality traits. Those with higher levels of hedonic capacity had higher (better) perceptions compared to those with lower levels. Those with higher levels of negative affectivity had lower (worse) perceptions compared to those with lower levels. The findings show a clear association between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behavior. Personality can be important to take into consideration for leaders when interpreting survey results and when designing organizational interventions.

  19. Organizational culture and a safety-conscious work environment: The mediating role of employee communication satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Inmaculada; Navajas, Joaquin; Koves, G Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    A safety-conscious work environment allows high-reliability organizations to be proactive regarding safety and enables employees to feel free to report any concern without fear of retaliation. Currently, research on the antecedents to safety-conscious work environments is scarce. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the mediating role of employee communication satisfaction in the relationship between constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment in several nuclear power plants. Employee communication satisfaction partially mediated the positive relationships between a constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment. Constructive cultures in which cooperation, supportive relationships, individual growth and high performance are encouraged facilitate the establishment of a safety-conscious work environment. This influence is partially explained by increased employee communication satisfaction. Constructive cultures should be encouraged within organizations. In addition, managers should promote communication policies and practices that support a safety-conscious work environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  20. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, B R; Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Doorewaard, J A C M; Eisinga, R N; Peters, C P

    2008-10-04

    To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. Cross-sectional pilot investigation. A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal medicine and general practitioners, was used to gather information on different dimensions of career motivation and perceptions of the family friendliness of the work environment. Differences were analysed by means of t-tests and regression analyses. Male doctors had higher scores on career identity and on career planning than female doctors. However, male and female doctors did not differ in their willingness to achieve top positions. Female doctors were more determined concerning their career goals than their male counterparts. The family friendliness of the work environment had an overall positive effect on career motivation for both male and female doctors. However, a family friendly work environment had a negative effect on the career identity of male doctors. For male and female doctors alike, support to achieve career goals and elimination of career barriers lead to increased career identity. Male and female doctors differed in certain dimensions of career motivation. Offering support for career goals and taking away career barriers leads to a higher career motivation than offering a family friendly work environment.

  1. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D; Nielsen, Kent J; Andersen, Johan H

    2011-02-01

    The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjøbing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Psychosocial work environment and its association with socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncada, Salvador; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Navarro, Albert

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to describe psychosocial work environment inequalities among wage earners in Spain and Denmark. METHODS: Data came from the Spanish COPSOQ (ISTAS 21) and the Danish COPSOQ II surveys both performed in 2004-05 and based on national representative samples...... of employees with a 60% response rate. Study population was 3,359 Danish and 6,685 Spanish women and men. Only identical items from both surveys were included to construct 18 psychosocial scales. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to the European Socioeconomic Classification System. Analysis...... included ordinal logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis after categorizing all scales. RESULTS: A relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment in both Denmark and Spain was observed, with wider social inequalities in Spain for many scales, describing...

  3. Stressful work environment and wellbeing: What comes first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Jokela, Markus; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-07-01

    The association between the psychosocial work environment, including job demands, job control, and organizational justice, and employee wellbeing has been well established. However, the exposure to adverse work environments is typically measured only using self-reported measures that are vulnerable to reporting bias, and thus any associations found may be explained by reverse causality. Using linear regression models and cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested the direction of the association between established job stress models (job demand control and organizational justice models) and 3 wellbeing indicators (psychological distress, sleeping problems, and job satisfaction) among 1524 physicians in a 4-year follow-up. Results from the longitudinal cross-lagged analyses showed that the direction of the association was from low justice to decreasing wellbeing rather than the reverse. Although the pattern was similar in job demands and job control, a reciprocal association was found between job control and psychological distress. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. [Working environment and educational environment are two sides of the same coin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Holm, Ellen Astrid

    2014-01-20

    Educational environment is of major importance for job satisfaction and it consists of several components including curriculum and values of the organization. Educational climate is the environment, as the individual physicians perceive it. Motivation is important for job satisfaction as well as for learning. Autonomy, responsibility, supervision, feedback are all important factors influencing motivation and learning. These factors must be supported through appropriate organization of work in hospital departments and in general practice.

  5. Managerial strategies for creating an effective work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luse, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    To create a highly functioning medical imaging team, radiology managers must be able to analyze their departments and identify areas for improvement. This type of analysis means assessing front-line personnel who already work in the department, along with identifying staffing needs and recruiting talented new employees. In addition, managers must develop effective retention tools such as career ladders and mentorship programs to improve the overall working environment. This article discusses a variety of different strategies to help managers develop a more effective department.

  6. Collaborative Working Environments as Globalised Inquiry for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Martina Sophia; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    With this paper we are sharing our practical findings in the eSangathan Project, interpreted from the theoretical perspectives of Inquiring Communities and Collaborative Working Environment (CWE). We start by investigating the use of IT and CWE in support of Inquiring Communities among seniors...... working to create social innovations. We identify five different forms of Inquiring Communities: the Realistic, the Analytic, the Idealistic, the Dialectic and the Pragmatic. These communities we take to be basic and essential for communication and sharing of knowledge among human beings...

  7. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was de...

  8. How the Physical Work Environment Can Affect Individual Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsdottir, Thordis; Hansen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Strategic Management The topic of this thesis is about how the physical work environment affects individual productivity, and with focus on productivity through the well-being aspect of individuals. The thesis has a theoretical approach with a pilot-exercise including a pilot experiment and questionnaire. This approach was chosen as the research question is comprehensive, and with the timeframe to complete this thesis. A theoretical approach gives the possibility to furt...

  9. Radiological surveillance of airborne contaminants in the working environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Contamination of the air of the working environment may result from incidental or accidental releases during the handling of radioactive materials. Representative sampling and measurement are complicated by a variety of factors, arising mainly from the physical and chemical properties of radioactive aerosols. The following topics are presented in detail: sources and types of airborne contaminants, sampling techniques and instruments, measurement techniques and instruments, interpretation of measurements, examples of air monitoring programmes

  10. Building a healthy work environment: a nursing resource team perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Slinger, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Leadership and staff from the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) Nursing Resource Team (NRT), including members of their Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Council, attended the first Southern Ontario Nursing Resource Team Conference (SONRTC), held March 2012 in Toronto. The SONRTC highlighted healthy work environments (HWEs), noting vast differences among the province's various organizations. Conversely, CQI Council members anecdotally acknowledged similar inconsistencies in HWEs across the various inpatient departments at LHSC. In fact, the mobility of the NRT role allows these nurses to make an unbiased observation about the culture, behaviours and practices of specific units as well as cross-reference departments regarding HWEs. Studies have documented that HWEs have a direct impact on the quality of patient care. Furthermore, the literature supports a relationship between HWEs and nurse job satisfaction. Based on this heightened awareness, the NRT CQI Council aimed to investigate HWEs at LHSC. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments was adapted in developing a survey for measuring HWEs based on the perceptions of NRT staff. Each of the departments was evaluated in terms of the following indicators: skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision-making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership (AACN 2005). Ultimately, the Building a Healthy Work Environment: A Nursing Resource Team Perspective survey was employed with NRT nurses at LHSC, and data was collected for use by leadership and staff for creating HWE strategies aimed at improving the quality of patient care.

  11. Positive impact of electric vehicle and ngv on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidul I Khan; Kannan, K.S.; Md Shah Majid

    1999-01-01

    Electric Vehicle uses electricity from batteries as fuel and is environment friendly with zero emission. The occurrence of haze in 1997 in Malaysia and neighbouring countries has called for new studies about motor vehicle emission as it aggravates the problem. In big cities like Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru where it is estimated that over 300,000 vehicles enter the city everyday, smoke pollution from vehicles is identified as the major contributor to air quality. One of the solutions to air pollution problem could be the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Natural Gas for Vehicle (NGV). The NGV uses compressed natural gas mainly methane, is lead free and clean burning with low emission. The electric vehicles use batteries as power source. These batteries are charged off-peak hour, specifically after mid-night when the electric load curve has its least demand period. The number of electric vehicles and NGV in future years is calculated considering the penetration level. The reduction in pollution is estimated considering the number of automobiles replaced by electric vehicles and NGV. Finally, it is concluded that EV and NGV could be the ultimate solution for pollution control and could improve the environment specifically that of congested cities of Malaysia. (Author)

  12. MAPPING GNSS RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS WITH A DRONE TANDEM AND INDIRECT POSITION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cledat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of autonomously mapping highly cluttered environments, such as urban and natural canyons, is intractable with the current UAV technology. The reason lies in the absence or unreliability of GNSS signals due to partial sky occlusion or multi-path effects. High quality carrier-phase observations are also required in efficient mapping paradigms, such as Assisted Aerial Triangulation, to achieve high ground accuracy without the need of dense networks of ground control points. In this work we consider a drone tandem in which the first drone flies outside the canyon, where GNSS constellation is ideal, visually tracks the second drone and provides an indirect position control for it. This enables both autonomous guidance and accurate mapping of GNSS restricted environments without the need of ground control points. We address the technical feasibility of this concept considering preliminary real-world experiments in comparable conditions and we perform a mapping accuracy prediction based on a simulation scenario.

  13. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The provision of breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may assist a mother to develop a milk supply for the NICU infant. Human milk offers unique benefits and its provision unique challenges in this highly vulnerable population. The provision of breastfeeding support in this setting has not been studied in a large, multihospital study. We describe the frequency of breastfeeding support provided by nurses and examined relationships between NICU nursing characteristics, the availability of a lactation consultant (LC), and breastfeeding support. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of 2008 survey data from 6060 registered nurses in 104 NICUs nationally. Nurse managers provided data on LCs. These NICUs were members of the Vermont Oxford Network, a voluntary quality and safety collaborative. METHODS Nurses reported on the infants (n = 15,233) they cared for on their last shift, including whether breastfeeding support was provided to parents. Breastfeeding support was measured as a percentage of infants on the unit. The denominator was all infants assigned to all nurse respondents on that NICU. The numerator was the number of infants that nurses reported providing breastfeeding support. Nurses also completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), a nationally endorsed nursing care performance measure. The NICU nursing characteristics include the percentages of nurses with a BSN or higher degree and with 5 or more years of NICU experience, an acuity-adjusted staffing ratio, and PES-NWI subscale scores. Lactation consultant availability was measured as any/none and in full-time equivalent positions per 10 beds. RESULTS The parents of 14% of infants received breastfeeding support from the nurse. Half of the NICUs had an LC. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between 2 measures of nurse staffing and breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher acuity-adjusted staffing ratio was

  14. Work and Family Environments and the Adoption of Computer-Supported Supplemental Work-at-Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey received responses from 307 men and 147 women in managerial/professional positions. Those who use computers for work at home after office hours had higher task variety, role overload, work-family interference, and stress. However, there were no significant differences in marital and family satisfaction of those who did supplemental work…

  15. Psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms among US workers: comparing working poor and working non-poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh Ann; Swanberg, Jennifer E

    2009-08-01

    The psychosocial work environment has been associated with mental health outcomes; however, little research has examined this relationship for low-wage workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial job characteristics and depressive symptoms for US workers using an expanded model of job quality. Data were from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, a nationally representative study of wage and salaried workers in the US. Working poor was defined as households earning working poor employees, job insecurity was the single significant correlate of depressive symptoms after controlling for other demographic and work environment variables. For working non-poor employees, high psychological demands and low supervisor and coworker support were associated with depressive symptoms. Findings suggest all jobs do not equally affect employees' depressive symptoms. Implications for research that may improve the mental health of the working poor in the US are presented.

  16. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  17. Study on the improvement of working environment at night in maintenance works at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Kotani, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    At the maintenance work site in nuclear power plants, due to the shortening (reduction of a regular inspection period) of the regular inspection period, the tendency toward working on around-the-clock basis has increased; thus, nighttime work is on the rise. Based upon research both locally and internationally, as well as examples of measures against such a tendency and the results of on-site surveys of the environment surrounding maintenance works at nuclear power plants, the author comprehensively studied the effects of nighttime work on workers, the measures to cope with the situation, and how a working environment for nighttime work should be. Based on the results, the authors made a guidebook for nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants. This guidebook, which deals with the subject of nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants, is quite unique in the world. It is expected that by using this guidebook, the quality of nighttime maintenance work and the levels of techniques/skills would be enhanced and maintained, and the safety of workers would be ensured, promoting considerably thus the establishment of a comfortable workplace. (author)

  18. Study on the improvement of working environment at night in maintenance works at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Mitsuru; Kotani, Fumio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    At the maintenance work site in nuclear power plants, due to the shortening (reduction of a regular inspection period) of the regular inspection period, the tendency toward working on around-the-clock basis has increased; thus, nighttime work is on the rise. Based upon research both locally and internationally, as well as examples of measures against such a tendency and the results of on-site surveys of the environment surrounding maintenance works at nuclear power plants, the author comprehensively studied the effects of nighttime work on workers, the measures to cope with the situation, and how a working environment for nighttime work should be. Based on the results, the authors made a guidebook for nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants. This guidebook, which deals with the subject of nighttime maintenance work at nuclear power plants, is quite unique in the world. It is expected that by using this guidebook, the quality of nighttime maintenance work and the levels of techniques/skills would be enhanced and maintained, and the safety of workers would be ensured, promoting considerably thus the establishment of a comfortable workplace. (author)

  19. Legal Regulation for Risk in the Work Environment and Bullying at work

    OpenAIRE

    大和田, 敢太

    2009-01-01

    In Belgium, protection for workers from bullying, violence and moral or sexual harassment at work is regulated by the law of June 16, 2007 in the more general framework of prevention of the psychosocial load caused by work. At the same time, it is treated from the point of view of a risk in the work environment. With regard to definitions, violence at work is defined as all situations in which a person is threatened or attacked psychologically or hysically during performance of their duties. ...

  20. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  1. Positive effect of social work-related values on work outcomes: the moderating role of age and work situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H; Chan, Darius K-S

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of social work-related values on job performance through job satisfaction and tested whether age and work situation would moderate such associations. This study consists of two parts: Part 1 is a cross-sectional survey among 299 Chinese clerical employees aged 19-60 years and Part 2 is a 14-day experience sampling study in a subsample of Part 1 (N = 67). Part 1 revealed that age moderated the effect of social work-related values on job performance through job satisfaction, with a stronger positive effect in older workers than in younger workers. Part 2 demonstrated that the moderating effect of age shown in Part 1 also varied across work situations. In particular, holding momentary social work-related values was beneficial to the task performance of older workers, and the effect was significantly stronger when they were in social situations than in nonsocial situations, whereas the effect remained weak among younger workers regardless of work context. Moreover, the moderating effect of age could be accounted for by future time perspective. This study supports socioemotional selectivity theory that goal orientation shifts toward the emphasis of interpersonal closeness when one perceives future time as increasingly limited. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  3. Psychological capital mediates the association between nurses' practice environment and work engagement among Chinese male nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the environmental and individual factors contributing to male nurses' psychological well-being and to explore the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between nurses' practice environment and work engagement, thereby presenting the implications for nurse managers. Methods: A total of 161 male nurses from three tertiary first-class hospitals in Changsha City in China participated in the study. We collected the data using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Results: Scores of male nurses' practice environment (2.88 ± 0.31, psychological capital (4.42 ± 0.62, and work engagement (3.17 ± 1.39 were all above the midpoint; however, the subscales “the nursing staffing and resources adequacy” (2.72 ± 0.48, “hope” (4.33 ± 0.72, and “dedication” (2.96 ± 1.61scored lowest. Nurses' practice environment and psychological capital positively predicted nurses' work engagement; psychological capital fully mediated the influence of nurses' practice environment on work engagement. Conclusions: Creating a supportive nursing practice environment can increase male nurses' work engagement by developing their psychological capital. Nurse managers can then provide reasonable workload and pathways for male nurses to achieve goals, thereby fostering their hope. Keywords: Male nurses, Nurses' practice environment, Psychological capital, Work engagement

  4. Evaluation and comparison of health care Work Environment Scale in military settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J P; Anderson, F D; Gladd, D L; Brown, D L; Hardy, M A

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe health care providers' perceptions of their work environment at a large U.S. Army medical center, and to compare the findings to other military medical centers. The sample (N = 112) consisted of the professional nursing staff working on the nine inpatient units. The Work Environmental Scale (WES) was used to measure perceptions of the workplace relative to gender, position (head nurses, staff nurses, and agency nurses), specialty nursing (intensive care unit [ICU] versus non-ICU), education (MSN, BSN, and ADN), and patterns of differences between the WES subscales of four military medical centers. Results of the study indicate that there were no significant gender differences. Head nurses, non-ICU nurses, and MSN nurses perceived their environment more positively. There were significant differences in the WES subscales between the military hospitals. Implications for nursing using the WES were recommended.

  5. Practice environment and its association with professional competence and work-related factors: perception of newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Ruoppa, Eija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Hupli, Maija; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    To explore newly graduated nurses' (NGN) perception of their practice environment and its association with their self-assessed competence, turnover intentions and job satisfaction as work-related factors. The impact of practice environment on nurses' work is important. Positive practice environments are associated with positive organisational, nurse and patient outcomes. How this applies to NGNs needs further exploration. A cross-sectional descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected with PES-NWI and NCS instruments from 318 Finnish registered nurses, and analysed statistically. Newly graduated nurses' perception of their practice environment was mainly positive. Most positive perceptions related to collegial nurse-physician relations, and the least positive to staffing and resource adequacy. Positive perceptions were also associated with higher professional competence, higher perceptions of quality of care and lower intentions to leave the job or profession. The findings revealed strong and significant associations between practice environment and work-related factors. Practice environment is an important element in supporting NGNs' competence, retention and job satisfaction. Nursing management should pay attention to NGNs' perceptions of their practice environment. Management's ability to create and maintain positive practice environments can foster NGNs' professional development and job satisfaction, and consequently retain them in the workforce. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Haemodialysis work environment contributors to job satisfaction and stress: a sequential mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Douglas, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis nurses form long term relationships with patients in a technologically complex work environment. Previous studies have highlighted that haemodialysis nurses face stressors related to the nature of their work and also their work environments leading to reported high levels of burnout. Using Kanters (1997) Structural Empowerment Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to satisfaction with the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and burnout in haemodialysis nurses. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, the first phase involved an on-line survey comprising demographic and work characteristics, Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM), Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS), Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The second phase involved conducting eight semi-structured interviews with data thematically analyzed. From the 417 nurses surveyed the majority were female (90.9 %), aged over 41 years of age (74.3 %), and 47.4 % had worked in haemodialysis for more than 10 years. Overall the work environment was perceived positively and there was a moderate level of job satisfaction. However levels of stress and emotional exhaustion (burnout) were high. Two themes, ability to care and feeling successful as a nurse, provided clarity to the level of job satisfaction found in phase 1. While two further themes, patients as quasi-family and intense working teams, explained why working as a haemodialysis nurse was both satisfying and stressful. Nurse managers can use these results to identify issues being experienced by haemodialysis nurses working in the unit they are supervising.

  7. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used. RESULTS: Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0% responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0% experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  8. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435

  9. Analysis of comfort and ergonomics for clinical work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafti, Ali; Lazpita, Beatriz Urbistondo; Elhage, Oussama; Wurdemann, Helge A; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2016-08-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a serious risk to workers' health in any work environment, and especially in clinical work places. These disorders are typically the result of prolonged exposure to non-ergonomic postures and the resulting discomfort in the workplace. Thus a continuous assessment of comfort and ergonomics is necessary. There are different techniques available to make such assessments, such as self-reports on perceived discomfort and observational scoring models based on the posture's relevant joint angles. These methods are popular in medical and industrial environments alike. However, there are uncertainties with regards to objectivity of these methods and whether they provide a full picture. This paper reports on a study about these methods and how they correlate with the activity of muscles involved in the task at hand. A wearable 4-channel electromyography (EMG) and joint angle estimation device with wireless transmission was made specifically for this study to allow continuous, long-term and real-time measurements and recording of activities. N=10 participants took part in an experiment involving a buzz-wire test at 3 different levels, with their muscle activity (EMG), joint angle scores (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment - RULA), self-reports of perceived discomfort (Borg scale) and performance score on the buzz-wire being recorded and compared. Results show that the Borg scale is not responsive to smaller changes in discomfort whereas RULA and EMG can be used to detect more detailed changes in discomfort, effort and ergonomics.

  10. Seeking Connectivity in Nurses' Work Environments: Advancing Nurse Empowerment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how staff nurses and their managers exercise power in a hospital setting in order to better understand what fosters or constrains staff nurses' empowerment and to extend nurse empowerment theory. Power is integral to empowerment, and attention to the challenges in nurses' work environment and nurse outcomes by administrators, researchers, and policy-makers has created an imperative to advance a theoretical understanding of power in the nurse-manager relationship. A sample of 26 staff nurses on 3 units of a tertiary hospital in western Canada were observed and interviewed about how the manager affected their ability to do their work. Grounded theory methodology was used. The process of seeking connectivity was the basic social process, indicating that the manager plays a critical role in the work environment and nurses need the manager to share power with them in the provision of safe, quality patient care. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  11. Influence of the environment in the body position attitude during the practice of the physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valia Alina Crespo Almeira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the importance of postural attitude in environmental ergonomics considering that ergonomics is a multidisciplinary discipline that studies the systemic interactions between human machine in the development of different physical activities in their environment with the purpose of obtaining a state health, safety, mechanical efficiency and productivity to prevent repetitive strain injuries, positions held and musculoskeletal problems which can develop over time and can reach disabilities short or long term. Considering the influence of the environment on man to work: thermal, sound, light environments and its impact on health; anthropometric and biomechanical data: measures of bone, amplitudes segments of joint movements; the characteristics of muscular effort: The efficiency and effectiveness in physical activities in its various manifestations is contingent on first order to study the physical conditions such as; thermal environment, noise levels, air conditioning level, vibration hygienic conditions, including conditions schedules and secondly the attitude that sums the man in front of the activities which in one way or another affect job performance. It addresses the influence of postural attitude in environmental ergonomics while performing physical activities of man from the importance and prevalence of health problems related to the non-application of standards of environmental ergonomics.

  12. IGSCC in cold worked austenitic stainless steel in BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.; Lindblad, B.

    1989-09-01

    The survey shows that austenitic stainless steels in a cold worked condition can exhibit IGSCC in BWR environment. It is also found that IGSCC often is initiated as a transgranular crack. Local stresses and surface defects very often acts as starting points for IGSCC. IGSCC due to cold working requires a cold working magnitude of at leas 5%. During cold working a formation of mechanical martensite can take place. The transgranular corrosion occurs in the martensitic phase due to sensitation. The crack propagates integranularly due to anodic solvation of α'-martensite. Sensitation of the martensitic phase is fasten in BCC-structures than in a FCC-structures mainly due to faster diffusion of chromium and carbon which cause precipitation of chromium carbides. Experiments show that a carbon content as low as 0.008% is enough for the formation of 68% martensite and for sensitation. Hydrogen induced cracking is regarded as a mechanism which can accelerate IGSCC. Such cracking requires a hydrostatic stress near the crack tip. Since the oxide in the crack tip is relatively impermeable to hydrogen, cracks in the oxide layer are required for such embrittlement. Hydrogen induced embrittlement of the martensitic phase, at the crack tip, can cause crack propagation. Solution heat treated unstabilized stainless steels are regarded to have a good resistance to IGSCC if they have not undergone cold working. In general, though, Mo-alloyed steels have a better resistance to IGSCC in BWR environment. Regarding the causes for IGSCC, the present literature survey shows that many mechanisms are suggested. To provide a safer ground for the estimation of crack propagation rates, SA recommends SKI to finance a project with the aim to determine the crack propagation rate on proper material. (authors) (65 refs.)

  13. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  14. Physical work environment: testing an expanded model of job satisfaction in a sample of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Budin, Wendy C; Norman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The impact of personal, organizational, and economic factors on nurses' job satisfaction have been studied extensively, but few studies exist in which the effects of physical work environment--including perceptions of architectural, interior design, and ambient features on job satisfaction-are examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived physical work environment on job satisfaction, adjusting for multiple personal, organizational, and economic determinants of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, predictive design and a Web-based survey instrument were used to collect data from staff registered nurses in a large metropolitan hospital. The survey included 34 questions about multiple job satisfaction determinants, including 18 Likert-type measures with established good validity (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, root mean square error of approximation = .06) and reliability (r ≥ .70). A response rate of 48.5% resulted in a sample of 362, with 80% power to detect a medium effect of perceived physical environment on job satisfaction. On average, nurses had negative perceptions of physical work environment (M = 2.9, SD = 2.2). Although physical environment was related positively to job satisfaction (r =.256, p = .01) in bivariate analysis, in ordered probit regression, no effect of physical work environment on job satisfaction was found. In future studies, this relationship should be examined in larger and more representative samples of nurses. Qualitative methods should be used to explore how negatively perceived physical work environment impacts nurses. Rebuilding of U.S. hospitals, with a planned investment of $200 billion without considering how physical environment contributes to nurse work outcomes, threatens to exacerbate organizational nurse turnover.

  15. The psychosocial work environment is associated with risk of stroke at working age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, Katarina; Karlsson, Nadine; Medin, Jennie; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Wester, Per; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the relation between the risk of first-ever stroke at working age and psychological work environmental factors. Methods A consecutive multicenter matched 1:2 case-control study of acute stroke cases (N=198, age 30-65 years) who had been working full-time at the time of their stroke and 396 sex- and age-matched controls. Stroke cases and controls answered questionnaires on their psychosocial situation during the previous 12 months. The psychosocial work environment was assessed using three different measures: the job-control-demand model, the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) score, and exposures to conflict at work. Results Among 198 stroke cases and 396 controls, job strain [odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05-1.62], ERI (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.62), and conflict at work (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.07-2.88) were independent risk factors of stroke in multivariable regression models. Conclusions Adverse psychosocial working conditions during the past 12 months were more frequently observed among stroke cases. Since these factors are presumably modifiable, interventional studies targeting job strain and emotional work environment are warranted.

  16. Wood pellets and work environment; Traepiller og arbejdsmiljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, S.

    2012-07-01

    The project aim was to evaluate the working environment in the production, transport and use of wood pellets. Furthermore, obtained knowledge and guidelines should be disseminated to relevant audiences. The first aim was achieved by making dust measurements at various relevant locations and analyze the results. Several technical problems regarding the measurements occurred during the project. In general, the manual handling of pellets often is a short-term task, which limits the amount of dust that can be collected on the sampling filter. The solution to this problem could be the use of in situ monitoring equipment, however, this technic did not work well for wood dust. Dissemination is mainly done by publishing the findings and guidelines on the webpage www.fyrmedpiller.dk. The result shows that there are widespread dust problems associated with the use and handling of pellets. The result may have been expected in the wood pellet industry, which has been reluctant to support this project. Legislation on the working environment has set a threshold limit for the dust concentration in the air on max 1 mg of dust per cubic meters of air over a working day and in over shorter periods this limit may be doubled. These threshold values were exceeded in many cases. Brief overview: The production of pellets takes place in a very dusty working environment, but the specific pelletizing and bagging processes only produce limited amounts of dust. The dust problems are major in the large warehouses where the handling of the raw material for the pellets increases the dust concentration in the air to levels that by far exceeds the legal threshold values. The work is mainly carried out from the cabin of different machines e.g. loaders and bobcats. It turns out that the average dust concentration in these cabins with filters also exceeds the threshold values. The transports of wood pellets include loading, unloading and delivery of loose pellets, all situations that are critical

  17. APPROACHING THE DISCRIMINATORY WORK ENVIRONMENT AS STRESSOR: THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Di Marco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organisational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organisational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyse the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male= 826, female= 764, employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R²= .17. This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognise and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g. through training, diversity policies, etc.. On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g. providing mechanisms of voice might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.Keywords: Discriminatory work environment, Job satisfaction, Employees’ health, Human Resource Management, Italian workers, Workplace, Work-related stress

  18. Learning Environment at Work: Dilemmas Facing Professional Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Andersen, Anders Siig

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to increase efficiency and democracy, the modernozation of the public sector has involved an increase in market and user control, an increased application of technology, a decentralization of responsibilities and competencies, and more management and personnel development initiatives....... The article analyze the learning environment in two govermental worksites in Denmark and shows how professional employees respond to the dilemmas posed by modernization at work.......In an effort to increase efficiency and democracy, the modernozation of the public sector has involved an increase in market and user control, an increased application of technology, a decentralization of responsibilities and competencies, and more management and personnel development initiatives...

  19. Race, Gender, and Reseacher Positionality Analysed Through Memory Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke; Myong, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist standpoint theory and memory work, the authors analyse racial privilege by investigating their own racialized and gendered subjectifications as academic researchers. By looking at their own experiences within academia, they show how authority and agency are contingent upon...

  20. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 août 2016 ... Image. Report cover. Malose Langa, Themba Masuku, David Bruce and Hugo van der Merwe. IDRC-supported research has found that while South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) has reduced violence and poverty in some communities, in others it has exacerbated tensions and increased ...

  1. Teacher performance and work environment in the instructional process in vocational school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro, Tri; Dardiri, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Teachers should have pedagogical, personality, social, and professional competency. stated that performance appraisal has several benefits, namely for the implementation of reward and punishment system, provision of feedback for teachers to develop their competencies, identification of training needs, and diagnosis of problems. According to performance is one's work result or success rate as a whole over a certain period of time in performing tasks compared to various possibilities, such as work standards, targets or criteria which have been predetermined and agreed. One's performance is based on daily tasks and responsibilities assigned to him/her. The racial differences in personality are largely due to different environmental influences, where people of different races have progressed for generations. Vocational high school teachers have a low pedagogic and professional performance. The factors that influence performance, according to the partner-lawyer model proposed, are expectations about rewards, encouragements, abilities, needs and traits, perceptions of tasks, internal and external rewards, perceptions of reward levels and job satisfaction. This study used a survey method to collect data or information about a large population using relatively small samples. The population of this research was vocational high school teachers. Data analysis techniques used the Regression Analysis with the assistance of SPSS. The results of teacher performance are as follows: 1) the pedagogic performance was relatively good; 2) professional performance was relatively good, and the overall performance of vocational high school teachers was still less effective and efficient; 3) the teachers' work environment was 42.5234%; and 4) there was no correlation between work environment and teacher performance, meaning that the work environment (conditions of physical work environment, psychological work environment, and non-physical work environment) does not positively support the

  2. Researcher-participant positioning and the discursive work of categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on methodological experiences from an ethnographic study in psychiatric institutions in Denmark. Drawing on a poststructural framework and newer discussions within qualitative research that view methodological problems as sources of data, the paper analyzes how the challenges...... positions in between. At the same time, it is shown that the patients find ways to resist the objectifying practices of the researcher as well as of the mental health services. The conclusions are discussed against recent attempts within the mental health services to promote a more patient-centered approach...

  3. Person factors and work environments of workers who use mobility devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David B; Morgan, Kerri A; Gottlieb, Meghan; Hollingsworth, Holly H

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25% of people with mobility impairments and limitations who are of working age are employed, yet few studies have examined their perspectives on their jobs or work environments required to complete job tasks. The purpose of this study was to describe the factors that contribute to successful employment for those who use mobility devices. A convenience sample of 132 workers who use power wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, canes, crutches or walkers. Participants completed an online version of the Mobility Device User Work Survey (MWS). A multivariate analysis and a two-step multiple linear regression analysis were used. Study participants had few secondary health conditions that influenced their work. Employee satisfactoriness to their employers was high. Accessibility of worksites was high. Assistive technologies were inexpensive, and personal assistance was used infrequently and usually was unpaid. Co-worker communications were very positive. Flexible work rules and supportive managers were highly valued. Job satisfaction positively correlated with accessibility, work tasks, co-worker communication and work support. The description of work environments of successfully employed mobility device users can provide some useful guidance to employers, vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors and unemployed mobility device users to balance employee abilities and preferences with the needs of employers.

  4. Positive mental health among health professionals working at a psychiatric hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Picco

    Full Text Available Positive mental health (PMH is a combination of emotional, psychological and social well-being that is necessary for an individual to be mentally healthy. The current study aims to examine the socio-demographic differences of PMH among mental health professionals and to explore the association between job satisfaction and total PMH.Doctors, nurses and allied health staff (n = 462 completed the online survey which included the multidimensional 47-item PMH instrument as well as a single item job satisfaction question. Associations of PMH with job satisfaction were investigated via linear regression models.Significant differences in PMH total and domain specific scores were observed across socio-demographic characteristics. Age and ethnicity were significantly correlated with PMH total scores as well as various domain scores, while gender, marital and residency status and the staff's position were only significantly correlated with domain specific scores. Job satisfaction was also found to be a significantly associated with total PMH.The workplace is a key environment that affects the mental health and well-being of working adults. In order to promote and foster PMH, workplaces need to consider the importance of psychosocial well-being and the wellness of staff whilst providing an environment that supports and maintains overall health and work efficiency.

  5. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Geurts, Sabine; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the subjects' general and domain-specific well-being were examined. The sample (n = 202) consisted of Finnish employees, aged 42, who had a spouse/partner. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model, including negative work-to-family spillover, negative family-to-work spillover, positive work-to-family spillover, and positive family-to-work spillover, was superior compared to the other factor models examined. Path analysis showed, as hypothesized, that the negative work-to-family spillover was most strongly related to low well-being at work (job exhaustion) and next strongly to low general well-being (psychological distress), whereas the negative family-to-work spillover was associated with low well-being in the domain of family (marital dissatisfaction). Positive work-to-family spillover was positively related both to well-being at work and general well-being. Inconsistent with our expectations, positive family-to-work spillover was not directly related to any of the well-being indicators examined.

  6. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, T. V.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2009-08-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the genral perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of measurement and

  7. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramchandran, T.V.; Sahoo, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222 Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222 Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222 Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220 Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the general perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon ( 222 Rn), and thoron ( 220 Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220 Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220 Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220 Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232 Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of

  8. Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

    2008-07-01

    A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.

  9. Effect assessment in work environment interventions: a methodological reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W P; Eklund, J; Hansson, B; Lindbeck, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proof". It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised.

  10. Position Paper: Designing Complex Systems to Support Interdisciplinary Cognitive Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Melissa T.; Papalambros, Panos Y.; Mcgowan, Anna-Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the field we can call cognitive science of interdisciplinary collaboration is an important area of study for improving design of Large-Scale Complex Systems (LaCES) and supporting cognitive work. The paper mostly raised questions that have been documented in earlier qualitative analysis studies, and provided possible avenues of exploration for addressing them. There are likely further contributions from additional disciplines beyond those mentioned in this paper that should be considered and integrated into such a cognitive science framework. Knowledge and awareness of various perspectives will help to inform the types of interventions available for improving LaCES design and functionality. For example, a cognitive interpretation of interdisciplinary collaborations in LaCES elucidated the need for a "translator" or "mediator" in helping subject matter experts to transcend language boundaries, mitigate single discipline bias, support integrative activities, and correct misaligned objectives. Additional research in this direction is likely to uncover similar gaps and opportunities for improvements in practice.

  11. WORKING ENVIRONMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG HEALTH PROFESSIONAL WORKING AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imrana; Kumar, Ramesh; Rathore, Anita; Lal, Manohr

    2015-01-01

    Work environment is believed to be a major factor for better performance of human resource for health in any organization. This study concentrated on multiple factors involved in job satisfaction was appraised to critique their efficient significance in calculation of the health professional liking. Factors included job matched with workers' skills/experience, incentives, supervision, administrator support; convenient work load, training, appreciation, low pay and job protection were major contributors in job satisfaction. A mix method study was done in 2014; an initial descriptive cross sectional survey was done followed by qualitative approach. Eighteen in-depth interviews with health care providers were conducted after taking written consent. Nodes, sub-nodes and final themes were generated during qualitative data analysis. Main findings and themes were, generated after making the nodes and sub-nodes from the most frequent responses. These themes were; absence of work pressure, work place safety, social support, learning opportunities, and employee influence on conditions and recognition individual or team efforts. Work environment is a major contributing factor towards job satisfaction among the health workers.

  12. Methods for Process Evaluation of Work Environment Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Hanne; Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    or management perceptions and actions in implementing any intervention and their influence on the overall result of the intervention' (Nytrø, Saksvik, Mikkelsen, Bohle, and Quinlan, 2000). Process evaluation can be used to a) provide feedback for improving interventions, b) interpret the outcomes of effect......In recent years, intervention studies have become increasingly popular within occupational health psychology. The vast majority of such studies have focused on interventions themselves and their effects on the working environment and employee health and well-being. Few studies have focused on how...... the context and processes surrounding the intervention may have influenced the outcomes (Hurrell and Murphy, 1996). Thus, there is still relatively little published research that provides us with information on how to evaluate such strategies and processes (Saksvik, Nytrø, Dahl-Jørgensen, and Mikkelsen, 2002...

  13. Multichannel sound reinforcement systems at work in a learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, John; Campbell, Colin

    2003-04-01

    Many people have experienced the entertaining benefits of a surround sound system, either in their own home or in a movie theater, but another application exists for multichannel sound that has for the most part gone unused. This is the application of multichannel sound systems to the learning environment. By incorporating a 7.1 surround processor and a touch panel interface programmable control system, the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning has been converted from an ordinary lecture hall to a working audiovisual laboratory. The multichannel sound system is used in a wide variety of experiments, including exposure to sounds to test listeners' aural perception of the tonal characteristics of varying pitch, reverberation, speech transmission index, and sound-pressure level. The touch panel's custom interface allows a variety of user groups to control different parts of the AV system and provides preset capability that allows for numerous system configurations.

  14. Organizational structures in Collaborative Work Environments: the return of the matrix?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guldemond, E.; Have, K. ten; Knoppe, R.

    2010-01-01

    After major petroleum companies successfully implemented the hardware, tools and applications in Collaborative Work Environments (CWE), human factor issues remain unsolved. Working in these Collaborative Work Environments cuts across traditional disciplinary and geographically dispersed boundaries.

  15. Dysfunctional Scrum: Making it work in a matrixed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Johnson, Ranata L.

    2011-05-16

    While we may be operating as dysfunctional Scrum teams at PNNL, where consistency of implementation will remain an ongoing goal, our experiences are showing a pattern of benefit from following the process as best we can. We have found value in socializing stories and user narratives to describe the user experience. We have teams that meet daily for 30 minutes and sit down while they do it, but it has proven valuable to them. We have had several successful teams deliver products even in our dysfunctional environment. Our ScrumMasters work multiple projects and strive for consistency but in our environment (R&D, engineering, and software development) we need to be adaptable and implement those aspects of the discipline that provide benefits to the teams and clients. Our implementations are not 'by the book,' but as long as teams and customers find value in it and our communication and quality of our software products are improved, then we expect to continue using Agile with Scrum.

  16. The scholarly productivity and work environments of academic pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia; Raja, G Leela

    2017-09-08

    Productive faculty are key to generating new knowledge and advancing pharmacy practice. The work environments of academic pharmacists are critical to their vitality, commitment, and longevity. To (1) identify correlates of faculty scholarly productivity and teaching effectiveness, considering personal and environmental characteristics; (2) determine the relationship between a faculty's perception of organizational citizenship behaviors they witness with the organizational culture of their employing college/school of pharmacy; and (3) describe the relationship between organizational climate, job satisfaction, and commitment of academic pharmacists. A self-administered survey was disseminated to a random sample of U.S. academic pharmacists acquired from AACP list-servs. The survey measured perceptions of their organization's culture, the organizational citizenship behaviors they witness at their institution, their job satisfaction, teaching load and productivity, and scholarly productivity based upon peer-reviewed scholarly papers accepted. Both bivariate and multivariate (regression) procedures were employed to identify factors most responsible for explaining academic pharmacist's work environment. Responses were received from 177 of 600 survey recipients. Faculty reported having had accepted 10.9 ± 13.6 papers in peer-reviewed journals during the previous 5 years, with most of those in journals with relatively low Impact Factor scores. Faculty productivity was related to type of academic institution employed, teaching effectiveness, job satisfaction, and other factors. Organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational culture was seen similarly by faculty of varied ranks and experience levels. Commitment to remain at the current college/school of pharmacy was highly associated with culture, climate, and job satisfaction conditions. The results provided evidence for a strong connection or nexus between teaching and research effectiveness. Organizational

  17. Miniature magnetic fluid seal working in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: ymitamura@par.odn.ne.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Durst, Christopher A., E-mail: chris@procyrion.com [Procyrion, Inc., Houston, TX 77027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to develop a miniature magnetic fluid (MF) seal working in a liquid environment. The miniature MF seal is intended for use in a catheter blood pump. The requirements for the MF seal included a size of less than Ø4×4.5 mm, shaft diameter of 1 mm, sealing pressure of 200 mmHg, shaft speed of up to 40000 rpm, and life of one month. The miniature MF seal was composed of an NdFeB magnet (Ø4×Ø2×1) sandwiched between two pole pieces (Ø4×Ø1.1×0.5). A shield (Ø4×Ø1.2×1.5) was placed on the pole piece facing the liquid to minimize the influence of pump flow on the MF. The seal was installed on a Ø1 shaft. A seal was formed by injecting MF (Ms: 47.8 kA/m and η: 0.5 Pa·sec) into the gap between the pole pieces and the shaft. Total volume of the MF seal was 44 μL. A sealing pressure of 370 mmHg was obtained at motor speeds of 0-40,000 rpm. The seal remained perfect for 10 days in saline under the condition of a pump flow of 1.5 L/min (The test was terminated in accordance with plans). The seal remained intact after ethylene oxide sterilization during which the seal was exposed to high pressures. In conclusion, the newly developed MF seal will be useful for a catheter pump. - Highlights: • A miniature magnetic fluid seal working in a liquid environment was developed. • The seal can be installed on Ø1 mm shaft and can seal against 370 mmHg at 40000 rpm. • The magnetic fluid seal will be useful for a catheter blood pump.

  18. Changes in hospital nurse work environments and nurse job outcomes: an analysis of panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutney-Lee, Ann; Wu, Evan S; Sloane, Douglas M; Aiken, Linda H

    2013-02-01

    One strategy proposed to alleviate nursing shortages is the promotion of organizational efforts that will improve nurse recruitment and retention. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the quality of the nurse work environment is associated with nurse outcomes related to retention, but there have been very few longitudinal studies undertaken to examine this relationship. To demonstrate how rates of burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction changed in a panel of hospitals over time, and to explore whether these outcomes were associated with changes in nurse work environments. A retrospective, two-stage panel design was chosen for this study. Survey data collected from large random samples of registered nurses employed in Pennsylvania hospitals in 1999 and 2006 were used to derive hospital-level rates of burnout, intention to leave current position, and job dissatisfaction, and to classify the quality of nurses' work environments at both points in time. A two-period difference model was used to estimate the dependence of changes in rates of nurse burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction on changes in nurse work environments between 1999 and 2006 in 137 hospitals, accounting for concurrent changes in nurse staffing levels. In general, nurse outcomes improved between 1999 and 2006, with fewer nurses reporting burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction in 2006 as compared to 1999. Our difference models showed that improvements in work environment had a strong negative association with changes in rates of burnout (β=-6.42%, pjob dissatisfaction (β=-8.00%, pburnout, intention to leave current position, and job dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes: exploring the mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; Michel, Jesse S; Stevens, Gregory W; Howell, Julia W; Scruggs, Ross S

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the mechanisms through which workaholism and work engagement impact work-home conflict and enrichment, respectively. Specifically, we examine the mediating role of positive and negative emotions (e.g. joviality and guilt) in the relationship between workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes. Results, based on a sample of 340 working adults participating in a two-wave study, indicate that negative emotions-particularly anxiety, anger and disappointment-mediate the relationship between workaholism and work-home conflict and positive emotions-particularly joviality and self-assurance-mediate the relationship between work engagement and work-home enrichment. These results provide further evidence that workaholism and work engagement are related to distinct sets of emotional variables and disparate work and home outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  1. Organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.

  2. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  3. Green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives:Some empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  4. Effect of Practice Ownership on Work Environment, Learning Culture, Psychological Safety, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison; Krist, Alex H; Nichols, Len M; Kuzel, Anton J

    2018-04-01

    Physicians have joined larger groups and hospital systems in the face of multiple environmental challenges. We examine whether there are differences across practice ownership in self-reported work environment, a practice culture of learning, psychological safety, and burnout. Using cross-sectional data from staff surveys of small and medium-size practices that participated in EvidenceNOW in Virginia, we tested for differences in work environment, culture of learning, psychological safety, and burnout by practice type. We conducted weighted multivariate linear regression of outcomes on ownership, controlling for practice size, specialty mix, payer mix, and whether the practice was located in a medically underserved area. We further analyzed clinician and staff responses separately. Participating were 104 hospital-owned and 61 independent practices and 24 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). We analyzed 2,005 responses from practice clinicians and staff, a response rate of 49%. Working in a hospital-owned practice was associated with favorable ratings of work environment, psychological safety, and burnout compared with independent practices. When we examined separately the responses of clinicians vs staff, however, the association appears to be largely driven by staff. Hospital ownership was associated with positive perceptions of practice work environment and lower burnout for staff relative to independent ownership, whereas clinicians in FQHCs perceive a more negative, less joyful work environment and burnout. Our findings are suggestive that clinician and nonclinician staff perceive practice adaptive reserve differently, which may have implications for creating the energy for ongoing quality improvement work. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  5. Enriched environment at work: Disassociated from stress and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-05-22

    Enriched environment at work (EEW), in terms of high mental demands at work, may be of great relevance for preventative efforts against cognitive decline and dementia as previous studies have shown. Yet, there is the concern that high EEW mental demands may accelerate stress and cause burnout. The aim of our study was to investigate how EEW mental demands are related to stress and burnout. A convenience sample of employees in the city area of Leipzig, Germany, was asked to fill out the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and indicate for each EEW mental demand the level experienced, demandingness, and stressfulness. Multivariate linear regression and structural equation modelling suggested that only some EEW mental demands were perceived as stressful when the level of the respective EEW mental demand was high. Higher stressfulness was associated with burnout symptoms - however, high levels of EEW mental demands were not significantly associated with burnout (neither directly nor indirectly). Our findings implied that subjectively perceived stressfulness seems to be a more relevant aspect than the actual level of the demand itself. However, further studies are necessary to validate our findings.

  6. Relationships among leadership practices, work environments, staff communication and outcomes in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Cranley, Lisa; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Pachis, Jaime

    2010-11-01

    To examine the role that work relationships have on two long-term care outcomes: job satisfaction and turnover intention. It is easy to overlook the impact that human relations have in shaping work environments that are conducive to organizational effectiveness. Employee job satisfaction and retention are important organizational outcomes. Six hundred and seventy-five nursing and other staff from 26 long-term care facilities were surveyed about their work environments, work group relationships, observed leadership practices, organizational support, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with lower emotional exhaustion burnout, higher global empowerment, higher organizational support, higher psychological empowerment, stronger work group cohesion and higher personal accomplishment. Higher turnover intention was associated with lower job satisfaction, higher emotional exhaustion burnout, more outside job opportunities, weaker work group cohesion, lower personal accomplishment and higher depersonalization. No relationship was found between leadership practices and job satisfaction or turnover intention. Stronger work group relationships, stronger sense of personal accomplishment and lower emotional exhaustion have direct effects on increasing job satisfaction and lowering turnover intention. To retain long-term care staff, attention should be paid to fostering positive work group cohesion, supporting and acknowledging staff accomplishments and minimizing staff burnout. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  8. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  9. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Feldt, T.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Pulkkinen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the

  10. Family environment and adult resilience: contributions of positive parenting and the oxytocin receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekh Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abundant research shows that childhood adversity increases the risk for adult psychopathology while research on influences of positive family environment on risk for psychopathology is limited. Similarly, a growing body of research examines genetic and gene by environment predictors of psychopathology, yet such research on predictors of resilience is sparse. Objectives: We examined the role of positive factors in childhood family environment (CFE and the OXTR rs53576 genotype in predicting levels of adult resilient coping and positive affect. We also examined whether the relationship between positive factors in the CFEs and adult resilient coping and positive affect varied across OXTR rs53576 genotype. Methods: We gathered self-report data on childhood environment, trauma history, and adult resilience and positive affect in a sample of 971 African American adults. Results: We found that positive CFE was positively associated with higher levels of resilient coping and positive affect in adulthood after controlling for childhood maltreatment, other trauma, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We did not find a direct effect of OXTR 53576 on a combined resilient coping/positive-affect-dependent variable, but we did find an interaction of OXTR rs53576 with family environment. Conclusions: Our data suggest that even in the face of adversity, positive aspects of the family environment may contribute to resilience. These results highlight the importance of considering protective developmental experiences and the interaction of such experiences with genetic variants in risk and resilience research.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  11. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  12. Impact of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses' work engagement: test of structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Yanhui

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses' work engagement. Previous researchers have acknowledged the positive influence that nurse work environment and psychological empowerment have on engagement. However, less is known about the mechanisms that explain the links between them. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 300 clinical nurses from two tertiary first class hospitals of Tianjin, China. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Psychological Empowerment Scale were used to measure the study variables. Structural equation modelling revealed a good fit of the model to the data based on various fit indices (P = 0.371, χ(2) /df = 1.056, goodness of fit index = 0.967), which indicated that both professional practice environment and psychological empowerment could positively influence work engagement directly, and professional practice environment could also indirectly influence work engagement through the mediation of psychological empowerment. The study hypotheses were supported. Psychological empowerment was found to mediate the relationship between practice environments and work engagement. Administrators should provide a professional nursing practice environment and empower nurses psychologically to increase nurse engagement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Work environment and health promotion needs among personnel in the faculty of medicine, Thammasat university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2013-04-01

    Work environment and health promotion needs are important factors for quality of life of workers. Study occupational health and safety hazards and control measures as well as health status and health promotion needs among personnel in Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University. This was a cross sectional study. Questionnaires were designed to collect demographic data, health status, health promotion needs, occupational health and safety hazards, and job demand/control data. Questionnaires were sent out to 181 personnel and 145 were returned filled-out (80.1%). Among them, 42.8% had physical illness or stress, 68.3% had debt problem, 20% had some problems with coworker or work environment, 65.5% had a high workload, and 64.1% felt they did not get enough work benefits. Job demand and control factors included attention from leaders, fast-pace work, relationship among coworkers, repetitive work, hard work, high stress work, and high workload The occupational safety and health system included training to use new equipment, supervisor training, work skill training, work in sitting position for long period of time, appropriate periodic health exam, appropriate medical service, proper canteen, proper salary raise, and facilities for health promotion. In the occupational health hazards, employees were working in low temperature, bright light, and had a lack of health promotion programs. Requested programs to improve quality of life were Thai traditional massage, workplace improvement, health promotion, one-day travel, and Friday's happy and healthy program. Results from the present study can be used to improve workplace environment and health of personnel in the Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University.

  14. The significance of psychosocial factors of the working environment in the development of sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sick building syndrome (SBS is a medical condition in which people in a certain buildings suffer from symptoms of illness or feeling unwell. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure of the employees of public institutions from the city of Osijek to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment, to assess whether there is a connection between the exposure to these factors and the incidence of SBS symptoms and to clarify the nature of this connection.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2013 among 178 employees of public institutions in the city of Osijek. An anonymous questionnaire which contained questions relating to demographic data and working status of the participants, their exposure to various harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and occurrence of certain symptoms of SBS among them was used as a research tool.Results: 96.1 % (171/178 of participants were exposed to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment. Employees exposed to those factors more frequently expressed symptoms of SBS. The incidence and the number of symptoms of SBS among employees simultaneously grew with the increase of the number of harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment to which they were exposed.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the exposure to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and the incidence of SBS symptoms, highlighting this issue as a very important subject in the field of occupational medicine and health protection in the workplace.

  15. How the Environment Is Positioned in the "Next Generation Science Standards": A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.; Henderson, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how the environment and environmental issues are conceptualized and positioned in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) to examine underlying assumptions about the environment. The NGSS are a recent set of science standards in the USA, organized and led by Achieve Inc., that propose science education…

  16. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  17. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  18. Forming a positive image of a scientific institution in the social environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Kachalov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine study and systematize methods of forming and maintaining an attractive brand of a Humanities research organizations under the present conditions in Russia. Methods abstractlogical. Results the article analyzes the value of information on scientific research results and the mechanisms of its propagation under the conditions of reducing the financing of scientific organizations. The problem is establishing relationships of Humanities research organizations with potential users. It is shown that the solution to this problem may be found in the formation of a positive image of a research organization in the form of a brand that can ensure effective dissemination of information about the achievements of the research organizations and possible ways of their commercial applications in the practical work of production and educational institutions. The article studies the approaches to definition of a research organization brand including the notions of authority and reputation based on them the authorrsquos approach to this term is formulated. It is shown that a significant role in the formation of the brand is played by infocommunicational environment which is a necessary condition for the formation of the positive image of a research organization. The concept of target audience of a research organization is defined its segmentation is carried out into several groups according to types of interaction types of cooperation and the expected results of partnership. The ways are identified to attract attention of the target audience as well as the principles of interaction with other research organizations and potential consumers of research results. Recommendations on brand development of a research organization are formulated on the basis of temporal and spatial approach. Scientific novelty the paper for the first time presents the structure of the target audience of the brand of a research organization in sociological and

  19. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  20. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2013-01-17

    Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

  1. Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G; Tate, Kaitlyn; Lee, Sarah; Wong, Carol A; Paananen, Tanya; Micaroni, Simone P M; Chatterjee, Gargi E

    2018-05-03

    Leadership is critical in building quality work environments, implementing new models of care, and bringing health and wellbeing to a strained nursing workforce. However, the nature of leadership style, how leadership should be enacted, and its associated outcomes requires further research and understanding. We aimed to examine the relationships between various styles of leadership and outcomes for the nursing workforce and their work environments. The search strategy of this systematic review included 10 electronic databases. Published, quantitative studies that examined the correlations between leadership behaviours and nursing outcomes were included. Quality assessments, data extractions and analysis were completed on all included studies by independent reviewers. A total of 50,941 titles and abstracts were screened resulting in 129 included studies. Using content analysis, 121 outcomes were grouped into six categories: 1) staff satisfaction with job factors, 2) staff relationships with work, 3) staff health & wellbeing, 4) relations among staff, 5) organizational environment factors and 6) productivity & effectiveness. Our analysis illuminated patterns between relational and task focused leadership styles and their outcomes for nurses and nursing work environments. For example, 52 studies reported that relational leadership styles were associated with higher nurse job satisfaction, whereas 16 studies found that task-focused leadership styles were associated with lower nurse job satisfaction. Similar trends were found for each category of outcomes. The findings of this systematic review provide strong support for the employment of relational leadership styles to promote positive nursing workforce outcomes and related organizational outcomes. Leadership focused solely on task completion is insufficient to achieve optimum outcomes for the nursing workforce. Relational leadership practices need to be encouraged and supported by individuals and organizations to

  2. Creative work environments in sport organizations: the influence of sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace.

  3. Relative Panoramic Camera Position Estimation for Image-Based Virtual Reality Networks in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Akano, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Sekiguchi, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Image-based virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  4. Work, work environments and other factors influencing nurse faculty intention to remain employed: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Saari, Margaret; Patterson, Erin; Ferron, Era Mae; Thomson, Heather; Widger, Kimberley; MacMillan, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Given the role nurse faculty have in educating nurses, little is known about what influences their intention to remain employed (ITR) in academic settings. Findings from a nurse faculty survey administered to test a conceptual model of factors hypothesized as influencing nurse faculty ITR are reported. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. We included colleges and universities in Ontario, Canada. The population of Ontario nurse faculty who reported being employed as nurse faculty with the College of Nurses of Ontario (Canada) was included. Of the 1328 nurse faculty who were surveyed, 650 participated. Participants completed a questionnaire with measures of work, work environment, job satisfaction, burnout and ITR. Regression analyses were conducted to test the model. Ten of 26 independent variables explained 25.4% of variance in nurse faculty ITR for five years. These variables included: proximity to retirement, quality of relationships with colleagues, being employed full time, having dependents, satisfaction with work-life balance, quality of education, satisfaction with job status, access to financial support for education from organization, access to required human resources and being unionized. Although not all influencing factors are modifiable, academic leadership should develop strategies that encourage nurse faculty ITR. Strategies that support collegial relationships among faculty, increase the number of full time positions, promote work-life balance, engage faculty in assessing and strengthening education quality, support faculty choice between full-time and part-time work, and ensure adequate human resources required to teach effectively will lead to heightened nurse faculty ITR. © 2013.

  5. Effects of Positioning Aids on Understanding the Relationship Between a Mobile Map and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technologies such as GPS enable mobile map applications to display a symbol representing an estimation of a user’s location on a mobile map, therefore acting as a positioning aid. Previous research on the cognitive processes involved in map reading suggests that map readers need at least two map–environment points (objects that are visualized on the map and perceived in the environment for determining their location on a map. Hence, the positioning aid alone does not provide enough information for self-location. Using a field experiment, we assessed the effect of representing the user’s location on a map on the cognitive processes involved in self-location. The results show that positioning aids guide the search for map–environment points and narrow the area on the map that must be scanned for self-location.

  6. Intelligent navigation and accurate positioning of an assist robot in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Bin; Rama, Endri; Capi, Genci; Jindai, Mitsuru; Tsuri, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    Intact robot's navigation and accurate positioning in indoor environments are still challenging tasks. Especially in robot applications, assisting disabled and/or elderly people in museums/art gallery environments. In this paper, we present a human-like navigation method, where the neural networks control the wheelchair robot to reach the goal location safely, by imitating the supervisor's motions, and positioning in the intended location. In a museum similar environment, the mobile robot starts navigation from various positions, and uses a low-cost camera to track the target picture, and a laser range finder to make a safe navigation. Results show that the neural controller with the Conjugate Gradient Backpropagation training algorithm gives a robust response to guide the mobile robot accurately to the goal position.

  7. Differences in the Psychosocial Work Environment of Different Types of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, John G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Work Environment Scale (WES) to measure teachers' perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their school environment. Describes an application of WES in which work climates of different school types were compared and contrasted. (RJC)

  8. Hodgkin's disease, work, and the environment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, R J

    1999-01-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD), a lymphoma with an annual incidence in the United States of approximately 7500 cases, primarily affects the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. The point of this article is to critically review the literature regarding the purported relationships between HD, certain occupations, and exposure to chemical agents. Attention will also be focused on recent advances in molecular genetics in the etiology of this ailment. A MEDLINE search was conducted to assess case-control and mortality evaluations that investigated links between HD and certain occupations and exposure to designated hazards. A review of citations in the Silver Platter Occupational and Environmental Medicine CD-ROM database was also conducted to ensure that all pertinent reports were obtained. Of the industries evaluated, woodworking showed the most consistent link between an increased risk of HD (relative risk, 1.8 to 7.2), but not all studies conducted showed positive associations. Although certain chemicals (ie, chlorophenols, pesticides) were reported as risks, no chemical was consistently and unambiguously linked with HD. Recent investigative work, however, points to a major etiological role for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), genetic fragments of which have been noted in Reed-Sternberg cells, the classic malignant cells of HD. The occupation most consistently associated with HD appears to be woodworking, although no specific chemical has been consistently linked with this lymphoma. The most persuasive evidence regarding the cause of HD arises from recent studies, including epidemiological, clinical, and genetic studies, that point to a major role by the EBV.

  9. Making Materials Matter—A Contribution to a Sociomaterial Perspective on Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Simonsen Abildgaard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the implications of adopting an STS (science and technology studies- based conceptualization of the psychosocial work environment. We problematize how work environment research presently divides elements of working conditions into separate physical and psychosocial dimensions. Based on actor network theory, a currently dominant perspective in the field of STS, we discuss the concept of sociomaterial work environment. An ANT perspective on work environment is relevant and timely, we argue, first and foremost because more entities are embraced in the analyses. We argue that the ANT perspective leads to a more nuanced understanding of the work environment where it is not a set of predefined categories that is the focus of interest, but rather the work environment as multiple locally performed aspects of agency, translation, and collectively constructed reality. This perspective on work environment, we argue, addresses pivotal issues raised in the work environment debate during the last ten years, for instance of how the work environment as a concept saliently belongs to a social democratic Scandinavian agenda in which the singular employee in a work environment context is predominantly seen as a victim. This trope, which was peaking in the 1970s, is increasingly becoming obsolete in a changing economy with still more flexible jobs. The contribution of this paper is to provide a presentation and a discussion of the potentials and pitfalls provided by a shift toward a sociomaterial work environment perspective, as well as an empirical exemplification of a sociomaterial approach to work environment assessment.

  10. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-09-01

    (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION AND WORK ENVIRONMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Muchtar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.This  aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of employees of the University PGRI RonggolaweTuban. These factors are motivation and work environment. Employees who have a high motivation to work will have a positive impact for the organization, so as to achieve organizational goals. Hypothesis testing is done by spreading the questionnaire as many as 52 employees of the University PGRI RonggolaweTuban. Analysis using multiple linear regression analysis. Results of testing the hypothesis that the value F = 4,312; and p = 0.019 (p 0.05, meaning that work motivation has no significant effect on employee performance. On the environment variable obtained value t = 2,376; and p = 0.021 (p <0.05, which means that the working environment have a significant effect on employee performance. R2 = 0.115 shows that simultaneously motivated and able to contribute to the environmental performance of 11.5% on the employees of the University of PGRI RonggolaweTuban..

  12. The Work Breakdown Structure in an Acquisition Reform Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Neil

    1997-01-01

    These viewgraphs discuss acquisition reform, costs, provide a definition for work breakdown structure, development process of work breakdown, an overview of contract business management, a GAO review...

  13. Miniature magnetic fluid seal working in liquid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Durst, Christopher A.

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to develop a miniature magnetic fluid (MF) seal working in a liquid environment. The miniature MF seal is intended for use in a catheter blood pump. The requirements for the MF seal included a size of less than Ø4×4.5 mm, shaft diameter of 1 mm, sealing pressure of 200 mmHg, shaft speed of up to 40000 rpm, and life of one month. The miniature MF seal was composed of an NdFeB magnet (Ø4×Ø2×1) sandwiched between two pole pieces (Ø4×Ø1.1×0.5). A shield (Ø4×Ø1.2×1.5) was placed on the pole piece facing the liquid to minimize the influence of pump flow on the MF. The seal was installed on a Ø1 shaft. A seal was formed by injecting MF (Ms: 47.8 kA/m and η: 0.5 Pa·sec) into the gap between the pole pieces and the shaft. Total volume of the MF seal was 44 μL. A sealing pressure of 370 mmHg was obtained at motor speeds of 0-40,000 rpm. The seal remained perfect for 10 days in saline under the condition of a pump flow of 1.5 L/min (The test was terminated in accordance with plans). The seal remained intact after ethylene oxide sterilization during which the seal was exposed to high pressures. In conclusion, the newly developed MF seal will be useful for a catheter pump.

  14. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  15. Examining the "Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface": Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…

  16. The Joy of Social Work Administration: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Human Service Administrators' Positive Perceptions of Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…

  17. Collaborative Working e-Learning Environments Supported by Rule-Based e-Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Odeh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative working environments for distance education sets a goal of convenience and an adaptation into our technologically advanced societies. To achieve this revolutionary new way of learning, environments must allow the different participants to communicate and coordinate with each other in a productive manner. Productivity and efficiency is obtained through synchronized communication between the different coordinating partners, which means that multiple users can execute an experiment simultaneously. Within this process, coordination can be accomplished by voice communication and chat tools. In recent times, multi-user environments have been successfully applied in many applications such as air traffic control systems, team-oriented military systems, chat text tools, and multi-player games. Thus, understanding the ideas and the techniques behind these systems can be of great significance regarding the contribution of newer ideas to collaborative working e-learning environments. However, many problems still exist in distance learning and tele-education, such as not finding the proper assistance while performing the remote experiment. Therefore, the students become overwhelmed and the experiment will fail. In this paper, we are going to discuss a solution that enables students to obtain an automated help by either a human tutor or a rule-based e-tutor (embedded rule-based system for the purpose of student support in complex remote experimentative environments. The technical implementation of the system can be realized by using the powerful Microsoft .NET, which offers a complete integrated developmental environment (IDE with a wide collection of products and technologies. Once the system is developed, groups of students are independently able to coordinate and to execute the experiment at any time and from any place, organizing the work between them positively.

  18. Engaging in Work Even When It Is Meaningless: Positive Affective Disposition and Meaningful Work Interact in Relation to Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Miller, Michal; Menger, Lauren; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of affective disposition and meaningful work on employee engagement. Specifically, it was proposed that meaningful work moderates the relationship between affective disposition and engagement. Questionnaires were completed by 252 white-collar employees, working in a variety of…

  19. From Personal to Social: Learning Environments that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…

  20. Daily positive spillover and crossover from mothers' work to youth health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-12-01

    Prior research shows that employees' work experiences can "spill over" into their family lives and "cross over" to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same 8 consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers' positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of 2-level models showed that mothers' positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics.

  1. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same, eight, consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers’ positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of two-level models showed that mothers’ positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics. PMID:25243577

  2. Nursing professional practice environments: setting the stage for constructive conflict resolution and work effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Heidi; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Finegan, Joan

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of nurses' perceived professional practice environment on their quality of nursing conflict management approaches and ultimately their perceptions of unit effectiveness from the perspective of Deutsch's theory of constructive conflict management. Rising reports of hostility and conflict among Canadian nurses are a concern to nurses' health and the viability of effective patient care delivery. However, research on the situational factors that influence nurses' ability to apply effective conflict resolution skills that lead to positive results in practice is limited. A nonexperimental, predictive design was used in a sample of 678 registered nurses working in community hospitals within a large metropolitan area in Ontario. The results supported a modified version of the hypothesized model [chi2(1) = 16.25, Goodness of Fit = 0.99, Comparative Fit Index = 0.98, Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation = 0.15] linking professional practice environment and core self-evaluation to nurses' conflict management and, ultimately, unit effectiveness. Professional practice environment, conflict management, and core-self evaluation explained approximately 46.6% of the variance in unit effectiveness. Positive professional practice environments and high core self-evaluations predicted nurses' constructive conflict management and, in turn, greater unit effectiveness.

  3. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in A Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention ca...

  4. Positive aging in demanding workplaces: The gain cycle between job satisfaction and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Guglielmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees’ well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job overload, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job workload and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 to 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and eight months later. The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction eight months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the

  5. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  6. Nurses' expert opinions of workplace interventions for a healthy working environment: a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera

    2014-09-01

    Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.

  7. Situational Awareness Support to Enhance Teamwork in Collaborative Working Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    This chapter addresses awareness support to enhance teamwork in co-located collaborative environments. In particular, we focus on the concept of situational awareness which is essential for successful team collaboration. Mutual situational awareness leads to informal social interactions, development

  8. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the...

  9. Faculty Work Practices in Material Environments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…

  10. Parental employment and work-family stress: Associations with family food environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Hearst, Mary O.; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    families, identifying policy and programmatic strategies to reduce parents' work-life stress may have positive implications for the family food environment and for the eating patterns and related health outcomes of children and parents. PMID:22591825

  11. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    families, identifying policy and programmatic strategies to reduce parents' work-life stress may have positive implications for the family food environment and for the eating patterns and related health outcomes of children and parents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An automated online positioning system and simulation environment for multi-electrodes in extracellular recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Felix; Natora, Michal; Meier, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    to tissue drifts and other sources of variability in the recording setup, the position of the electrodes with respect to the recorded neurons can change causing low recording quality. The contributions of this work are threefold. We introduce a quality measure for the recording position of the electrode...... which should be maximized during recordings and is especially suitable for the use of multi-electrodes. An automated positioning system based on this quality measure is proposed. The system is able to find favorable recording positions and adapts the electrode position smoothly to changes of the neuron...

  13. Simulation of GNSS reflected signals and estimation of position accuracy in GNSS-challenged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob; Jensen, Anna B. O.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    non-line-of-sight satellites. The signal reflections are implemented using the extended geometric path length of the signal path caused by reflections from the surrounding buildings. Based on real GPS satellite positions, simulated Galileo satellite positions, models of atmospheric effect...... on the satellite signals, designs of representative environments e.g. urban and rural scenarios, and a method to simulate reflection of satellite signals within the environment we are able to estimate the position accuracy given several prerequisites as described in the paper. The result is a modelling...... of the signal path from satellite to receiver, the satellite availability, the extended pseudoranges caused by signal reflection, and an estimate of the position accuracy based on a least squares adjustment of the extended pseudoranges. The paper describes the models and algorithms used and a verification test...

  14. Integration of the Shuttle RMS/CBM Positioning Virtual Environment Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    Constructing the International Space Station, or other structures, in space presents a number of problems. In particular, payload restrictions for the Space Shuttle and other launch mechanisms prohibit assembly of large space-based structures on Earth. Instead, a number of smaller modules must be boosted into orbit separately and then assembled to form the final structure. The assembly process is difficult, as docking interfaces such as Common Berthing Mechanisms (CBMS) must be precisely positioned relative to each other to be within the "capture envelope" (approximately +/- 1 inch and +/- 0.3 degrees from the nominal position) and attach properly. In the case of the Space Station, the docking mechanisms are to be positioned robotically by an astronaut using the 55-foot-long Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm. Unfortunately, direct visual or video observation of the placement process is difficult or impossible in many scenarios. One method that has been tested for aligning the CBMs uses a boresighted camera mounted on one CBM to view a standard target on the opposing CBM. While this method might be sufficient to achieve proper positioning with considerable effort, it does not provide a high level of confidence that the mechanisms have been placed within capture range of each other. It also does nothing to address the risk of inadvertent contact between the CBMS, which could result in RMS control software errors. In general, constraining the operator to a single viewpoint with few, if any, depth cues makes the task much more difficult than it would be if the target could be viewed in three-dimensional space from various viewpoints. The actual work area could be viewed by an astronaut during EVA; however, it would be extremely impractical to have an astronaut control the RMS while spacewalking. On the other hand, a view of the RMS and CBMs to be positioned in a virtual environment aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter or Space Station could provide similar benefits

  15. Transplant Nurses' Work Environment: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Christiane; Akca, Selda; Einhorn, Ina; Rebafka, Anne; Russell, Cynthia L

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Numerically, nurses represent the largest healthcare profession, thus setting norms for the quality and safety of direct patient care. Evidence of a global shortage of nurses in all clinical practice settings across different healthcare systems and countries has been documented. The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess work environments in a sample of German transplant nurses, and (2) to compare their statements with a US-based sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, 181 transplant nurses from 16 German transplant centers provided information on their work environments. The translated version of the Job Design (JD) and Job Satisfaction (JS) survey showed satisfactory internal consistency for the JD (0.78) and JS (0.93) subscales. German nurses' work environments were compared with 331 transplant nurses from the US. RESULTS The majority of transplant nurses were female (81.8%), 55.4% were age 21-40 years, and 78.1% were employed full-time. German (versus US) transplant nurses reported their job design to be best for 'skill varieties' (p≤0.0002), and worst for 'autonomy' (p≤0.01). Job satisfaction was best with 'opportunities for autonomy and growth' (p≤0.0001), and 'pay and benefits' (p≤0.0001) was lowest. A higher professional degree (OR 1.57; p≤0.03; 95% CI 1.19-2.86), and longer time in transplant (OR 1.24; p≤0.001; 95% CI 1.11-1.38) showed a positive impact on German transplant nurses' perceptions of 'job satisfaction'. Nurses with time-dependent working contracts perceived more stress negatively affecting job satisfaction (OR 1.13; p≤0.009; 95% CI 1.02-12.82). CONCLUSIONS German specialty nurses working in the field of solid organ transplantation rate their work environments with respect to job design and job satisfaction as satisfactory. Institutions' investment into satisfactory nurse work environments and specializing nurses might increase the quality of care, thus improving patient outcomes.

  16. Swedish female hairdressers' views on their work environment--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Nielsen, Jörn; Andersson, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Hairdressers have several work-related health hazards. Little is known of their strategies for the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore female hairdressers' own views on their physical, social and psychological work environment and possibilities of influencing it, implementation of their knowledge, financial impacts and how work-related symptoms affect their views. Fourteen hairdressers working for four years were subjected to open-ended interviews covering aspects of the physical, social and psychological work environment. Content analysis was applied. An awareness of the impact of the work environment and the possibilities of influencing it emerged, but also an inability to achieve preventive improvements. This included reflections concerning ventilation, health issues, job strain, hair products, financial issues, knowledge from school and concern for having to leave the profession. The organization and acceptance of the work environment were important issues. Making the work environment an active part of their business was not common. Female hairdressers had an awareness of their work environment but lacked the means and strategies to make it an active part of their business. The main focus was on the customers and the work techniques. Having various symptoms did not alter this. Organizational and financial issues could put limitations on the work environment. Teachers were crucial in making the work environment interesting. Hairdressing was seen with advantages and disadvantages, and its future was seen as being insecure in terms of the occupational health risks. The hairdressers expressed a great pride in their profession providing possibilities for development.

  17. An Improved Indoor Positioning System Using RGB-D Cameras and Wireless Networks for Use in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Duque Domingo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an Indoor Positioning System to estimate the location of people navigating in complex indoor environments. The developed technique combines WiFi Positioning Systems and depth maps, delivering promising results in complex inhabited environments, consisting of various connected rooms, where people are freely moving. This is a non-intrusive system in which personal information about subjects is not needed and, although RGB-D cameras are installed in the sensing area, users are only required to carry their smart-phones. In this article, the methods developed to combine the above-mentioned technologies and the experiments performed to test the system are detailed. The obtained results show a significant improvement in terms of accuracy and performance with respect to previous WiFi-based solutions as well as an extension in the range of operation.

  18. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained

  20. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained.

  1. Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephanie M; Peters, Ellen; Västfjäll, Daniel; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 63-85) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from "gain" decks and lose money if they chose from "loss" decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.

  2. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  3. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  4. Differences in employee satisfaction in new versus traditional work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrid Kemperman; Philip van Susante; Jan Gerard Hoendervanger; Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek

    2015-01-01

    New Ways of Working (NewWoW) are popular for increasing employee and organisational effectiveness. Facility management (FM) aligns by aiming for higher levels of employee satisfaction and cost savings with introducing the shared features and facilities of activity based working (ABW). However, lack

  5. Evaluating Wi-Fi indoor positioning approaches in a real world environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hantoush, Raafat

    2016-01-01

    Global positioning system(GPS) does not provide generally a good positioning performance in an indoor location because of many reasons (Henniges, 2012). On the other hand, other alternatives such as the WI-FI technology has become recently in a popular use to provide indoor localization. And that is due to many reasons, such as the wide spread of WI-FI infrastructure in the indoor environments and the low cost of this technology. This study attempts to evaluate different WI-FI indoor position...

  6. The Impact of a Positive Environment and Shared Leadership to Empower Collegial School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an empowered collegial school culture to systemically improve the function of the academic institution through the impact of a positive environment and shared leadership. When compared to the other middle schools in the district, Eagle Middle School had the lowest math achievement growth index during the…

  7. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environment AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of denial of... Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published.... Second, not only would instituting a ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' by regulation be redundant...

  8. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. METHODS: Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year...... and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit...... from the labour market....

  9. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersia Nel

    2015-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment. Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts. Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place.

  10. Does organizational justice predict empowerment? Nurses assess their work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how nurses assess their empowerment and clarify organizational justice compared to other work-related factors. In addition, we examined the major variables pertinent to empowerment. Cross-sectional survey data were used. A total of 2,152 nurses returned the completed questionnaire. The instruments consisted of nurse empowerment, organizational justice, job control, and possibilities for developing work. The data analysis was based on descriptive statistics and further statistical tests. Organizational justice and empowerment had a clear correlation. Job control, possibilities for developing work and organizational justice were statistically significant predictors of nurse empowerment. Organizational justice and the possibility to use one's individual skills at work are significant factors in staff activity and its development in nursing. They increase the level of empowerment and commitment as well as motivation to work. The results of this study confirm that nurses regard organizational justice as highly important. We can facilitate both work-related empowerment and organizational justice by creating and maintaining a culture of fairness and justice. Employees should be heard and involved more in the planning and decision making of work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Nurse-perceived quality of care in intensive care units and associations with work environment characteristics : a multicentre survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, Dewi; Van Der Linden, Dimitri; Kaljouw, Marian J.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To examine nurse-perceived quality of care, controlling for overall job satisfaction among critical care nurses and to explore associations with work environment characteristics. Background: Nurse-perceived quality of care and job satisfaction have been positively linked to quality outcomes

  12. Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence.

  13. Positive Gain Spirals at Work: From Job Resources to Work Engagement, Personal Initiative and Work-Unit Innovativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Perhoniemi, Riku; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla

    2008-01-01

    The present cross-lagged panel study aimed to investigate the energizing power of job resources and related gain spirals. Drawing on Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources (COR) theory's rarely tested assumptions of cumulative resource gains and gain spirals a reciprocal process was expected: (1) job resources lead to work engagement and work…

  14. The worker of radiological diagnosis and its environment of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, Jose Tulio; Borges, Jose Flavio Marcelino; Bosio, Marcelo; Brombatti, Lisandreia

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary results concerning the working conditions of medical radiodiagnosis establishments in Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil) are evaluated. Procedures to survey such places, and a data file software to help the sanitary inspection teams are presented

  15. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held ...... by individuals with diverse life histories or ontogenies that influence their enactment of work with self-defined interests and identity formation pursuits being directed by their personal agency...

  16. Subjective health complaints and psychosocial work environment among university personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, B E; Wieslander, G; Bakke, J V; Norbäck, D

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are often used to study health problems in working populations. An association between self-reported symptoms and psychosocial strain has been suggested, but results from such studies are difficult to interpret, as a gender difference might be present. The knowledge in this area is not clear. To compare the prevalence of subjective health symptoms and their relation to psychosocial work strain among men and women in different age groups, all working as university staff. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among university personnel. The questionnaire included a subjective health complaint inventory consisting of 29 items about subjective somatic and psychological symptoms experienced during the last 30 days and psychosocial work factors. Regression analyses were performed. In total, 172 (86%) of 201 eligible employees participated. Women had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms than men. Significant differences were found between the genders for headaches, neck pain and arm pain. There was a significant relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and work strain for both genders. This was found for both men and women below 40 years and among men above the age of 40. No significant difference was found between genders regarding pseudoneurological, gastrointestinal, allergic and flu-like symptoms. More female than male university personnel reported musculoskeletal symptoms. The musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with high work strain in both genders, but, for women, this was limited to employees under the age of 40. The cause of this gender difference is unknown.

  17. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work-Family Spillover in Working Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-07-11

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  18. A comparison of hospital- and community-based mental health nurses: perceptions of their work environment and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J; Weaver, S M

    1994-06-01

    This study compares hospital- (n = 67) and community-based (n = 55) mental health nurses in relation to their perceptions of the work environment and also their psychological health. Measures include: the General Health Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Work Environment Scale. The data, obtained from self-returned questionnaires, show that community nurses rated their work environments higher for the dimensions of Involvement, Supervisor Support, Autonomy, Innovation and Work Pressure. Hospital nurses saw their environments as being higher in (managerial) Control. There were no differences between the groups for the dimensions of Peer Cohesion, Task Orientation, Clarity or (physical) Comfort. Furthermore, there were no overall differences between the two groups in relation to psychological health, although the pattern of factors associated with emotional well-being differed. Finally, analyses of the community data revealed that those nurses with 'flexitime' arrangements evaluated their work environments less positively and showed higher levels of psychological strain than did those working 'fixed-time' schedules. The findings suggest that the hospital and community environments make different demands on nursing staff, and that this should be considered when organizing nursing services if stress is to be avoided.

  19. Influence of the residential and work environment on car use in dual-earner households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, K.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses whether the decision to commute by car is influenced by built environment characteristics of residential neighbourhoods and, more especially, of work locations, taking into account interdependencies between household partners. It shows that the residential environment only

  20. Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on Sickness Absence Among Patients Treated for Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    -force becomes increasingly important. Previous studies among healthy workers suggest that the psychosocial working environment is associated with sickness absence. Whether the psychosocial working environment plays a role for patients with existing cardiovascular disease on return to work and sickness absence...

  1. [Evaluation of the nurse working environment in health and social care intermediate care units in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Miralles Basseda, Ramón; Torres Egea, Pilar; Planas-Campmany, Carme; Juvé-Udina, María Eulalia

    A favourable work environment contributes to greater job satisfaction and improved working conditions for nurses, a fact that could influence the quality of patient outcomes. The aim of the study is two-fold: Identifying types of centres, according to the working environment assessment made by nurses in intermediate care units, and describing the individual characteristics of nurses related to this assessment. An observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional, and multicentre study was conducted in the last quarter of 2014. Nurses in intermediate care units were given a questionnaire containing the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) which assesses five factors of the work environment using 31 items. Sociodemographic, employment conditions, professional and educational variables were also collected. From a sample of 501 nurses from 14 centres, 388 nurses participated (77% response). The mean score on the PES-NWI was 84.75. Nine centres scored a "favourable" working environment and five "mixed". The best valued factor was "work relations" and the worst was "resource provision/adaptation". Rotating shift work, working in several units at the same time, having management responsibilities, and having a master degree were the characteristics related to a better perception of the nursing work environment. In most centres, the working environment was perceived as favourable. Some employment conditions, professional, and educational characteristics of nurses were related to the work environment assessment. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Counselors and Special Educators in Rural Schools Working Together to Create a Positive School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Frank

    2018-01-01

    School counselors and special educators in rural areas working together can be a powerful team to help schools create a positive school community. In one rural school community, they partnered with faculty and staff to implement a School Wide Positive Behavior support program to improve student outcomes. The counselor and special educator, through…

  3. Redesigning nursing work in long-term care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L M; O'Brien-Pallas, L

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a highly statistically oriented argument for examining work attitudes and activities among three groups of caregivers [RNs, RPNs, and HCAs] working in long-term care. The investigators used both work sampling, written surveys, and interviews with a sample of 46 caregivers in a large university-affiliated LTC facility in Toronto, Canada. While RNs stated their strong affinity for direct patient care activities, they perform the lowest percentage of direct care, chiefly due to their accountability for planning and coordinating the care provided by others. The HCAs who provided the bulk of direct patient care "valued it the least," apparently finding little gratification with this aspect of their role. This study suggests that there is a need to examine and clarify work roles and perceptions for all caregivers as part of any work redesign process. A higher level of RN involvement in direct patient care activities, along with "attention to enhancing the importance" of these activities for staff employed in the HCA role, could be beneficial.

  4. Enhancement of human performance with developing ergonomic workplace environment and providing work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs,; Henrietta Finna

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomy aims at creating a work place that suits the employee’s needs. A well-developed office does not only increase work efficiency but it can also significantly reduce costs. This study researches and reveals the specific personal attributes and the factors of workplace environment, which have an effect on the efficiency of the workforce. We were searching for studies, where the core work wasn’t changed -the increase in work efficiency was reached only by changing the work environment.

  5. Psychological Capital and Perceived Professional Benefits: Testing the Mediating Role of Perceived Nursing Work Environment Among Chinese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongzhen; Zhu, Yafang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Peng, Juan; Li, Qingdong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lihui; Cai, Xiaohui; Lan, Limei

    2018-04-01

    The current descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to explore the mediating role of perceived nursing work environment (PNWE) in the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived professional benefits among Chinese nurses. Participants (N = 351) working in two large general hospitals in Guangdong, China completed self-report questionnaires from March to May 2017. Linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling were performed to explore the mediating effect. PsyCap (particularly for hope and optimism) had a positive effect on perceived professional benefits, and PNWE was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. A good working environment can be regarded as a mediator variable, increasing staff's competence and sense of belonging to a team. For successful implementation, nurse managers should use effective strategies to increase nurses' confidence and hope while providing a comfortable work environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(4), 38-47.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The Impact of Stress and the Working Environment on Job Satisfaction and Decision-Making among Women Entrepreneurs in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Melchor Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing and these changes have deeply affected the status of women as entrepreneurs; women’s working force is growing by the day along with their entrepreneurship, forcing women to find a balance between their jobs and their personal lives. This research analyses the degree of the impact of stress and the working environment on women entrepreneurs’ efficient decision-making and job satisfaction. An empirical investigation is carry out in four states in the Mexican Republic. It is using multiple regression analyses in SPSS. Results show that working environment impacts positively on women entrepreneurs’ efficient decision-making. This means that by having a good working environment, women entrepreneurs are able to have good relationships with workers in order to face decision.

  7. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M

    2017-03-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.

  8. RELATIVE PANORAMIC CAMERA POSITION ESTIMATION FOR IMAGE-BASED VIRTUAL REALITY NETWORKS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakagawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image-based virtual reality (VR is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  9. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Sweeney, Allison M.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St. George, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth’s behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family and social-environmental level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and health care providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth. PMID:28229248

  10. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  11. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R

    2017-09-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The work compatibility improvement framework: an assessment of the worker-work environment interaction in the manufacturing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2008-08-01

    The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the

  13. Integrating Work Environment Considerations Into Lean and Value Stream Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper

    (Spear & Bowen, 1999; Womack & Jones, 1996) and is based on standardisation, levelling, and optimisation of work flows through value stream mapping (VSM) (Rother & Shook, 2009) and eliminating waste. Lean is essentially a rationalization approach that will reduce waste and increase productivity thereby...

  14. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  15. Organizational Probes:Exploring Playful Interactions in Work Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Eliens, A.P.W.; Eliëns, A.; van de Watering, M.R.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Jorge, J

    2008-01-01

    Playfulness, with non-intrusive elements, can be considered a useful resource for enhancing social awareness and community building within work organizations. Taking inspirations from the cultural probes approach, we developed organizational probes as a set of investigation tools that could provide

  16. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…

  17. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....

  18. Sociotechnical design processes and working environment: The case of a continuous process wok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...... is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment....

  19. Goal Development Practices of Physical Therapists Working in Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynarczuk, Kimberly D; Chiarello, Lisa A; Gohrband, Catherine L

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) describe the practices that school-based physical therapists use in developing student goals, and (2) identify facilitators and barriers to development of goals that are specific to participation in the context of the school setting. 46 school-based physical therapists who participated in a previous study on school-based physical therapy practice (PT COUNTS) completed a questionnaire on goal development. Frequencies and cross tabulations were generated for quantitative data. Open-ended questions were analyzed using an iterative qualitative analysis process. A majority of therapists reported that they frequently develop goals collaboratively with other educational team members. Input from teachers, related services personnel, and parents has the most influence on goal development. Qualitative analysis identified five themes that influence development of participation-based goals: (1) school-based philosophy and practice; (2) the educational environment, settings, and routines; (3) student strengths, needs, and personal characteristics; (4) support from and collaboration with members of the educational team; and (5) therapist practice and motivation. Goal development is a complex process that involves multiple members of the educational team and is influenced by many different aspects of practice, the school environment, and student characteristics.

  20. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with ...

  1. Single Black Working Mothers' Perceptions: The Journey to Achieve Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglin, Sherrell

    2017-01-01

    Single Black working mothers faced significant challenges in achieving high-level or senior-level leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to collect, analyze and code the stories told by 10 participants to understand the perceptions and insights of the challenges and barriers single Black working mothers faced in…

  2. Work-family culture, work-family interference and well-being at work : iIs it possible to distinguish between a positive and a negative process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.C.W.; Wattez, C.; Demerouti, E.; Regt, de W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether work-family (WF) interference functions as an explaining mechanism in the link between work-family culture and well-being, hereby distinguishing between a negative and a positive process. The negative, energy depleting process initiates from

  3. Learning activities in a political context - development of the working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledskov, Annette

    2002-01-01

    are identified – ‘the politically actors’ and ‘the translator’. When facilitating learning activities in the management of work environment it is necessary to be aware of this political nature of the actions .In understanding learning in the management of work environment it is beneficial to look at the concept......This paper addresses a learning approach as a method for developing new strategies for managing work environment. On the basis of interviews in two companies an analysis of how actors involved in the management of work environment act concerning their task and role is conducted. Two roles...

  4. The Foundations of the Characterization of the Right a Good Work Environment as a Fundamental Right

    OpenAIRE

    João Hélio Ferreira Pes

    2016-01-01

    This study aim to determine which are the foundations of the characterization of the right to a good work environment as a fundamental right. Initially, it conceptualizes the right to a good work  environment.  After,  it  mentions  the  distinction  between  formal  and  material fundamentality of the right to a good work environment under the post-positivist theory. Finally, it presents some substantial foundations of the characterization of the right to a good work environment as a fundame...

  5. Perceived health and work-environment related problems and associated subjective production loss in an academic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Nybergh, Lotta; Jensen, Irene

    2018-02-14

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of health problems and work environment problems and how these are associated with subjective production loss among women and men at an academic workplace. An additional aim was to investigate whether there were differences between women and men according to age group, years at current workplace, academic rank or managerial position. A questionnaire was sent in 2011 to all employees at a Swedish university (n = 5144). Only researchers and teachers were included in the study (n = 3207). Spearman correlations were performed to investigate differences in health and work environment problems. Employees who reported having experienced work environment or health problems in the previous seven days (n = 1475) were included in the analyses in order to investigate differences in subjective production loss. This was done using Student's t-test, One-way Anova and generalized linear models. The response rate was 63% (n = 2022). A total of 819 academic staff (40% of the population) reported experiencing either health problems, work environment problems or both during the previous seven days. The prevalence of health problems only or a combination of work environment and health problems was higher among women than men (p-value ˂0.05). This was especially the case for younger women, those in lower academic positions and those who had worked for fewer years at their current workplace. No difference was found for work environment problems. The majority of the employees who reported problems said that these problems affected their ability to perform at work (84-99%). The average production loss varied between 31 and 42% depending on the type of problem. Production loss due to health-related and work-environment related problems was highest among junior researchers and managers. No significant difference between men and women was found in the level of production loss. Subjective production loss in academia can be associated

  6. Work environment risk factors for injuries in wood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcroft, Christina A; Punnett, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The reported injury rate for wood product manufacturing in Maine, 1987-2004, was almost twice the state-wide average for all jobs. A case-control study was conducted in wood processing plants to determine preventable risk factors for injury. A total of 157 cases with injuries reported to workers' compensation and 251 controls were interviewed. In multivariable analyses, variables associated with injury risk were high physical workload, machine-paced work or inability to take a break, lack of training, absence of a lockout/tagout program, low seniority, and male gender. Different subsets of these variables were significant when acute incidents and overexertions were analyzed separately and when all injuries were stratified by industry sub-sector. Generalizability may be limited somewhat by non-representative participation of workplaces and individuals. Nevertheless, these findings provide evidence that many workplace injuries occurring in wood processing could be prevented by application of ergonomics principles and improved work organization.

  7. Positive well-being and work-life balance among UK railway staff

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jialin; Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Failure to manage the well-being and work-life balance of railway workers\\ud may result in an increased risk to train safety and employees’ health. This article\\ud reports the findings of a study that measured positive well-being and\\ud work-life balance, and identified the factors affecting these among UK railway\\ud staff. On the whole, staff who perceived high levels of control and support had\\ud a better work-life balance and an increased sense of well-being. A positive\\ud personality was ...

  8. Cloud Computing as Network Environment in Students Work

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, Dominik Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to show the need for literacy education from a variety of services available in the cloud computing as a specialist information field of activity. Teaching at university in the field of cloud computing related to the management of information could provide tangible benefits in the form of useful learning outcomes. This allows students and future information professionals to begin enjoying the benefits of cloud computing SaaS model at work, thereby freeing up of...

  9. Surveillance of working conditions and the work environment: development of a national hazard surveillance tool in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Firth, Hilda; Cunningham, Chris; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Changes to work and the impact of these changes on worker health and safety have been significant. A core surveillance data set is needed to understand the impact of working conditions and work environments. Yet, there is little harmony amongst international surveys and a critical lack of guidance identifying the best directions for surveillance efforts. This paper describes the establishment of an instrument suitable for use as a hazard surveillance tool for New Zealand workers. An iterative process of critical review was undertaken to create a dimensional framework and select specific measures from existing instruments. Pilot testing to ascertain participant acceptability of the questions was undertaken. The final questionnaire includes measures of socio-demographic characteristics, occupational history, work organisation, physicochemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. Outcome measures were also included. A robust New Zealand hazard surveillance questionnaire comprehensively covering the key measures of work organisation and work environments that impact upon worker health and safety outcomes was developed. Recommended measures of work organisation, work environment and health outcomes that should be captured in work environment surveillance are made.

  10. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  11. Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantsupawat, A; Kunaviktikul, W; Nantsupawat, R; Wichaikhum, O-A; Thienthong, H; Poghosyan, L

    2017-03-01

    The nursing shortage is a critical issue in many countries. High turnover rates among nurses is contributing to the shortage, and job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout have been identified as some of the predictors of nurse turnover. A well-established body of evidence demonstrates that the work environment for nurses influences nurse job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout, but there never has been a study undertaken in Thailand to investigate this relationship. To investigate how work environment affects job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave among nurses in Thailand. The study used a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 1351 nurses working in 43 inpatient units in five university hospitals across Thailand. The participants completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and measures of job dissatisfaction and intention to leave. Logistical regression models assessed the association between work environment and nurse-reported job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intent to leave. Nurses working in university hospitals with better work environments had significantly less job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. The nurse work environment is a significant feature contributing to nurse retention in Thai university hospitals. Improving the work environment for nurses may lead to lower levels of job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. Focusing on these nurse outcomes can be used as a strategy to retain nurses in the healthcare system. Addressing the challenges of poor work environments requires coordinated action from policymakers and health managers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses' Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Fereidouni, Zhila; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2017-01-01

    Job stress is a part of nurses' professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses' job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses' quality of work life. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional ( n = 50) and control ( n = 50) groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson's questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups ( p work life quality, home life ( p work design ( p work context ( p work world ( p = 0.003). This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses' quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better.

  13. Teleoperation environment based on virtual reality. Application of two-planes method for position measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    1998-01-01

    A teleoperation system based on virtual environment (VE) is an emergent technology for operating a robot in remote or hazardous environment. We have developed a VE-based teleoperation system for robot-arm manipulation in a simplified real world. The VE for manipulating the robot arm is constructed by measuring the 3D positions of the objects around the robot arm by motion-stereo method. The 3D position is estimated by using two-(calibration) planes method based on images captured by the CCD camera on the robot-arm, since the two-planes method does not need pin-hole-model assumption to the camera system. The precision of this 3D-measurement is evaluated through experiments and then derived is the theoretical model to the error in the measurement. This measurement system is applied to VE-based teleoperation experiment for Peg-in-hole practice by the robot arm. (author)

  14. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.

  15. Beyond participation -Social Influence on Information Technology and Work Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    in danish industry indicates that the organisation is a poor unit of operation for participative management related to integrative IT. It is proposed rather to use segments as a analytical unit for participation and influence. A segment consists of a IT- supplier and his customer. It is argued that supplier...... and customer tend to build up a interdependency of economic, social and technical character. The segments works as a fortification of a dominant alliance between suppliers representatives and parts of management. The contribution argues for a revival of the collective ressource approach or other societal...

  16. Experience with the Surveyor mobile robot in radioactive work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Darvish, A.R.; Irving, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and implementation history of the Surveyor mobile robotic device from November 1985 through August 1986. This two-tracked remotely controlled tetherless device is used to conduct surveillance and inspection and light maintenance missions in nuclear power plants. Surveyor's relatively light weight (<400 lb) can easily be transported manually from location to location. The total maximum payload of the device, which is able to climb 40-deg stairs, is up to 300 lb when transported on a level floor. Surveyor can traverse through 14 in. of water and over 9-in.-high obstacles. Standard accessories include radiation detector, humidity monitor, temperature measurement, sound detection and position/ranging, and a standard video or CCD camera having a wide angle and telephoto lens. These devices are mounted on a 3 degree-of-freedom articulated arm with halogen lights

  17. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  18. Exploring the Influence of Nursing Work Environment and Patient Safety Culture on Missed Nursing Care in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ja; Yoo, Moon Sook; Seo, Eun Ji

    2018-04-20

    This study aimed to explore the influence of nurse work environment and patient safety culture in hospital on instances of missed nursing care in South Korea. A cross-sectional design was used, in which a structured questionnaire was administered to 186 nurses working at a tertiary university hospital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test or ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis. Missed nursing care was found to be correlated with clinical career, nursing work environment and patient safety culture. The regression model explained approximately 30.3 % of missed nursing care. Meanwhile, staffing and resource adequacy (β = -.31, p = .001), nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses (β = -.26, p = .004), clinical career (β = -.21, p = .004), and perception on patient safety culture within unit (β = -.19, p = .041) were determined to be influencing factors on missed nursing care. This study has significance as it suggested that missed nursing care is affected by work environment factors within unit. This means that missed nursing care is a unit outcome affected by nurse work environment factors and patient safety culture. Therefore, missed nursing care can be managed through the implementation of interventions that promote a positive nursing work environment and patient safety culture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods: In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58–64 years (N=3254) from the Capital...... psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level....... Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly...

  20. Healthy working days: The (positive) effect of work effort on occupational health from a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Nuñez, Imanol

    2018-04-01

    The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers. Using a sample from 2010 of 20,000 European workers we find that, under adequate working conditions, the level of effort (measured in working hours) at which health starts to deteriorate is very high (120 h per week). However, if working conditions are not adequate, even a moderate effort (35 h per week) can harm workers health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of the nurse work environment with nurse incivility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica G; Morin, Karen H; Lake, Eileen T

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether nurse coworker incivility is associated with the nurse work environment, defined as organisational characteristics that promote nurse autonomy. Workplace incivility can negatively affect nurses, hospitals and patients. Plentiful evidence documents that nurses working in better nurse work environments have improved job and health outcomes. There is minimal knowledge about how nurse coworker incivility relates to the United States nurse work environment. Quantitative, cross-sectional. Data were collected through online surveys of registered nurses in a southwestern United States health system. The survey content included the National Quality Forum-endorsed Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Workplace Incivility Scale. Data analyses were descriptive and correlational. Mean levels of incivility were low in this sample of 233 staff nurses. Incivility occurred 'sporadically' (mean = 0.58; range 0.00-5.29). The nurse work environment was rated highly (mean = 3.10; range of 1.00-4.00). The nurse work environment was significantly inversely associated with coworker incivility. The nurse manager qualities were the principal factor of the nurse work environment associated with incivility. Supportive nurse managers reduce coworker incivility. Nurse managers can shape nurse work environments to prevent nurse incivility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Influence of Ethical Ideologies on Promotive Extra Role Behaviors and Positive Work Behavior of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.

  3. The psychosocial work environment and fatigue in Danish ferry shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild Dohrmann, Solveig

    and endangerment of occupational safety, and in ferry shipping employees’ fatigue can lead not only to poor individual health and wellbeing but also to accidents, which can potentially jeopardize passengers’ safety. Objective Due to the risk of fatigue in the ferry shipping industry – and a lack of prior research...... on this topic - the main aim of this Phd study was to investigate the link between fatigue and working environmental factors among ferry shipping employees. The investigation specifically focuses on the role of psychosocial factors, as there is a distinct lack of research on such determinants in a seafaring...... of two Danish ferry shipping companies. Methods A systematic review and quality assessment of the empirical evidence was conducted as an initial step to summarize and analyze what was known about fatigue-determining factors in seafaring, the results of which were published in article 1. Two further...

  4. Planning Together: Positive Classroom Environments. Diversity in the Classroom Series, Number Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Doug

    This document, the fourth in a series on diversity in the classroom, supports the belief that challenges faced by teachers working with diverse students can only be met through teacher practices that increase levels of positive teacher-student interaction and that create, in each student, effective social and problem solving skills. Section 1,…

  5. Employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Differential effects of enriched environment at work on cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-05-26

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how different mentally demanding work conditions during the professional life-i.e., enriched environments at work-might influence the rate of cognitive decline in old age. Individuals (n = 1,054) of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a representative population-based cohort study of individuals aged 75 years and older, underwent cognitive testing via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in up to 6 measurement waves. Type and level of mentally demanding work conditions in the participants' former professional life were classified based on the O*NET job descriptor database. In multivariate mixed-model analyses (controlling for sociodemographic and health-related factors), a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence was significantly associated with a better cognitive functioning at baseline (on average 5 MMSE points higher) as well as a lower rate of cognitive decline (on average 2 MMSE points less) over the 8-year follow-up period compared with a low level. The rate of cognitive decline in old age was also significantly lower (on average 3 MMSE points less) in individuals who had a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating executive functions than those who had a low level. The results suggest that a professional life enriched with work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence and executive functions may help to sustain a good cognitive functioning in old age (75+ years). The findings thus emphasize that today's challenging work conditions may also promote positive health effects. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Time-dependent density functional theory for open systems with a positivity-preserving decomposition scheme for environment spectral functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, RuLin; Zheng, Xiao; Kwok, YanHo; Xie, Hang; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-01-01

    Understanding electronic dynamics on material surfaces is fundamentally important for applications including nanoelectronics, inhomogeneous catalysis, and photovoltaics. Practical approaches based on time-dependent density functional theory for open systems have been developed to characterize the dissipative dynamics of electrons in bulk materials. The accuracy and reliability of such approaches depend critically on how the electronic structure and memory effects of surrounding material environment are accounted for. In this work, we develop a novel squared-Lorentzian decomposition scheme, which preserves the positive semi-definiteness of the environment spectral matrix. The resulting electronic dynamics is guaranteed to be both accurate and convergent even in the long-time limit. The long-time stability of electronic dynamics simulation is thus greatly improved within the current decomposition scheme. The validity and usefulness of our new approach are exemplified via two prototypical model systems: quasi-one-dimensional atomic chains and two-dimensional bilayer graphene

  8. Time-dependent density functional theory for open systems with a positivity-preserving decomposition scheme for environment spectral functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, RuLin; Zheng, Xiao; Kwok, YanHo; Xie, Hang; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-04-14

    Understanding electronic dynamics on material surfaces is fundamentally important for applications including nanoelectronics, inhomogeneous catalysis, and photovoltaics. Practical approaches based on time-dependent density functional theory for open systems have been developed to characterize the dissipative dynamics of electrons in bulk materials. The accuracy and reliability of such approaches depend critically on how the electronic structure and memory effects of surrounding material environment are accounted for. In this work, we develop a novel squared-Lorentzian decomposition scheme, which preserves the positive semi-definiteness of the environment spectral matrix. The resulting electronic dynamics is guaranteed to be both accurate and convergent even in the long-time limit. The long-time stability of electronic dynamics simulation is thus greatly improved within the current decomposition scheme. The validity and usefulness of our new approach are exemplified via two prototypical model systems: quasi-one-dimensional atomic chains and two-dimensional bilayer graphene.

  9. A study on operators' cognitive response characteristics to the computerized working environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jang Soo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Kwang Tae; Lee, Dhong Ha

    1998-12-01

    Although the introduction of computerized working environment to the nuclear facilities, the study on the human factors impacts of computers and automation has not been enough like the other industries. It is necessary to prepare the way to cope with the negative aspects in spite of many positive aspects of computerization in nuclear. This study is an empirical study including the survey of the human factor concerning, especially to the cognitive response of operators' and the experiments on the error proneness. At first, we survey the design and its changes of operator interface and interaction in nuclear power plants, and conclude five human factor issues. We discuss situation awareness issues as one of the major human factor concerning, and the assessment method. Secondly, a questionnaire and interviews survey to the operator's response characteristics are performed for possible criterion measures tot he in-depth study on the cognitive characteristics. Finally, several experiments are conducted to test the error proneness. The issues and findings of this study could be utilized to any further study on the cognitive characteristic of operators to the computerized work environment

  10. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals working in challenging environments: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Catriona; Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The modern primary healthcare workforce needs to be resilient. Early research framed professional resilience as avoiding 'burnout'; however, more recent literature has introduced the concept of positive adaptation to professional challenges, which results in individuals thriving in their role. To explore what primary health professionals working in challenging environments consider to be characteristics of resilience and what promotes or challenges professional resilience. A qualitative focus group in north east Scotland. Five focus groups were held with 20 health professionals (six GPs, nine nurses, four pharmacists, and a practice manager) based in rural or deprived city areas in the north east of Scotland. Inductive thematic analysis identified emerging themes. Personal resilience characteristics identified were optimism, flexibility and adaptability, initiative, tolerance, organisational skills, being a team worker, keeping within professional boundaries, assertiveness, humour, and a sense of self-worth. Workplace challenges were workload, information overload, time pressures, poor communication, challenging patients, and environmental factors (rural location). Promoters of professional resilience were strong management support, teamwork, workplace buffers, and social factors such as friends, family, and leisure activities. A model of health professional resilience is proposed that concurs with existing literature but adds the concept of personal traits being synergistic with workplace features and social networks. These facilitate adaptability and enable individual health professionals to cope with adversity that is inevitably part of the everyday experience of those working in challenging healthcare environments. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  11. [Association between psychosocial work environment and workplace bullying among office workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Y J; Dai, J M; Gao, J L; Lu, X Y; Liu, J Y; Fu, H

    2016-04-20

    To assess the prevalence of bullying in companies and health care center and identify the association between psychosocial environment and workplace bullying. A total of 847 employees at in business building companies and 146 employees at one community health service center were invited to this survey by cluster sampling during October to December 2014, using anonymous questionnaires including the general demographic information, job characteristics, job stress core scale, the social capital scale, and NAQ-R. The rate of targets of bullying in the two kinds of workplaces were 13.1% and 5.6% respectively. Workplace bullying was associated with employee's education level(χ(2)=11.17, P=0.019)and the area his or her families live in(χ(2)=5.66, P=0.017). In addition, workplace bullying was significantly associated with psychosocial work environment. Job demand was positively correlated with workplace bullying (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.34~3.74), and workplace social support was negatively associated with workplace bullying (OR= 0.33, 95% CI=0.18~0.60). Workplace bullying can be reduced by adjusting certain working conditions that negatively affect employees who are susceptible to being bullied, giving their individual and job characteristic. Moreover, workplace bullying could also be reduced if job demands are limited and job control and social capital are increased.

  12. A study on operators' cognitive response characteristics to the computerized working environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jang Soo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Kwang Tae; Lee, Dhong Ha

    1998-12-01

    Although the introduction of computerized working environment to the nuclear facilities, the study on the human factors impacts of computers and automation has not been enough like the other industries. It is necessary to prepare the way to cope with the negative aspects in spite of many positive aspects of computerization in nuclear. This study is an empirical study including the survey of the human factor concerning, especially to the cognitive response of operators' and the experiments on the error proneness. At first, we survey the design and its changes of operator interface and interaction in nuclear power plants, and conclude five human factor issues. We discuss situation awareness issues as one of the major human factor concerning, and the assessment method. Secondly, a questionnaire and interviews survey to the operator's response characteristics are performed for possible criterion measures to the in-depth study on the cognitive characteristics. Finally, several experiments are conducted to test the error proneness. The issues and findings of this study could be utilized to any further study on the cognitive characteristic of operators to the computerized work environment.

  13. Assessment of additional impacts to environment during Ukryttya object stabilization works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Batij, V.G.; Sizov, A.A.; Khavrus', V.G.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of impact levels onto environment were made when implementing stabilization works of unstable building structures of Ukryttya object. The impact were evaluated to air water medium, as well to ground cover, social and technogenic environments. It was demonstrated, that impact levels to above environmental components under normal conditions of work implementation are negligible, and radioactive substance amount, which will penetrate into the environment, will make parts of percents to existing contamination of exclusion zone area. Estimates are also made of accident impacts onto environment, whose origination is probable during the stabilization works of Ukryttya object

  14. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children's dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children's saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children's saturated fat intake. Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30 minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment--Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children's dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (pchange in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2), perceived responsibility (β=-0.3) and restriction (β=-0.3) from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake. The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Australia New Zealand Clinical

  15. Hospital nurses' work environment, quality of care provided and career plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinno, S; Partanen, P; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2011-06-01

    In several European countries, the availability of qualified nurses is insufficient to meet current healthcare requirements. Nurses are highly dissatisfied with the rising demands of the healthcare environment and increasingly considering leaving their jobs. The study aims to investigate the relationships between the characteristics of hospital nurses' work environment and the quality of care provided, and furthermore to examine Dutch nurses' career plans. A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey of registered nurses (n = 334) working in the academic and district hospitals was conducted in 2005/2006. Previously validated questionnaires translated into the participants' language were used. Factor and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Overall, nurses rated their work environment rather favourably. Five work environment characteristics were identified: support for professional development, adequate staffing, nursing competence, supportive management and teamwork. Significant relationships were found between nurses' perceptions of their work environment characteristics and quality of care provided and nurses' career plans. When work environment characteristics were evaluated to be better, nurse-assessed quality of care also increased and intentions to leave current job decreased linearly. Study findings suggest that nurses' perceptions of their work environment are important for nurse outcomes in hospital settings. Further research is needed to explore the predictive ability of the work environment for nurse, patient and organizational outcomes in hospitals. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...

  17. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  18. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  19. Establishing a Measurement Tool for a Nursing Work Environment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chiu; Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen

    2017-02-01

    The nursing work environment is a critical global health care problem. Many health care providers are concerned about the associations between the nursing work environment and the outcomes of organizations, nurses, and patients. Nursing work environment instruments have been assessed in the West but have not been considered in Asia. However, different cultures will affect the factorial structure of the tool. Using a stratified nationwide random sample, we created a measurement tool for the nursing work environment in Taiwan. The Nursing Work Environment Index-Revised Scale and the Essentials of Magnetism scale were used to examine the factorial structure. Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to examine the hypothesis model and generate a new factorial structure. The Taiwan Nursing Work Environment Index (TNWEI) was established to evaluate the nursing work environment in Taiwan. The four factors were labeled "Organizational Support" (7 items), "Nurse Staffing and Resources" (4 items), "Nurse-Physician Collaboration" (4 items), and "Support for Continuing Education" (4 items). The 19 items explained 58.5% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the model (x2/df = 5.99; p nurses' work environment in Taiwan.

  20. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; Vaughan, Michelle D.; Rodriguez, Eric M.; Shmerler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided. PMID:25544947

  1. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  2. Energy-environment-development interactions. Report on working group 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Natural resources, including strategic resources as oil or fresh water, have been the cause of disputes and wars among nations. Natural resources have also been catalyzers of conflicts and objectives of military actions. In last decades, new potential sources of conflict have emerged, as high geographical concentration of fossil duels, acceleration of the depletion and pollution of otherwise renewable resources, and the increase of resource scarcity because of higher demands from population growth and larger consumption per capita. The potential change of climate threatens to become an important source of international tensions in the near future and to provoke the scarcity of vital resources in particular regions. If the world is to engage in a true process of sustainable development, radical changes in the present strategies and patterns of resources use are needed. This working group focused on the problems and potential solutions related to renewable energy sources. The topic of water and security were discussed as well as multilateral agreements and negotiations regarding global climate change

  3. [Shiftwork. Impact on health and safety in the working environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S

    2006-01-01

    Biological rhythms are highly disrupted by night shiftwork (NSW), and any perturbation of social and family life negatively affects performance efficiency, health and social relations. These undesirable aspects have acute and chronic components. The effects manifest themselves not only as increased accidents' frequency, but also as sleep disturbances, excessive daytime sleepiness, psychosomatic disorders that may variously interact to configure a "shift-lag" syndrome, with acute and chronic manifestation. Chronic effects increase the risk of psychoneurotic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. The effects of NSW on women are much more pronounced because of their reproductive function and family obligations. Recent Italian legislation (1999, 2003) on night-work has essentially recognised it as a new risk factor and has established that workers' health should be safeguarded through preventive check-ups and regular controls by occupational health physicians. This involves that now occupational health physicians are required to inform workers on coping strategies, and carefully assess health disorders with absolute or relative contraindications. Data from international literature and from our group production are revised and discussed.

  4. The impact of work environment on mood disorders and suicide: Evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum.

  5. Perception of the quality of care, work environment and sleep characteristics of nurses working in the National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Casbas, María Teresa; Alonso-Poncelas, Emma; Gómez-García, Teresa; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Escobar-Aguilar, Gema

    2018-03-19

    To describe nurses' perception in relation to the quality of care and their work environment, as well as to describe their quality of sleep. To analyze the relationship between ward and work shift with nurses' perception of their work environment, sleep quality and day time drowsiness. A multicentre, observational and descriptive study carried out between 2012-2014 in seven hospitals of the Spanish National Health System. Work environment, work satisfaction, sleep quality and quality of patient care were evaluated through validated tools. 635 registered nurses participated in the study. Eighty-three point seven percent perceived the quality of cares as good/excellent, and 55.1% rated the work environment of their hospital as good/excellent. PES-NWI classified 39% of hospitals as unfavourable and 20% as favourable. Fifteen point four percent of the nurses had a high level of burnout and 58.3% had low burnout. Sleep quality was 6.38 for nurses working on day shifts, 6.78 for the rotational shifts and 7.93 for night shifts. Significant differences were found between subjective sleep quality score, sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction. In the provision of quality care services, there is a multitude of related factors such as shift, ward, satisfaction, and nurses' perceptions of patient safety and sleep quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards understanding experiences of women aspiring to senior management positions within a business environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Phil. Equality, status and remuneration of women in the workforce remain of on-going interest and concern. Although extensive research has been conducted into this field, intensely personal experiences of women in the work environment is an important area to be researched, as this may hold the key to assisting them in successfully reaching the higher echelons within the business world. Insight into women’s workplace experiences is a worldwide need in order to improve empowerment and equa...

  7. Tacit knowledge in action: basic notions of knowledge sharing in computer supported work environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie Owen, John

    2001-01-01

    An important characteristic of most computer supported work environments is the distribution of work over individuals or teams in different locations. This leads to what we nowadays call `virtual' environments. In these environments communication between actors is to a large degree mediated, i.e. established through communications media (telephone, fax, computer networks) rather in a face-to-face way. Unfortunately, mediated communication limits the effectiveness of knowledge exchange in virt...

  8. Improvement of workíng environment - from a grass-root strategy to institutionalized professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of working environment as a tool to promote sustainable development - from a grass-root strategy to institutionalized professionalism. It is now more than 25 years since substitution of organic solvents started to be considered as a meaningful way in Denmark to reduce harmful effects...... on workers. During that period different groups of actors have been involved, new institutions to improve working environment have emerged, and legislation has been changed. The paper will describe the development from a grass-root strategy to improve working environment to a much more complex situation...... where working environment professionals play an important role, and where the concept of ‘cleaner technology’ is generally accepted as a tool to promote sustainable development in the Danish society. The paper will also discuss the necessity of incorporation of working environment considerations...

  9. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.

  10. An integrative review of nurses' prosocial behaviours contributing to work environment optimization, organizational performance and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Janice; McGillis Hall, Linda; Trbovich, Patricia; Baker, G Ross

    2018-04-22

    To rigorously review the literature on the prosocial workplace behaviours of nurses. Prosocial workplace behaviours, predominantly organisational citizenship behaviours have been theoretically and empirically found to promote individual and group level performance in various industries. However, little consensus exists in the literature regarding the impact of nurses' workplace behaviours on the work environment and organisational performance. An integrative literature review was conducted on studies between 1980 and 2016. Nineteen articles were included related to nurses' prosocial behaviours and performance. A positive relationship was noted between workplace behaviours and individual level performance and unit level performance. Albeit multifactorial, leadership and the social structure of the work environment are important factors contributing to the workplace behaviour-performance relationship. Prosocial behaviours influence the social functioning of the work environment and offer insights into the delivery of quality care. Nurse managers should recognize the influence of leadership style and characteristics in the work environment that encourage employee participation in prosocial behaviours. These additional voluntary efforts by nursing staff may improve organisational effectiveness and quality of care. Inclusion of these behaviours in performance reviews and as cultural norms may help to foster a more collaborative work environment. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Wann-Hansson, Christine; Eklund, Mona

    2011-06-16

    The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  12. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Hansson Christine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. Methods 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  13. The N2N instrument to evaluate healthy work environments: an Italian validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Dante, Angelo; Tonzar, Laura; Balboni, Bernardo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) validate N2N Healthy Work Environment tool, (b) assess the healthiness of work environments as perceived by nurses themselves and (c) identify the factors associated with Italian nurses' perception of work environment healthiness. The linguistic and cultural adaptation of USA-N2N Healthy Work Environments was achieved through a process of forward/backward translation. Content validity was assessed by three expert nurses. The stability of the instrument was checked with a test/retest evaluation. The instrument psychometric properties, the confirmatory factor analysis as well the healthiness of the work environment and its determinant factors were evaluated with a sample of 294 nurses. The content and face validity of the N2N Healthy Work Environment instrument was confirmed. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency (α of 0.82), excellent stability values (ρ > 0.70) and high levels of acceptability (response rate: 96.4 %). The confirmatory factor analysis has corroborated the existence of two factors as documented in the original instrument (Mays et al. in J Nurs Manag 19:18-26, 2011). Eighty-seven (29.6 %) nurses perceived the work environment where they work as "healthy". Working under a functional model of care delivery (χ(2) 24.856, p 0.000) and being responsible for one project or more (χ(2) 5.256, p 0.021) were associated with healthy environments. The instrument--valid and reliable, short in the number of items, easy to understand and based on international standards--allows a systematic assessment of the healthiness of the environment and might provide not only the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new organizational models and interventions, but also the possibility to activate a process of self-analysis and a process of ongoing review. The instrument can be used to systematically check the healthiness of Italian working environments, allowing for organizational diagnosis, targeted interventions and

  14. Work environment and disability pension-- an 18-year follow-up study in a Norwegian working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the associations between work environment indicators and health- related work disability. A health survey of 5,749 working 40-42-year-old Norwegians from Nordland County were linked to a national register for disability pension during a follow-up of over 18 years. The risk for disability pension following various self-reported physical and psychosocial work environmental exposures (individual and cumulative) were estimated using Cox regression analysis. Both cumulative physical and psychosocial work environmental exposures were associated with an increased risk for disability pension, although this association was attenuated for most variables after adjusting for health and education. An increase in five poor psychosocial work environmental exposures was associated with a 22% increased risk for disability (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44), whereas a similar increase in five poor physical work environmental exposures was associated with a 29% increased risk (aHR, 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.44). There were no indications of statistical interaction between either sex or education and work exposures. People who report a poor work environment are at a higher risk for subsequent work disability. This finding suggests that improving working conditions may be an area of intervention in order to reduce the number of people who leave the labour market with a disability pension.

  15. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Methods Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49–63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Results Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. PMID:28819019

  16. Sleep position and the ocular surface in a high airflow environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Gauba, FRCOphth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the relationship between sleep position and ocular surface symptoms and signs in an high air flow environment. Methods: Prospective observational study of new patients attending the dry eye clinic was performed. Patients with pre-existing ocular history, relevant systemic history (e.g. Sjogren’s syndrome or who were using topical or systemic therapy for dry eye were not included. Data were collected from the patient to document their dry eye symptoms; preferred dependent sleeping side and their bedroom airflow. All patients were examined by a clinician blind to the patient’s responses where Schirmer’s test and slit lamp examination were performed looking for the presence of lagophthalmos and corneal epitheliopathy. Results: 48 patients enrolled into the study of which 23 were males and 25 were females with a normal and comparable age distribution. The study found a strong association between patients’ preferred sleeping side and the incidence of corneal epitheliopathy in the contralateral eye particularly in patients with evidence of lagophthalmos. Dry eye symptoms were found to be worse and tear production lower on the contralateral side to the preferred sleeping side particularly in patients who sleep in a high airflow environment. Conclusion: In patients sleeping in a high airflow environment with nocturnal lagophthalmos, this study observed an association between preferred dependent sleep position and increased dry eye symptoms, lower Schirmer’s scores and increased corneal epitheliopathy in the contralateral eye. Keywords: Sleep, Dry eyes, Lagophthalmos, Epiphora

  17. Work-Family facilitation: a positive psychological perspective on role combination

    OpenAIRE

    Steenbergen, Elianne Florence van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a balanced picture of the experiences that individuals can have in the combination of their work and family roles. Extending the common focus in previous literature on experiences of role conflict (and their detrimental consequences), the present research also addresses the positive side of role combination and reveals the different ways in which work and family roles can facilitate each other (energy-based, time-based, behavioral, and psychological facilitation). T...

  18. Great Expectations - Does worker participation in design enhance the integration of working environment and work life issues into design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak

    in the design process and the object of design have not been computer artefacts or systems but workplace design and redesign of product series. The design process in the two cases has included physical working environment aspects but contrary to participatory ergonomics, psychosocial working environment...... of political processes. This perspective focuses upon three different spheres which define the learning space: the work and the work organisation; the formal system of negotiation and cooperation; the informal social relations and values. The perspective provides an excellent explanation...... of the interrelationship between the three spheres in the daily work and how these spheres have influence on the possibilities of learning. The role of technology is dismissed in this perspective and as I find that technology is an important factor in the learning space, I extend the perspective to include technology...

  19. Correlation between working positions and lactic acid levels with musculoskeletal complaints among dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiory Dioptis Putriwijaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal complaints have been common for dentists since their body is unknowingly often in inappropriate positions when caring for patients. For example, they bend towards patients, suddenly move, and then rotate from one side to another. The repetitive movements are done in long term. High activities and sufficient recovery time can cause a buildup of lactic acid in their blood leading to obstruction of the energy intake from the aerobic system in their muscle cells, resulting in fatigue. As a result, such conditions trigger decreased muscle performances. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation between working positions and lactic acid levels with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among dentists at Public Health Centers in Surabaya. Method: This research was an analytical observational research using cross sectional approach. Sampling technique used in this research was cluster random sampling with nineteen samples. To evaluate the working positions of those samples, a rapid entire body assessment (REBA method was used. Meanwhile, to observe the musculoskeletal disorders of those samples, a Nordic body map was used. Data obtained then were analyzed using Pearson correlation test with a significance level (p<0.05. Result: Results of data analysis using the Pearson correlation test showed that the significance value obtained was 0.036. It indicates that there was a correlation between the working positions and the lactic acid levels with the musculoskeletal disorders in those dentists. The results of the Pearson correlation test also revealed that there was a correlation between the working positions and the lactic acid levels among those dentists with a significance value of 0.025. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the wrong body positions during working can increase lactic acid level in the body of dentists. The increased level of lactic acid then can affect their muscles, leading to the high risk of

  20. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  1. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hardman Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees’ conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors.

  2. Interactive mechanism of working environments and construction behaviors with cognitive work analysis: an elevator installation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chong, Heap-Yih; Liao, Pin-Chao; Ren, Hantao

    2017-09-25

    Unsafe behavior is a leading factor in accidents, and the working environment significantly affects behaviors. However, few studies have focused on detailed mechanisms for addressing unsafe behaviors resulting from environmental constraints. This study aims to delineate these mechanisms using cognitive work analysis (CWA) for an elevator installation case study. Elevator installation was selected for study because it involves operations at heights: falls from heights remain a major cause of construction worker mortality. This study adopts a mixed research approach based on three research methodology stages. This research deconstructs the details of the working environment, the workers' decision-making processes, the strategies chosen given environmental conditions and the conceptual model for workers' behaviors, which jointly depict environment-behavior mechanisms at length. By applying CWA to the construction industry, environmental constraints can easily be identified, and targeted engineering suggestions can be generated.

  3. The influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on self-efficacy of medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2016-06-02

    Conditions of a healthy, friendly and safe work environment and proper work organisation increase self-efficacy and decrease or eliminate the factors causing the occurrence of burnout symptoms, all of which have a decisive impact on increasing the quality of work. The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on the self-efficacy of medical staff. The study comprised randomly selected professionally-active nurses working on hospital wards (N=405) on the area of two provinces in Poland. The study used the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire concerning the factors that influence the process of work organisation at nursing positions in hospitals. Lower scores for self-efficacy resulted in a worse assessment of development opportunities and promotion prospects (r=-0.11), participation in the decision-making process (r=-0.11) and teamwork (r=-0.10). Lower self-efficacy contributed to the occurrence of burnout symptoms r∈[-0.19 - -0.17]. Properly shaped and used organisational factors are stimulating for professional efficiency and effectiveness, and consequently, for the quality of nursing work. Negative assessment of the factors in the work environment contributes to the occurrence of burnout symptoms and decrease in self-efficacy. Nurses with lower self-efficacy more often experienced symptoms of burnout.

  4. Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at

  5. Identifying selectively important amino acid positions associated with alternative habitat environments in fish mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Zhang, Yong; Meng, Zi Ning; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-05-01

    Fish species inhabitating seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) habitats have to develop genetic adaptations to alternative environment factors, especially salinity. Functional consequences of the protein variations associated with habitat environments in fish mitochondrial genomes have not yet received much attention. We analyzed 829 complete fish mitochondrial genomes and compared the amino acid differences of 13 mitochondrial protein families between FW and SW fish groups. We identified 47 specificity determining sites (SDS) that associated with FW or SW environments from 12 mitochondrial protein families. Thirty-two (68%) of the SDS sites are hydrophobic, 13 (28%) are neutral, and the remaining sites are acidic or basic. Seven of those SDS from ND1, ND2 and ND5 were scored as probably damaging to the protein structures. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree based Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis also detected 63 positive sites associated with alternative habitat environments across ten mtDNA proteins. These signatures could be important for studying mitochondrial genetic variation relevant to fish physiology and ecology.

  6. Teacher Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Positive Psychological Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…

  7. Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Myriam; Anselmo-Matthews, Tracy

    2012-04-01

    The current work replicated a landmark study conducted by Seligman and colleagues (2005) that demonstrated the long-term benefits of positive psychology exercises (PPEs). In the original study, two exercises administered over 1 week ("Three Good Things" and "Using your Signature Strengths in a New Way") were found to have long-lasting effects on depression and happiness (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). These exercises were tested here using the same methodology except for improvements to the control condition, and the addition of a second "positive placebo" to isolate the common factor of accessing positive, self-relevant constructs. This component control design was meant to assess the effect of expectancies for success (expectancy control), as well the cognitive access of positive information about the self (positive placebo). Repeated measures analyses showed that the PPEs led to lasting increases in happiness, as did the positive placebo. The PPEs did not exceed the control condition in producing changes in depression over time. Brief, positive psychology interventions may boost happiness through a common factor involving the activation of positive, self-relevant information rather than through other specific mechanisms. Finally, the effects of PPEs on depression may be more modest than previously assumed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Desulfotomaculum spp. and related Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAullo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2 and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review.

  9. Job satisfaction, work environment and intention to leave among migrant nurses working in a publicly funded tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to explore the job satisfaction level of migrant nurses working in a multicultural society and, more specifically, the relationship between their job satisfaction levels, work environment, their intentions to leave and the predictors of their intentions to leave. Nursing shortages have led to the increasing trend of employing migrant nurses, which necessitated studies examining nurses' migration. A cross-sectional, correlational design using a stratified random sample was conducted on 495 migrant nurses working in a tertiary public-funded hospital in Singapore. The results showed that migrant nurses were satisfied with their jobs; with job satisfaction negatively correlated with work environment. Interestingly, pre-existing groups of Chinese migrant nurses did not help newly arrived Chinese migrant nurses to assimilate better. Predictors of migrant nurses' intentions to leave included having supportive nurse managers and nursing practice environment. The presence of a supportive work environment is essential to retain migrant nurses. Health administrators need to empower nursing managers with skills to implement career development plans as part of hospitals' retention strategies for migrant nurses. Information should also be provided during recruitment campaigns to enable migrant nurses to make informed choices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Mark, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in hospital characteristics, nursing unit characteristics, the nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units. Research in urban hospitals has found an association between the nurse work environment and job satisfaction and turnover rates, but this association has not been examined in rural hospitals. Rural and urban nursing units were compared in a national random sample of 97 United States hospitals (194 nursing units) with between 99 and 450 beds. Significant differences were found between hospital and nursing unit characteristics and the nurse work environment in rural and urban nursing units. Both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment were found to have a significant influence on nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates. Job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units are associated with both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment. Both rural and urban hospitals can improve nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates by changing unit characteristics, such as creating better support services and a work environment that supports autonomous nursing practice. Rural hospitals can also improve the work environment by providing nurses with more educational opportunities.

  11. Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelesani, Janet; Nixon, Stephanie; Cameron, Deb; Parsons, Janet; Menon, Anitha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on accounts of how having a disability and being HIV-positive influences experiences of work among 21 people (12 women, 9 men) in Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja, or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Three major themes were generated. The first, a triple burden, describes the burden of having a disability, being HIV-positive, and being unemployed. The second theme, disability and HIV is not inability, describes participants' desire for work and their resistance to being regarded as objects of charity. Finally, how work influences HIV management, describes the practicalities of working and living with HIV. Together these themes highlight the limited options available to persons with disabilities with HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work, but also because of the attendant social stigma of being a person with a disability and HIV-positive.

  12. Occupational position, work stress and depressive symptoms: a pathway analysis of longitudinal SHARE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, H; Wahrendorf, M; Siegrist, J

    2015-05-01

    Several studies tested whether stressful work mediates the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. Although providing moderate support, evidence is still inconclusive, partly due to a lack of theory-based measures of SEP and work stress, and because of methodological limitations. This contribution aims at overcoming these limitations. We conduct pathway analysis and investigate indirect effects of SEP on mental health via stressful work. Data are derived from the first two waves of the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' (SHARE) with information from employed men and women aged 50-64 across 11 European countries (N=2798). SEP is measured according to two alternative measures of occupational position: occupational class (focus on employment relations) and occupational status (focus on prestige). We assess work stress according to the effort-reward imbalance and the demand-control model (wave 1), and we use newly occurring depressive symptoms as health outcome (wave 2). Effort-reward imbalance and, less consistently, low control mediate the effect of occupational class and occupational status on depressive symptoms. Our findings point to two important aspects of work stress (effort-reward imbalance and low control) in explaining socioeconomic differences in health. Further, we illustrate the significance of two alternative dimensions of occupational position, occupational class and occupational status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Present status of ambient dose equivalent rate and radioactive substance concentration measurements in working environment. (3) Measuring instruments for ionizing radiation in working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Shohei

    2006-01-01

    In order to measure the airborne radioactive substance concentration in working environments, some kinds of sampler such as dust sampler and iodine sampler, measuring instruments (alpha and beta spectrometer, and liquid scintillation counter), monitor (dust-, iodine- and gas-monitor), survey meter for measuring gamma ray dose rate are stated. The measurement method of α, β and γ-ray nuclides and ambient dose-equivalent at 10 mm was explained. Some examples of the list of dust sampler, filter, tritium sampler, dust monitor, iodine monitor, gas monitor, and survey meter on the market are shown. There are so many kinds of measuring instruments for ionizing radiation in working environment that the best instrument for measurement should be selected. The environment conditions such as sample form, temperature and humidity have to be considered in order to evaluate the measurement values. (S.Y.)

  14. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Using evidence-based leadership initiatives to create a healthy nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Forsythe, Tanya; Funari, Tamara; Mayfield, Marie; Thoms, William; Smith, Kimberly K; Bradstreet, Harry; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to create a healthy nursing work environment in a military hospital Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU), a facility-level Evidence Based Practice working group composed of nursing.Stakeholders brainstormed and piloted several unit-level evidence-based leadership initiatives to improve the IMCU nursing work environment. These initiatives were guided by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments which encompass: (1) skilled communication, (2) true collaboration, (3) effective decision making, (4) appropriate staffing, (5) meaningful recognition, and (6) authentic leadership. Interim findings suggest implementation of these six evidence-based, relationship-centered principals, when combined with IMCU nurses' clinical expertise, management experience, and personal values and preferences, improved staff morale, decreased staff absenteeism, promoted a healthy nursing work environment, and improved patient care.

  16. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  17. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  18. Verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and work environment of early career registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, Wendy C; Brewer, Carol S; Chao, Ying-Yu; Kovner, Christine

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and demographic characteristics, work attributes, and work attitudes of early career registered nurses (RNs). Data are from the fourth wave of a national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. The final analytic sample included 1,407 RNs. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, analysis of variance to compare means, and chi square to compare categorical variables. RNs reporting higher levels of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues were more likely to be unmarried, work in a hospital setting, or work in a non-magnet hospital. They also had lower job satisfaction, and less organizational commitment, autonomy, and intent to stay. Lastly, they perceived their work environments unfavorably. Data support the hypothesis that early career RNs are vulnerable to the effects of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. Although more verbal abuse is seen in environments with unfavorable working conditions, and RNs working in such environments tend to have less favorable work attitudes, one cannot assume causality. It is unclear if poor working conditions create an environment where verbal abuse is tolerated or if verbal abuse creates an unfavorable work environment. There is a need to develop and test evidence-based interventions to deal with the problems inherent with verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Performance Analysis of the Ironless Inductive Position Sensor in the Large Hadron Collider Collimators Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, Alessandro; Losito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Ironless Inductive Position Sensor (I2PS) has been introduced as a valid alternative to Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) when external magnetic fields are present. Potential applications of this linear position sensor can be found in critical systems such as nuclear plants, tokamaks, satellites and particle accelerators. This paper analyzes the performance of the I2PS in the harsh environment of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where position uncertainties of less than 20 μm are demanded in the presence of nuclear radiation and external magnetic fields. The I2PS has been targeted for installation for LHC Run 2, in order to solve the magnetic interference problem which standard LVDTs are experiencing. The paper describes in detail the chain of systems which belong to the new I2PS measurement task, their impact on the sensor performance and their possible further optimization. The I2PS performance is analyzed evaluating the position uncertainty (on 30 s), the magnetic im...

  20. Aerobic training in aquatic environment improves the position sense of stroke patients: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Andrade e Souza Mazuchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS (Stroke patients often present sensory-motor alterations and less aerobic capacity. Joint position sense, which is crucial for balance and gait control, is also affected in stroke patients. To compare the effect of two exercise training protocols (walking in deep water and on a treadmill on the knee position sense of stroke patients. METHODS This study was designed as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve adults, who suffered a stroke at least one year prior to the start of the study, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 pool group submitted to aerobic deep water walking training; and 2 the treadmill group which was submitted to aerobic walk on a treadmill. Measurements: The position sense, absolute error and variable error, of the knee joint was evaluated prior to and after nine weeks of aerobic training. RESULTS The pool group presented smaller absolute (13.9o versus 6.1o; p < 0.05 and variable (9.2o versus 3.9o; p < 0.05 errors after nine-weeks gait training than the treadmill group. CONCLUSIONS Nine-week aerobic exercise intervention in aquatic environment improved precision in the position sense of the knee joint of stroke patients, suggesting a possible application in a rehabilitation program.

  1. The perceived importance and the presence of creative potential in the health professional's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukersmith, Sue; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The value of creative employees to an organisation's growth and innovative development, productivity, quality and sustainability is well established. This study examined the perceived relationship between creativity and work environment factors of 361 practicing health professionals, and whether these factors were present (realised) in their work environment. Job design (challenges, team work, task rotation, autonomy) and leadership (coaching supervisor, time for thinking, creative goals, recognition and incentives for creative ideas and results) were perceived as the most important factors for stimulating creativity. There was room for improvement of these in the work environment. Many aspects of the physical work environment were less important. Public health sector employers and organisations should adopt sustainable strategies which target the important work environment factors to support employee creativity and so enhance service quality, productivity, performance and growth. Implications of the results for ergonomists and workplace managers are discussed with a participatory ergonomics approach recommended. Creative employees are important to an organisation's innovation, productivity and sustainability. The survey identified health professionals perceive a need to improve job design and leadership factors at work to enhance and support employee creativity. There are implications for organisations and ergonomists to investigate the creative potential of work environments.

  2. The Influence of Working Environment Conditions, Compensation and Career Development on Employees’ Working Motivation at an Indonesian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRANOWO

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand and analyse the influence of working environment conditions and career development towards the improvement of employees’ working motivation. This research is conducted at the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Ltd. Tulungagung Jawa Timur Office Branch. The sample amount counted by census technique and acquired 91 responses. The sampling method used was census technique. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire which is analysed by path analysis. Findings...

  3. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20...

  4. Alpha-Band Activity Reveals Spontaneous Representations of Spatial Position in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Bsales, Emma M; Jaffe, Russell J; Awh, Edward

    2017-10-23

    An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]. However, these findings do not establish that a persistent, active representation of stimulus position is maintained in WM because similar effects have also been documented following storage in long-term memory [8, 9]. Here we show that the spatial position of the memorandum is actively coded by persistent neural activity during a non-spatial WM task. We used a spatial encoding model in conjunction with electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity to track active representations of spatial position. The position of the stimulus varied trial to trial but was wholly irrelevant to the tasks. We nevertheless observed active neural representations of the original stimulus position that persisted throughout the retention interval. Further experiments established that these spatial representations are dependent on the volitional storage of non-spatial features rather than being a lingering effect of sensory energy or initial encoding demands. These findings provide strong evidence that online spatial representations are spontaneously maintained in WM-regardless of task relevance-during the storage of non-spatial features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions between lean management and the psychosocial work environment in a hospital setting - a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Thor, Johan; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-10-22

    As health care struggles to meet increasing demands with limited resources, Lean has become a popular management approach. It has mainly been studied in relation to health care performance. The empirical evidence as to how Lean affects the psychosocial work environment has been contradictory. This study aims to study the interaction between Lean and the psychosocial work environment using a comprehensive model that takes Lean implementation information, as well as Lean theory and the particular context into consideration. The psychosocial work environment was measured twice with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) employee survey during Lean implementations on May-June 2010 (T1) (n = 129) and November-December 2011 (T2) (n = 131) at three units (an Emergency Department (ED), Ward-I and Ward-II). Information based on qualitative data analysis of the Lean implementations and context from a previous paper was used to predict expected change patterns in the psychosocial work environment from T1 to T2 and subsequently compared with COPSOQ-data through linear regression analysis. Between T1 and T2, qualitative information showed a well-organized and steady Lean implementation on Ward-I with active employee participation, a partial Lean implementation on Ward-II with employees not seeing a clear need for such an intervention, and deterioration in already implemented Lean activities at ED, due to the declining interest of top management. Quantitative data analysis showed a significant relation between the expected and actual results regarding changes in the psychosocial work environment. Ward-I showed major improvements especially related to job control and social support, ED showed a major decline with some exceptions while Ward-II also showed improvements similar to Ward-I. The results suggest that Lean may have a positive impact on the psychosocial work environment given that it is properly implemented. Also, the psychosocial work environment may even

  6. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    saturated fat intake. Conclusions The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000453280.

  7. Risk assessment of chronic stress at work place and work environment of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Ilic, Z.; Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Milanovic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of factors at work and worker's health have been analyzed through indicators of chronic professional stress. The examinees have been persons working with sealed sources of radiation with various professional risks among which we have stressed exposure to different radiation doses. Health professionals (medical doctors, radiologist, technicians) working in radio diagnostic and radiotherapy of oncology deceases have been examined. It was concluded that examinees among the subgroup 'therapy' has higher values of stress indicators expressed through all examined indicators: work motivation, personal opinion of work load, behavioral dysfunctions (smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse), increase incidence of health dysfunctions and general neuroticism of examinees. Obtained results are values for which statistical significant have not been established, so they have certain theoretical and practical importance in the frame research with descriptive nature [sr

  8. A positioning system with no line-of-sight restrictions for cluttered environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Eric A.

    Accurate sensing of vehicle location and attitude is a fundamental requirement in many mobile-robot applications, but is a very challenging problem in the cluttered and unstructured environment of the real world. Many existing indoor positioning systems are limited in workspace and robustness because they require clear lines of sight or do not provide absolute, drift-free measurements. Examples include overhead vision systems, where an unobstructed view must be maintained between robot and camera, and inertial systems, where the measurements drift over time. The research presented in this dissertation provides a new location- and attitude-sensing system designed specifically to meet the challenges of operation in a realistic, cluttered indoor environment, such as that of an office building or warehouse. The system is not limited by line-of-sight restrictions and produces drift-free measurements throughout a three-dimensional operating volume that can span a large building. Accuracy of several centimeters and a few degrees is delivered at 10 Hz, and any number of the small sensor units can be in operation, all providing estimates in a common reference frame. This positioning system is based on extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, which have excellent characteristics for penetrating line-of-sight obstructions. Beacons located throughout the workspace create the low-level fields. A sensor unit on the mobile robot samples the local magnetic field and processes the measurements to determine its location and attitude. This research overcomes limitations in existing magnetic-based systems. The design of the signal structure, based on pseudorandom codes, enables the use of multiple, distributed L-beacons and greatly expands coverage volume. The development of real-time identification and correction methods mitigates the impact of distortions caused by materials in the environment. A novel solution algorithm combats both challenges, providing increased coverage volume

  9. Robust 3D Position Estimation in Wide and Unconstrained Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Mossel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system for 3D position estimation in wide, unconstrained indoor environments is presented that employs infrared optical outside-in tracking of rigid-body targets with a stereo camera rig. To overcome limitations of state-of-the-art optical tracking systems, a pipeline for robust target identification and 3D point reconstruction has been investigated that enables camera calibration and tracking in environments with poor illumination, static and moving ambient light sources, occlusions and harsh conditions, such as fog. For evaluation, the system has been successfully applied in three different wide and unconstrained indoor environments, (1 user tracking for virtual and augmented reality applications, (2 handheld target tracking for tunneling and (3 machine guidance for mining. The results of each use case are discussed to embed the presented approach into a larger technological and application context. The experimental results demonstrate the system’s capabilities to track targets up to 100 m. Comparing the proposed approach to prior art in optical tracking in terms of range coverage and accuracy, it significantly extends the available tracking range, while only requiring two cameras and providing a relative 3D point accuracy with sub-centimeter deviation up to 30 m and low-centimeter deviation up to 100 m.

  10. Pointing movements both impair and improve visuospatial working memory depending on serial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of pointing movements on the item and order recall of random, horizontal, and vertical arrays consisting of 6 and 7 squares (Experiment 1) or 8 and 9 squares (Experiment 2). In the encoding phase, participants either viewed the items passively (passive-view condition) or pointed towards them (pointing condition). Then, after a brief interval, they were requested to recall the locations of the studied squares in the correct order of presentation. The critical result was that, for all types of arrays, the effects of the encoding condition varied as a function of serial position: for the initial and central positions accuracy was higher in the passive-view than in the pointing condition (confirming the standard inhibitory effect of pointing movements on visuospatial working memory), whereas the reverse pattern occurred in the final positions-showing a significant advantage of the pointing condition over the passive-view condition. Findings are interpreted as showing that pointing can have two simultaneous effects on the recall of spatial locations, a positive one due to the addition of a motor code and a negative one due to the attentional requirements of hand movements, with the net impact on serial recall depending on the amount of attention resources needed for the encoding of each position. Implications for the item-order hypothesis and the perceptual-gestural account of working memory are also discussed.

  11. Psychosocial work environment and registered absence from work: estimating the etiologic fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    or supervisor, predictability, and meaning of work were assessed with questionnaires at baseline and sickness absence was followed-up in employers' registers for 1,919 respondents (response rate 75.2%, 68% women, mainly low-skilled jobs) from 52 Danish workplaces during a 2-year period. Etiologic fractions (EFs...

  12. Collaborative Augmented Reality Environments: Integrating VR, Working Materials, and Distributed Work Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    In this work, we present a new method for displaying stereo scenes, which speeds up the rendering time of complex geometry. We first discuss a scene splitting strategy, allowing us to partition objects to the distant background or the near foreground. Furthermore, wededuce a computation rule for ...

  13. Is the public healthcare sector a more strenuous working environment than the private sector for a physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2013-02-01

    The present study examined the differences between physicians working in public and private health care in strenuous working environments (presence of occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism) and health behaviours (alcohol consumption, body mass index, and physical activity). In addition, we examined whether gender or age moderated these potential differences. Cross-sectional survey data were compiled on 1422 female and 948 male randomly selected physicians aged 25-65 years from The Finnish Health Care Professionals Study. Logistic regression and linear regression analyses were used with adjustment for gender, age, specialisation status, working time, managerial position, and on-call duty. Occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism were more commonly reported by physicians working in the public sector than by their counterparts in the private sector. Among physicians aged 50 years or younger, those who worked in the public sector consumed more alcohol than those who worked in the private sector, whereas in those aged 50 or more the reverse was true. In addition, working in the private sector was most strongly associated with lower levels of physical violence in those who were older than 50 years, and with lower levels of presenteeism among those aged 40-50 years. The present study found evidence for the public sector being a more strenuous work environment for physicians than the private sector. Our results suggest that public healthcare organisations should pay more attention to the working conditions of their employees.

  14. The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan H; Kristensen, Tage S

    2009-01-01

    for development (skill discretion), lower level of meaning of work, more role conflicts, decreased role clarity, reduced sense of community, less social support from colleagues, increased conflicts at work, more threats of violence and more slander and gossip. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial work environment......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to elucidate the development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997-2005. METHODS: The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys (N1=1062; N2=3517) of randomly selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial...... Questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was described by 19 scales and 6 single items. RESULTS: Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace, less influence (job control), less possibilities...

  15. The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses' work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Using a social capital framework to enhance measurement of the nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Sheingold, Steven H

    2013-07-01

    To develop, field test and analyse a social capital survey instrument for measuring the nursing work environment. The concept of social capital, which focuses on improving productive capacity by examining relationships and networks, may provide a promising framework to measure and evaluate the nurse work environment in a variety of settings. A survey instrument for measuring social capital in the nurse work environment was developed by adapting the World Bank's Social Capital - Integrated Questionnaire (SC-IQ). Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the properties of the instrument. The exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors that align well with the social capital framework, while reflecting unique aspects of the nurse work environment. The results suggest that the social capital framework provides a promising context to assess the nurse work environment. Further work is needed to refine the instrument for a diverse range of health-care providers and to correlate social capital measures with quality of patient care. Social capital measurement of the nurse work environment has the potential to provide managers with an enhanced set of tools for building productive capacity in health-care organisations and achieving desired outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK — SUBJECT INFORMATIONEDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to consider the characteristics of the electronic textbook as the subject of the information-educational environment, which ensures the unity both of the procedural and substantive aspects of training.Results. The evolution of views on the electronic textbook in the course of the expansion and awareness of the didactic potential of information and communication technologies is shown. The structure of the electronic textbook is presented in the paper. It includes the following modules: information (invariant content of education and the expansion of its variability; organizational and procedural (variable-based assignments aimed at acquiring information, as well as a means of reflection and evaluation of results; personal (information and telecommunication means of organizing own knowledge; communicative (the field of information and assessment of interaction; and pedagogical (monitoring cognitive activity of students. The structure has been developed with due regard to the need of independent work of a student with the content of education in information and educational environment.Scientific novelty. The features of the independent work of the student in terms of abundance of information through information and communication technologies are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the development of independent cognitive activity of students, their subject position in education. On this bases, the key position that should be considered during the development of the electronic textbook are specified: cognitive activity is considered as an active process of constructing students’ new knowledge based on earlier formed personal experience; personal experience arises as a result of intellectual and cognitive activity of the student; cognition of something new requires an activity in the field of social communication; the efficiency of absorption of the content of education depends on the conditions of implementation of each

  18. ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK — SUBJECT INFORMATIONEDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O. Ivanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to consider the characteristics of the electronic textbook as the subject of the information-educational environment, which ensures the unity both of the procedural and substantive aspects of training.Results. The evolution of views on the electronic textbook in the course of the expansion and awareness of the didactic potential of information and communication technologies is shown. The structure of the electronic textbook is presented in the paper. It includes the following modules: information (invariant content of education and the expansion of its variability; organizational and procedural (variable-based assignments aimed at acquiring information, as well as a means of reflection and evaluation of results; personal (information and telecommunication means of organizing own knowledge; communicative (the field of information and assessment of interaction; and pedagogical (monitoring cognitive activity of students. The structure has been developed with due regard to the need of independent work of a student with the content of education in information and educational environment.Scientific novelty. The features of the independent work of the student in terms of abundance of information through information and communication technologies are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the development of independent cognitive activity of students, their subject position in education. On this bases, the key position that should be considered during the development of the electronic textbook are specified: cognitive activity is considered as an active process of constructing students’ new knowledge based on earlier formed personal experience; personal experience arises as a result of intellectual and cognitive activity of the student; cognition of something new requires an activity in the field of social communication; the efficiency of absorption of the content of education depends on the conditions of implementation of each

  19. Job Satisfaction and Work Environment of Primary Health Care Nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria: an Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Joseph Ayamolowo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction, quality of work environment and morale of health practitioners is beginning to receive attention worldwide.Objectives: This study examined the nature of the work environment of community health nurses, and determined the level of job satisfaction among these nurses. It further explored the relationship between work environment and job satisfaction of these nurses, and perceived factors in the work environment that would increase their job satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed. The study was conducted in public primary health care facilities in Ekiti State, Nigeria. All the 216 nurses in these facilities were recruited but only 161 nurses responded to the instrument administered. A 58- item semi-structured questionnaire was used to survey nurses currently practicing in the above health setting. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: Findings from the study revealed the mean score of nurses’ perception of their work environment to be 64.65±19.77. Forty four percent (44% of the nurses perceived their WE as of an average quality while 31% reported high quality WE. A majority (67.1% of the nurses had low degree of job satisfaction while only few nurses (3.1% reported high degree of satisfaction with job. A significant positive strong correlation was found between overall work environment and the general job satisfaction of the nurses(r = 0.55, p = < 0.01. “Provisions of modern equipment for work” and “increment/prompt payment of salary” were the most prominent factors in work environment that the nurses perceived as capable of increasing their job satisfaction (54.7% and 49.7% respectively. The least reported factor was “recommendation when one does a good job” (1.9%.Conclusion: The study concluded that a healthy work environment for nurses in the primary health care settings is an important factor in improving work satisfaction

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Work Environment Variables on Job Satisfaction Among Chinese Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanhe; Lambert, Eric G; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Jinwu

    2018-05-01

    Job satisfaction has been linked to many positive outcomes, such as greater work performance, increased organizational commitment, reduced job burnout, decreased absenteeism, and lower turnover intent/turnover. A substantial body of research has examined how work environment variables are linked to job satisfaction among U.S. correctional staff; far less research has examined prison staff in non-Western nations, especially China. Using survey data collected from two prisons in Guangzhou, China, this study investigated the level of job satisfaction among prison staff and how personal characteristics (i.e., gender, tenure, age, and educational level) and work environment variables (i.e., perceived dangerousness of the job, job variety, supervision, instrumental communication, and input into decision making) affect job satisfaction. The findings from ordinary least squares regression equations indicated that the work environment variables explained a greater proportion of the variance in the job satisfaction measure than the personal characteristics. In the full multivariate regression model, gender was the only personal characteristic to have a significant association with job satisfaction, with female staff reporting higher satisfaction. Input into decision making and job variety had significant positive associations, whereas dangerousness had a significant negative relationship with job satisfaction.

  1. What kind of knowledge do small companies need to improve their working environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    towards knowledge-based behaviour. Additionally the time required increases when moving from skill- to knowledge-based behaviour. On the other hand, skill-based behaviour lacks the ability to solve problems and adapt to new situations. In the working environment risk assessment as well as the development...... of management routines are typically knowledge-based activities, whereas the application of good practice is more of skill or rule-based. For small companies, time as well as knowledge is an important constraint for the work environment management. Therefore the conclusion could be to focus on and provide skill......Background One of the main obstacles identified for small companies´ improvement of the working environment is lack of knowledge. Aim To discuss what kind of knowledge is required by small companies if they are to be able to improve their working environment and the pros and cons of different kinds...

  2. Work environment satisfaction and employee health: panel evidence from Denmark, France and Spain, 1994-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates whether a satisfactory work environment can promote employee health even after controlling for socioeconomic status and life style factors. A dynamic panel model of health is estimated from worker samples from Denmark, France and Spain, employing both self-assessed general health and the presence of a functional limitation. In all three countries and for both types of health measures, a good perceived work environment is found to be a highly significant determinant of worker health even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and minimizing reverse causality. The marginal effect is, however, larger in France and Denmark than in Spain. Several potential explanations for this finding are discussed. Further, a satisfactory working environment is found to be at least as important for employee health as socioeconomic status. Thus, investing in giving workers a satisfying work environment could be a low-cost way of improving employee health.

  3. The Association of Chinese Hospital Work Environment with Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-feng; You, Li-ming; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Fang, Jin-bo; Lu, Min-min; Lv, Ai-li; Ma, Wei-guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shu-hong; Wu, Xue; Zhu, Xiao-wen; Bu, Xiu-qing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the relationship of work environment to nurse outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nurse outcomes in Chinese hospitals. PMID:24345617

  4. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. METHODS: Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health...

  5. How can context affect what strategies are effective in improving the working environment in small companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Small companies include many different sectors and types of organisations. Additionally the small companies are affected by clients, authorities and other stakeholders. Some of these contextual factors have been proven to be of relevance to and affect the work environment management, e.......g. in cleaning companies, where many aspects of the working environment is decided by the client company, whose premises is cleaned by the cleaning company. Aim To discuss what factors in small companies´ context may affect the outcome of work environment interventions as a theoretical basis for evaluation...... of what factors that may have affected the outcome of work environment interventions and programs in small companies. Discussion The context is a convenient and simple term covering a multitude of factors and complex relations. It is unavoidable to discuss context when aiming at understanding small...

  6. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Yuliani; Husodo, Adi Heru; Astuti, Indwiani

    2018-02-01

    One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05). This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  7. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningsih Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05. This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  8. An integrative review: work environment factors associated with physical activity among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Kao, Tsui-Sui; Larson, Janet L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the research evidence for the role of the work environment-workplace physical activity policies and resources and job strain factors-in explaining physical activity in white-collar workers. White-collar workers are at risk for developing a sedentary lifestyle, which contributes to all-cause mortality. Understanding how work environment can influence worker physical activity is important for the development of effective interventions. We reviewed 15 research articles that describe the relationship between work environment factors and physical activity in predominantly white-collar workers. Relatively consistent evidence was found for the effects of supportive workplace policies and resources. Weak evidence was found for the effects of job strain. Both work environment factors have the potential to influence physical activity but require further exploration to fully understand their contribution to physical activity in white-collar workers. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  9. Commitment or Compliance?—Institutional logics of work environment management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt; Hasle, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and where it differs from the traditional organizational approach to work environment management. In this paper, we use the ‘institutional logics’ perspective to propose heuristic ideal types of two institutional logics of work environment management: The logic of compliance as the ideal type...... of the ‘traditional’ approach to work environment management and the logic of commitment as the human resource informed approach. Through a side-by-side comparison of key characteristics, we analyze the two ideal types as instantiations of institutional orders on the societal level with the compliance logic being...... rooted in the orders of the state and the corporation, and the commitment logic as based on the orders of the corporation. The paper ends with a discussion on the how the two logics can influence concrete work environment practices and approaches to management in organizations....

  10. Displacements in organisations’ responses to the inspections of their psychosocial working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starheim, Liv

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how organisational activities correspond with the Working Environment Authority’s description of psychosocial working environment problems at the workplaces. Through the case study of twelve workplaces the activities are analysed focusing on the relationship...... between the Working Environment Authority’s problem descriptions after an inspection visit, and the solutions implemented by the workplace to solve the pinpointed problems. The Garbage Can mode l of decision making frames the understanding of how the workplaces decides, which activities they initiate...... as a result of the Working Environment Authority inspection. Displacement of the problem solving is suggested as a category of decision-making. The analysis shows, how the organisations choose relevant or displaced activities depended upon their agreement in the problem description, their acceptance...

  11. 0173 Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Morten Vejs; Schlünssen, Vivi; Basinas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individual response style, mood, expectations, and health status may affect reporting of the psychosocial work environment, and bias associations with outcomes. Reporting bias may be avoided by aggregating individual responses, ideally preserving exposure contrast. In this study, we e...

  12. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2013-11-15

    Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.

  14. The Impact of Working Motivation and Working Environment on Employees Performance in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Setyo; Sutrisno, Ady; Ali, Hapzi

    2017-01-01

    In the face of the Asean economic community role of capital market demanded to be pro-active. The capital market expected to have contribution to the Indonesian economy by preparing regulations in accordance with the actual of economic conditions which would require of human resources who has a good performance at Indonesia stock exchange (IDX) as the regulator of capital market in Indonesia. This research aims to know the influence of working motivation toward employee performance at IDX, to...

  15. Myocardial infarction risk and psychosocial work environment: an analysis of the male Swedish working force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, L; Karasek, R; Theorell, T

    1982-01-01

    The project was designed to test the assumption that certain psychosocial characteristics of occupational groups are associated with elevated myocardial infarction risk. All cases of myocardial infarction below the age of 65 in men living in the region of greater Stockholm during the years 1974-1976 were identified (deaths as well as survivals) in the official registries of hospitalizations and deaths. For each case two controls without infarction (in younger ages four) matched for age, area of residence and sex were selected randomly from the parish registries. For each case and control (n = 334 and 882, respectively) information was available regarding occupation. The psychosocial characteristics of each one of the 118 occupations were recorded by means of a nation wide interview survey (3876 working men) in 1977. Relative age-adjusted risks of developing a myocardial infarction were calculated for occupations in which many vs occupations in which few subjects reported a given characteristic (50% with most vs 50% with least). Shift work and monotony were associated with significant excess risk. Hectic work was not associated with excess risk by itself but in combination with variables associated with low decision latitude and/or few possibilities for growth it was associated with significant excess risk.

  16. Computerized working memory training has positive long-term effect in very low birthweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Lähaugen, Gro C C

    2016-02-01

    Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group. The intervention group trained with the Cogmed JM working memory training program daily for 5 weeks (25 training sessions). Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires were performed 4 weeks after intervention and at follow-up 7 months later. For most of the statistical analyses, general linear models were applied. At follow-up, higher scores and increased or equal performance gain were found in the intervention group than the comparison group on memory for faces (p=0.012), narrative memory (p=0.002), and spatial span (p=0.003). No group differences in performance gain were found for attention and behaviour. Computerized working memory training seems to have positive and persisting effects on working memory, and visual and verbal learning, at 7-month follow-up in VLBW preschool children. We speculate that such training is beneficial by improving the ability to learn from the teaching at school and for further cognitive development. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Modelling and Control of Stepper Motors for High Accuracy Positioning Systems Used in Radioactive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo; Masi, Alessandro

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are widely used in open-loop position applications. They are the choice of actuation for the collimators in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator at CERN. In this case the positioning requirements and the highly radioactive operating environment are unique. The latter forces both the use of long cables to connect the motors to the drives which act as transmission lines and also prevents the use of standard position sensors. However, reliable and precise operation of the collimators is critical for the machine, requiring the prevention of step loss in the motors and maintenance to be foreseen in case of mechanical degradation. In order to make the above possible, an approach is proposed for the application of an Extended Kalman Filter to a sensorless stepper motor drive, when the motor is separated from its drive by long cables. When the long cables and high frequency pulse width modulated control voltage signals are used together, the electrical signals difer greatl...

  18. Virtual Team Work : Group Decision Making in 3D Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Alexander P.; van den Hooff, Bart; Feldberg, Frans

    This study investigates how three-dimensional virtual environments (3DVEs) support shared understanding and group decision making. Based on media synchronicity theory, we pose that the shared environment and avatar-based interaction allowed by 3DVEs aid convergence processes in teams working on a

  19. Virtual Team Work : Group Decision Making in 3D Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.P.; van den Hooff, B.; Feldberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how three-dimensional virtual environments (3DVEs) support shared understanding and group decision making. Based on media synchronicity theory, we pose that the shared environment and avatar-based interaction allowed by 3DVEs aid convergence processes in teams working on a

  20. Web Environments for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andernach, J.A.; van Diepen, N.M.; Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education and describe two courses in which course-specific World Wide Web (Web) environments have evolved over a series of course sequences and are used both as tool environments for

  1. Impact of recurrent changes in the work environment on nurses' psychological well-being and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Rik; Vlerick, Peter; Gemmel, Paul; Van Maele, Georges; De Backer, Guy

    2006-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of hospital nurses affect psychological well-being (i.e. job satisfaction, eustress and distress) and absence through illness. Many researchers have demonstrated the impact of major organizational changes on employees' psychological well-being, but only a few have focused on the permanent consequences in work conditions. In a contemporary healthcare setting, an increased number of recurrent operational changes has become a normal characteristic of nurses' work environment. Specific work situations have frequently been associated with occupational stress, whereas employees' appraisal of recurrent changes as stressors and their relation to psychological well-being and health outcomes (i.e. sickness absence) have been dismissed. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2003 with 2094 Registered Nurses in 10 general hospitals. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact on psychological well-being and prospectively measured rates of sickness absence (frequency and duration). The occurrence of changes in the work environment (in the past 6 months) had had a negative impact on staff psychological well-being. Nurses who had been confronted with changes scored statistically significantly higher for distress. Changes appraised as threatening were negatively related to job satisfaction and eustress, and positively related to distress and sickness absence (frequency and duration). Changes appraised as challenging were positively related to job satisfaction and eustress but had no impact on distress and sickness absence. Future research should take into consideration the impact of the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of healthcare employees (i.e. Registered Nurses) on psychological well-being and sickness absence. This should also be considered by managers when dealing with these nursing workforce

  2. The Effect Working Environment, Job Characteristic and Job Motivation to Job Satisfaction at Lecture Jambi Universitas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati, Rosmiati; Ekawarna, Ekawarna; Haryanto, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain information on the effect of working environment, job Characteristic and job motivation to job satisfaction. The population of this research is the Lecture Jambi University. The total number of the research sample was 273 Official Member of Lecture Jambi University and they were taken randomly. Data analysis technique was used path analisys with SPSS and LISREL program.The formulation of this research are: 1) Is the work environment (X1) directly in...

  3. Person-organization fit and organizational identification as predictors of positive and negative work-home interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the presented research was to explore the links between complementary and supplementary dimensions of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit, organizational identification (OI and negative (WHI- versus positive (WHI+ work-home interactions. It was assumed that both complementary and supplementary P-O fit and OI were positively related to WHI+ and negatively to WHI-. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a large sample of Polish blue and white collar workers. The subjects were interviewed by means of questionnaires measuring: supplementary and complementary dimensions of P-O fit, OI and WHI. General work ability and demographic variables were also controlled in the study, and statistical analysis of ANOVA, pairwise comparison as well as regression were performed. Results: P-O fit and OI differentiated the subjects in terms of WHI. For women supplementary fit was a significant predictor of WHI- and explained 12% of its variance, for men it was complementary fit with the number of working days per week and the level of education, which explained 22% of variance. Supplementary fit and OI explained 16% of WHI+ variance in women; OI, tenure at the main place of employment and the level of education explained 8% of WHI+ variance in men. Conclusions: It has been proven that not only are the effects of P-O fit and OI limited to the work environment but they also permeate boundaries between work and home and influence private life - good level of P-O fit and good OI play facilitating role in the positive spillover between work and home. Gender differences in the significance and predictive values of P-O fit and OI for WHI were also found. The innovative aspect of the work is the inclusion of P-O fit and OI in the range of significant predictors of work-home interaction. The results can serve as rationale for employers that improvement of P-O fit and employees' organizational identification should be included in work

  4. Person-organization fit and organizational identification as predictors of positive and negative work-home interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was to explore the links between complementary and supplementary dimensions of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit), organizational identification (OI) and negative (WHI(-)) versus positive (WHI(+)) work-home interactions. It was assumed that both complementary and supplementary P-O fit and OI were positively related to WHI(+) and negatively to WHI(-). The study was conducted on a large sample of Polish blue and white collar workers. The subjects were interviewed by means of questionnaires measuring: supplementary and complementary dimensions of P-O fit, OI and WHI. General work ability and demographic variables were also controlled in the study, and statistical analysis of ANOVA, pairwise comparison as well as regression were performed. P-O fit and OI differentiated the subjects in terms of WHI. For women supplementary fit was a significant predictor of WHI(-) and explained 12% of its variance, for men it was complementary fit with the number of working days per week and the level of education, which explained 22% of variance. Supplementary fit and OI explained 16% of WHI(+) variance in women; OI, tenure at the main place of employment and the level of education explained 8% of WHI(+) variance in men. It has been proven that not only are the effects of P-O fit and OI limited to the work environment but they also permeate boundaries between work and home and influence private life - good level of P-O fit and good OI play facilitating role in the positive spillover between work and home. Gender differences in the significance and predictive values of P-O fit and OI for WHI were also found. The innovative aspect of the work is the inclusion of P-O fit and OI in the range of significant predictors of work-home interaction. The results can serve as rationale for employers that improvement of P-O fit and employees' organizational identification should be included in work-life balance programs.

  5. [Correlation Between Nursing Work Environment and Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention in the Western Region of Mainland China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Meng; Fang, Jin-Bo

    2016-02-01

    Nurse burnout and low job satisfaction are main reasons that cause nurses to leave their current position. Improving the nursing work environment may reduce the severity of job burnout and of job dissatisfaction and thus decrease the turnover intention of nursing staff. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the nursing work environment and the outcome variables of burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in the western region of Mainland China. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Survey data were collected between February and December 2012 from 1,112 clinical nurses working at 83 medical, surgical, and intensive care units in 20 hospitals across the western region of Mainland China. Multistage sampling was conducted on some of the participants. The research instruments that were used included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Nurse Job Satisfaction Scale, and the self-developed basic information and turnover intention questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0. The level of statistical significance was set at penvironment, collegial nurse-physician relations earned the most favorable mean scores (3.57±0.68; total=4 points), whereas adequacy of staffing and resources earned the lowest (3.21±0.82). Over half of the participants (58.4%) reported experiencing a high level of emotional exhaustion (EE) burnout, 45.2% reported experiencing a high level of depersonalization (DP) burnout, and 24.6% reported experiencing a high level of personal accomplishment (PA) burnout. About 59% of the participants were satisfied with their work and 3.8% reported intention to leave. Participants in self-reported "favorable" work environments were less likely to report high burnout, less likely to report intention to leave, and more likely to report job satisfaction than their peers in self-reported "poor" work

  6. Work-Family Enrichment: the Positive Side of Roles of Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadma Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at understand up how the interaction can promote work-family enrichment in the roles developed by the Executive Secretaries of a public university. The approach used was the qualitative analysis research and data collection technique employed a semi-structured interview, applied to twenty executive secretaries, employed at the public universities. For the data interpretation, we used the technique of content analysis. The analytical results identified the existence of enrichment in this interaction. The learning opportunity to was mentioned as one of the most enriching element of the work, besides the family values as family enriching element. The family support and experience emerged as enrichment phenomena common to both domains. Regarding the implications of work-family interaction, the most perceived implications by respondents were: increased knowledge and skills, material and psychological benefits, improved quality of life and personal and professional fulfillment. The conclusion is that one should not emphasize the negative side of the work-family interaction if there are favorable resources to enrich this relationship. One should also value the positive side of the interaction to seek a balance between the demands of work and the ones of family is equally important, since the participation of Secretaries in family and work roles proved to be necessary and challenging and it can provide enrichment to the executive secretary roles in their work place.

  7. WORK WITH A DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT TEXT AS A MEANS OF CREATIVE STUDENTS’ SELF-DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Makotrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to work out innovative ways of the organisation of students’ work with the text in the electronic environment – in a network the Internet, on other various electronic data storage devices – material devices for record, storage, reproduction of the information processed by means of computer facilities.Methods. Author’s methods of the organisation of students’ work with the text on electronic data storage devices are used during modelling experiment. Methods of questioning, interrogation are applied; the content-analysis and the correlation analysis of the received data.Results. Stages of the person’s creative self-development composing a dialectic cycle of formation and development of research skills of the pupil in educational process are noted. The interrelation between scientifically-methodical readiness of the teacher for development of research potential of students and features of the organisation of their work with the text is established. Ways of activization of pupils’ creative self-development are offered and shown while working with the electronic text and the Internet resources. The given ways allow to realize the idea of subjectiveness and the subjectivity, pointed within the limits of culturological and anthropological approaches to education; to stimulate the process of formation and personality growth of the student; to provide sensibleness of a student’s choice of own trajectory of education; to open its intellectual and creative abilities.Scientific novelty. The variant of transition of school education from positions of transmission of the educational information, completed knowledge and abilities to formation and subjectness development of students and satisfaction of their requirements for creative self-realisation is shown. For this purpose, according to the author, it is necessary to use manifold opportunities of digital technologies actively introduced recently in student teaching not as

  8. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of hazardous work environment factors at a train conductor workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Vil'k

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on generalized analysis of morbidity which is characteristic for conductors working in passenger carriages of locomotive-driven trains. Working conditions train conductors had to work in were examined as per results of sanitary-hygienic research on intra-carriage environment, specific working conditions assessment, and questioning. Hazards caused by working environment factors for train conductors to a certain extent depend on a carriage type, its technical and hygienic state, as well as on a route a train goes by. Our research revealed that impacts exerted by various working environment factors, namely physical, chemical, biological, and psychophysical ones, caused respiratory diseases, increased allergic reactivity, changes in hearing sensitivity, and overall morbidity growth among people from this occupational group. Unordered regime resulting from constant trips and unfavorable living conditions in a carriage lead to the following diseases: varix dilatation in legs, ischemic heart disease together with primary hypertension, and chronic rheumatic heart diseases. More precise classification of conductors' working conditions can be obtained via a mathematical model creation as it enables precise estimation of occupational diseases probability. Such models should be based on a relationship between diseases frequency (or probability and working conditions as per specific hygienic factors. We worked out methodical guidelines on providing safe working conditions at conductors' working places which include efficient activities aimed at prevention of hazardous impacts exerted by working environment factors. It will help to improve working conditions substantially, to preserve workers' health, and to ensure safe passengers traffic. Safe working conditions for conductors can be secured due to a set of activities aimed at equipping new carriages and those after capital repair with air-conditioning, disinfection systems, heating

  10. Research on Digital Forensic Readiness Design in a Cloud Computing-Based Smart Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the work environments of organizations have been in the process of transitioning into smart work environments by applying cloud computing technology in the existing work environment. The smart work environment has the characteristic of being able to access information assets inside the company from outside the company through cloud computing technology, share information without restrictions on location by using mobile terminals, and provide a work environment where work can be conducted effectively in various locations and mobile environments. Thus, in the cloud computing-based smart work environment, changes are occurring in terms of security risks, such as an increase in the leakage risk of an organization’s information assets through mobile terminals which have a high risk of loss and theft and increase the hacking risk of wireless networks in mobile environments. According to these changes in security risk, the reactive digital forensic method, which investigates digital evidence after the occurrence of security incidents, appears to have a limit which has led to a rise in the necessity of proactive digital forensic approaches wherein security incidents can be addressed preemptively. Accordingly, in this research, we design a digital forensic readiness model at the level of preemptive prevention by considering changes in the cloud computing-based smart work environment. Firstly, we investigate previous research related to the cloud computing-based smart work environment and digital forensic readiness and analyze a total of 50 components of digital forensic readiness. In addition, through the analysis of the corresponding preceding research, we design seven detailed areas, namely, outside the organization environment, within the organization guideline, system information, terminal information, user information, usage information, and additional function. Then, we design a draft of the digital forensic readiness model in the cloud

  11. Attention and working memory in elderly: the influence of a distracting environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro F S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2015-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers). Each participant performed the tasks in a distracting and a non-distracting environment, with an interval of 14-21 days between sessions. The results revealed better performance in the attentional tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment. Specifically, participants provided more accurate responses, fewer false alarms and omissions when responding in the non-distracting environment than when responding in the distracting environment. Participants were also faster at providing correct responses in the go/no-go task when it was performed in the non-distracting environment. As for the memory tasks, the effect of type of environment was significant only in the memory for digits in a forward direction task. Our data suggest the need to consider the potential damaging consequences of distracting environments when the elderly have to perform tasks that demand their attention. Specific examples of such situations are presented in the discussion (e.g., distracting effect of environment on medical and on psychological evaluations).

  12. The role of agreements between labour unions and employers in the regulation of the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Petersen, Jens Voxtrup

    2004-01-01

    for this development is a higher priority given to the psychosocial work environment, This area is generally difficult to regulate even by the reflexive form of work environment legislation currently in use, as its character makes it difficult to set fixed norms that can be measured objectively. In addition......, the prevention of psychosocial strains requires changes in the organisation of work and management of human resources.Both areas are normally controlled by management and to some extent influenced by collective agreements about the wage system and working hours. Deregulation and EU-legislation also put...... to improvement on the parts of both the social partners and the companies. Strong co-operation between the work environment authorities and the social partners seems to be necessary. However, it is an open question whether they can meet this obligation, as doing so may sometimes lead to criticism from members...

  13. Professional nursing practice in critical units: assessment of work environment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Sales Maurício

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64 and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62 to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62 and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54, however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable.

  14. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  15. METHODS OF STATISTICAL MONITORING OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION WORK OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS IN PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr M. Korniiets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the application of social services WEB 2.0 for personal learning environment creation that is used for professional orientation work of social educator. The feedback is must be in personal learning environment for the effective professional orientation work. This feedback can be organized through statistical monitoring. The typical solution for organizing personal learning environment with built-in statistical surveys and statistical data processing is considered in the article. The possibilities of the statistical data collection and processing services on the example of Google Analytics are investigated.

  16. Visual Odometry and Place Recognition Fusion for Vehicle Position Tracking in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Safa; Boutteau, Rémi; Savatier, Xavier; Tlili, Fethi

    2018-03-22

    In this paper, we address the problem of vehicle localization in urban environments. We rely on visual odometry, calculating the incremental motion, to track the position of the vehicle and on place recognition to correct the accumulated drift of visual odometry, whenever a location is recognized. The algorithm used as a place recognition module is SeqSLAM, addressing challenging environments and achieving quite remarkable results. Specifically, we perform the long-term navigation of a vehicle based on the fusion of visual odometry and SeqSLAM. The template library for this latter is created online using navigation information from the visual odometry module. That is, when a location is recognized, the corresponding information is used as an observation of the filter. The fusion is done using the EKF and the UKF, the well-known nonlinear state estimation methods, to assess the superior alternative. The algorithm is evaluated using the KITTI dataset and the results show the reduction of the navigation errors by loop-closure detection. The overall position error of visual odometery with SeqSLAM is 0.22% of the trajectory, which is much smaller than the navigation errors of visual odometery alone 0.45%. In addition, despite the superiority of the UKF in a variety of estimation problems, our results indicate that the UKF performs as efficiently as the EKF at the expense of an additional computational overhead. This leads to the conclusion that the EKF is a better choice for fusing visual odometry and SeqSlam in a long-term navigation context.

  17. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

  19. Estimating the Effects of No Child Left Behind on Teachers' Work Environments and Job Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean; Harrington, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have examined the impacts of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on school operations and student achievement. We complement that work by investigating the law's impacts on teachers' perceptions of their work environments and related job attitudes, including satisfaction and commitment to remain in teaching. Using four waves of the…

  20. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…