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Sample records for positive temperature gradient

  1. Ion temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc

  2. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons

  3. Thermal conduction down steep temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Evans, R.G.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1980-08-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation has been solved numerically in one spatial and two velocity dimensions in order to study thermal conduction in large temperature gradients. An initially cold plasma is heated at one end of the spatial grid producing temperature gradients with scale lengths of a few times the electron mean free path. The heat flow is an order of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory which is valid in the limit of small temperature gradients. (author)

  4. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  5. Tolman temperature gradients in a gravitational field

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Jessica; Visser, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Tolman's relation for the temperature gradient in an equilibrium self-gravitating general relativistic fluid is broadly accepted within the general relativity community. However, the concept of temperature gradients in thermal equilibrium continues to cause confusion in other branches of physics, since it contradicts naive versions of the laws of classical thermodynamics. In this paper we discuss the crucial role of the universality of free fall, and how thermodynamics emphasises the great di...

  6. Near-surface temperature gradient in a coastal upwelling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, H.; Ochoa, J.; Almeda-Jauregui, C. O.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Cruz-López, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In oceanography, a near homogeneous mixed layer extending from the surface to a seasonal thermocline is a common conceptual basis in physics, chemistry, and biology. In a coastal upwelling region 3 km off the coast in the Mexican Pacific, we measured vertical density gradients with a free-rising CTD and temperature gradients with thermographs at 1, 3, and 5 m depths logging every 5 min during more than a year. No significant salinity gradient was observed down to 10 m depth, and the CTD temperature and density gradients showed no pronounced discontinuity that would suggest a near-surface mixed layer. Thermographs generally logged decreasing temperature with depth with gradients higher than 0.2 K m-1 more than half of the time in the summer between 1 and 3 m, 3 and 5 m and in the winter between 1 and 3 m. Some negative temperature gradients were present and gradients were generally highly variable in time with high peaks lasting fractions of hours to hours. These temporal changes were too rapid to be explained by local heating or cooling. The pattern of positive and negative peaks might be explained by vertical stacks of water layers of different temperatures and different horizontal drift vectors. The observed near-surface gradient has implications for turbulent wind energy transfer, vertical exchange of dissolved and particulate water constituents, the interpretation of remotely sensed SST, and horizontal wind-induced transport.

  7. Ponderomotive force effects on temperature-gradient-driven instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, A.K.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    The modification of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities due to the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency fields near the ion cyclotron frequency is investigated in the linear regime. Employing the fluid theory, it is shown that the induced field line compression caused by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) fields makes the net parallel compressibility positive, and thus provides a stabilizing influence on the ion-temperature-gradient-driven mode for an appropriately tailored profile of radio-frequency (rf) pressure. Concomitantly, the radial ponderomotive force generates an additional contribution via coupling between the perturbed fluid motion and the equilibrium ponderomotive force and this effect plays the role of dissipation to enhance or decrease the growth of temperature-gradient-driven modes depending upon the sign of rf pressure gradients. For decreased growth of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities, the plasma density gradients and rf pressure gradients must have opposite signs while enhancement in growth arises when both gradients have the same sign. Finally, the kinetic effects associated with these modes are briefly discussed

  8. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  9. Considerations of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    The ion temperature gradient driven instability is considered in this paper. Physical pictures are presented to clarify the nature of the instability. The saturation of a single eddy is modeled by a simple nonlinear equation. We show that eddies which are elongated in the direction of the temperature gradient are the most unstable and have the highest saturation amplitudes. In a sheared magnetic field, such elongated eddies twist with the field lines. This structure is shown to be alternative to the usual Fourier mode picture in which the mode is localized around the surface where k parallel = 0. We show how these elongated twisting eddies, which are an integral part of the ''ballooning mode'' structure, could survive in a torus. The elongated eddies are shown to be unstable to secondary instabilities that are driven by the large gradients in the long eddy. We argue that this mechanism isotropizes ion temperature gradient turbulence. We further argue that the ''mixing length'' is set by this nonlinear process, not by a linear eigenmode width. 17 refs., 6 figs

  10. Voltammetry under a Controlled Temperature Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krejci, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical measurements are generally done under isothermal conditions. Here we report on the application of a controlled temperature gradient between the working electrode surface and the solution. Using electrochemical sensors prepared on ceramic materials with extremely high specific heat conductivity, the temperature gradient between the electrode and solution was applied here as a second driving force. This application of the Soret phenomenon increases the mass transfer in the Nernst layer and enables more accurate control of the electrode response enhancement by a combination of diffusion and thermal diffusion. We have thus studied the effect of Soret phenomenon by cyclic voltammetry measurements in ferro/ferricyanide. The time dependence of sensor response disappears when applying the Soret phenomenon, and the complicated shape of the cyclic voltammogram is replaced by a simple exponential curve. We have derived the Cotrell-Soret equation describing the steady-state response with an applied temperature difference.

  11. COMPARISON OF GKS CALCULATED CRITICAL ION TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS AND ITG GROWTH RATES TO DIII-D MEASURED GRADIENTS AND DIFFUSIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, DR; STAEBLER, GM; PETTY, CC; GREENFIELD, CM; LUCE, TC

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The gyrokinetic equations predict that various drift type waves or modes can be unstable in a tokamak. For some of these modes, such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the electron temperature gradient mode, there exists a critical gradient, above which the mode is unstable. Since the existence of unstable modes can cause increased transport, plasmas which are centrally heated tend to increase in temperature gradient until the modes become unstable. Under some conditions the increased transport can fix the gradient at the critical value. here they present a comparison between the measured ion temperature gradients and the critical gradient as calculated by a gyrokinetic linear stability (GKS) code. They also present the maximum linear growth rate as calculated by this code for comparison to experimentally derived transport coefficients. The results show that for low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the measured ion temperature gradient is significantly greater than the GKS calculated critical gradient over a large region of the plasma. This is the same region of the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity is large. For high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges the ion temperature gradient is closer to the critical gradient, but often still greater than the critical gradient over some region. For the best H-mode discharges, the ion temperature is less than or equal to the critical gradient over the whole plasma. In general they find that the position in the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity starts to increase rapidly is where the maximum linear growth rate is greater than the E x B shearing rate

  12. Fundamental limits to position determination by concentration gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Tostevin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Position determination in biological systems is often achieved through protein concentration gradients. Measuring the local concentration of such a protein with a spatially varying distribution allows the measurement of position within the system. For these systems to work effectively, position determination must be robust to noise. Here, we calculate fundamental limits to the precision of position determination by concentration gradients due to unavoidable biochemical noise perturbing the gradients. We focus on gradient proteins with first-order reaction kinetics. Systems of this type have been experimentally characterised in both developmental and cell biology settings. For a single gradient we show that, through time-averaging, great precision potentially can be achieved even with very low protein copy numbers. As a second example, we investigate the ability of a system with oppositely directed gradients to find its centre. With this mechanism, positional precision close to the centre improves more slowly with increasing averaging time, and so longer averaging times or higher copy numbers are required for high precision. For both single and double gradients, we demonstrate the existence of optimal length scales for the gradients for which precision is maximized, as well as analyze how precision depends on the size of the concentration-measuring apparatus. These results provide fundamental constraints on the positional precision supplied by concentration gradients in various contexts, including both in developmental biology and also within a single cell.

  13. Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...

  14. Investigation of the influence of some experimental parameters on the position of the deposition zone in a temperature-gradient tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helas, G.; Hoffmann, P.; Bachmann, K.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of some experimental parameters on thermochromatographic separations has been carried out. It is shown that the position of the deposition zone depends on separation time, purity of the inert gas, and on type and amount of the chlorinating agent. The gas flow rate and the amount of the transported compounds have no influence within the limits of experimental conditions. From the experimental results it can be concluded that in some cases the deposited compounds react with the surface or with the excess gas. (author)

  15. Density Gradient Stabilization of Electron Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence in a Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.M.; Mazzucato, E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R.E.; Domier, C.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Smith, D.R.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k (perpendicular) ρ s ∼< 10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.

  16. A measurement of the local ion temperature gradient in the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovberg, J.A.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1989-12-01

    Local ion temperature gradients were measured at two radial positions in the PLT tokamak by counting escaping d(d,p)t protons on orbits at closely spaced intervals. A single surface barrier detector was used to make each gradient measurement, eliminating relative calibration uncertainties. The ion thermal diffusivities inferred through ion energy balance with the measured temperature gradients are within a factor of two of Chang-Hinton neoclassical values for the 3 He-minority ICRH plasmas. 12 refs., 8 figs

  17. Self-induced temperature gradients in Brownian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Jack; Jack, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Brownian systems often surmount energy barriers by absorbing and emitting heat to and from their local environment. Usually, the temperature gradients created by this heat exchange are assumed to dissipate instantaneously. Here we relax this assumption to consider the case where Brownian dynamics on a time-independent potential can lead to self-induced temperature gradients. In the same way that externally imposed temperature gradients can cause directed motion, these self-induced gradients affect the dynamics of the Brownian system. The result is a coupling between the local environment and the Brownian subsystem. We explore the resulting dynamics and thermodynamics of these coupled systems and develop a robust method for numerical simulation. In particular, by focusing on one-dimensional situations, we show that self-induced temperature gradients reduce barrier-crossing rates. We also consider a heat engine and a heat pump based on temperature gradients induced by a Brownian system in a nonequilibrium potential.

  18. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    1989-01-01

    Geothermal gradients as interpreted from a series of high-resolution stabilized well-bore-temperature surveys from 46 North Slope, Alaska, wells vary laterally and vertically throughout the near-surface sediment (0-2,000 m). The data from these surveys have been used in conjunction with depths of ice-bearing permafrost, as interpreted from 102 well logs, to project geothermal gradients within and below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence. The geothermal gradients calculated from the projected temperature profiles are similar to the geothermal gradients measured in the temperature surveys. Measured and projected geothermal gradients in the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from 1.5??C/100m in the Prudhoe Bay area to 5.1??C/100m in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA).

  19. Theory of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.S.; Diamond, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic theory of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence in tokamaks is presented. Energy-conserving, renormalized spectrum equations are derived and solved in order to obtain the spectra of stationary ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence. Corrections to mixing-length estimates are calculated explicitly. The resulting anomalous ion thermal diffusivity chi/sub i/ = 0.4[(π/2)ln(1 + eta/sub i/)] 2 [(1 + eta/sub i/)/tau] 2 rho/sub s/ 2 c/sub s//L/sub s/ is derived and is found to be consistent with experimentally-deduced thermal diffusivities. The associated electron thermal diffusivity and particle and heat-pinch velocities are also calculated. The effect of impurity gradients on saturated ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence is discussed and a related explanation of density profile steepening during Z-mode operation is proposed. 35 refs., 4 figs

  20. Coupled ion temperature gradient and trapped electron mode to electron temperature gradient mode gyrokinetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.; Fahey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Electron temperature gradient (ETG) transport is conventionally defined as the electron energy transport at high wave number (high-k) where ions are adiabatic and there can be no ion energy or plasma transport. Previous gyrokinetic simulations have assumed adiabatic ions (ETG-ai) and work on the small electron gyroradius scale. However such ETG-ai simulations with trapped electrons often do not have well behaved nonlinear saturation unless fully kinetic ions (ki) and proper ion scale zonal flow modes are included. Electron energy transport is separated into ETG-ki at high-k and ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode (ITG/TEM) at low-k. Expensive (more computer-intensive), high-resolution, large-ion-scale flux-tube simulations coupling ITG/TEM and ETG-ki turbulence are presented. These require a high effective Reynolds number R≡[k(max)/k(min)] 2 =μ 2 , where μ=[ρ si /ρ si ] is the ratio of ion to electron gyroradii. Compute times scale faster than μ 3 . By comparing the coupled expensive simulations with (1) much cheaper (less compute-intensive), uncoupled, high-resolution, small, flux-tube ETG-ki and with (2) uncoupled low-resolution, large, flux-tube ITG/TEM simulations, and also by artificially turning ''off'' the low-k or high-k drives, it appears that ITG/TEM and ETG-ki transport are not strongly coupled so long as ETG-ki can access some nonadiabatic ion scale zonal flows and both high-k and low-k are linearly unstable. However expensive coupled simulations are required for physically accurate k-spectra of the transport and turbulence. Simulations with μ≥30 appear to represent the physical range μ>40. ETG-ki transport measured in ion gyro-Bohm units is weakly dependent on μ. For the mid-radius core tokamak plasma parameters studied, ETG-ki is about 10% of the electron energy transport, which in turn is about 30% of the total energy transport (with negligible ExB shear). However at large ExB shear sufficient to quench the low-k ITG

  1. Temperature dependency of silicon structures for magnetic field gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabsch, Alexander; Rosenberg, Christoph; Stifter, Michael; Keplinger, Franz

    2018-02-01

    This work describes the temperature dependence of two sensors for magnetic field gradient sensors and demonstrates a structure to compensate for the drift of resonance frequency over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect of the sensing element is based on internal stresses induced by the thermal expansion of material, therefore FEM is used to determine the change of the eigenvalues of the sensing structure. The experimental setup utilizes a Helmholtz coil system to generate the magnetic field and to excite the MEMS structure with Lorentz forces. The MEMS structure is placed on a plate heated with resistors and cooled by a Peltier element to control the plate temperature. In the second part, we describe how one can exploit temperature sensitivity for temperature measurements and we show the opportunity to include the temperature effect to increase the sensitivity of single-crystal silicon made flux density gradient sensors.

  2. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdula, Rzger A.

    2016-01-01

    Bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km) was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area). The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km) were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and...

  3. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A La Sorte

    Full Text Available Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among

  4. Increase of volume swelling by a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschbach, K.; Schneider, W.; Stober, T.

    1996-11-01

    The temperature gradient in the cladding of a Fast Reactor fuel pin leads to increased dilatation compared to material irradiations. Investigations of a specially designed fuel pin reached the conclusion that the cause is enhanced volume swelling. It is induced by He-bubbles, which migrate upwards the temperature gradient and coalesce. The critical size of nuclei for void swelling is thus reached much faster. Consequently, the p in deformation is larger than expected from materials irradiations, in the present case (DIN 1.4981 sa) by about 50%. (orig.) [de

  5. Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.

    1979-01-01

    The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)

  6. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzger A. Abdula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bottom hole temperature (BHT data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area. The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and northeastern parts of the area. The average regional geothermal gradient for Iraqi Kurdistan is 21 °C/km.

  7. Blind separation of positive sources by globally convergent gradient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Erkki; Plumbley, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The instantaneous noise-free linear mixing model in independent component analysis is largely a solved problem under the usual assumption of independent nongaussian sources and full column rank mixing matrix. However, with some prior information on the sources, like positivity, new analysis and perhaps simplified solution methods may yet become possible. In this letter, we consider the task of independent component analysis when the independent sources are known to be nonnegative and well grounded, which means that they have a nonzero pdf in the region of zero. It can be shown that in this case, the solution method is basically very simple: an orthogonal rotation of the whitened observation vector into nonnegative outputs will give a positive permutation of the original sources. We propose a cost function whose minimum coincides with nonnegativity and derive the gradient algorithm under the whitening constraint, under which the separating matrix is orthogonal. We further prove that in the Stiefel manifold of orthogonal matrices, the cost function is a Lyapunov function for the matrix gradient flow, implying global convergence. Thus, this algorithm is guaranteed to find the nonnegative well-grounded independent sources. The analysis is complemented by a numerical simulation, which illustrates the algorithm.

  8. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis africana and the copepod Acartia natalensis) and their temperate congenerics (M. wooldridgei and A. longipatella) was investigated over a 10-year period in the Mgazi Estuary, ...

  9. Ion temperature gradient mode driven solitons and shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, U.; Adnan, Muhammad; Haque, Q.; Qamar, Anisa; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2016-04-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven solitons and shocks are studied in a plasma having gradients in the equilibrium number density and equilibrium ion temperature. In the linear regime, it is found that the ion temperature and the ratio of the gradient scale lengths, ηi=Ln/LT , affect both the real frequency and the growth rate of the ITG driven wave instability. In the nonlinear regime, for the first time we derive a Korteweg de Vries-type equation for the ITG mode, which admits solitary wave solution. It is found that the ITG mode supports only compressive solitons. Further, it is noticed that the soliton amplitude and width are sensitive to the parameter ηi=Ln/LT . Second, in the presence of dissipation in the system, we obtain a Burger type equation, which admits the shock wave solution. This work may be useful to understand the low frequency electrostatic modes in inhomogeneous electron-ion plasma having density and ion temperature gradients. For illustration, the model has been applied to tokamak plasma.

  10. Light Ray Displacements due to Air Temperature Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Teymurazyan, A; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In the optical monitoring systems suggested to control the geometry of tracking spectrometers, light beams serve as reference frames for the measurement of the tracking chamber displacements and deformations. It is shown that air temperature gradients can induce systematic errors which considerably exceed the intrinsic resolution of the monitoring system.

  11. Is the temperature gradient or the derivative of the density gradient responsible for drift solitons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salat, A.

    1990-01-01

    In conventional drift wave theory the density gradient κ n =d lnn/dχ determines the linear phase velocity, and the (electron) temperature gradient κ T =d lnT/dχ gives rise to a nonlinear term which leads to the existence of soliton-type solutions and solitary waves. LAKHIN, MIKHAILOVSKI and ONISHCHENKO, Phys. Lett. A 119, 348 (1987) and Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fus. 30, 457 (1988), recently claimed that it is not κ T but essentially the derivative of the density gradient, dκ n /dχ, that is relevant. This claim is refuted by means of an expansion scheme in ε=eΦ/T≤1, where Φ is the drift wave potential. (orig.)

  12. Temperature gradient driven electron transport in NSTX and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Wong, H.V.; Morrison, P.J.; Wurm, A.; Kim, J.H.; Perez, J.C.; Pratt, J.; Hoang, G.T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Ball, R.

    2005-01-01

    Electron thermal fluxes are derived from the power balance for Tore Supra (TS) and NSTX discharges with centrally deposited fast wave electron heating. Measurements of the electron temperature and density profiles, combined with ray tracing computations of the power absorption profiles, allow detailed interpretation of the thermal flux versus temperature gradient. Evidence supporting the occurrence of electron temperature gradient turbulent transport in the two confinement devices is found. With control of the magnetic rotational transform profile and the heating power, internal transport barriers are created in TS and NSTX discharges. These partial transport barriers are argued to be a universal feature of transport equations in the presence of invariant tori that are intrinsic to non-monotonic rotational transforms in dynamical systems

  13. Temperature gradient method for lipid phase diagram construction using time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Hing, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    A method that enables temperature-composition phase diagram construction at unprecedented rates is described and evaluated. The method involves establishing a known temperature gradient along the length of a metal rod. Samples of different compositions contained in long, thin-walled capillaries are positioned lengthwise on the rod and equilibrated such that the temperature gradient is communicated into the sample. The sample is then moved through a focused, monochromatic synchrotron-derived x-ray beam and the image-intensified diffraction pattern from the sample is recorded on videotape continuously in live-time as a function of position and, thus, temperature. The temperature at which the diffraction pattern changes corresponds to a phase boundary, and the phase(s) existing (coexisting) on either side of the boundary can be identified on the basis of the diffraction pattern. Repeating the measurement on samples covering the entire composition range completes the phase diagram. These additional samples can be conveniently placed at different locations around the perimeter of the cylindrical rod and rotated into position for diffraction measurement. Temperature-composition phase diagrams for the fully hydrated binary mixtures, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE)/DPPC, have been constructed using the new temperature gradient method. They agree well with and extend the results obtained by other techniques. In the DPPE/DPPC system structural parameters as a function of temperature in the various phases including the subgel phase are reported. The potential limitations of this steady-state method are discussed

  14. Charge imbalance induced by a temperature gradient in superconducting aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamin, H.J.; Clarke, J.; Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The quasiparticle transport current induced in a superconducting aluminum film by a temperature gradient has been measured by means of the spatially decaying charge imbalance generated near the end of the sample where the current is divergent. The magnitude and decay length of the charge imbalance are in good agreement with the predictions of a simple model that takes into account the nonuniformity of the temperature gradient. The inferred value of the thermopower in the superconducting state agrees reasonably well with the value measured in the normal state. Measurements of the decay length of charge imbalance induced by current injection yield a value of the inelastic relaxation time tau/sub E/ of about 2 ns. This value is substantially smaller than that obtained from other measurements for reasons that are not known

  15. Mechanisms of detonation formation due to a temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Quirk, J. J.; Hawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Emergence of a detonation in a homogeneous, exothermically reacting medium can be deemed to occur in two phases. The first phase processes the medium so as to create conditions ripe for the onset of detonation. The actual events leading up to preconditioning may vary from one experiment to the next, but typically, at the end of this stage the medium is hot and in a state of nonuniformity. The second phase consists of the actual formation of the detonation wave via chemico-gasdynamic interactions. This paper considers an idealized medium with simple, rate-sensitive kinetics for which the preconditioned state is modelled as one with an initially prescribed linear gradient of temperature. Accurate and well-resolved numerical computations are carrried out to determine the mode of detonation formation as a function of the size of the initial gradient. For shallow gradients, the result is a decelerating supersonic reaction wave, a weak detonation, whose trajectory is dictated by the initial temperature profile, with only weak intervention from hydrodynamics. If the domain is long enough, or the gradient less shallow, the wave slows down to the Chapman-Jouguet speed and undergoes a swift transition to the ZND structure. For sharp gradients, gasdynamic nonlinearity plays a much stronger role. Now the path to detonation is through an accelerating pulse that runs ahead of the reaction wave and rearranges the induction-time distribution there to one that bears little resemblance to that corresponding to the initial temperature gradient. The pulse amplifies and steepens, transforming itself into a complex consisting of a lead shock, an induction zone, and a following fast deflagration. As the pulse advances, its three constituent entities attain progressively higher levels of mutual coherence, to emerge as a ZND detonation. For initial gradients that are intermediate in size, aspects of both the extreme scenarios appear in the path to detonation. The novel aspect of this study

  16. The impact of edge gradients in the pressure, density, ion temperature, and electron temperature on edge-localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of the energy and particle fluxes in simulations of edge-localized modes (ELMs) is determined by the edge gradients in the pressure, density, ion temperature, and electron temperature. The total edge pressure gradient is the dominant influence on ELMs by far. An increase (decrease) of merely 2% in the pressure gradient results in an increase (decrease) of more than a factor of ten in the size of the ELM bursts. At a fixed pressure gradient, the size of the ELM bursts decreases as the density gradient increases, while the size of the bursts increases as the electron temperature gradient or, especially, the ion temperature gradient increases.

  17. Presence and significance of temperature gradients among different ovarian tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ronald Henry Fraser; Einer-Jensen, Niels; Greve, Torben

    2006-01-01

    also be involved. Temperature gradients would be maintained locally by counter-current heat exchange mechanisms and, in this context, the microvasculature and lymphatic flow of individual follicles were found to be appropriate. Observations on the temperature of preovulatory follicles appear relevant......, and cow, and generally fell in the range of 1.3-1.7 degrees C: follicles were always cooler than stroma. Measurements were made principally by means of a thermo-sensing camera at midventral laparotomy, but also using microelectrodes or thermistor probes sited in the follicular antrum of rabbits and pigs...

  18. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms were centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure was 1/3 kbar. All prisms showed large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration reacted readily to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms were coated with a calcium smectite, and the last two prisms were covered with discrete patches of potassium-rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The results indicated that clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  19. Sentinel Gap basalt reacted in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Six basalt prisms were reacted in a controlled temperature gradient hydrothermal circulation system for two months. The prisms are centered at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310 0 C. Total pressure is 1/3 kbar. All prisms show large weight loss: 5.5% to 14.9%. The matrix micropegmatite and natural nontronitic alteration readily reacts to clays at all temperatures. The first four prisms are coated with a Ca-smectite while the last two prisms are covered with discrete patches of K rich phengite and alkali feldspar. The clays may act as adsorbers of various ions

  20. Estimates of the temperature flux-temperature gradient relation above a sea floor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cimatoribus, A.; van Haren, H.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between the ux of temperature (or buoyancy), the verti-cal temperature gradient and the height above the bottom, is investigatedin an oceanographic context, using high-resolution temperature measure-ments. The model for the evolution of a strati?ed layer by Balmforthet al. (1998) is

  1. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Harrison, C; Austin, R H; Megens, M; Hollingsworth, A; Russel, W B; Cheng Zhen; Mason, T; Chaikin, P M

    2003-01-01

    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  2. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Matt [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Zhao Kun [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Harrison, Christopher [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Austin, Robert H [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Megens, Mischa [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Hollingsworth, Andrew [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Russel, William B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Cheng Zhengdong [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Mason, Thomas [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Chaikin, P M [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2003-01-15

    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  3. Electron temperature gradient driven instability in the tokamak boundary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Diamond, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    A general method is developed for calculating boundary plasma fluctuations across a magnetic separatrix in a tokamak with a divertor or a limiter. The slab model, which assumes a periodic plasma in the edge reaching the divertor or limiter plate in the scrape-off layer(SOL), should provide a good estimate, if the radial extent of the fluctuation quantities across the separatrix to the edge is small compared to that given by finite particle banana orbit. The Laplace transform is used for solving the initial value problem. The electron temperature gradient(ETG) driven instability is found to grow like t -1/2 e γmt

  4. Directed motion of a Brownian motor in a temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibing; Nie, Wenjie; Lan, Yueheng

    2017-05-01

    Directed motion of mesoscopic systems in a non-equilibrium environment is of great interest to both scientists and engineers. Here, the translation and rotation of a Brownian motor is investigated under non-equilibrium conditions. An anomalous directed translation is found if the two heads of the Brownian motor are immersed in baths with different particle masses, which is hinted in the analytic computation and confirmed by the numerical simulation. Similar consideration is also used to find the directed movement in the single rotational and translational degree of freedom of the Brownian motor when residing in one thermal bath with a temperature gradient.

  5. Temperature-gradient instability induced by conducting end walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Yu.A.

    1990-04-01

    A new rapidly growing electron temperature gradient instability is found for a plasma in contact with a conducting wall. The linear instability analysis is presented and speculations are given for its nonlinear consequences. This instability illustrates that conducting walls can produce effects that are detrimental to plasma confinement. This mode should be of importance in open-ended systems including astrophysical plasmas, mirror machines and at the edge of tokamaks where field lines are open and are connected to limiters or divertors. 16 refs., 2 figs

  6. Ion temperature gradient modes in toroidal helical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sugama, H.; Kanno, R.; Okamoto, M.

    2000-04-01

    Linear properties of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in helical systems are studied. The real frequency, growth rate, and eigenfunction are obtained for both stable and unstable cases by solving a kinetic integral equation with proper analytic continuation performed in the complex frequency plane. Based on the model magnetic configuration for toroidal helical systems like the Large Helical Device (LHD), dependences of the ITG mode properties on various plasma equilibrium parameters are investigated. Particularly, relative effects of {nabla}B-curvature drifts driven by the toroidicity and by the helical ripples are examined in order to compare the ITG modes in helical systems with those in tokamaks. (author)

  7. Ion temperature gradient modes in toroidal helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Sugama, H.; Kanno, R.; Okamoto, M.

    2000-04-01

    Linear properties of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in helical systems are studied. The real frequency, growth rate, and eigenfunction are obtained for both stable and unstable cases by solving a kinetic integral equation with proper analytic continuation performed in the complex frequency plane. Based on the model magnetic configuration for toroidal helical systems like the Large Helical Device (LHD), dependences of the ITG mode properties on various plasma equilibrium parameters are investigated. Particularly, relative effects of ∇B-curvature drifts driven by the toroidicity and by the helical ripples are examined in order to compare the ITG modes in helical systems with those in tokamaks. (author)

  8. Effects of the safety factor on ion temperature gradient modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.K.; Dong, J.Q.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    A model for the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven instability is derived from Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations of ions. The safety factor q in a toroidal plasma is introduced into the model through the current density J parallel . The effects of q or J parallel on both the ITG instability in k perpendicular and k parallel spectra and the critical stability thresholds are studied. It is shown that the current density // J or the safety factor q plays an important role in stabilizing the ITG instability. (author)

  9. Theory of neoclassical ion temperature-gradient-driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Biglari, H.; Callen, J. D.

    1991-02-01

    The theory of collisionless fluid ion temperature-gradient-driven turbulence is extended to the collisional banana-plateau regime. Neoclassical ion fluid evolution equations are developed and utilized to investigate linear and nonlinear dynamics of negative compressibility ηi modes (ηi≡d ln Ti/d ln ni). In the low-frequency limit (ωB2p. As a result of these modifications, growth rates are dissipative, rather than sonic, and radial mode widths are broadened [i.e., γ˜k2∥c2s(ηi -(2)/(3) )/μi, Δx˜ρs(Bt/Bp) (1+ηi)1/2, where k∥, cs, and ρs are the parallel wave number, sound velocity, and ion gyroradius, respectively]. In the limit of weak viscous damping, enhanced neoclassical polarization persists and broadens radial mode widths. Linear mixing length estimates and renormalized turbulence theory are used to determine the ion thermal diffusivity in both cases. In both cases, a strong favorable dependence of ion thermal diffusivity on Bp (and hence plasma current) is exhibited. Furthermore, the ion thermal diffusivity for long wavelength modes exhibits favorable density scaling. The possible role of neoclassical ion temperature-gradient-driven modes in edge fluctuations and transport in L-phase discharges and the L to H transition is discussed.

  10. AC susceptibility response of bulk YBCO superconductors in the presence of a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodi, A.C.; Kirschner, I.

    1997-01-01

    Low-frequency AC susceptibility measurements on ceramic YBCO superconductors carried out at the presence of a quasi-one-dimensional temperature gradient are compared with those made without the temperature gradient. The values of the different characteristic temperatures measured on samples without and with a temperature gradient are identical but in the second case its characteristic temperature is a medium value. When the temperature gradient is constant on the sample the arithmetic medium value of the local temperatures is the effective characteristic temperature different phenomena. (orig.)

  11. An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Bertrand; Marchalot, Julien; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of generating high-temperature gradients with a linear temperature profile when heating is provided in situ. Thanks to improved optimization algorithms, the shape of resistors, which constitute the heating source, is optimized by applying the genetic algorithm NSGA-II (acronym for the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm) (Deb et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 6 2). Experimental validation of the linear temperature profile within the cavity is carried out using a thermally sensitive fluorophore, called Rhodamine B (Ross et al 2001 Anal. Chem. 73 4117-23, Erickson et al 2003 Lab Chip 3 141-9). The high level of agreement obtained between experimental and numerical results serves to validate the accuracy of this method for generating highly controlled temperature profiles. In the field of actuation, such a device is of potential interest since it allows for controlling bubbles or droplets moving by means of thermocapillary effects (Baroud et al 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 046302). Digital microfluidics is a critical area in the field of microfluidics (Dreyfus et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 14) as well as in the so-called lab-on-a-chip technology. Through an example, the large application potential of such a technique is demonstrated, which entails handling a single bubble driven along a cavity using simple and tunable embedded resistors.

  12. An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selva, Bertrand; Marchalot, Julien; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of generating high-temperature gradients with a linear temperature profile when heating is provided in situ. Thanks to improved optimization algorithms, the shape of resistors, which constitute the heating source, is optimized by applying the genetic algorithm NSGA-II (acronym for the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm) (Deb et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 6 2). Experimental validation of the linear temperature profile within the cavity is carried out using a thermally sensitive fluorophore, called Rhodamine B (Ross et al 2001 Anal. Chem. 73 4117–23, Erickson et al 2003 Lab Chip 3 141–9). The high level of agreement obtained between experimental and numerical results serves to validate the accuracy of this method for generating highly controlled temperature profiles. In the field of actuation, such a device is of potential interest since it allows for controlling bubbles or droplets moving by means of thermocapillary effects (Baroud et al 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 046302). Digital microfluidics is a critical area in the field of microfluidics (Dreyfus et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 14) as well as in the so-called lab-on-a-chip technology. Through an example, the large application potential of such a technique is demonstrated, which entails handling a single bubble driven along a cavity using simple and tunable embedded resistors

  13. The disparate impact of the ion temperature gradient and the density gradient on edge transport and the low-high transition in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.

    2009-01-01

    Steepening of the ion temperature gradient in nonlinear fluid simulations of the edge region of a tokamak plasma causes a rapid degradation in confinement. As the density gradient steepens, there is a continuous improvement in confinement analogous to the low (L) to high (H) transition observed in tokamaks. In contrast, as the ion temperature gradient steepens, there is a rapid increase in the particle and energy fluxes and no L-H transition. For a given pressure gradient, confinement always improves when more of the pressure gradient arises from the density gradient, and less of the pressure gradient arises from the ion temperature gradient.

  14. Fluid simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Hizanidis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode instability is numerically studied by using the equations based on the standard reactive fluid model. The long-term dynamics of the instability are investigated using random-phase, small-amplitude fluctuations for initial conditions. The main events during the evolution of the instability that lead to the formation of large-scale coherent structures are described and the role of the dominant nonlinearities is clarified. The polarization drift nonlinearity leads to the inverse energy cascade while the convective ion heat nonlinearity is responsible for the saturation of the instability. Finally, the sensitivity of the saturated state to the initial plasma conditions is examined

  15. Quasi-steady temperature gradient metamorphism in idealized, dry snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christon, M.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for heat and mass transport in microscale ice lattices of dry snow is formulated consistent with conservation laws and solid-vapor interface constraints. A finite element model that employs continuous mesh deformation is developed, and calculation of the effective diffusion rates in snow, metamorphosing under a temperature gradient, is performed. Results of the research provide basic insight into the movement of heat and water vapor in seasonal snowcovers. Agreement between the numerical results and measured data of effective thermal conductivity is excellent. The enhancement to the water vapor diffusion rate in snow is bracketed in the range of 1.05--2.0 times that of water vapor in dry air

  16. Vortex breakdown control by adding near-axis swirl and temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, Miguel Angel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2003-10-01

    Vortex breakdown (VB) is an intriguing effect of practical and fundamental interest, occurring, e.g., in tornadoes, above delta-wing aircraft, and in vortex devices. Depending on application, VB is either beneficiary or harmful and therefore requires a proper control. This study shows that VB can be efficiently controlled by a combination of additional near-axis swirl and heat. To explore the underlying mechanism, we address a flow in a cylindrical container driven by a rotating bottom disk. This model flow has been extensively studied being well suited for understanding both the VB mechanism and its control. Our numerical analysis explains experimentally observed effects of control corotation and counter-rotation (with no temperature gradient) and reveals some flaws of dye visualization. An important feature found is that a moderate negative (positive) axial gradient of temperature can significantly enforce (diminish) the VB enhancement by the counter-rotation. A strong positive temperature gradient stimulates the centrifugal instability and time oscillations in the flow with counter-rotation. An efficient time-evolution code for axisymmetric compressible flows has facilitated the numerical study.

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in low and mid income countries: positive gradients among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Mehmedovic, Selma; Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-02-06

    In Southern Europe, smoking among older women was more prevalent among the high educated than the lower educated, we call this a positive gradient. This is dominant in the early stages of the smoking epidemic model, later replaced by a negative gradient. The aim of this study is to assess if a positive gradient in smoking can also be observed in low and middle income countries in other regions of the world. We used data of the World Health Survey from 49 countries and a total of 233,917 respondents. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model associations between individual level smoking and both individual level and country level determinants. We stratified results by education, occupation, sex and generation (younger vs. older than 45). Countries were grouped based on GDP and region. In Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, we observed a positive gradient in smoking among older women and a negative gradient among younger women. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America no clear gradient was observed: inequalities were relatively small. In South-East Asia and East Asia a strong negative gradient was observed. Among men, no positive gradients were observed, and like women the strongest negative gradients were seen in South-East Asia and East Asia. A positive socio-economic gradient in smoking was found among older women in two regions, but not among younger women. But contrary to predictions derived from the smoking epidemic model, from a worldwide perspective the positive gradients are the exception rather than the rule.

  18. Effect of temperature gradient on liquid-liquid phase separation in a polyolefin blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Dou, Nannan; Fan, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-09-28

    We have investigated experimentally the structure formation processes during phase separation via spinodal decomposition above and below the spinodal line in a binary polymer blend system exposed to in-plane stationary thermal gradients using phase contrast optical microscopy and temperature gradient hot stage. Below the spinodal line there is a coupling of concentration fluctuations and thermal gradient imposed by the temperature gradient hot stage. Also under the thermal gradient annealing phase-separated domains grow faster compared with the system under homogeneous temperature annealing on a zero-gradient or a conventional hot stage. We suggest that the in-plane thermal gradient accelerates phase separation through the enhancement in concentration fluctuations in the early and intermediate stages of spinodal decomposition. In a thermal gradient field, the strength of concentration fluctuation close to the critical point (above the spinodal line) is strong enough to induce phase separation even in one-phase regime of the phase diagram. In the presence of a temperature gradient the equilibrium phase diagrams are no longer valid, and the systems with an upper critical solution temperature can be quenched into phase separation by applying the stationary temperature gradient. The in-plane temperature gradient drives enhanced concentration fluctuations in a binary polymer blend system above and below the spinodal line.

  19. Determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim using high temperature HPLC with simultaneous temperature and solvent gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegold, Sascha; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Tuerk, Jochen; Kiffmeyer, Thekla; Wenclawiak, Bernd

    2008-10-01

    A fast HPLC method for the analysis of eight selected sulfonamides (SA) and trimethoprim has been developed with the use of high temperature HPLC. The separation could be achieved in less than 1.5 min on a 50 mm sub 2 microm column with simultaneous solvent and temperature gradient programming. Due to the lower viscosity of the mobile phase and the increased mass transfer at higher temperatures, the separation could be performed on a conventional HPLC system obtaining peak widths at half height between 0.6 and 1.3 s.

  20. Interplay between temperature gradients field and C - E transformation in solidifying rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wołczyński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At first step of simulation a temperature field for solidifying cast steel and cast iron roll has been performed. The calculation does not take into account the convection in the liquid since convection has no influence on the proposed model for the localization of the C-E (columnar to equiaxed grains transformation. However, it allows to study the dynamics of temperature field temporal behavior in the middle of a mould. It is postulated that for the C-E transition a full accumulation of the heat in the mould has been observed (plateau at the T(t curve. The temporal range of plateau existence corresponds to the incubation time for the full equiaxed grains formation. At the second step of simulation temporal behavior of the temperature gradient field has been studied. Three ranges within temperature gradients field have been distinguished for the operating point situated at the middle of mould: a/ for the formation of columnar grains zone, ( and high temperature gradient 0>>T&0//>>∂∂−∂∂∂∂−∂∂>EttEtrTrT. T - temperature, r - roll radius. It is evident that the heat transfer across the mould decides on the temporal appearance of incubation during which the solidification is significantly arrested and competition between columnar and equiaxed growth occurs. Moreover solidification with positive temperature gradient transforms into solidification with negative temperature gradient (locally after the incubation. A simulation has been performed for the cast steel and cast iron rolls solidifying as in industry condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into to parts (first with columnar structure, second with equiaxed structure some experiments dealing with solidification have been made in laboratory scale. Finally, observations of the macrosegregation or microsegregation and phase or structure appearance in the cast iron ingot / roll (made in laboratory has also been done in order to confront them with theoretical predictions

  1. Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman, Mirza, Arshad M.

    2012-05-01

    We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.

  2. Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2012-05-15

    We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.

  3. Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2012-01-01

    We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of high electron concentration materials under large temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, L.P.; Stefansky, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical methods of investigating of transport properties in solids under large temperature gradients are grounded. The nonlinear and non-local expressions for current density and heat flow are obtained with degenerated of current carriers gas. A number of new effects with large temperature gradients have been tested. Use of large temperature gradients leads to the increasing of the thermoelectric figure of merit. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Instability and transport driven by an electron temperature gradient close to critical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Jian, G.D.; Wang, A.K.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven instability in toroidal plasmas is studied with gyrokinetic theory. The full electron kinetics is considered. The upgraded numerical scheme for solving the integral eigenvalue equations allows the study of both growing and damping modes, and thus direct calculation of critical gradient. Algebraic formulas for the critical gradient with respect to ratio of electron temperature over ion temperature and to toroidicity are given. An estimation for turbulence induced transport is presented. (author)

  6. Characterisation of temperature gradient driven turbulence and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We report on extensive numerical studies aimed at characterising various aspects of temperature gradient driven turbulence. We specifically discuss results from 3D fluid models of ETG and of ITG turbulence, and results from a 2D+2D gyrokinetic model of trapped ion turbulence. Global transport exhibits gyro-Bohm scaling in both the ETG and the ITG model. The conductivity of the ETG model decreases weakly with beta. The heat transport is due to the EXB advection, the effect of the magnetic flutter is negligible. However the transport level is much lower than experimentally observed. In both 3D models the correlation lengths scale with the gyroradius, but they are typically a factor 10 larger. Vortices are elongated but their aspect ratio is independent of the gyroradius. Their radial size is limited by LD. The trapped ion model gives larger vortices due to the absence of LD from passing ions. Avalanches are observed in all the models, the weakest occurring in the ITG system. Their range increases with gyroradius, but more weakly than linearly. Finally, ZFs can limit the range of the avalanches, which explains why avalanches are weaker in the ITG model which is more sensitive to ZFs. (author)

  7. Thermotaxis of human sperm cells in extraordinarily shallow temperature gradients over a wide range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Bahat

    Full Text Available On the basis of the finding that capacitated (ready to fertilize rabbit and human spermatozoa swim towards warmer temperatures by directing their movement along a temperature gradient, sperm thermotaxis has been proposed to be one of the processes guiding these spermatozoa to the fertilization site. Although the molecular mechanism underlying sperm thermotaxis is gradually being revealed, basic questions related to this process are still open. Here, employing human spermatozoa, we addressed the questions of how wide the temperature range of thermotaxis is, whether this range includes an optimal temperature or whether spermatozoa generally prefer swimming towards warmer temperatures, whether or not they can sense and respond to descending temperature gradients, and what the minimal temperature gradient is to which they can thermotactically respond. We found that human spermatozoa can respond thermotactically within a wide temperature range (at least 29-41°C, that within this range they preferentially accumulate in warmer temperatures rather than at a single specific, preferred temperature, that they can respond to both ascending and descending temperature gradients, and that they can sense and thermotactically respond to temperature gradients as low as <0.014°C/mm. This temperature gradient is astonishingly low because it means that as a spermatozoon swims through its entire body length (46 µm it can sense and respond to a temperature difference of <0.0006°C. The significance of this surprisingly high temperature sensitivity is discussed.

  8. A general strategy for performing temperature-programming in high performance liquid chromatography--prediction of segmented temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Steffen; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2011-09-28

    In the present work it is shown that the linear elution strength (LES) model which was adapted from temperature-programming gas chromatography (GC) can also be employed to predict retention times for segmented-temperature gradients based on temperature-gradient input data in liquid chromatography (LC) with high accuracy. The LES model assumes that retention times for isothermal separations can be predicted based on two temperature gradients and is employed to calculate the retention factor of an analyte when changing the start temperature of the temperature gradient. In this study it was investigated whether this approach can also be employed in LC. It was shown that this approximation cannot be transferred to temperature-programmed LC where a temperature range from 60°C up to 180°C is investigated. Major relative errors up to 169.6% were observed for isothermal retention factor predictions. In order to predict retention times for temperature gradients with different start temperatures in LC, another relationship is required to describe the influence of temperature on retention. Therefore, retention times for isothermal separations based on isothermal input runs were predicted using a plot of the natural logarithm of the retention factor vs. the inverse temperature and a plot of the natural logarithm of the retention factor vs. temperature. It could be shown that a plot of lnk vs. T yields more reliable isothermal/isocratic retention time predictions than a plot of lnk vs. 1/T which is usually employed. Hence, in order to predict retention times for temperature-gradients with different start temperatures in LC, two temperature gradient and two isothermal measurements have been employed. In this case, retention times can be predicted with a maximal relative error of 5.5% (average relative error: 2.9%). In comparison, if the start temperature of the simulated temperature gradient is equal to the start temperature of the input data, only two temperature-gradient

  9. Temperature Gradients on the Cell Wall in the Critical Viscosity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the diverging susceptibility delta rho/delta Tau near the liquid-vapor critical point, temperature gradients must be kept small to maintain adequate sample homogeneity. In our Science Requirements Document we paid particular attention to radial density gradients caused by equilibration of the xenon sample. Axial density gradients were addressed through the requirement that the cell's copper wall have a gradient less than 22 microK/m. This report re-examines the cell wall's temperature distribution in more detail by estimating all known significant contributions to temperature differences on the cell's wall.

  10. The potentially neglected culprit of DC surface flashover: electron migration under temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang

    2017-06-12

    This report intends to reveal the role of electron migration and its effects in triggering direct current (DC) surface flashover under temperature gradient conditions when using epoxy-based insulating composites. The surface potential and the surface flashover voltage are both measured using insulators that are bridged between two thermo-regulated electrodes. The space charge injection and migration properties under different temperature are detected. The results show that the surface potential rises significantly because of electron migration near the high voltage (HV) electrode under high temperature conditions, thus creating an "analogous ineffective region". The expansion of this "analogous ineffective region" results in most of the voltage drop occurring near the ground electrode, which serves as an important factor triggering positive streamers across the insulation surface. This work is helpful in understanding of DC surface flashover mechanism from a new perspective and also has important significance in design of a suitable DC insulator to avoid surface flashover problem.

  11. Parallelism between gradient temperature raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy (TDR) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDR and D...

  12. Space charge build-up in XLPE-cable with temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    and temperatures were applied in the 20 - 80°C range with gradients across the insulation of up to 15°C. In this paper, the observed charge phenomena in the bulk and at the interfaces are related to the external conditions, in particular to the temperature gradient. The measured space charge distributions...

  13. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  14. Potential uses of high gradient magnetic filtration for high-temperature water purification in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, H.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Abbott, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of various high-temperature filter devices indicate a potentially positive impact for high gradient magnetic filtration on boiling water reactor radiation level reduction. Test results on in-plant water composition and impurity crystallography are presented for several typical boiling water reactors (BWRs) on plant streams where high-temperature filtration may be particularly beneficial. An experimental model on the removal of red iron oxide (hematite) from simulated reactor water with a high gradient magnetic filter is presented, as well as the scale-up parameters used to predict the filtration efficiency on various high temperature, in-plant streams. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the crud removal potential of high gradient magnetic filters installed at alternative stream locations under typical, steady-state, plant operating conditions

  15. Impedance Characterization and Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering the Internal Temperature Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery impedance is essential to the management of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs, and impedance characterization can help to monitor and predict the battery states. Many studies have been undertaken to investigate impedance characterization and the factors that influence impedance. However, few studies regarding the influence of the internal temperature gradient, which is caused by heat generation during operation, have been presented. We have comprehensively studied the influence of the internal temperature gradient on impedance characterization and the modeling of battery impedance, and have proposed a discretization model to capture battery impedance characterization considering the temperature gradient. Several experiments, including experiments with artificial temperature gradients, are designed and implemented to study the influence of the internal temperature gradient on battery impedance. Based on the experimental results, the parameters of the non-linear impedance model are obtained, and the relationship between the parameters and temperature is further established. The experimental results show that the temperature gradient will influence battery impedance and the temperature distribution can be considered to be approximately linear. The verification results indicate that the proposed discretization model has a good performance and can be used to describe the actual characterization of the battery with an internal temperature gradient.

  16. Threshold temperature gradient effect on migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt were interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and US workers were shown to yield the same results. The migration theory was used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients were compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of threshold gradients helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  17. Advanced-fueled fusion reactors suitable for direct energy conversion. Project note: temperature-gradient enhancement of electrical fields in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.S.; Mancebo, L.

    1976-01-01

    Direct energy converters for use on controlled fusion reactors utilize electrodes operated at elevated voltages and temperatures. The insulating elements that position these electrodes must support large voltages and under some circumstances large thermal gradients. It is shown that even modest thermal gradients can cause major alterations of the electric-field distribution within the insulating element

  18. Response of Soft Continuous Structures and Topological Defects to a Temperature Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Rei; Mitsui, Shun; Tanaka, Hajime

    2017-09-08

    Thermophoresis, which is mass transport induced by a temperature gradient, has recently attracted considerable attention as a new way to transport materials. So far the study has been focused on the transport of discrete structures such as colloidal particles, proteins, and polymers in solutions. However, the response of soft continuous structures such as membranes and gels to a temperature gradient has been largely unexplored. Here we study the behavior of a lamellar phase made of stacked surfactant bilayer membranes under a temperature gradient. We find the migration of membranes towards a low-temperature region, causing the increase in the degree of membrane undulation fluctuations towards that direction. This is contrary to our intuition that the fluctuations are weaker at a lower temperature. We show that this can be explained by temperature-gradient-induced migration of membranes under the topological constraint coming from the connectivity of each membrane. We also reveal that the pattern of an edge dislocation array formed in a wedge-shaped cell can be controlled by a temperature gradient. These findings suggest that application of a temperature gradient provides a novel way to control the organization of soft continuous structures such as membranes, gels, and foams, in a manner essentially different from the other types of fields, and to manipulate topological defects.

  19. Gradient-driven flux-tube simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence close to the non-linear threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Strintzi, D.; Weikl, A. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, Bayreuth (Germany); Camenen, Y. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France); Candy, J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hornsby, W. A. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    It is shown that Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence close to the threshold exhibits a long time behaviour, with smaller heat fluxes at later times. This reduction is connected with the slow growth of long wave length zonal flows, and consequently, the numerical dissipation on these flows must be sufficiently small. Close to the nonlinear threshold for turbulence generation, a relatively small dissipation can maintain a turbulent state with a sizeable heat flux, through the damping of the zonal flow. Lowering the dissipation causes the turbulence, for temperature gradients close to the threshold, to be subdued. The heat flux then does not go smoothly to zero when the threshold is approached from above. Rather, a finite minimum heat flux is obtained below which no fully developed turbulent state exists. The threshold value of the temperature gradient length at which this finite heat flux is obtained is up to 30% larger compared with the threshold value obtained by extrapolating the heat flux to zero, and the cyclone base case is found to be nonlinearly stable. Transport is subdued when a fully developed staircase structure in the E × B shearing rate forms. Just above the threshold, an incomplete staircase develops, and transport is mediated by avalanche structures which propagate through the marginally stable regions.

  20. Study of the possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients in order to produce a dislocation-free material has been studied. Germanium crystals with a dislocation density of about 100-200 cm-2 have been grown in a system with a weight control of crystal growth at maximum axial gradients of about 1.5 K/cm.

  1. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of oleic and linoleic acids from -100 to 50°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS and DS...

  2. Measurement of the vertical temperature gradient at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santelli, F.; Le Quino, R.

    1962-01-01

    A 109 m mast has been erected at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre for the precise measurement of thermal gradients and gaseous effluents. This note describes the temperature measurement devices (thermocouple and thermo-resistor) and the first results obtained

  3. Estimation of geothermal gradients from single temperature log-field cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, I M; Eppelbaum, L V

    2009-01-01

    A geothermal gradient is one of the most frequently used parameters in logging geophysics. However, the drilling process greatly disturbs the temperature of the formations around the wellbore. For this reason, in order to determine with the required accuracy the formation temperatures and geothermal gradients, a certain length of shut-in time is required. It was shown earlier (Kutasov 1968 Freiberger Forshungshefte C 238 55–61, 1987 Geothermics 16 467–72) that at least two transient temperature surveys are needed to determine the geothermal gradient with adequate accuracy. However, in many cases only one temperature log is conducted in a shut-in borehole. For these cases, we propose an approximate method for the estimation of the geothermal gradient. The utilization of this method is demonstrated on four field examples

  4. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy identifies flexible sites in proline and alanine peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous thermo dynamic Raman spectroscopy (TDRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDRS...

  5. Ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes in bi-ion magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batool, Nazia; Mirza, Arshad M [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Qamar, Anisa [Department of Physics, Peshawar University, NWFP 25120 (Pakistan)], E-mail: nazia.batool@ncp.edu.pk

    2008-12-15

    The toroidal ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven electrostatic drift waves are investigated for bi-ion plasmas with equilibrium density, temperature and magnetic field gradients. Using Braginskii's transport equations for the ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons, the mode coupling equations are derived. New ITG-driven modes are shown to exist. The results of the present study should be helpful to understand several wave phenomena in space and tokamak plasmas.

  6. Identifying Time Periods of Minimal Thermal Gradient for Temperature-Driven Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John; Glisic, Branko

    2018-03-01

    Temperature changes play a large role in the day to day structural behavior of structures, but a smaller direct role in most contemporary Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) analyses. Temperature-Driven SHM will consider temperature as the principal driving force in SHM, relating a measurable input temperature to measurable output generalized strain (strain, curvature, etc.) and generalized displacement (deflection, rotation, etc.) to create three-dimensional signatures descriptive of the structural behavior. Identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient provides the foundation for the formulation of the temperature-deformation-displacement model. Thermal gradients in a structure can cause curvature in multiple directions, as well as non-linear strain and stress distributions within the cross-sections, which significantly complicates data analysis and interpretation, distorts the signatures, and may lead to unreliable conclusions regarding structural behavior and condition. These adverse effects can be minimized if the signatures are evaluated at times when thermal gradients in the structure are minimal. This paper proposes two classes of methods based on the following two metrics: (i) the range of raw temperatures on the structure, and (ii) the distribution of the local thermal gradients, for identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient on a structure with the ability to vary the tolerance of acceptable thermal gradients. The methods are tested and validated with data collected from the Streicker Bridge on campus at Princeton University.

  7. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the north slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Magoon, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    On the North Slope of Alaska, geothermal gradient data are available from high-resolution, equilibrated well-bore surveys and from estimates based on well-log identification of the base of ice-bearing permafrost. A total of 46 North Slope wells, considered to be in or near thermal equilibrium, have been surveyed with high-resolution temperatures devices and geothermal gradients can be interpreted directly from these recorded temperature profiles. To augment the limited North Slope temperature data base, a new method of evaluating local geothermal gradients has been developed. In this method, a series of well-log picks for the base of the ice-bearing permafrost from 102 wells have been used, along with regional temperature constants derived from the high-resolution stabilized well-bore temperature surveys, to project geothermal gradients. Geothermal gradients calculated from the high-resolution temperature surveys generally agree with those projected from known ice-bearing permafrost depths over most of the North Slope. Values in the ice-bearing permafrost range from ??? 1.5??C 100 m in the Prudhoe Bay area to ??? 4.5??C 100 m in the east-central portion of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Geothermal gradients below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from ??? 1.6??C 100 m to ??? 5.2??C 100 m. ?? 1993.

  8. Mutation screening of the TP53 gene by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørlie, Therese; Johnsen, Hilde; Vu, Phuong; Lind, Guro Elisabeth; Lothe, Ragnhild; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2005-01-01

    A protocol for detection of mutations in the TP53 gene using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) is described. TTGE is a mutation detection technique that separates DNA fragments differing by single base pairs according to their melting properties in a denaturing gel. It is based on constant denaturing conditions in the gel combined with a temperature gradient during the electrophoretic run. This method combines some of the advantages of the related techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and constant denaturant gel electrophoresis (CDGE) and eliminates some of the problems. The result is a rapid and sensitive screening technique that is robust and easily set up in smaller laboratory environments.

  9. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermally-induced stress distributions in a hollow steel sphere heated by a moving uniform ... models to evaluate temperatures according to the frictional heat generation, ... of these thermal effects include thermal stress, strain and deformation.

  10. Identifying Time Periods of Minimal Thermal Gradient for Temperature-Driven Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reilly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature changes play a large role in the day to day structural behavior of structures, but a smaller direct role in most contemporary Structural Health Monitoring (SHM analyses. Temperature-Driven SHM will consider temperature as the principal driving force in SHM, relating a measurable input temperature to measurable output generalized strain (strain, curvature, etc. and generalized displacement (deflection, rotation, etc. to create three-dimensional signatures descriptive of the structural behavior. Identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient provides the foundation for the formulation of the temperature–deformation–displacement model. Thermal gradients in a structure can cause curvature in multiple directions, as well as non-linear strain and stress distributions within the cross-sections, which significantly complicates data analysis and interpretation, distorts the signatures, and may lead to unreliable conclusions regarding structural behavior and condition. These adverse effects can be minimized if the signatures are evaluated at times when thermal gradients in the structure are minimal. This paper proposes two classes of methods based on the following two metrics: (i the range of raw temperatures on the structure, and (ii the distribution of the local thermal gradients, for identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient on a structure with the ability to vary the tolerance of acceptable thermal gradients. The methods are tested and validated with data collected from the Streicker Bridge on campus at Princeton University.

  11. Studies of the trapped particle and ion temperature gradient instabilities in the Columbia Linear Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, O.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the first part of the work, the effects of weak Coulomb and neutral collisions on the collisionless curvature driven trapped particle mode are studied in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1729, (1986)]. Low Coulomb collisionality yields a small stabilizing correction to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) collisionless mode, which scales as v, using the Krook model, and ν ec 1/2 using a Lorentz pitch angle operator. In higher collisionality regimes, both models tend to yield similar scalings. In view of relative high neutral collisionality in CLM, both types of collisionality are then combined, modeling neutral collisions with the conserving Krook and Coulomb collisions with a Lorentz model. The dispersion relation is then integrated over velocity space. This combination yields results in very good accord with the available experimental data. The Ion Temperature Gradient Instability is then investigated. It is shown that anisotropy in gradient has a substantial effect on the ion temperature gradient driven mode. A gradient in the parallel temperature is needed for an instability to occur, and a gradient in the perpendicular temperature gradient further enhances the instability indirectly as long as the frequency of the mode is near ion resonance. The physical reason for this important role difference is presented. The Columbia Linear Machine is being redesigned to produce and identify the ion temperature gradient driven η i mode. Using the expected parameters, the author has developed detailed predictions of the mode characteristics in the CLM. Strong multi mode instabilities are expected. As the ion parallel and perpendicular ion temperature gradients are expected to differ significantly, we differentiate between η i parallel and ν i perpendicular and explore the physical differences between them, which leads to a scheme for stabilization of the mode

  12. Dynamic microscale temperature gradient in a gold nanorod solution measured by diffraction-limited nanothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengmingyue; Gan, Xiaosong; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min, E-mail: mgu@swin.edu.au [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-09-21

    We quantify the dynamic microscale temperature gradient in a gold nanorod solution using quantum-dot-based microscopic fluorescence nanothermometry. By incorporating CdSe quantum dots into the solution as a nanothermometer, precise temperature mapping with diffraction-limited spatial resolution and sub-degree temperature resolution is achieved. The acquired data on heat generation and dissipation show an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. This work reveals an effective approach for noninvasive temperature regulation with localized nanoheaters in microfluidic environment.

  13. Comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of slab ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Horton, W. [University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Fusion Studies, Austin, Texas (United States)

    2002-10-01

    A detailed comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of collisionless slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence is made. The nondissipative closure model (NCM) for linearly unstable modes, which is presented by Sugama, Watanabe, and Horton [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2617 (2001)], and the dissipative closure model by Hammett and Perkins (HP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] are used in separate fluid simulations. The validity of these closure models for quantitative prediction of the turbulent thermal transport is examined by comparing nonlinear results of the fluid simulations with those of the collisionless kinetic simulation of high accuracy. Simulation results show that, in the saturated turbulent state, the turbulent thermal diffusivity {chi} obtained from the HP model is significantly larger than the {chi} given by the NCM which is closer to {chi} measured in the kinetic simulation. Contrary to the dissipative form of the parallel heat flux closure relation assumed in the HP model, the NCM describes well the exact kinetic simulation, in which for some unstable wave numbers k, the imaginary part of the ratio of the parallel heat flux q{sub k} to the temperature fluctuation T{sub k} is a oscillatory function of time and sometimes takes positive values. The positive values of Im(q{sub k}/T{sub k}), imply the negative parallel heat diffusivity, correlate with the occasional inward heat flux occurring for the wave numbers k, and reduce the total {chi}. (author)

  14. Comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of slab ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Horton, W.

    2002-10-01

    A detailed comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of collisionless slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence is made. The nondissipative closure model (NCM) for linearly unstable modes, which is presented by Sugama, Watanabe, and Horton [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2617 (2001)], and the dissipative closure model by Hammett and Perkins (HP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] are used in separate fluid simulations. The validity of these closure models for quantitative prediction of the turbulent thermal transport is examined by comparing nonlinear results of the fluid simulations with those of the collisionless kinetic simulation of high accuracy. Simulation results show that, in the saturated turbulent state, the turbulent thermal diffusivity χ obtained from the HP model is significantly larger than the χ given by the NCM which is closer to χ measured in the kinetic simulation. Contrary to the dissipative form of the parallel heat flux closure relation assumed in the HP model, the NCM describes well the exact kinetic simulation, in which for some unstable wave numbers k, the imaginary part of the ratio of the parallel heat flux q k to the temperature fluctuation T k is a oscillatory function of time and sometimes takes positive values. The positive values of Im(q k /T k ), imply the negative parallel heat diffusivity, correlate with the occasional inward heat flux occurring for the wave numbers k, and reduce the total χ. (author)

  15. The relation between temperature and concentration gradients in superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadorozhko, A A; Rudavskij, E Y; Chagovets, V K; Sheshin, G A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature and concentration gradients nabla T and nabla x in a superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He mixture with an initial concentration 9,8 % of sup 3 He are measured in a temperature range 70-500 mK. The gradients are produced by a steady thermal flow with heating from below. It is shown that the value of nabla x/nabla T observed in the experiment is in good agreement with the theoretical model derived from the temperature and concentration dependences of osmotic pressure. The experimental data permitted us to obtain a thermal diffusion ratio of the solution responsible for the thermal diffusion coefficient.

  16. Parametric analysis of temperature gradient across thermoelectric power generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Chahine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric analysis of power generation from thermoelectric generators (TEGs. The aim of the parametric analysis is to provide recommendations with respect to the applications of TEGs. To proceed, the one-dimensional steady-state solution of the heat diffusion equation is considered with various boundary conditions representing real encountered cases. Four configurations are tested. The first configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant temperature at its lower surface and cooled with a fluid at its upper surface. The second configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant heat flux at its lower surface and cooled with a fluid at its upper surface. The third configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant heat flux at its lower surface and cooled by a constant temperature at its upper surface. The fourth configuration corresponds to the TEG heated by a fluid at its lower surface and cooled by a fluid at its upper surface. It was shown that the most promising configuration is the fourth one and temperature differences up to 70˚C can be achieved at 150˚C heat source. Finally, a new concept is implemented based on configuration four and tested experimentally.

  17. TEMPERATURE SELECTION BY HATCHLING AND YEARLING FLORIDA RED-BELLIED TURTLES (PSEUDEMYS NELSONI) IN THERMAL GRADIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested hatchling and yearling Florida red-bellied turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni) in laboratory thermal gradient chambers to determine if they would prefer particular temperatures. Most 1995 hatchlings selected the highest temperature zone of 27degrees C (Test 1) and 30 degrees ...

  18. Observation of refraction and convergence of ion acoustic waves in a plasma with a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.; Hirose, A.

    1977-01-01

    The refraction and convergence of ion acoustic waves are experimentally investigated in a magnetized plasma with an electron temperature gradient. When ion acoustic waves are launched parallel to the field lines the waves converge toward the interior of the plasma column where the electron temperature is lower, in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Wave interference is also observed. (author)

  19. Measurement and Analysis of the Temperature Gradient of Blackbody Cavities, for Use in Radiation Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucas, Javier; Segovia, José Juan

    2018-05-01

    Blackbody cavities are the standard radiation sources widely used in the fields of radiometry and radiation thermometry. Its effective emissivity and uncertainty depend to a large extent on the temperature gradient. An experimental procedure based on the radiometric method for measuring the gradient is followed. Results are applied to particular blackbody configurations where gradients can be thermometrically estimated by contact thermometers and where the relationship between both basic methods can be established. The proposed procedure may be applied to commercial blackbodies if they are modified allowing secondary contact temperature measurement. In addition, the established systematic may be incorporated as part of the actions for quality assurance in routine calibrations of radiation thermometers, by using the secondary contact temperature measurement for detecting departures from the real radiometrically obtained gradient and the effect on the uncertainty. On the other hand, a theoretical model is proposed to evaluate the effect of temperature variations on effective emissivity and associated uncertainty. This model is based on a gradient sample chosen following plausible criteria. The model is consistent with the Monte Carlo method for calculating the uncertainty of effective emissivity and complements others published in the literature where uncertainty is calculated taking into account only geometrical variables and intrinsic emissivity. The mathematical model and experimental procedure are applied and validated using a commercial type three-zone furnace, with a blackbody cavity modified to enable a secondary contact temperature measurement, in the range between 400 °C and 1000 °C.

  20. Real-time positioning technology in horizontal directional drilling based on magnetic gradient tensor measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guoqing; Yao, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology has been widely used in Civil Engineering. The dynamic position of the drill bit during construction is one of significant facts determining the accuracy of the trajectory of HDD. A new method now has been proposed to detecting the position of drill bit by measuring the magnetic gradient tensor of the ground solenoid magnetic beacon. Compared with traditional HDD positioning technologies, this new model is much easier to apply with lower request for construction sites and higher positioning efficiency. A direct current (DC) solenoid as a magnetic dipole is placed on ground near the drill bit, and related sensors array which contains four Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS ) tri-axial magnetometers, one MEMS tri-axial accelerometer and one MEMS tri-axial gyroscope is set up for measuring the magnetic gradient tensor of the magnetic dipole. The related HDD positioning model has been established and simulation experiments have been carried out to verify the feasibility and reliability of the proposed method. The experiments show that this method has good positioning accuracy in horizontal and vertical direction, and totally avoid the impact of the environmental magnetic field. It can be found that the posture of the magnetic beacon will impact the remote positioning precision within valid positioning range, and the positioning accuracy is higher with longer baseline for limited space in drilling tools. The results prove that the relative error can be limited in 2% by adjusting position of the magnetic beacon, the layers of the enameled coil, the sensitive of magnetometers and the baseline distance. Conclusion can be made that this new method can be applied in HDD positioning with better effect and wider application range than traditional method.

  1. Investigation into boron reaction with titanium at extreme temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, M.A.; Gusenko, S.N.; Aleksandrov, V.V.; Neronov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis of titanium boride is studied using the translucent electron microscopy. Titanium interaction with boron film (approximately 1000 A thick) starts with the metal partial melting. A twozone layer of the reaction products, separating the reagents, is formed. In the zone adjacent to B, Ti 3 B 4 and fusible liquid phases are present. The second zone consists of TiB. The subsequent interaction is realized by Means of the dissolving and absorption by titanium of the layer of products during its continuous increase in boron. TiB 2 formation takes place at subsequent stages of interaction inside Ti liquid particles during their saturation by boron from the products absorbed [ru

  2. Sign of inverse spin Hall voltages generated by ferromagnetic resonance and temperature gradients in yttrium iron garnet platinum bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Michael; Lotze, Johannes; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T B; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Kikkawa, Takashi; Saitoh, Eiji; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I; Lauer, Viktor; Chumak, Andrii V; Serga, Alexander A; Hillebrands, Burkard; Flipse, Joost; Van Wees, Bart J

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a concerted effort to determine the absolute sign of the inverse spin Hall effect voltage generated by spin currents injected into a normal metal. We focus on yttrium iron garnet (YIG)∣platinum bilayers at room temperature, generating spin currents by microwaves and temperature gradients. We find consistent results for different samples and measurement setups that agree with theory. We suggest a right-hand-rule to define a positive spin Hall angle corresponding to the voltage expected for the simple case of scattering of free electrons from repulsive Coulomb charges. (paper)

  3. Temperature gradient measurements by using thermoelectric effect in CNTs-silicone adhesive composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Saeed Chani

    Full Text Available This work presents the fabrication and investigation of thermoelectric cells based on composite of carbon nanotubes (CNT and silicone adhesive. The composite contains CNT and silicon adhesive 1∶1 by weight. The current-voltage characteristics and dependences of voltage, current and Seebeck coefficient on the temperature gradient of cell were studied. It was observed that with increase in temperature gradient the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and the Seebeck coefficient of the cells increase. Approximately 7 times increase in temperature gradient increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current up to 40 and 5 times, respectively. The simulation of experimental results is also carried out; the simulated results are well matched with experimental results.

  4. Comparative study of the temperature and velocity gradients for the interphases obtained during directional solidification of Al-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Alicia Esther; Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Schvezov, Carlos E

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies determined that in directionally solidified lead-tin alloys, the position in which the transition occurs from columnar to equiaxial structure depending on the distribution of temperatures in the system, occurs when a minimum and critical thermal gradient value is attained in the liquid before the interphase that separates the (liquid) phase from the (solid + liquid) phase and this critical gradient value is independent from the solute concentration, natural convection, degree of overheating, the mold geometry and the number of columnar and equiaxial grains that form. The study now includes aluminum-copper alloys, for which the temperature gradient test values in the liquid before the (liquid)/(solid + liquid) interphase and the speeds of the (liquid)/(solid+liquid)/(solid) interphases are determined. The values of interphase gradients and velocities contrast with the values predicted by the Hunt model for the same alloy system. The velocities of the interphases are also compared with those calculated with the Lipton equation and used in the Wang and Beckermann model for dendritic equiaxial growth. The results are compared with those obtained previously in the lead-tin system (CW)

  5. Fluxon dynamics in long Josephson junctions in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Oboznov, V.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1997-01-01

    Fluxon dynamics in nonuniform Josephson junctions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two types of nonuniform junctions were considered: the first type had a nonuniform spatial distribution of critical and bias currents and the second had a temperature gradient applied along...... the junction. An analytical expression for the I-V curve in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity was derived. It was shown that there is no static thermomagnetic Nernst effect due to Josephson fluxon motion despite the existence of a force pushing fluxons in the direction of smaller...

  6. Temperature logging of groundwater in bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Geological Survey, measured the fluid temperature of groundwater in deep bedrock wells in the State of New Hampshire in order to characterize geothermal gradients in bedrock. All wells selected for the study had low water yields, which correspond to low groundwater flow from fractures. This reduced the potential for flow-induced temperature changes that would mask the natural geothermal gradient in the bedrock. All the wells included in this study were privately owned, and permission to use the wells was obtained from homeowners before logging.

  7. Curvature and temperature gradient driven instabilities in tokomak edge plasmas with SOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovskii, S.V.; Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.; Liu, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Curvature driven resistive ballooning modes (RBM) as well as the electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes have been investigated in the tokomak edge region and the SOL, with the help of the numerical code open-quotes 2D-BALLOONclose quotes. This is an initial value code, which determines the stability properties and estimates the quasi-linear transport for given density, temperature, the magnetic and electric field profiles, taking into account the SOL geometry as well as a closed flux region. The results related to the following issues will be presented: (1) Comparative analysis of the ETG and the RBM instabilities in the SOL and their influence on the transport in the edge region (inside the Last Closed Magnetic Surface). (2) The influence of the effective Debye sheath current. (3) Different poloidal positions of the toroidal limiter and their effect on the instabilities. Other aspects of the edge plasma turbulence, such as finite β effects, flow-shear of the poloidal rotation etc. will also be discussed

  8. Central-peripheral temperature gradient: an early diagnostic sign of late-onset neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leante-Castellanos, José Luis; Lloreda-García, José M; García-González, Ana; Llopis-Baño, Caridad; Fuentes-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Alonso-Gallego, José Ángel; Martínez-Gimeno, Antonio

    2012-04-22

    We assessed central-peripheral temperature gradient alteration for the diagnosis of late-onset neonatal sepsis and compared earliness detection of this sign with altered blood cell count and C-reactive protein. Thirty-one preterm babies (peripheral) temperatures were continuously monitored with a thermal probe (ThermoTracer; Dräger Medical AGF & Co. KgaA, Lübeck, Germany) adjusting incubator air temperature for a thermal gradient peripheral temperature alteration was defined as a thermal gradient >2°C that could not be corrected with protocolized air temperature modifications. Proven (positive blood culture) sepsis and probable late-onset sepsis were recorded. Late-onset sepsis was diagnosed in 11 neonates (proven, 9; probable, 2). Thermal gradient alteration was present in 12 cases, in association with the onset of sepsis in 10 and concomitantly with a ductus arteriosus and stage 1 necrotizing enterocolitis in 2. Thermal gradient alteration had a sensitivity of 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 62.3-98.4] and specificity of 90% (95% CI, 69.9-97.2%), and in 80% of cases, it occurred before abnormal laboratory findings. Central-peripheral temperature gradient monitoring is a feasible, non-invasive, and simple tool easily applicable in daily practice. An increase of >2°C showed a high-sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of late-onset sepsis.

  9. Directional rolling of positively charged nanoparticles along a flexibility gradient on long DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suehyun; Joo, Heesun; Kim, Jun Soo

    2018-01-31

    Directing the motion of molecules/colloids in any specific direction is of great interest in many applications of chemistry, physics, and biological sciences, where regulated positioning or transportation of materials is highly desired. Using Brownian dynamics simulations of coarse-grained models of a long, double-stranded DNA molecule and positively charged nanoparticles, we observed that the motion of a single nanoparticle bound to and wrapped by the DNA molecule can be directed along a gradient of DNA local flexibility. The flexibility gradient is constructed along a 0.8 kilobase-pair DNA molecule such that local persistence length decreases gradually from 50 nm to 40 nm, mimicking a gradual change in sequence-dependent flexibility. Nanoparticles roll over a long DNA molecule from less flexible regions towards more flexible ones as a result of the decreasing energetic cost of DNA bending and wrapping. In addition, the rolling becomes slightly accelerated as the positive charge of nanoparticles decreases due to a lower free energy barrier of DNA detachment from charged nanoparticle for processive rolling. This study suggests that the variation in DNA local flexibility can be utilized in constructing and manipulating supramolecular assemblies of DNA molecules and nanoparticles in structural DNA nanotechnology.

  10. How important are internal temperature gradients in french straws during freezing of bovine sperm in nitrogen vapor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2013-01-01

    The subject of present work was to predict internal temperature gradients developed during freezing of bovine sperm diluted in extender, packaged in 0.5 ml French plastic straws and suspended in static liquid nitrogen vapor at -100 degree C. For this purpose, a mathematical heat transfer model previously developed to predict freezing times (phase change was considered) of semen/extender packaged in straw was extended to predict internal temperature gradients during the cooling/freezing process. Results showed maximum temperature differences between the centre and the periphery of semen/extender "liquid" column was 1.5 degree C for an external heat transfer coefficient, h = 15 W per (m(2) K), and only 0.5 degree C for h = 5 W per (m(2) K). It is concluded that if a thermocouple wire were inserted in a 0.5 ml plastic straw to monitor the freezing process in nitrogen vapor, its radial position would have little importance since expected internal gradients may be safely neglected. This finding facilitates the interpretation of freezing rates in 0.5 ml plastic straws immersed in nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen, a widely used method for cryopreservation of bovine spermatozoa.

  11. Asymptotic analysis to the effect of temperature gradient on the propagation of triple flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Faisal

    2018-05-01

    We study asymptotically in this paper the influence of the temperature gradient across the mixing layer on the propagation triple flames formed inside a porous wall channel. The study begins by formulating the problem mathematically using the thermo-diffusive model and then presents a thorough asymptotic analysis of the problem in the limit of large activation energy and thin flames. Analytical formulae for the local burning speed, the flame shape and the propagation speed in terms of the temperature gradient parameter have been derived. It was shown that varying the feed temperatures can significantly enhance the burning of the reactants up to a critical threshold, beyond which no solutions can be obtained. In addition, the study showed that increasing the temperature at the boundaries will modify the usual triple structure of the flame by inverting the upper premixed branch and extending it to the boundary, which may have great implications on the safety of the adopted combustion chambers.

  12. Critical temperature gradient and critical current density in thin films of a type I superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubener, R P

    1968-12-16

    Measurements of the critical temperature gradient and the critical current density in superconducting lead films in a transverse magnetic field indicate that the critical current flows predominantly along the surface of the films and that the critical surface currents contribute only very little to the Lorentz force on a fluxoid.

  13. Transition to Collisionless Ion-Temperature-Gradient-Driven Plasma Turbulence: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, R.A.; Krommes, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The transition to collisionless ion-temperature-gradient-driven plasma turbulence is considered by applying dynamical systems theory to a model with 10 degrees of freedom. The study of a four-dimensional center manifold predicts a 'Dimits shift' of the threshold for turbulence due to the excitation of zonal flows and establishes (for the model) the exact value of that shift

  14. Acoustic emission of quasi-isotropic rock samples initiated by temperature gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vasin, R.N.; Nikitin, A. N.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Rudajev, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2006), s. 815-823 ISSN 1069-3513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismoacoustic emission * rock sample * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.092, year: 2006

  15. A gradient approximation for calculating Debye temperatures from pairwise interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    1975-09-01

    A simple gradient approximation is given for calculating the effective Debye temperature of a cubic crystal from central pairwise interatomic potentials. For examples of the Morse potential applied to cubic metals the results are in generally good agreement with experiment. (author)

  16. The electron temperature gradient instability in presence of a limiter with tilted plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, D.; Pozzoli, R.; Ryutov, D.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the electron temperature gradient instability in the scrape-off layer is generalized to the case of non-orthogonal intersections of the magnetic field with the wall surface, a situation which is most typical for a tokamak with a limiter. (orig.)

  17. Ion temperature gradient driven mode in presence of transverse velocity shear in magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Michelsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sheared poloidal flow on the toroidal branch of the ion temperature gradient driven mode of magnetized nonuniform plasma is studied. A novel "nonmodal" calculation is used to analyze the problem. It is shown that the transverse shear flow considerably reduced the growth...

  18. Measurement of water vapour transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material in a temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Padfield, Tim; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    This was an experiment to identify the driving potential for water vapour diffusion through porous materials in a temperature gradient. The specimen of mineral fibre insulation was placed between a space with controlled temperature and relative humidity and a space with a controlled, higher...... temperature, and a measured but not controlled relative humidity (RH). This assembly was allowed to reach equilibrium with no vapour movement between the spaces, as tested by a constant RH on each side and by zero flux of water vapour measured in the cold side chamber. The RH and temperature values were...

  19. Convective cells of internal gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere with finite temperature gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Onishchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated vortex structures (e.g. convective cells of internal gravity waves (IGWs in the earth's atmosphere with a finite vertical temperature gradient. A closed system of nonlinear equations for these waves and the condition for existence of solitary convective cells are obtained. In the atmosphere layers where the temperature decreases with height, the presence of IGW convective cells is shown. The typical parameters of such structures in the earth's atmosphere are discussed.

  20. Study on the properties of infrared wavefront coding athermal system under several typical temperature gradient distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huai-yu; Dong, Xiao-tong; Zhu, Meng; Huang, Zhan-hua

    2018-01-01

    Wavefront coding for athermal technique can effectively ensure the stability of the optical system imaging in large temperature range, as well as the advantages of compact structure and low cost. Using simulation method to analyze the properties such as PSF and MTF of wavefront coding athermal system under several typical temperature gradient distributions has directive function to characterize the working state of non-ideal temperature environment, and can effectively realize the system design indicators as well. In this paper, we utilize the interoperability of data between Solidworks and ZEMAX to simplify the traditional process of structure/thermal/optical integrated analysis. Besides, we design and build the optical model and corresponding mechanical model of the infrared imaging wavefront coding athermal system. The axial and radial temperature gradients of different degrees are applied to the whole system by using SolidWorks software, thus the changes of curvature, refractive index and the distance between the lenses are obtained. Then, we import the deformation model to ZEMAX for ray tracing, and obtain the changes of PSF and MTF in optical system. Finally, we discuss and evaluate the consistency of the PSF (MTF) of the wavefront coding athermal system and the image restorability, which provides the basis and reference for the optimal design of the wavefront coding athermal system. The results show that the adaptability of single material infrared wavefront coding athermal system to axial temperature gradient can reach the upper limit of temperature fluctuation of 60°C, which is much higher than that of radial temperature gradient.

  1. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  2. Experimental evidence of temperature gradients in cavitating microflows seeded with thermosensitive nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayela, Frédéric; Medrano-Muñoz, Manuel; Amans, David; Dujardin, Christophe; Brichart, Thomas; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Ledoux, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    Thermosensitive fluorescent nanoparticles seeded in deionized water combined with confocal microscopy enables thermal mapping over three dimensions of the liquid phase flowing through a microchannel interrupted by a microdiaphragm. This experiment reveals the presence of a strong thermal gradient up to ˜105 K/m only when hydrodynamic cavitation is present. Here hydrodynamic cavitation is the consequence of high shear rates downstream in the diaphragm. This temperature gradient is located in vortical structures associated with eddies in the shear layers. We attribute such overheating to the dissipation involved by the cavitating flow regime. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the microsizes of the device enhance the intensity of the thermal gap.

  3. On the physics of the pressure and temperature gradients in the edge of tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2018-04-01

    An extended plasma fluid theory including atomic physics, radiation, electromagnetic and themodynamic forces, external sources of particles, momentum and energy, and kinetic ion orbit loss is employed to derive theoretical expressions that display the role of the various factors involved in the determination of the pressure and temperature gradients in the edge of tokamak plasmas. Calculations for current experiments are presented to illustrate the magnitudes of various effects including strong radiative and atomic physics edge cooling effects and strong reduction in ion particle and energy fluxes due to ion orbit loss in the plasma edge. An important new insight is the strong relation between rotation and the edge pressure gradient.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of the density and temperature gradients in the laser-heated gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Auerbach, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the x-ray spectra produced by a 1.0TW, lambda/sub L/-0.53μm laser-irradiated gas jet. Plasmas produced by ionization of neon, argon and N 2 + SF 6 gases were included in those measurements. Plasma electron density and temperature gradients were obtained by comparison of measured spectra with those produced by computer modeling. Density gradients were also obtained using laser interferometry. The limitations of this technique for plasma diagnosis will be discussed

  5. Development of the CARS method for measurement of pressure and temperature gradients in centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeltmann, A.H.; Valentini, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    These experiments evaluated the feasibility of applying the CARS technique to the measurement of UF 6 concentrations and pressure gradients in a gas centrifuge. The resultant CARS signals were properly related to system parameters as suggested by theory. The results have been used to guide design of an apparatus for making CARS measurements in a UF 6 gas centrifuge. Ease of measurement is expected for pressures as low as 0.1 torr. Temperature gradients can be measured by this technique with changes in the data acquisition method. 16 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  6. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  7. Weak turbulence theory of ion temperature gradient modes for inverted density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.

    1989-09-01

    Typical profiles measured in H-mode (''high confinement'') discharges from tokamaks such as JET and DIII-D suggest that the ion temperature gradient instability threshold parameter η i (≡dlnT i /dlnn i ) could be negative in many cases. Previous linear theoretical calculations have established the onset conditions for these negative η i -modes and the fact that their growth rate is much smaller than their real frequency over a wide range of negative η i values. This has motivated the present nonlinear weak turbulence analysis to assess the relevance of such instabilities for confinement in H-mode plasmas. The nonlinear eigenmode equation indicates that the 3-wave coupling to shorter wavelength modes is the dominant nonlinear saturation mechanism. It is found that both the saturation level for these fluctuations and the magnitude of the associated ion thermal diffusivity are considerably smaller than the strong turbulence mixing length type estimates for the more conventional positive-η i -instabilities. 19 refs., 3 figs

  8. The effect of positive interactions on temporal turnover of community composition along an environmental gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youshi Wang

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the interplay between negative and positive interactions simultaneously shapes community structure and composition. However, few studies have attempted to examine the effect of facilitation on compositional changes in communities through time. Additionally, due to the difficulties in collecting the long-term data, it would be useful to indicate the rate of temporal turnover using a readily obtainable metric. Using an individual-based model incorporating plant strategies, we examined the role of facilitation on the temporal turnover of communities located at different positions along an environmental gradient for three model scenarios: CM without facilitation; CFM-U, a unimodal relationship between facilitation and environmental severity; and CFM-L, a positively linear relationship between facilitation and environmental severity. Our results demonstrated that facilitation could increase, decrease or have no remarkable effect on temporal turnover. The specific outcome depended on the location of the focal community across the environmental gradient and the model employed. Compared with CM, the inclusion of positive interactions (i.e. CFM-U and CFM-L, at intermediate environmental stress levels (such as S = 0.7 and 0.8 resulted in lower Bray-Curtis similarity values; at other severity levels, facilitation slowed down (such as S = 0.3 and 0.4 at low to medium stress levels, and S = 0.9 at high stress levels or had only a subtle effect (such as at S = 0.1 on temporal turnover. We also found that the coefficient of variation (CV in species abundances and the rate of temporal variability showed a significant quadratic relationship. Our theoretical analysis contributes to the understanding of factors driving temporal turnover in biotic communities, and presents a potential metric (i.e. CV in species abundances assessing the consequences of ongoing environmental change on community structure.

  9. The effect of positive interactions on temporal turnover of community composition along an environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youshi; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Shurong; Soininen, Janne; Ai, Dexiecuo; Li, Yali; Chu, Chengjin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the interplay between negative and positive interactions simultaneously shapes community structure and composition. However, few studies have attempted to examine the effect of facilitation on compositional changes in communities through time. Additionally, due to the difficulties in collecting the long-term data, it would be useful to indicate the rate of temporal turnover using a readily obtainable metric. Using an individual-based model incorporating plant strategies, we examined the role of facilitation on the temporal turnover of communities located at different positions along an environmental gradient for three model scenarios: CM without facilitation; CFM-U, a unimodal relationship between facilitation and environmental severity; and CFM-L, a positively linear relationship between facilitation and environmental severity. Our results demonstrated that facilitation could increase, decrease or have no remarkable effect on temporal turnover. The specific outcome depended on the location of the focal community across the environmental gradient and the model employed. Compared with CM, the inclusion of positive interactions (i.e. CFM-U and CFM-L), at intermediate environmental stress levels (such as S = 0.7 and 0.8) resulted in lower Bray-Curtis similarity values; at other severity levels, facilitation slowed down (such as S = 0.3 and 0.4 at low to medium stress levels, and S = 0.9 at high stress levels) or had only a subtle effect (such as at S = 0.1) on temporal turnover. We also found that the coefficient of variation (CV) in species abundances and the rate of temporal variability showed a significant quadratic relationship. Our theoretical analysis contributes to the understanding of factors driving temporal turnover in biotic communities, and presents a potential metric (i.e. CV in species abundances) assessing the consequences of ongoing environmental change on community structure.

  10. Plasma membrane temperature gradients and multiple cell permeabilization induced by low peak power density femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen L. Garner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Calculations indicate that selectively heating the extracellular media induces membrane temperature gradients that combine with electric fields and a temperature-induced reduction in the electropermeabilization threshold to potentially facilitate exogenous molecular delivery. Experiments by a wide-field, pulsed femtosecond laser with peak power density far below typical single cell optical delivery systems confirmed this hypothesis. Operating this laser in continuous wave mode at the same average power permeabilized many fewer cells, suggesting that bulk heating alone is insufficient and temperature gradients are crucial for permeabilization. This work suggests promising opportunities for a high throughput, low cost, contactless method for laser mediated exogenous molecule delivery without the complex optics of typical single cell optoinjection, for potential integration into microscope imaging and microfluidic systems.

  11. Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

    2014-12-01

    A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20 min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Saturation mechanism of decaying ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with kinetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present full-f gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence including kinetic electrons. By comparing decaying ITG turbulence simulations with adiabatic and kinetic electron models, an impact of kinetic electrons on the ITG turbulence is investigated. It is found that significant electron transport occurs even in the ITG turbulence, and both ion and electron temperature profiles are relaxed. In steady states, both cases show upshifts of nonlinear critical ion temperature gradients from linear ones, while their saturation mechanisms are qualitatively different. In the adiabatic electron case, the ITG mode is stabilized by turbulence driven zonal flows. On the other hand, in the kinetic electron case, passing electrons transport shows fine resonant structures at mode rational surfaces, which generate corrugated density profiles. Such corrugated density profiles lead to fine radial electric fields following the neoclassical force balance relation. The resulting E × B shearing rate greatly exceeds the linear growth rate of the ITG mode. (author)

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutr......We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment...... and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...... cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10-values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10: 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10: 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental...

  14. Experimental measurements of the SP response to concentration and temperature gradients in sandstones with application to subsurface geophysical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinov, E.; Jackson, M. D.

    2014-09-01

    Exclusion-diffusion potentials arising from temperature gradients are widely neglected in self-potential (SP) surveys, despite the ubiquitous presence of temperature gradients in subsurface settings such as volcanoes and hot springs, geothermal fields, and oil reservoirs during production via water or steam injection. Likewise, with the exception of borehole SP logging, exclusion-diffusion potentials arising from concentration gradients are also neglected or, at best, it is assumed that the diffusion potential dominates. To better interpret these SP sources requires well-constrained measurements of the various coupling terms. We report measurements of thermoelectric and electrochemical exclusion-diffusion potentials across sandstones saturated with NaCl brine and find that electrode effects can dominate the measured voltage. After correcting for these, we find that Hittorf transport numbers are the same within experimental error regardless of whether ion transport occurs in response to temperature or concentration gradients over the range of NaCl concentration investigated that is typical of natural systems. Diffusion potentials dominate only if the pore throat radius is more than approximately 4000 times larger than the diffuse layer thickness. In fine-grained sandstones with small pore throat diameter, this condition is likely to be met only if the saturating brine is of relatively high salinity; thus, in many cases of interest to earth scientists, exclusion-diffusion potentials will comprise significant contributions from both ionic diffusion through, and ionic exclusion from, the pore space of the rock. However, in coarse-grained sandstones, or sandstones saturated with high-salinity brine, exclusion-diffusion potentials can be described using end-member models in which ionic exclusion is neglected. Exclusion-diffusion potentials in sandstones depend upon pore size and salinity in a complex way: they may be positive, negative, or zero depending upon sandstone

  15. Self-organized profile relaxation by ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; LeBrun, M.J.; Gray, M.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.

    1993-02-01

    Toroidal effects on the ion-temperature gradient mode are found to dictate the temperature evolution and the subsequent relaxed profile realization according to our toroidal particle simulation. Both in the strongly unstable fluid regime as well as in the near-marginal kinetic regime we observe that the plasma maintains an exponential temperature profile and forces the heat flux to be radially independent. The self-organized critical relaxed state is sustained slightly above the marginal stability, where the weak wave growth balances the wave decorrelation

  16. The effects of sea surface temperature gradients on surface turbulent fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, John

    A positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress perturbation near strong SST gradients (DeltaSST) has been observed in different parts of the world ocean, such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. These changes in winds and SSTs can modify near-surface stability, surface stress, and latent and sensible heat fluxes. In general, these small scale processes are poorly modeled in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models. Failure to account for these air--sea interactions produces inaccurate values of turbulent fluxes, and therefore a misrepresentation of the energy, moisture, and momentum budgets. Our goal is to determine the change in these surface turbulent fluxes due to overlooking the correlated variability in winds, SSTs, and related variables. To model these air--sea interactions, a flux model was forced with and without SST--induced changes to the surface wind fields. The SST modification to the wind fields is based on a baroclinic argument as implemented by the University of Washington Planetary Boundary-Layer (UWPBL) model. Other input parameters include 2-m air temperature, 2-m dew point temperature, surface pressure (all from ERA--interim), and Reynolds Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST). Flux model runs are performed every 6 hours starting in December 2002 and ending in November 2003. From these model outputs, seasonal, monthly, and daily means of the difference between DeltaSST and no DeltaSST effects on sensible heat flux (SHF), latent heat flux (LHF), and surface stress are calculated. Since the greatest impacts occur during the winter season, six additional December-January-February (DJF) seasons were analyzed for 1987--1990 and 1999--2002. The greatest differences in surface turbulent fluxes are concentrated near strong SST fronts associated with the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. On average, 2002---2003 DJF seasonal differences in SHF

  17. Threshold for the destabilisation of the ion-temperature-gradient mode in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocco, A.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Doerk, H.; Connor, J. W.; Helander, P.

    2018-02-01

    The threshold for the resonant destabilisation of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven instabilities that render the modes ubiquitous in both tokamaks and stellarators is investigated. We discover remarkably similar results for both confinement concepts if care is taken in the analysis of the effect of the global shear . We revisit, analytically and by means of gyrokinetic simulations, accepted tokamak results and discover inadequacies of some aspects of their theoretical interpretation. In particular, for standard tokamak configurations, we find that global shear effects on the critical gradient cannot be attributed to the wave-particle resonance destabilising mechanism of Hahm & Tang (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 1, 1989, pp. 1185-1192), but are consistent with a stabilising contribution predicted by Biglari et al. (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 1, 1989, pp. 109-118). Extensive analytical and numerical investigations show that virtually no previous tokamak theoretical predictions capture the temperature dependence of the mode frequency at marginality, thus leading to incorrect instability thresholds. In the asymptotic limit , where is the rotational transform, and such a threshold should be solely determined by the resonant toroidal branch of the ITG mode, we discover a family of unstable solutions below the previously known threshold of instability. This is true for a tokamak case described by a local local equilibrium, and for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, where these unstable solutions are present even for configurations with a small trapped-particle population. We conjecture they are of the Floquet type and derive their properties from the Fourier analysis of toroidal drift modes of Connor & Taylor (Phys. Fluids, vol. 30, 1987, pp. 3180-3185), and to Hill's theory of the motion of the lunar perigee (Acta Math., vol. 8, 1886, pp. 1-36). The temperature dependence of the newly determined threshold is given for both confinement concepts. In the first case, the new temperature-gradient

  18. Temperature gradient scale length measurement: A high accuracy application of electron cyclotron emission without calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshmandyar, S., E-mail: houshmandyar@austin.utexas.edu; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Yang, Z. J. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubbard, A. E.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Wolfe, S. M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02129 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Calibration is a crucial procedure in electron temperature (T{sub e}) inference from a typical electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic on tokamaks. Although the calibration provides an important multiplying factor for an individual ECE channel, the parameter ΔT{sub e}/T{sub e} is independent of any calibration. Since an ECE channel measures the cyclotron emission for a particular flux surface, a non-perturbing change in toroidal magnetic field changes the view of that channel. Hence the calibration-free parameter is a measure of T{sub e} gradient. B{sub T}-jog technique is presented here which employs the parameter and the raw ECE signals for direct measurement of electron temperature gradient scale length.

  19. Experimental observation of electron-temperature-gradient turbulence in a laboratory plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, S K; Singh, S K; Awasthi, L M; Singh, R; Kaw, P K

    2012-06-22

    We report the observation of electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) driven turbulence in the laboratory plasma of a large volume plasma device. The removal of unutilized primary ionizing and nonthermal electrons from uniform density plasma and the imposition and control of the gradient in the electron temperature (T[Symbol: see text] T(e)) are all achieved by placing a large (2 m diameter) magnetic electron energy filter in the middle of the device. In the dressed plasma, the observed ETG turbulence in the lower hybrid range of frequencies ν = (1-80 kHz) is characterized by a broadband with a power law. The mean wave number k perpendicular ρ(e) = (0.1-0.2) satisfies the condition k perpendicular ρ(e) ≤ 1, where ρ(e) is the electron Larmor radius.

  20. Nonlinear theory of trapped electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in flat density H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.

    1990-12-01

    Ion temperature gradient turbulence based transport models have difficulties reconciling the recent DIII-D H-mode results where the density profile is flat, but χ e > χ i in the core region. In this work, a nonlinear theory is developed for recently discovered ion temperature gradient trapped electron modes propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction. This instability is predicted to be linearly unstable for L Ti /R approx-lt κ θ ρ s approx-lt (L Ti /R) 1/4 . They are also found to be strongly dispersive even at these long wavelengths, thereby suggesting the importance of the wave-particle-wave interactions in the nonlinear saturation phase. The fluctuation spectrum and anomalous fluxes are calculated. In accordance with the trends observed in DIII-D, the predicted electron thermal diffusivity can be larger than the ion thermal diffusivity. 17 refs., 3 figs

  1. Behaviour of a pre-stressed concrete pressure-vessel subjected to a high temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.

    1965-01-01

    After a review of the problems presented by pressure-vessels for atomic reactors (shape of the vessel, pressures, openings, foundations, etc.) the advantages of pre-stressed concrete vessels with respect to steel ones are given. The use of pre-stressed concrete vessels however presents many difficulties connected with the properties of concrete. Thus, because of the absence of an exact knowledge of the material, it is necessary to place a sealed layer of steel against the concrete, to have a thermal insulator or a cooling circuit for limiting the deformations and stresses, etc. It follows that the study of the behaviour of pre-stressed concrete and of the vessel subjected- to a high temperature gradient can yield useful information. A one-tenth scale model of a pre-stressed concrete cylindrical vessel without any side openings and without a base has been built. Before giving a description of the tests the authors consider some theoretical aspects concerning 'scale model-actual structure' similitude conditions and the calculation of the thermal and mechanical effects. The pre-stressed concrete model was heated internally by a 'pyrotenax' element and cooled externally by a very strong air current. The concrete was pre-stressed using horizontal and vertical cables held at 80 kg/cm 2 ; the thermal gradient was 160 deg. C. During the various tests, measurements were made of the overall and local deformations, the changes in water content, the elasticity modulus, the stress and creep of the cables and the depths of the cracks. The overall deformations observed are in line with thermal deformation theories and the creep of the cables attained 20 to 30 per cent according to their position relative to the internal surface. The dynamic elasticity modulus decreased by half but the concrete keeps its good mechanical properties. Finally, cracks 8 to 12 cm deep and 2 to 3 mms wide appeared in that part of the concrete which was not pre-stressed. The results obtained make it

  2. Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Unified theory of ballooning instabilities and temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    A unified theory of temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes and ballooning instabilities is developed using kinetic theory in banana regimes. All known results, such as electrostatic and purely magnetic trapped particle modes and ideal MHD ballooning modes (or shear Alfven waves) are readily derived from our single general dispersion relation. Several new results from ion-ion collision and trapped particle modification of ballooning modes are derived and discussed and the interrelationship between those modes is established. 24 refs

  4. Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J.; Puerta Torres, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)

  5. Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Monroy, R.; Sarmiento Castillo, J. [Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas; Puerta Torres, D. [Universidad de Cartagena (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    2010-12-15

    In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. (author)

  6. The Transition to Collisionless Ion-temperature-gradient-driven Plasma Turbulence: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, R.A.; Krommes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The transition to collisionless ion-temperature-gradient-driven plasma turbulence is considered by applying dynamical systems theory to a model with ten degrees of freedom. Study of a four-dimensional center manifold predicts a ''Dimits shift'' of the threshold for turbulence due to the excitation of zonal flows and establishes the exact value of that shift in terms of physical parameters. For insight into fundamental physical mechanisms, the method provides a viable alternative to large simulations

  7. Temperature of the Icelandic crust: Inferred from electrical conductivity, temperature surface gradient, and maximum depth of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Axel

    2008-02-01

    Two different models of the structure of the Icelandic crust have been presented. One is the thin-crust model with a 10-15 km thick crust beneath the axial rift zones, with an intermediate layer of partially molten basalt at the base of the crust and on the top of an up-domed asthenosphere. The thick-crust model assumes a 40 km thick and relatively cold crust beneath central Iceland. The most important and crucial parameter to distinguish between these different models is the temperature distribution with depth. Three methods are used to estimate the temperature distribution with depth. First, the surface temperature gradient measured in shallow wells drilled outside geothermal areas. Second, the thickness of the seismogenic zone which is associated with a 750 °C isothermal surface. Third, the depth to a layer with high electrical conductivity which is associated with partially molten basalt with temperature around 1100 °C at the base of the crust. Combination of these data shows that the temperature gradient can be assumed to be nearly linear from the surface down to the base of the crust. These results are strongly in favour of the thin-crust model. The scattered deep seismic reflectors interpreted as Moho in the thick-crust model could be caused by phase transitions or reflections from melt pockets in the mantle.

  8. A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.

    2014-10-01

    An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.

  9. A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches

  10. A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.

  11. Numerical simulation of ion temperature gradient driven modes in the presence of ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    Ion temperature gradient driven modes in the presence of ion-ion collisions in a toroidal geometry with trapped ions have been studied by using a 1 2/2 d linearized gyro-kinetic particle simulation code in the electrostatic limit. The purpose of the investigation is to try to understand the physics of flat density discharges, in order to test the marginal stability hypothesis. Results giving threshold conditions of L Ti /R 0 , an upper bound on k χ , and linear growth rates and mode frequencies over all wavelengths for the collisionless ion temperature gradient driven modes are obtained. The behavior of ion temperature gradient driven instabilities in the transition from slab to toroidal geometry, with trapped ions, is shown. A Monte Carlo scheme for the inclusion of ion-ion collisions, in which ions can undergo Coulomb collisional dynamical friction, velocity space diffusion and random walk of guiding centers, has been constructed. The effects of ion-ion collisions on the long wave length limit of the ion modes is discussed. 44 refs., 12 figs

  12. Properties of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarong; Jhang, Hogun; Hahm, T. S.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    We perform a numerical study of linear stability of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM) in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles. A local gyrokinetic integral equation is applied for this study. From comprehensive parametric scans, we obtain stability diagrams for ITG modes and TEMs in terms of density and temperature gradient scale lengths. The results show that, for the inverted density profile, there exists a normalized threshold temperature gradient above which the ITG mode and the TEM are either separately or simultaneously unstable. The instability threshold of the TEM for the inverted density profile is substantially different from that for normal and flat density profiles. In addition, deviations are found on the ITG threshold from an early analytic theory in sheared slab geometry with the adiabatic electron response [T. S. Hahm and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1185 (1989)]. A possible implication of this work on particle transport in pellet fueled tokamak plasmas is discussed.

  13. Generation of charge imbalance in a superconductor by a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entin-Wohlman, O.; Orbach, R.

    1980-01-01

    The charge-imbalance voltage in a superconductor carrying a current in the presence of a temperature gradient is calculated from the Boltzmann equation in the clean limit. We demonstrate why the Green's-function approach in the dirty limit, first performed by Schmid and Schoem, generates the same Boltzmann-like equation for the distribution function. In addition, the charge-imbalance voltage in the absence of an impressed current is calculated. It is shown to depend on del 2 T+(delT) 2 /T, and not solely on (delT) 2 . The calculations are limited to the temperature regime near T/sub c/, such that Δ<< T

  14. Temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in AgPd and AgPt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.

    1977-07-01

    The measurements of temperature dependence of the electric field gradient (EFG) on 111 Cd nuclei in AgPd and AgPt alloys were performed using the time dependent perturbed angular correlation method. The EFG caused by impurities distributed in further coordination shells decrease stronaer with increasing temperature than the EFG due to single impurity being the nearest neighbour of the probe atom. These results were explained assuming different modes of thermal vibrations of single impurity atoms and impurity complexes in silver host lattice. (author)

  15. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  16. Scaling of spectra in grid turbulence with a mean cross-stream temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Carla; Arwatz, Gilad; Mueller, Michael E.; George, William K.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    Scaling of grid turbulence with a constant mean cross-stream temperature gradient is investigated using a combination of theoretical predictions, DNS, and experimental data. Conditions for self-similarity of the governing equations and the scalar spectrum are investigated, which reveals necessary conditions for self-similarity to exist. These conditions provide a theoretical framework for scaling of the temperature spectrum as well as the temperature flux spectrum. One necessary condition, predicted by the theory, is that the characteristic length scale describing the scalar spectrum must vary as √{ t} for a self-similar solution to exist. In order to investigate this, T-NSTAP sensors, specially designed for temperature measurements at high frequencies, were deployed in a heated passive grid turbulence setup together with conventional cold-wires, and complementary DNS calculations were performed to complement and complete the experimental data. These data are used to compare the behavior of different length scales and validate the theoretical predictions.

  17. THE MAXIMUM EFFECT OF DEEP LAKES ON TEMPERATURE PROFILES – DETERMINATION OF THE GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eppelbaum L. V.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climate change processes on the basis of geothermal observations in boreholes is an important and at the same time high-intricate problem. Many non-climatic effects could cause changes in ground surface temperatures. In this study we investigate the effects of deep lakes on the borehole temperature profilesobserved within or in the vicinity of the lakes. We propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method makes possible to estimate the maximum effect of deep lakes (here the term "deep lake" means that long term mean annual temperature of bottom sediments can beconsidered as a constant value on the borehole temperature profiles. This method also allows one to estimate an accuracy of the determination of the geothermal gradient.

  18. Low temperature magnetic behaviour of glass-covered magnetic microwires with gradient nanocrystalline microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, I. G.; Hernando, A.; Marín, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155 las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    Slow nanocrystallization driving dynamics can be affected by the combination of two factors: sample residual stresses and sample geometry. This effect is evidenced at the initial stages of nanocrystallization of amorphous CoFeSiBCuNb magnetic microwires. Transmission electron microscopy observations indicate how crystallization at temperatures between 730 and 780 K results in a graded microstructure where the crystallization at the surface skin of the microwire, which remains almost amorphous, differs from that of the middle, where elongated grains are observed, and inner regions. However, samples annealed at higher temperatures present a homogeneous microstructure. The effect of gradient microstructure on magnetic properties has been also analyzed and a loss of bistable magnetic behaviour at low temperatures, from that obtained in the amorphous and fully nanocrystallized sample, has been observed and ascribed to changes in sign of magnetostriction for measuring temperatures below 100 K.

  19. An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature Gradient on the Soil Water–Salt Transfer with Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ren

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature gradients exist in the field under brackish water irrigation conditions, especially in northern semi–arid areas of China. Although there are many investigators dedicated to studying the mechanism of brackish water irrigation and the effect of brackish water irrigation on crops, there are fewer investigations of the effects of temperature gradient on the water–salt transport. Based on the combination of a physical experiment and a mathematical model, this study was conducted to: (a build a physical model and observe the redistribution of soil water–heat–salt transfer; (b develop a mathematical model focused on the influence of a temperature gradient on soil water and salt redistribution based on the physical model and validate the proposed model using the measured data; and (c analyze the effects of the temperature gradient on the soil water–salt transport by comparing the proposed model with the traditional water–salt model in which the effects of temperature gradient on the soil water–salt transfer are neglected. Results show that the soil temperature gradient has a definite influence on the soil water–salt migration. Moreover, the effect of temperature gradient on salt migration was greater than that of water movement.

  20. Identifying Stream/Aquifer Exchange by Temperature Gradient in a Guarani Aquifer System Outcrop Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Rosa, D. M. S.; Anache, J. A. A.; Lowry, C.; Lin, Y. F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in South America is supposed to occur mainly in the outcrop zones, where the GAS appears as an unconfined aquifer (10% of the 1.2 Million km2 aquifer extension). Previous evaluations of recharge are based essentially on water balance estimates for the whole aquifer area or water table fluctuations in monitoring wells. To gain a more detailed understanding of the recharge mechanisms the present work aimed to study the stream aquifer interaction in a watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) at an outcrop zone. Two Parshall flumes were installed 1.3 km apart for discharge measurement in the stream. Along this distance an optic fiber cable was deployed to identify stretches with gaining and losing behavior. In order to estimate groundwater discharge in specific locations, 8 temperature sticks were set up along the stream reach to measure continuously the vertical temperature gradient. A temperature probe with 4 thermistors was also used to map the shallow streambed temperature gradient manually along the whole distance. The obtained results show a discharge difference of 250 m3/h between both flumes. Since the last significant rainfall (15 mm) in the watershed occurred 3 months ago, this value can be interpreted as the base flow contribution to the stream during the dry season. Given the temperature difference between groundwater ( 24oC) and surface water ( 17oC) the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) allowed the identification of stretches with gaining behavior. Temperature gradients observed at the streambed varied between 0.67 and 14.33 oC/m. The study demonstrated that heat may be used as natural tracer even in tropical conditions, where the groundwater temperature is higher than the surface water temperature during the winter. The obtained results show that the discharge difference between both flumes can not be extrapolated without detailed analysis. Gaining and loosing stretches have to be identified on order

  1. Large diffusion anisotropy and orientation sorting of phosphorene nanoflakes under a temperature gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yingyan; Chang, Tienchong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2018-01-25

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the motion of phosphorene nanoflakes on a large graphene substrate under a thermal gradient. It is found that the atomic interaction between the graphene substrate and the phosphorene nanoflake generates distinct rates of motion for phosphorene nanoflakes with different orientations. Remarkably, for square phosphorene nanoflakes, the motion of zigzag-oriented nanoflakes is 2-fold faster than those of armchair-oriented and randomly-oriented nanoflakes. This large diffusion anisotropy suggests that sorting of phosphorene nanoflakes into specific orientations can be realized by a temperature gradient. The findings here provide interesting insights into strong molecular diffusion anisotropy and offer a novel route for manipulating two-dimensional materials.

  2. Investigation on multilayer failure mechanism of RPV with a high temperature gradient from core meltdown scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianfeng, Mao, E-mail: jianfeng-mao@163.com [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Remanufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Xiangqing, Li [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Shiyi, Bao, E-mail: bsy@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Remanufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Lijia, Luo [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Zengliang, Gao [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Remanufacturing, Ministry of Education (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The multilayer failure mechanism is investigated for RPV under CHF. • Failure time and location of RPV are predicted under various SA scenarios. • The structural behaviors are analyzed in depth for creep and plasticity. • The effect of internal pressure and temperature gradient is considered. • The structural integrity of RPV is secured within the required 72 creep hours. - Abstract: The Fukushima accident shows that in-vessel retention (IVR) of molten core debris has not been appropriately assessed, and a certain pressure (up to 8.0 MPa) still exists inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the traditional concept of IVR, the pressure is supposed to successfully be released, and the temperature distributed among the wall thickness is assumed to be uniform. However, this concept is seriously challenged by reality of Fukushima accident with regard to the existence of both internal pressure and high temperature gradient. Therefore, in order to make the IVR mitigation strategy succeed, the numerical investigation of the lower head behavior and its failure has been performed for several internal pressures under high temperature gradient. According to some requirements in severe accident (SA) management of RPV, it should be ensured that the IVR mitigation takes effect in preventing the failure of the structure within a period of 72 h. Subsequently, the failure time and location have to be predicted under the critical heat flux (CHF) loading condition for lower head, since the CHF is limit thermal boundary before the melt-through of RPV. In illustrating the so called ‘multilayer failure mechanism’, the structural behaviors of RPV are analyzed in terms of the stress, creep strain, deformation, damage on selected paths.

  3. Directional solidification of C8-BTBT films induced by temperature gradients and its application for transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Iizuka, Naoki; Onishi, Yosuke

    2015-03-01

    Because charge transport in a single crystal is anisotropic in nature, directional growth of single crystals would enhance device performance and reduce its variation among devices. For an organic thin film, a method based on a temperature gradient would offer advantages in throughput and cleanliness. In experiments, a temperature gradient was established in a spin-coated film of 2,7-dioctyl [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) by two methods. First, a sample was placed on a metal plate bridging two heat stages. When one of the heat stages was cooled, the material started to solidify from the colder region. The melt-solid interface proceeded along the temperature gradient. Cracks were formed perpendicular to the solidification direction. Second, a line-shaped region on the film was continuously exposed to the light from a halogen lamp. After the heat stage was cooled, cracks similar to the first experiment were observed, indicating that the melt-solid interface moved laterally. We fabricated top-contact, bottom-gate transistors with these films. Despite the cracks, field-effect mobility of the transistors fabricated with these films was close to 6 cm2 /Vs and 4 cm2 /Vs in the first and second experiment, respectively. Elimination of cracks would improve charge transport and reduce performance variation among devices. It should be noted that the intense light from the halogen lamp did not damage the C8-BTBT films. The vast knowledge on laser annealing is now available for directional growth of this type of materials. The associated cost would be much smaller because an organic thin film melts at a low temperature.

  4. Investigation on multilayer failure mechanism of RPV with a high temperature gradient from core meltdown scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianfeng, Mao; Xiangqing, Li; Shiyi, Bao; Lijia, Luo; Zengliang, Gao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The multilayer failure mechanism is investigated for RPV under CHF. • Failure time and location of RPV are predicted under various SA scenarios. • The structural behaviors are analyzed in depth for creep and plasticity. • The effect of internal pressure and temperature gradient is considered. • The structural integrity of RPV is secured within the required 72 creep hours. - Abstract: The Fukushima accident shows that in-vessel retention (IVR) of molten core debris has not been appropriately assessed, and a certain pressure (up to 8.0 MPa) still exists inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the traditional concept of IVR, the pressure is supposed to successfully be released, and the temperature distributed among the wall thickness is assumed to be uniform. However, this concept is seriously challenged by reality of Fukushima accident with regard to the existence of both internal pressure and high temperature gradient. Therefore, in order to make the IVR mitigation strategy succeed, the numerical investigation of the lower head behavior and its failure has been performed for several internal pressures under high temperature gradient. According to some requirements in severe accident (SA) management of RPV, it should be ensured that the IVR mitigation takes effect in preventing the failure of the structure within a period of 72 h. Subsequently, the failure time and location have to be predicted under the critical heat flux (CHF) loading condition for lower head, since the CHF is limit thermal boundary before the melt-through of RPV. In illustrating the so called ‘multilayer failure mechanism’, the structural behaviors of RPV are analyzed in terms of the stress, creep strain, deformation, damage on selected paths.

  5. Nonlinear vacuum gas flow through a short tube due to pressure and temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantazis, Sarantis; Naris, Steryios; Tantos, Christos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece); Valougeorgis, Dimitris, E-mail: diva@mie.uth.gr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece); André, Julien; Millet, Francois; Perin, Jean Paul [Service des Basses Températures, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France)

    2013-10-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas through a tube due to both pressure and temperature gradients has been studied numerically. The main objective is to investigate the performance of a mechanical vacuum pump operating at low temperatures in order to increase the pumped mass flow rate. This type of pump is under development at CEA-Grenoble. The flow is modelled by the Shakhov kinetic model equation, which is solved by the discrete velocity method. Results are presented for certain geometry and flow parameters. Since according to the pump design the temperature driven flow is in the opposite direction than the main pressure driven flow, it has been found that for the operating pressure range studied here the net mass flow rate through the pump may be significantly reduced.

  6. Nonlinear vacuum gas flow through a short tube due to pressure and temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantazis, Sarantis; Naris, Steryios; Tantos, Christos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; André, Julien; Millet, Francois; Perin, Jean Paul

    2013-01-01

    The flow of a rarefied gas through a tube due to both pressure and temperature gradients has been studied numerically. The main objective is to investigate the performance of a mechanical vacuum pump operating at low temperatures in order to increase the pumped mass flow rate. This type of pump is under development at CEA-Grenoble. The flow is modelled by the Shakhov kinetic model equation, which is solved by the discrete velocity method. Results are presented for certain geometry and flow parameters. Since according to the pump design the temperature driven flow is in the opposite direction than the main pressure driven flow, it has been found that for the operating pressure range studied here the net mass flow rate through the pump may be significantly reduced

  7. A sandwich-designed temperature-gradient incubator for studies of microbial temperature responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Jørgensen, L.W.

    2002-01-01

    of 28-ml test tubes. An electric plate heats one end of the TGI end and the other end is cooled by thermoelectric Peltier elements in combination with a liquid cooling system. The TGI is equipped with 24 calibrated Pt-100 temperature sensors and insulated by polyurethane plates. A PC-operated SCADA...

  8. A STUDY OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE GRADIENT VARIATION USING LIMB DARKENING MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuoli, Serena [National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Foukal, Peter [192 Willow Road, Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The variation in area of quiet magnetic network measured over the sunspot cycle should modulate the spatially averaged photospheric temperature gradient, since temperature declines with optical depth more gradually in magnetic flux tube atmospheres. Yet, limb darkening measurements show no dependence upon activity level, even at an rms precision of 0.04%. We study the sensitivity of limb darkening to changes in area filling factor using a 3D MHD model of the magnetized photosphere. The limb darkening change expected from the measured 11-year area variation lies below the level of measured limb darkening variations, for a reasonable range of magnetic flux in quiet network and internetwork regions. So the remarkably constant limb darkening observed over the solar activity cycle is not inconsistent with the measured 11-year change in area of quiet magnetic network. Our findings offer an independent constraint on photospheric temperature gradient changes reported from measurements of the solar spectral irradiance from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor, and recently, from wavelength-differential spectrophotometry using the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the HINODE spacecraft.

  9. Experimental demonstration of efficient and robust second harmonic generation using the adiabatic temperature gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, E.; Steflekova, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Kyoseva, E.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a way of achieving efficient and robust second-harmonic generation. The technique proposed is similar to the adiabatic population transfer in a two-state quantum system with crossing energies. If the phase mismatching changes slowly, e.g., due to a temperature gradient along the crystal, and makes the phase match for second-harmonic generation to occur, then the energy would be converted adiabatically to the second harmonic. As an adiabatic technique, the second-harmonic generation scheme presented is stable to variations in the crystal parameters, as well as in the input light, crystal length, input intensity, wavelength and angle of incidence.

  10. Stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes by lower hybrid wave in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuley, Animesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    A gyrokinetic formalism has been developed to study lower hybrid wave stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes, responsible for anomalous ion transport in the inner region of tokamak. The parametric coupling between lower hybrid and drift waves produce lower hybrid sideband waves. The pump and the sidebands exert a ponderomotive force on electrons, modifying the eigenfrequency of the drift wave and influencing the growth rate. The longer wavelength drift waves are destabilized by the lower hybrid wave while the shorter wavelengths are suppressed. The requiste lower hybrid power is in the range of ∼900 kW at 4.6 GHz.

  11. Comparisons of theoretically predicted transport from ion temperature gradient instabilities to L-mode tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Wong, H.V.; Lyster, P.L.; Berk, H.L.; Denton, R.; Miner, W.H.; Valanju, P.

    1991-12-01

    The theoretical transport from kinetic micro-instabilities driven by ion temperature gradients is a sheared slab is compared to experimentally inferred transport in L-mode tokamaks. Low noise gyrokinetic simulation techniques are used to obtain the ion thermal transport coefficient X. This X is much smaller than in experiments, and so cannot explain L-mode confinement. Previous predictions based on fluid models gave much greater X than experiments. Linear and nonlinear comparisons with the fluid model show that it greatly overestimates transport for experimental parameters. In addition, disagreements among previous analytic and simulation calculations of X in the fluid model are reconciled

  12. Performance and application of controlled temperature-gradient lamps in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, D.S.; Sullivan, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    An improved design of controlled temperature-gradient lamp (CTGL) is suitable for arsenic, cadmium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, selenium, sodium, sulphur and zinc. Intensity and linewidth measurements indicate that the CTGL is significantly more intense than an electrodeless discharge lamp (EDL) at the same linewidth. CTGL's also compare favourably with EDL's when used as light sources for a.a.s. Arsenic and selenium can be determined at very low concentrations (ng ml -1 ) by the hydride generation technique. Sulphur and phosphorus can be detected in the vacuum ultra-violet region using nitrogen-separated flames; the limits of detection are 13 and 10 μg ml -1 , respectively. (Auth.)

  13. Chaos in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes in dust-contaminated magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Anisa; Atta-Ullah-Shah [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 25000 (Pakistan); Yaqub Khan, M; Ayub, M [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M, E-mail: anisaqamar@gmail.com [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2011-06-01

    A new set of nonlinear equations for toroidal ion-temperature-gradient-driven (ITGD) drift-dissipative waves is derived by using Braginskii's transport model of the ion dynamics and the Boltzmann distribution of electrons in the presence of negatively charged dust grains. The temporal behaviour of the nonlinear ITGD mode is found to be governed by three nonlinear equations for the amplitudes, which is a generalization of Lorenz- and Stenflo-type equations admitting chaotic trajectories. The linear stability analysis has been presented and stationary points for our generalized mode coupling equations are also derived.

  14. Orbital forcing and role of the latitudinal insolation/temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Basil A.S. [University of Newcastle, School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); ARVE Group, ISTE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Brewer, Simon [CEREGE, Europole de l' Arbois, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2009-02-15

    Orbital forcing of the climate system is clearly shown in the Earths record of glacial-interglacial cycles, but the mechanism underlying this forcing is poorly understood. Traditional Milankovitch theory suggests that these cycles are driven by changes in high latitude summer insolation, yet this forcing is dominated by precession, and cannot account for the importance of obliquity in the Ice Age record. Here, we investigate an alternative forcing based on the latitudinal insolation gradient (LIG), which is dominated by both obliquity (in summer) and precession (in winter). The insolation gradient acts on the climate system through differential solar heating, which creates the Earths latitudinal temperature gradient (LTG) that drives the atmospheric and ocean circulation. A new pollen-based reconstruction of the LTG during the Holocene is used to demonstrate that the LTG may be much more sensitive to changes in the LIG than previously thought. From this, it is shown how LIG forcing of the LTG may help explain the propagation of orbital signatures throughout the climate system, including the Monsoon, Arctic Oscillation and ocean circulation. These relationships are validated over the last (Eemian) Interglacial, which occurred under a different orbital configuration to the Holocene. We conclude that LIG forcing of the LTG explains many criticisms of classic Milankovitch theory, while being poorly represented in climate models. (orig.)

  15. Effects of finite electron temperature on gradient drift instabilities in partially magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; Marusov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The gradient-drift instabilities of partially magnetized plasmas in plasma devices with crossed electric and magnetic fields are investigated in the framework of the two-fluid model with finite electron temperature in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The finite electron Larmor radius (FLR) effects are also included via the gyroviscosity tensor taking into account the magnetic field gradient. This model correctly describes the electron dynamics for k⊥ρe>1 in the sense of Padé approximants (here, k⊥ and ρe are the wavenumber perpendicular to the magnetic field and the electron Larmor radius, respectively). The local dispersion relation for electrostatic plasma perturbations with the frequency in the range between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies and propagating strictly perpendicular to the magnetic field is derived. The dispersion relation includes the effects of the equilibrium E ×B electron current, finite ion velocity, electron inertia, electron FLR, magnetic field gradients, and Debye length effects. The necessary and sufficient condition of stability is derived, and the stability boundary is found. It is shown that, in general, the electron inertia and FLR effects stabilize the short-wavelength perturbations. In some cases, such effects completely suppress the high-frequency short-wavelength modes so that only the long-wavelength low-frequency (with respect to the lower-hybrid frequency) modes remain unstable.

  16. Effect of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence on the edge-core connection for transient edge temperature sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyato, Naoaki

    2014-01-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence simulation for a transient edge temperature sink localized in the poloidal plane is performed using a global Landau-fluid code in the electrostatic limit. Pressure perturbations with (m, n) = (±1, 0) are induced by the edge sink, where m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. It was found in the previous simulation that the nonlinear dynamics of these perturbations are responsible for the nonlocal plasma response/transport connecting edge and core in a toroidal plasma. Present simulation shows, however, that the ITG turbulence in the core region dissipates the large-scale (m, n) = (±1, 0) perturbations and weakens the edge-core connection observed in the previous simulation. (author)

  17. Air and ground temperatures along elevation and continentality gradients in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbrot, Herman; Hipp, Tobias; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Humlum, Ole; Isaksen, Ketil; Strand Ødegârd, Rune

    2010-05-01

    The modern southern boundary for Scandinavian permafrost is located in the mountains of Southern Norway. Permafrost and seasonal frost are considered key components of the cryosphere, and the climate-permafrost relation has acquired added importance with the increasing awareness and concern of rising air temperatures. The three-year research project CRYOLINK ("Permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway") aims at improving knowledge on past and present ground temperatures, seasonal frost, and distribution of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway by addressing the fundamental problem of heat transfer between the atmosphere and the ground surface. Hence, several shallow boreholes have been drilled, and a monitoring program to measure air and ground temperatures was started August 2008. The borehole areas (Juvvass, Jetta and Tron) are situated along a west-east transect and, hence, a continentality gradient, and each area provides boreholes at different elevations. Here we present the first year of air and ground temperatures from these sites and discuss the influence of air temperature and ground surface charcteristics (snow conditions, sediments/bedrock, vegetation) on ground temperatures.

  18. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  19. Temperature responses of a coccolithophorid, Cricosphaera carterae, measured in a simple and inexpensive thermal-gradient device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankley, W.F.; Lewin, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    An illuminated thermal-gradient device is described which is of simple construction, very low cost, and wide adaptability to various culture vessels. It can be readily adapted for use in crossed gradients with temperature along one axis. The thermal gradient produced depends on several factors including the heat source (one or more incandescent lamps), heat sink (cold air in a refrigerated box or room), and type of culture vessel. By use of the device, the temperature range for growth of Cricosphaera carterae was found to be 10-26 degrees C, with a maximal growth rate at 20 degrees C

  20. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  1. A reduced model for ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.

    2013-07-01

    A novel reduced model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulent transport in helical plasmas is presented. The model enables one to predict nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results from linear gyrokinetic analyses. It is shown from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG turbulence in helical plasmas that the transport coefficient can be expressed as a function of the turbulent fluctuation level and the averaged zonal flow amplitude. Then, the reduced model for the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is derived by representing the nonlinear turbulent fluctuations and zonal flow amplitude in terms of the linear growth rate of the ITG instability and the linear response of the zonal flow potentials. It is confirmed that the reduced transport model results are in good agreement with those from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for high ion temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. (author)

  2. Experimental study of electron temperature gradient influence on impurity turbulent transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding impurity transport is a key to an optimal regime for a future fusion device. In this thesis, the theoretical and experimental influence of the electron temperature gradient R/L Te on heavy impurity transport is analyzed both in Tore Supra and ASDEX Upgrade. The electron temperature profile is modified locally by heating the plasma with little ECRH power deposited at two different radii. Experimental results have been obtained with the impurity transport code (ITC) which has been completed with a genetic algorithm allowing to determine the transport coefficient profiles with more accuracy. Transport coefficient profiles obtained by a quasilinear gyrokinetic code named QuaLiKiz are consistent with the experimental ones despite experimental uncertainties on gradients. In the core dominated by electron modes, the lower R/L Te the lower the nickel diffusion coefficient. The latter tends linearly to the neoclassical level when the instability threshold is approached. The experimental threshold is in agreement with the one computed by QuaLiKiz. Further out, where the plasma is dominated by ITG, which are independent of R/L Te , both experimental and simulated results show no modification in the diffusion coefficient profile. Furthermore, the convection velocity profile is not modified. This is attributed to a very small contribution of the thermodiffusion (1/Z dependence) in the total convection. On ASDEX, the preliminary results, very different from the Tore Supra ones, show a internal transport barrier for impurities located at the same radius as the strong ECRH power deposit. (author) [fr

  3. Thermal characterization of European ant communities along thermal gradients and its implications for community resilience to temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eArnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly concerned about how climate change will affect biodiversity yet have mostly addressed the issue at the species level. Here, we present a novel framework that accounts for the full range and complementarity of thermal responses present in a community; it may help reveal how biological communities will respond to climatic (i.e., thermal variability. First, we characterized the thermal niches of 147 ant species from 342 communities found along broad temperature gradients in western Europe. Within each community, species’ mean thermal breadth and the difference among species’ thermal optima (thermal complementarity were considered to define community thermal niche breadth—our proxy for community thermal resilience. The greater the range of thermal responses and their complementarity within a community, the greater the likelihood that the community could cope with novel conditions. Second, we used simulations to calculate how robust community thermal resilience was to random species extinctions. Community resilience was considered to be robust when random species extinctions largely failed to constrict initial community thermal breadth. Our results indicate that community thermal resilience was negatively and positively correlated with mean temperature and temperature seasonality, respectively. The pattern was reversed for robustness. While species richness did not directly affect community resilience to thermal variability, it did have a strong indirect effect because it determined community resilience robustness. Consequently, communities in warm, aseasonal regions are the most vulnerable to temperature variability, despite their greater number of species and resultant greater resilience robustness.

  4. Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean's surface mixed layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jeremy W; Lin, Yajuan; Gainer, P Jackson; Post, Anton F; Johnson, Zackary I; Zinser, Erik R

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of the phytoplankton communities in surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean are numerically dominated by one of two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus, eMIT9312 or eMED4. In this study, we surveyed large latitudinal transects in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to determine if these ecotypes discretely partition the surface mixed layer niche, or if populations exist as a continuum along key environmental gradients, particularly temperature. Transitions of dominance occurred at approximately 19-21°C, with the eMED4 ecotype dominating the colder, and eMIT9312 ecotype dominating the warmer regions. Within these zones of regional dominance, however, the minority ecotype was not competed to extinction. Rather, a robust log-linear relationship between ecotype ratio and temperature characterized this stabilized coexistence: for every 2.5°C increase in temperature, the eMIT9312:eMED4 ratio increased by an order of magnitude. This relationship was observed in both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in pyrosequencing assays. Water column stratification also contributed to the ecotype ratio along the basin-scale transects, but to a lesser extent. Finally, instances where the ratio of the eMED4 and eMIT9312 abundances did not correlate well with temperature were identified. Such occurrences are likely due to changes in water temperatures outpacing changes in community structure. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Zamora-Vilchis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  6. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz < ±0.05 m/d) to ±1.0 m/d, while the vertical hydraulic gradients were within the range of -0.2 to 0.15 m/m. The highest and most variable fluxes occurred adjacent to a debris-dam and bridge pier. This phenomenon is very likely

  7. Migration of the ThO2 kernels under the influence of a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    Biso-coated ThO 2 fertile fuel kernels will migrate up the thermal gradients imposed across coated particles during high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operation. Thorium dioxide kernel migration has been studied as a function of temperature (1290 to 1705 0 C) (1563 to 1978 K) and ThO 2 kernel burnup (0.9 to 5.8 percent FIMA) in out-of-pile postirradiation thermal gradient heating experiments. The studies were conducted to obtain descriptions of migration rates that will be used in core design studies to evaluate the impact of ThO 2 migration on fertile fuel performance in an operating HTGR and to define characteristics needed by any comprehensive model describing ThO 2 kernel migration. The kinetics data generated in these postirradiation studies are consistent with in-pile data collected by investigators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which supports use of the more precise postirradiation heating results in HTGR core design studies. Observations of intergranular carbon deposits on the cool side of migrating kernels support the assumption that the kinetics of kernel migration are controlled by solid-state diffusion within irradiated ThO 2 kernels. The migration is characterized by a period of no migration (incubation period), followed by migration at the equilibrium rate for ThO 2 . The incubation period decreases with increasing temperature and kernel burnup. The improved understanding of the kinetics of ThO 2 kernel migration provided by this work will contribute to an optimization of HTGR core design and an increased confidence in fuel performance predictions

  8. Lateral Temperature-Gradient Method for High-Throughput Characterization of Material Processing by Millisecond Laser Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert T; Jacobs, Alan G; Sorg, Victoria C; Jung, Byungki; Hill, Megan O; Treml, Benjamin E; Thompson, Michael O

    2016-09-12

    A high-throughput method for characterizing the temperature dependence of material properties following microsecond to millisecond thermal annealing, exploiting the temperature gradients created by a lateral gradient laser spike anneal (lgLSA), is presented. Laser scans generate spatial thermal gradients of up to 5 °C/μm with peak temperatures ranging from ambient to in excess of 1400 °C, limited only by laser power and materials thermal limits. Discrete spatial property measurements across the temperature gradient are then equivalent to independent measurements after varying temperature anneals. Accurate temperature calibrations, essential to quantitative analysis, are critical and methods for both peak temperature and spatial/temporal temperature profile characterization are presented. These include absolute temperature calibrations based on melting and thermal decomposition, and time-resolved profiles measured using platinum thermistors. A variety of spatially resolved measurement probes, ranging from point-like continuous profiling to large area sampling, are discussed. Examples from annealing of III-V semiconductors, CdSe quantum dots, low-κ dielectrics, and block copolymers are included to demonstrate the flexibility, high throughput, and precision of this technique.

  9. Effects of population density and chemical environment on the behavior of Escherichia coli in shallow temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Mahmut; Yoney, Anna; Salman, Hanna; Douarche, Carine; Libchaber, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In shallow temperature gradients, changes in temperature that bacteria experience occur over long time scales. Therefore, slow processes such as adaptation, metabolism, chemical secretion and even gene expression become important. Since these are cellular processes, the cell density is an important parameter that affects the bacteria's response. We find that there are four density regimes with distinct behaviors. At low cell density, bacteria do not cause changes in their chemical environment; however, their response to the temperature gradient is strongly influenced by it. In the intermediate cell-density regime, the consumption of nutrients becomes significant and induces a gradient of nutrients opposing the temperature gradient due to higher consumption rate at the high temperature. This causes the bacteria to drift toward low temperature. In the high cell-density regime, interactions among bacteria due to secretion of an attractant lead to a strong local accumulation of bacteria. This together with the gradient of nutrients, resulted from the differential consumption rate, creates a fast propagating pulse of bacterial density. These observations are a result of classical nonlinear population dynamics. At extremely high cell density, a change in the physiological state of the bacteria is observed. The bacteria, at the individual level, become cold seeking. This appears initially as a result of a change in the methylation level of the two most abundant sensing receptors, Tsr and Tar. It is further enforced at an even higher cell density by a change in the expression level of these receptors. (perspective)

  10. Effects of temperature, temperature gradients, stress, and irradiation on migration of brine inclusions in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Available experimental and theoretical information on brine migration in bedded salt are reviewed and analyzed. The effects of temperature, thermal gradients, stress, irradiation, and pressure in a salt repository are among the factors considered. The theoretical and experimental (with KCl) results of Anthony and Cline were used to correlate and explain the available data for rates of brine migration at temperatures up to 250 0 C in naturally occurring crystals of bedded salt from Lyons and Hutchinson, Kansas. Considerations of the effects of stressing crystals of bedded salt on the migratin properties of brine inclusions within the crystals led to the conclusion that the most probable effects are a small fractional increase in the solubility of the salt within the liquid and a concomitant and equal fractional increase in the rate of the thermal gradient-induced migration of the brine. The greatest uncertainty relative to the prediction of rates of migration of brine into a waste emplacement cavity in bedded salt is associated with questions concerning the effects of the grain boundaries (within the aggregates of single crystals which comprise a bedded salt deposit) on brine migration through the deposit. The results of some of the estimates of rates and total amounts of brine inflow to HLW and SURF waste packages emplaced in bedded salt were included to illustrate the inflow volumes which might occur in a repository. The results of the brine inflow estimates for 10-year-old HLW emplaced at 150 kW/acre indicated inflow rates starting at 0.7 liter/year and totaling 12 liters at 30 years after emplacement. The results of the estimates for 10-year-old PWR SURF emplaced at 60 kW/acre indicated a constant inflow of 0.035 liter/year for the first 35 years after emplacement

  11. Ecological impacts of invasive alien species along temperature gradients: testing the role of environmental matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacarella, Josephine C; Dick, Jaimie T A; Alexander, Mhairi E; Ricciardi, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) can cause substantive ecological impacts, and the role of temperature in mediating these impacts may become increasingly significant in a changing climate. Habitat conditions and physiological optima offer predictive information for IAS impacts in novel environments. Here, using meta-analysis and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the impacts of IAS in the field are inversely correlated with the difference in their ambient and optimal temperatures. A meta-analysis of 29 studies of consumptive impacts of IAS in inland waters revealed that the impacts of fishes and crustaceans are higher at temperatures that more closely match their thermal growth optima. In particular, the maximum impact potential was constrained by increased differences between ambient and optimal temperatures, as indicated by the steeper slope of a quantile regression on the upper 25th percentile of impact data compared to that of a weighted linear regression on all data with measured variances. We complemented this study with an experimental analysis of the functional response (the relationship between predation rate and prey supply) of two invasive predators (freshwater mysid shrimp, Hemimysis anomala and Mysis diluviana) across. relevant temperature gradients; both of these species have previously been found to exert strong community-level impacts that are corroborated by their functional responses to different prey items. The functional response experiments showed that maximum feeding rates of H. anomala and M. diluviana have distinct peaks near their respective thermal optima. Although variation in impacts may be caused by numerous abiotic or biotic habitat characteristics, both our analyses point to temperature as a key mediator of IAS impact levels in inland waters and suggest that IAS management should prioritize habitats in the invaded range that more closely match the thermal optima of targeted invaders.

  12. Laser-induced cracks in ice due to temperature gradient and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Yang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xue-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental and theoretical investigations on the mechanism of laser-induce cracks in ice. The laser-induced thermal gradient would generate significant thermal stress and lead to the cracking without thermal melting in the ice. The crack density induced by a pulsed laser in the ice critically depends on the laser scanning speed and the size of the laser spot on the surface, which determines the laser power density on the surface. A maximum of 16 cracks within an area of 17 cm × 10 cm can be generated when the laser scanning speed is at 10 mm/s and the focal point of the laser is right on the surface of the ice with a laser intensity of ∼4.6 × 107 W/cm2. By comparing the infrared images of the ice generated at various experimental conditions, it was found that a larger temperature gradient would result in more laser-induced cracks, while there is no visible melting of the ice by the laser beam. The data confirm that the laser-induced thermal stress is the main cause of the cracks created in the ice.

  13. Electron thermal energy transport research based on dynamical relationship between heat flux and temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notake, Takashi; Inagaki, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear fusion plasmas, both of thermal energy and particle transport governed by turbulent flow are anomalously enhanced more than neoclassical levels. Thus, to clarify a relationship between the turbulent flow and the anomalous transports has been the most worthwhile work. There are experimental results that the turbulent flow induces various phenomena on transport processes such as non-linearity, transition, hysteresis, multi-branches and non-locality. We are approaching these complicated problems by analyzing not conventional power balance but these phenomena directly. They are recognized as dynamical trajectories in the flux and gradient space and must be a clue to comprehend a physical mechanism of arcane anomalous transport. Especially, to elucidate the mechanism for electron thermal energy transport is critical in the fusion plasma researches because the burning plasmas will be sustained by alpha-particle heating. In large helical device, the dynamical relationships between electron thermal energy fluxes and electron temperature gradients are investigated by using modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating and modern electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems. Some trajectories such as hysteresis loop or line segments with steep slope which represent non-linear property are observed in the experiment. (author)

  14. Temperature Regimes Impact Coral Assemblages along Environmental Gradients on Lagoonal Reefs in Belize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin H Baumann

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS. A novel metric was developed using ultra-high-resolution satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperatures (SST to classify reefs as exposed to low (lowTP, moderate (modTP, or high (highTP temperature parameters over 10 years (2003 to 2012. Coral species richness, abundance, diversity, density, and percent cover were lower at highTP sites relative to lowTP and modTP sites, but these coral community traits did not differ significantly between lowTP and modTP sites. Analysis of coral life history strategies revealed that highTP sites were dominated by hardy stress-tolerant and fast-growing weedy coral species, while lowTP and modTP sites consisted of competitive, generalist, weedy, and stress-tolerant coral species. Satellite-derived estimates of Chlorophyll-a (chl-a were obtained for 13-years (2003-2015 as a proxy for primary production. Chl-a concentrations were highest at highTP sites, medial at modTP sites, and lowest at lowTP sites. Notably, thermal parameters correlated better with coral community traits between site types than productivity, suggesting that temperature (specifically number of days above the thermal bleaching threshold played a greater role in defining coral community structure than productivity on the MBRS. Dominance of weedy and stress-tolerant genera at highTP sites suggests that corals

  15. On axial temperature gradients due to large pressure drops in dense fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, Sam O; Berger, Terry A

    2015-03-13

    The effect of energy degradation (Degradation is the creation of net entropy resulting from irreversibility.) accompanying pressure drops across chromatographic columns is examined with regard to explaining axial temperature gradients in both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The observed effects of warming and cooling can be explained equally well in the language of thermodynamics or fluid dynamics. The necessary equivalence of these treatments is reviewed here to show the legitimacy of using whichever one supports the simpler determination of features of interest. The determination of temperature profiles in columns by direct application of the laws of thermodynamics is somewhat simpler than applying them indirectly by solving the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Both disciplines show that the preferred strategy for minimizing the reduction in peak quality caused by temperature gradients is to operate columns as nearly adiabatically as possible (i.e. as Joule-Thomson expansions). This useful fact, however, is not widely familiar or appreciated in the chromatography community due to some misunderstanding of the meaning of certain terms and expressions used in these disciplines. In fluid dynamics, the terms "resistive heating" or "frictional heating" have been widely used as synonyms for the dissipation function, Φ, in the NS energy equation. These terms have been widely used by chromatographers as well, but often misinterpreted as due to friction between the mobile phase and the column packing, when in fact Φ describes the increase in entropy of the system (dissipation, ∫TdSuniv>0) due to the irreversible decompression of the mobile phase. Two distinctly different contributions to the irreversibility are identified; (1) ΔSext, viscous dissipation of work done by the external surroundings driving the flow (the pump) contributing to its warming, and (2) ΔSint, entropy change accompanying decompression of

  16. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  17. Transport through dissipative trapped electron mode and toroidal ion temperature gradient mode in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.; Hasselberg, G.; Waelbroeck, F.; Weiland, J.

    1987-12-01

    A self-consistent transport code is used to evaluate how plasma confinement in tokamaks is influenced by the microturbulent fields which are excited by the dissipative trapped electron (DTE) instability. As shown previously, the saturation theory on which the code is based has been developed from first principles. The toroidal coupling resulting from the ion magnetic drifts is neglected; arguments are presented to justify this approximation. The numerical results reproduce well the neo-Alcator scaling law observed experimentally - e.g. in TEXTOR - in non detached ohmic discharges, the confinement degradation which results when auxiliary heating is applied, as well as a large number of other experimental observations. We also assess the possible impact of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode on energy confinement by estimating the ion thermal flux with the help of the mixing length approximation. (orig./GG)

  18. Generation of transverse waves in a liquid layer with insoluble surfactant subjected to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikishev, Alexander B; Friedman, Barry A [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A, E-mail: amik@shsu.edu, E-mail: phy_baf@shsu.edu, E-mail: nepom@technion.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    The formation of Faraday waves (FWs) at the surfactant-covered free surface of a vertically vibrated liquid layer is considered. The layer is subjected to a vertical temperature gradient. The surfactant is insoluble. Linear stability analysis and the Floquet method are used for disturbances with arbitrary wave numbers to find the regions of critical vibration amplitude where FWs are generated. The problem is considered for the semi-infinite liquid layer, as well as for the layer of a finite depth. It is shown numerically, that in the semi-infinite case the critical tongue of a neutral stability curve corresponding to the lowest value of the forcing amplitude is related to the subharmonic instability mode. It changes to the harmonic one in the case of finite depth. The influence of thermocapillary Marangoni number on the critical amplitude of FWs is studied. The growth of that number stabilizes the system, however, this effect is very weak. (paper)

  19. Electron-temperature-gradient-driven drift waves and anomalous electron energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Murtaza, G.; Weiland, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a kinetic description for ions and Braginskii's fluid model for electrons, three coupled nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the presence of equilibrium density temperature and magnetic-field gradients in a two-component magnetized plasma are derived. In the linear limit a dispersion relation that admits new instabilities of drift waves is presented. An estimate of the anomalous electron energy transport due to non-thermal drift waves is obtained by making use of the saturated wave potential, which is deduced from the mixing-length hypothesis. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations governing the interaction of linearly unstable drift waves are also presented. The relevance of this investigation to wave phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out. (author)

  20. Global characteristics of zonal flows generated by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyato, Naoaki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, Jiquan

    2004-08-01

    Global structure of zonal flows driven by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a global electromagnetic Landau fluid code. Characteristics of the coupled system of the zonal flows and the turbulence change with the safety factor q. In a low q region stationary zonal flows are excited and suppress the turbulence effectively. Coupling between zonal flows and poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations via a geodesic curvature makes the zonal flows oscillatory in a high q region. Also we identify energy transfer from the zonal flows to the turbulence via the poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations in the high q region. Therefore in the high q region the zonal flows cannot quench the turbulent transport completely. (author)

  1. TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE AND THE ORIGIN OF CUTOFF FREQUENCY FOR TORSIONAL TUBE WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, S.; Musielak, Z. E.; Hammer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental modes supported by a thin magnetic flux tube embedded in the solar atmosphere are typically classified as longitudinal, transverse, and torsional waves. If the tube is isothermal, then the propagation of longitudinal and transverse tube waves is restricted to frequencies that are higher than the corresponding global cutoff frequency for each wave. However, no such global cutoff frequency exists for torsional tube waves, which means that a thin and isothermal flux tube supports torsional tube waves of any frequency. In this paper, we consider a thin and non-isothermal magnetic flux tube and demonstrate that temperature gradients inside this tube are responsible for the origin of a cutoff frequency for torsional tube waves. The cutoff frequency is used to determine conditions for the wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, and the obtained results are compared to the recent observational data that support the existence of torsional tube waves in the Sun.

  2. Constitutive relationships for ocean sediments subjected to stress and temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, T.G.; Banerjee, P.K.

    1980-08-01

    The disposal of low-level nuclear wastes by burial in deep sea sediments is an option currently being considered. This report lays the groundwork for an investigation of the stability of canisters containing nuclear wastes against movement due to fluidisation of the surrounding sediments, where such fluidisation may result from thermally induced stresses. The requisite constitutive relationships for ocean sediments under stress and temperature gradients are derived from the theory of critical state soil mechanics. A parametric survey has been made of the behaviour of an element of soil in order to assess various models and the importance of the governing parameters, The formulation of a finite element algorithm is given for the solution of the sediment stability problem. (author)

  3. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakir, U.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of non-Maxwellian distributed ions on electron temperature gradient mode is investigated. The linear dispersion relation of η{sub e}−mode is obtained which shows that the behavior of this mode changes in the presence of superthermal ions. The growth rate of η{sub e}−mode driven linear instability is found and is observed to modify due to nonthermal ions. However, it is found that this leaves the electron energy transport coefficient unchanged. In the nonlinear regime, a dipolar vortex solution is derived which indicates that the dynamic behavior of the vortices changes with the inclusion of kappa distributed ions. The importance of present study with respect to space and laboratory plasmas is also pointed out.

  4. Calculation of forces acting on an impurity in a metal subjected to a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerl, M.

    1966-01-01

    In a metal subject to a temperature gradient, an impurity is submitted to both an electrostatic force due to the thermoelectric field and a force due to the scattering of electrons and phonons by this point defect. The scattering of the electrons is treated using a semi-classical approach and a quantum mechanical method. The numerical computation for several impurities in Cu, Ag, and Au requires the knowledge of the resistivity cross-section. and of the thermoelectric power of the impurity in the metal. A tentative estimation of the force due to the phonon-scattering is given for the self-diffusion in Cu. However, the approximations of this calculation do not allow a good comparison with the force due to the electrons. (author) [fr

  5. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.

  6. Gyrokinetic analysis of ion temperature gradient modes in the presence of sheared flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    The linearized gyrokinetic equation governing electrostatic microinstabilities in the presence of sheared equilibrium flow in both the z and y directions has been systematically derived for a sheared slab geometry, where in the large aspect ratio limit z and y directions correspond to the toroidal and poloidal directions respectively. In the familiar long perpendicular wavelength regime (κ perpendicular ρi > 1), the analysis leads to a comprehensive kinetic differential eigenmode equation which is solved numerically. The numerical results have been successfully cross-checked against analytic estimates in the fluid limit. For typical conditions, the Ion Temperature Gradient (ηi) modes are found to be stabilized for y-direction flows with a velocity shear scale comparable to that of the ion temperature gradient and velocities of a few percent of the sound speed. Sheared flows in the z-direction taken along are usually destabilizing, with the effect being independent of the sign of the flow. However, when both types are simultaneously considered, it is found that in the presence of shared z-direction flow, sheared y-direction flow can be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the relative sign of these flows. However, for sufficiently large values of υ' y the mode is completely stabilized regardless of the sign of υ' z υ' y . The importance of a proper kinetic treatment of this problem is supported by comparisons with fluid estimates. In particular, when such effects are favorable, significantly smaller values of sheared y-direction flow are required for stability than fluid estimates would indicate

  7. Migration of ThO2 kernels under the influence of a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.L.

    1976-11-01

    BISO coated ThO 2 fertile fuel kernels will migrate up the thermal gradients imposed across coated particles during HTGR operation. Thorium dioxide kernel migration has been studied as a function of temperature (1300 to 1700 0 C) and ThO 2 kernel burnup (0.9 to 5.8 percent FIMA) in out-of-pile, postirradiation thermal gradient heating experiments. The studies were conducted to obtain descriptions of migration rates that will be used in core design studies to evaluate the impact of ThO 2 migration on fertile fuel performance in an operating HTGR and to define characteristics needed by any comprehensive model describing ThO 2 kernel migration. The kinetics data generated in these postirradiation studies are consistent with in-pile data collected by investigators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which supports use of the more precise postirradiation heating results in HTGR core design studies. Observations of intergranular carbon deposits on the cool side of migrating kernels support the assumption that the kinetics of kernel migration are controlled by solid state diffusion within irradiated ThO 2 kernels. The migration is characterized by a period of no migration (incubation period) followed by migration at the equilibrium rate for ThO 2 . The incubation period decreases with increasing temperature and kernel burnup. The improved understanding of the kinetics of ThO 2 kernel migration provided by this work will contribute to an optimization of HTGR core design and an increased confidence in fuel performance predictions

  8. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Near-field radiative heat transfer under temperature gradients and conductive transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Weiliang; Rodriguez, Alejandro W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Messina, Riccardo [CNRS-Univ. de Montpellier (France). Lab. Charles Coulomb

    2017-05-01

    We describe a recently developed formulation of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) between objects separated by nanometric, vacuum gaps. Our results rely on analytical formulas of RHT between planar slabs (based on the scattering-matrix method) as well as a general formulation of RHT between arbitrarily shaped bodies (based on the fluctuating-volume current method), which fully captures the existence of temperature inhomogeneities. In particular, the impact of RHT on conduction, and vice versa, is obtained via self-consistent solutions of the Fourier heat equation and Maxwell's equations. We show that in materials with low thermal conductivities (e.g. zinc oxides and glasses), the interplay of conduction and RHT can strongly modify heat exchange, exemplified for instance by the presence of large temperature gradients and saturating flux rates at short (nanometric) distances. More generally, we show that the ability to tailor the temperature distribution of an object can modify the behaviour of RHT with respect to gap separations, e.g. qualitatively changing the asymptotic scaling at short separations from quadratic to linear or logarithmic. Our results could be relevant to the interpretation of both past and future experimental measurements of RHT at nanometric distances.

  10. A self-organized criticality model for ion temperature gradient mode driven turbulence in confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Strintzi, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2010-08-01

    A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R /LT is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  11. A self-organized criticality model for ion temperature gradient mode driven turbulence in confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Vlahos, L.; Strintzi, D.

    2010-01-01

    A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R/L T is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  12. Finite-temperature stress calculations in atomic models using moments of position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Ouyang, Lizhi

    2018-07-01

    Continuum modeling of finite temperature mechanical behavior of atomic systems requires refined description of atomic motions. In this paper, we identify additional kinematical quantities that are relevant for a more accurate continuum description as the system is subjected to step-wise loading. The presented formalism avoids the necessity for atomic trajectory mapping with deformation, provides the definitions of the kinematic variables and their conjugates in real space, and simplifies local work conjugacy. The total work done on an atom under deformation is decomposed into the work corresponding to changing its equilibrium position and work corresponding to changing its second moment about equilibrium position. Correspondingly, we define two kinematic variables: a deformation gradient tensor and a vibration tensor, and derive their stress conjugates, termed here as static and vibration stresses, respectively. The proposed approach is validated using MD simulation in NVT ensembles for fcc aluminum subjected to uniaxial extension. The observed evolution of second moments in the MD simulation with macroscopic deformation is not directly related to the transformation of atomic trajectories through the deformation gradient using generator functions. However, it is noteworthy that deformation leads to a change in the second moment of the trajectories. Correspondingly, the vibration part of the Piola stress becomes particularly significant at high temperature and high tensile strain as the crystal approaches the softening limit. In contrast to the eigenvectors of the deformation gradient, the eigenvectors of the vibration tensor show strong spatial heterogeneity in the vicinity of softening. More importantly, the elliptic distribution of local atomic density transitions to a dumbbell shape, before significant non-affinity in equilibrium positions has occurred.

  13. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; Ghiorso, M S

    2012-07-24

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO(2)), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO(2) that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called "ΔIW (ratio)" hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO(2) + O(2) = Fe(2)SiO(4) to calculate absolute fO(2) and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO(2) in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO(2) may evolve from high to low fO(2) during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any

  14. Insect temperature-body size trends common to laboratory, latitudinal and seasonal gradients are not found across altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2018-01-01

    Body size affects rates of most biological and ecological processes, from individual performance to ecosystem function, and is fundamentally linked to organism fitness. Within species, size at maturity can vary systematically with environmental temperature in the laboratory and across seasons...... altitude. Although the general direction of body size clines along altitudinal gradients has been examined previously, to our knowledge altitude-body size (A-S) clines have never been synthesised quantitatively, nor compared with temperature-size (T-S) responses measured under controlled laboratory......, as well as over latitudinal gradients. Recent meta-analyses have revealed a close match in the magnitude and direction of these size gradients in various arthropod orders, suggesting that these size responses share common drivers. As with increasing latitude, temperature also decreases with increasing...

  15. Relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth in geothermal fields

    OpenAIRE

    江原, 幸雄

    2009-01-01

    Shallow ground temperatures such as 1m depth temperature have been measured to delineate thermal anomalies of geothermal fields and also to estimate heat discharge rates from geothermal fields. As a result, a close linear relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth has been recognized in many geothermal fields and was used to estimate conductive heat discharge rates. However, such a linear relation may show that the shallow thermal regime in geothermal ...

  16. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 2. Laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Acosta, J Leonardo; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy; Lubczynski, Maciek W

    2012-07-01

    Sap flow measurements conducted with thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are vulnerable to natural temperature gradient (NTG) bias. Few studies, however, attempted to explain the dynamics underlying the NTG formation and its influence on the sensors' signal. This study focused on understanding how the TDP signals are affected by negative and positive temperature influences from NTG and tested the novel cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) method to filter out the NTG bias. A series of three experiments were performed in which gravity-driven water flow was enforced on freshly cut stem segments of Fagus sylvatica L., while an artificial temperature gradient (ATG) was induced. The first experiment sought to confirm the incidence of the ATG on sensors. The second experiment established the mis-estimations caused by the biasing effect of the ATG on standard TDP measurements. The third experiment tested the accuracy of the CHD method to account for the ATG biasing effect, as compared with other cyclic correction methods. During experiments, sap flow measured by TDP was assessed against gravimetric measurements. The results show that negative and positive ATGs were comparable in pattern but substantially larger than field NTGs. Second, the ATG bias caused an overestimation of the standard TDP sap flux density of ∼17 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by 76%, and the sap flux density of ∼2 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by over 800%. Finally, the proposed CHD method successfully reduced the max. ATG bias to 25% at ∼11 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) and to 40% at ∼1 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1). We concluded that: (i) the TDP method is susceptible to NTG especially at low flows; (ii) the CHD method successfully corrected the TDP signal and resulted in generally more accurate sap flux density estimates (mean absolute percentage error ranging between 11 and 21%) than standard constant power TDP method and other cyclic power methods; and (iii) the ATG enforcing system is a suitable way of re-creating NTG for future tests.

  17. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-01

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers (14C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  18. Effect of temperature gradient and crystallization rate on morphological peculiarities of cellular-dendrite structure in iron-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralina, A.A.; Vorontsov, V.B.

    1977-01-01

    Cellular and dendritic structure of Fe-Ni single crystals (31 and 45 wt%Ni) grown according to Bridgeman have been studied by metallography. Growth rates at which the crystallization frontier becomes unstable and splits into cells have been determined for three temperature gradients. The transition from cells to dendrites occurs gradually through the changes in the cells regular structure and formation of secondary and tertiary branches. The dependence of cell diameter and distance between dendrites on crystallization rate and temperature gradient are discussed in terms of the admixture substructures development according to the schedule: cells - cellular dendrites - dendrites

  19. Mean Annual Temperature Drives Microbial Nitrogen Cycling and Fine Root Nutrient Foraging Across a Tropical Montane Wet Forest Elevation Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, S.; Litton, C. L. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.; Groffman, P. M.; Hewson, I.; Fahey, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mean annual temperature (MAT) is positively correlated with rates of primary production and carbon (C) turnover in forests globally, but the underlying biotic drivers of these relationships remain poorly resolved. We hypothesized that (1) MAT increases nitrifier abundance and thereby nitrate (NO-) bioavailability in soils and (2) increased NO- bioavailability reduces fine root nitrogen (N) demand. We used an ecologically well-constrained natural elevation gradient (13˚C -18˚C) in a tropical wet motane forest on the Island of Hawaii to study to role of MAT in situ. Our previous work showed that MAT drives increased soil NO- bioavailability in situ (r²=0.79, P=0.003), and indicated that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea is strongly and positively correlated with MAT in situ (r²=0.34, Preduce fine root foraging effort. Further, higher MAT and greater N fertility in soils may reduce the C limitation of AM fungal colonization. We conclude that MAT drives N-rich conditions, which allow for lower N foraging effort, but greater C investment in P acquisition through AM fine root colonization.

  20. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Airi

    Full Text Available Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  1. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  2. Empirically Derived and Simulated Sensitivity of Vegetation to Climate Across Global Gradients of Temperature and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetin, G. R.; Swann, A. L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Successfully predicting the state of vegetation in a novel environment is dependent on our process level understanding of the ecosystem and its interactions with the environment. We derive a global empirical map of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate using the response of satellite-observed greenness and leaf area to interannual variations in temperature and precipitation. Our analysis provides observations of ecosystem functioning; the vegetation interactions with the physical environment, across a wide range of climates and provide a functional constraint for hypotheses engendered in process-based models. We infer mechanisms constraining ecosystem functioning by contrasting how the observed and simulated sensitivity of vegetation to climate varies across climate space. Our analysis yields empirical evidence for multiple physical and biological mediators of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate as a systematic change across climate space. Our comparison of remote sensing-based vegetation sensitivity with modeled estimates provides evidence for which physiological mechanisms - photosynthetic efficiency, respiration, water supply, atmospheric water demand, and sunlight availability - dominate the ecosystem functioning in places with different climates. Earth system models are generally successful in reproducing the broad sign and shape of ecosystem functioning across climate space. However, this general agreement breaks down in hot wet climates where models simulate less leaf area during a warmer year, while observations show a mixed response but overall more leaf area during warmer years. In addition, simulated ecosystem interaction with temperature is generally larger and changes more rapidly across a gradient of temperature than is observed. We hypothesize that the amplified interaction and change are both due to a lack of adaptation and acclimation in simulations. This discrepancy with observations suggests that simulated responses of vegetation to

  3. An investigation of the flow dependence of temperature gradients near large vessels during steady state and transient tissue heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolios, M.C.; Worthington, A.E.; Hunt, J.W.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Sherar, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Temperature distributions measured during thermal therapy are a major prognostic factor of the efficacy and success of the procedure. Thermal models are used to predict the temperature elevation of tissues during heating. Theoretical work has shown that blood flow through large blood vessels plays an important role in determining temperature profiles of heated tissues. In this paper, an experimental investigation of the effects of large vessels on the temperature distribution of heated tissue is performed. The blood flow dependence of steady state and transient temperature profiles created by a cylindrical conductive heat source and an ultrasound transducer were examined using a fixed porcine kidney as a flow model. In the transient experiments, a 20 s pulse of hot water, 30 deg. C above ambient, heated the tissues. Temperatures were measured at selected locations in steps of 0.1 mm. It was observed that vessels could either heat or cool tissues depending on the orientation of the vascular geometry with respect to the heat source and that these effects are a function of flow rate through the vessels. Temperature gradients of 6 deg. C mm -1 close to large vessels were routinely measured. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature gradients caused by large vessels depended on whether the heating source was highly localized (i.e. a hot needle) or more distributed (i.e. external ultrasound). The gradients measured near large vessels during localized heating were between two and three times greater than the gradients measured during ultrasound heating at the same location, for comparable flows. Moreover, these gradients were more sensitive to flow variations for the localized needle heating. X-ray computed tomography data of the kidney vasculature were in good spatial agreement with the locations of all of the temperature variations measured. The three-dimensional vessel path observed could account for the complex features of the temperature profiles. The flow

  4. Effect of electric field and temperature gradient on orientational dynamics of nematics encapsulated in a hallow cylindrical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. V.; Maslennikov, P. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have considered a homogeneously oriented liquid crystal (HOLC) microvolume, confined between two infinitely long horizontal coaxial cylinders subjected to both a temperature gradient ∇T and a radially applied electric field E . We have investigated dynamic field pumping, i.e. studied the interactions between director, velocity, electric fields, as well as a radially applied temperature gradient, where the inner cylinder is kept at a lower temperature than the outer one. In order to elucidate the role of ∇T and E in producing hydrodynamic flow, we have carried out a numerical study of a system of hydrodynamic equations including director reorientation, fluid flow, and temperature redistribution across the HOLC cavity. Calculations show that, under the effect of the named perturbations and at high curvature of the inner cylinder, the HOLC microvolume settles down to a nonstandard pumping regime with maximum flow in the vicinity of the cooler inner cylinder.

  5. Temperature Gradient Effect on Gas Discrimination Power of a Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Sensor Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Goschnick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper presents results concerning the effect of spatial inhomogeneous operating temperature on the gas discrimination power of a gas-sensor microarray, with the latter based on a thin SnO2 film employed in the KAMINA electronic nose. Three different temperature distributions over the substrate are discussed: a nearly homogeneous one and two temperature gradients, equal to approx. 3.3 oC/mm and 6.7 oC/mm, applied across the sensor elements (segments of the array. The gas discrimination power of the microarray is judged by using the Mahalanobis distance in the LDA (Linear Discrimination Analysis coordinate system between the data clusters obtained by the response of the microarray to four target vapors: ethanol, acetone, propanol and ammonia. It is shown that the application of a temperature gradient increases the gas discrimination power of the microarray by up to 35 %.

  6. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of n-6 DPA and DHA from -100 C to 20°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of DHA in fast signal processing tissues. N-6 DPA, with just one less diene, group, is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman sp...

  7. Sea surface temperature control of taxon specific phytoplankton production along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.V.; Boute, P.G.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.; Kulk, G.; Rijkenberg, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess changes in phytoplankton composition and productivity along an oligotrophic gradient in relation to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). Phytoplankton pigments, nutrients, and physical water column properties were studied along a longitudinal transect in the

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qibin; Peng, Xianghe; Peng, Tiefeng; Tang, Qizhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  9. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  10. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  11. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-08-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  12. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.; Coppi, B.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity χ i have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode (η i mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal η i mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal η i mode, and that the observed reduction of χ i (r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the χ i . It is shown the new formula fits well the observed χ i (r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula

  13. Gyrokinetic global analysis of ion temperature gradient driven mode in reversed shear tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Y.; Tokuda, S.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A new toroidal gyrokinetic particle code has been developed to study the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence in reactor relevant tokamak parameters. We use a new method based on a canonical Maxwellian distribution F CM (P φ , ε, μ), which is defined by three constants of motion in the axisymmetric toroidal system, the canonical angular momentum P φ , the energy ε, and the magnetic moment μ. A quasi-ballooning representation enables linear and nonlinear high-m,n global calculations with a good numerical convergence. Conservation properties are improved by using the optimized loading method. From comprehensive linear global analyses over a wide range of an unstable toroidal mode number spectrum (n=0∼100) in large tokamak parameters (a/ρ ti =320∼460), properties of the ITG modes in reversed shear tokamaks are discussed. In the nonlinear simulation, it is found that a new method based on F CM can simulate a zonal flow damping correctly, and spurious zonal flow oscillations, which are observed in a conventional method based on a local Maxwellian distribution F LM (ψ, ε, μ), do not appear in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qibin, E-mail: qibinli@cqu.edu.cn [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Xianghe [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Tiefeng, E-mail: pengtiefeng@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tang, Qizhong [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang, Cheng [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  15. Effects of parallel dynamics on vortex structures in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    2011-01-01

    Vortex structures and related heat transport properties in slab electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are comprehensively investigated by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations, with the aim of elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms of the transition from turbulent to coherent states. Numerical results show three different types of vortex structures, i.e., coherent vortex streets accompanied with the transport reduction, turbulent vortices with steady transport, and a zonal-flow-dominated state, depending on the relative magnitude of the parallel compression to the diamagnetic drift. In particular, the formation of coherent vortex streets is correlated with the strong generation of zonal flows for the cases with weak parallel compression, even though the maximum growth rate of linear ETG modes is relatively large. The zonal flow generation in the ETG turbulence is investigated by the modulational instability analysis with a truncated fluid model, where the parallel dynamics such as acoustic modes for electrons is incorporated. The modulational instability for zonal flows is found to be stabilized by the effect of the finite parallel compression. The theoretical analysis qualitatively agrees with secondary growth of zonal flows found in the slab ETG turbulence simulations, where the transition of vortex structures is observed.

  16. Bioinspired large-scale aligned porous materials assembled with dual temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Chen, Yuan; Delattre, Benjamin; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-12-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, teeth, shells, and wood, exhibit outstanding properties despite being porous and made of weak constituents. Frequently, they represent a source of inspiration to design strong, tough, and lightweight materials. Although many techniques have been introduced to create such structures, a long-range order of the porosity as well as a precise control of the final architecture remain difficult to achieve. These limitations severely hinder the scale-up fabrication of layered structures aimed for larger applications. We report on a bidirectional freezing technique to successfully assemble ceramic particles into scaffolds with large-scale aligned, lamellar, porous, nacre-like structure and long-range order at the centimeter scale. This is achieved by modifying the cold finger with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wedge to control the nucleation and growth of ice crystals under dual temperature gradients. Our approach could provide an effective way of manufacturing novel bioinspired structural materials, in particular advanced materials such as composites, where a higher level of control over the structure is required.

  17. Effects of temperature gradient induced nanoparticle motion on conduction and convection of fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Leping; Peterson, George P.; Yoda, Minani; Wang Buxuan

    2012-01-01

    The role of temperature gradient induced nanoparticle motion on conduction and convection was investigated. Possible mechanisms for variations resulting from variations in the thermophysical properties are theoretically and experimentally discussed. The effect of the nanoparticle motion on conduction is demonstrated through thermal conductivity measurement of deionized water with suspended CuO nanoparticles (50 nm in diameter) and correlated with the contributions of Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, etc. The tendencies observed is that the magnitude of and the variation in the thermal conductivity increases with increasing volume fraction for a given temperature, which is due primarily to the Brownian diffusion of the nanoparticles. Using dimensional analysis, the thermal conductivity is correlated and both the interfacial thermal resistance and near-field radiation are found to be essentially negligible. A modification term that incorporates the contributions of Brownian motion and thermophoresis is proposed. The effect of nanoscale convection is illustrated through an experimental investigation that utilized fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticle tracers (200 nm in diameter) and multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry. The results indicate that both the magnitude and the deviation of the fluid motion increased with increasing heat flux in the near-wall region. Meanwhile, the fluid motion tended to decrease with the off-wall distance for a given heating power. A corresponding numerical study of convection of pure deionized water shows that the velocity along the off-wall direction is several orders of magnitude lower than that of deionized water, which indicates that Brownian motion in the near-wall region is crucial for fluid with suspended nanoparticles in convection.

  18. Biogeography of pelagic bacterioplankton across an antagonistic temperature-salinity gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2011-12-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine ecosystem with contrasting gradients of temperature and salinity along its north-to-south axis. It is an extremely oligotrophic environment that is characterized by perpetual year-round water column stratification, high annual solar irradiation, and negligible riverine and precipitation inputs. In this study, we investigated whether the contemporary environmental conditions shape community assemblages by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in surface water samples collected from the northeastern half of this water body. A combined total of 1855 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered from the \\'small-cell\\' and \\'large-cell\\' fractions. Here, a few major OTUs affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria accounted for â93% of all sequences, whereas a tail of \\'rare\\' OTUs represented most of the diversity. OTUs allied to Surface 1a/b SAR11 clades and Prochlorococcus related to the high-light-adapted (HL2) ecotype were the most widespread and predominant sequence types. Interestingly, the frequency of taxa that are typically found in the upper mesopelagic zone was significantly elevated in the northern transects compared with those in the central, presumably as a direct effect of deep convective mixing in the Gulf of Aqaba and water exchange with the northern Red Sea. Although temperature was the best predictor of species richness across all major lineages, both spatial and environmental distances correlated strongly with phylogenetic distances. Our results suggest that the bacterial diversity of the Red Sea is as high as in other tropical seas and provide evidence for fundamental differences in the biogeography of pelagic communities between the northern and central regions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Biogeography of pelagic bacterioplankton across an antagonistic temperature-salinity gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David; Antunes, Andre; Brune, Andreas; Stingl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine ecosystem with contrasting gradients of temperature and salinity along its north-to-south axis. It is an extremely oligotrophic environment that is characterized by perpetual year-round water column stratification, high annual solar irradiation, and negligible riverine and precipitation inputs. In this study, we investigated whether the contemporary environmental conditions shape community assemblages by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in surface water samples collected from the northeastern half of this water body. A combined total of 1855 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered from the 'small-cell' and 'large-cell' fractions. Here, a few major OTUs affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria accounted for â93% of all sequences, whereas a tail of 'rare' OTUs represented most of the diversity. OTUs allied to Surface 1a/b SAR11 clades and Prochlorococcus related to the high-light-adapted (HL2) ecotype were the most widespread and predominant sequence types. Interestingly, the frequency of taxa that are typically found in the upper mesopelagic zone was significantly elevated in the northern transects compared with those in the central, presumably as a direct effect of deep convective mixing in the Gulf of Aqaba and water exchange with the northern Red Sea. Although temperature was the best predictor of species richness across all major lineages, both spatial and environmental distances correlated strongly with phylogenetic distances. Our results suggest that the bacterial diversity of the Red Sea is as high as in other tropical seas and provide evidence for fundamental differences in the biogeography of pelagic communities between the northern and central regions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The impact of distance and a shifting temperature gradient on genetic connectivity across a heterogeneous landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offord Catherine A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-population distance and differences in breeding times are barriers to reproduction that can contribute to genotypic differentiation between populations. Temporal changes in environmental conditions and local selective processes can further contribute to the establishment of reproductive barriers. Telopea speciosissima (Proteaceae is an excellent subject for studying the effect of geographic, edaphic and phenological heterogeneity on genotypic differentiation because previous studies show that these factors are correlated with morphological variation. Molecular, morphological and environmental datasets were combined to characterise the relative influence of these factors on inter-population differentiation, and Bayesian analyses were used to investigate current levels of admixture between differentiated genomes. Results A landscape genetic approach involving molecular and morphological analyses identified three endpoints of differentiated population groups: coastal, upland and southern. The southern populations, isolated from the other populations by an edaphic barrier, show low migration and no evidence of admixture with other populations. Amongst the northern populations, coastal and upland populations are connected along a skewed altitudinal gradient by genetically intermediate populations. The strong association between temperature and flowering time in Telopea speciosissima was shown to maintain a temporally unstable reproductive barrier between coastal and upland populations. Conclusions Substrate-mediated allopatry appears to be responsible for long-term genetic isolation of the southern populations. However, the temperature-dependent reproductive barrier between upland and coastal populations bears the genetic signature of temporal adjustments. The extreme climatic events of the last glacial maximum are likely to have caused more complete allochronic isolation between upland and coastal populations, as well as

  1. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  2. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  3. Link between convection and meridional gradient of sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.; Joseph, P.V.

    of convection occurring without this SST gradient. Long rainfall events (events lasting more than a week) were associated with an SST event (Delta T >= 0.75 degC); rainfall events tended to be short when not associated with an SST event. The SST gradient...

  4. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine faunal diversity patterns.

  5. Microbial habitat connectivity across spatial scales and hydrothermal temperature gradients at Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eMeyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California hydrothermal vent area is known as a dynamic and hydrothermally vented sedimentary system, where the advection and production of a variety of different metabolic substrates support a high microbial diversity and activity in the seafloor. The main objective of our study was to explore the role of temperature and other environmental factors on community diversity, such as the presence of microbial mats and seafloor bathymetry within one hydrothermally vented field of 200 × 250 m dimension. In this field, temperature increased strongly with sediment depth reaching the known limit to life within a few decimeters. Potential sulfate reduction rate as a key community activity parameter was strongly affected by in situ temperature and sediment depth, declining from high rates of 1-5 μmol ml-1 d-1 at the surface to the detection limit below 5 cm sediment depth, despite the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis yielded a high-resolution fingerprint of the dominant members of the bacterial community. Our analyses showed strong temperature and sediment depth effects on bacterial cell abundance and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs number, both declining by more than one order of magnitude below the top 5 cm of the sediment surface. Another fraction of the variation in diversity and community structure was explained by differences in the local bathymetry and spatial position within the vent field. Nevertheless, more than 80% of all detected OTUs were shared among the different temperature realms and sediment depths, after being classified as cold (T<10°C, medium (10°C≤T<40°C or hot (T≥40°C temperature conditions, with significant OTU overlap with the richer surface communities. Overall, this indicates a high connectivity of benthic bacterial habitats in this dynamic and heterogeneous marine ecosystem influenced by strong hydrothermalism.

  6. Subduction factory in an ampoule: Experiments on sediment-peridotite interaction under temperature gradient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, A. B.; Bulatov, V. K.; Brey, G. P.; Girnis, A. V.; Höfer, H. E.; Gerdes, A.

    2018-02-01

    To better understand processes above subducted oceanic slabs, we have undertaken experiments with juxtaposed sediment and peridotite layers at pressures of 7.5 and 10.5 GPa at a controlled temperature gradient from ∼100 to ∼500 °C per a sample length of ∼3 mm. The sediment starting material contains H2O (6.9 wt%) and CO2 (5.9 wt%) and has a major-element composition similar to GLOSS (Plank and Langmuir, 1998) doped with trace elements at 10-100 ppm levels. Several experiments were conducted with ∼0.5 wt% Cl or F. The peridotite layer is composed of natural olivine (66 wt%), orthopyroxene (27 wt%) and garnet (7 wt%) mixed with ∼15 wt% graphite. Several experimental configurations were investigated, but the "basic" setup has the sediment layer at the bottom in the cold zone (400-1200 °C) overlain by peridotite at 900-1500 °C. The temperature distribution was determined by two thermocouples and orthopyroxene-garnet thermometry. Features common to many experiments are (1) the development of multiple layers of various lithologies and a pool of hydrous silicate or carbonate-silicate melt in the hottest part of the capsule; (2) replacement of olivine by orthopyroxene in the metaperidotite; (3) preservation and growth of garnet and local development of magnesite in the metaperidotite layer; (4) enrichment in garnet within the metasediment layer at the contact with the metaperidotite; (5) formation of a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage at the bottom (the coldest part); (6) presence of K-bearing phases (phlogopite or phengite) and carbonates in the metasediment layer only at temperatures Ca are largely retained in the coldest part of the metasediment layer in clinopyroxene, Ca-rich garnet and aragonite. The melt is a product of interaction between partial melt or fluid from the sediment and peridotite. It has a silico-carbonatite composition with variable SiO2, MgO, FeO and CaO contents and low Al2O3. The addition of Cl has almost no effect on element

  7. Crustal temperature structure derived from a ground temperature gradient chart of Hokkaido; Hokkaido no chion kobaizu kara motometa chikakunai ondo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Akita, F. [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan); Nagumo, S. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The Hokkaido Underground Resources Investigation Institute has prepared in 1995 a detailed temperature gradient chart that shows local anomalies around volcanoes. This paper describes an attempt to derive crustal temperature structure of Hokkaido from the above data. The model was hypothesized as a primary model in which no thermal convection exists. In volcanic and geothermal areas which show a temperature gradient of more than 100 {degree}C km {sup -1}, a solidus temperature is reached at a depth shallower than 10 km. Below the volcanic chain forming the Chishima arc, a partially melted region exists in a width of about 100 km. Most of the areas in the southern Hokkaido have the temperature reached the solidus temperature in the crust. On the other hand, in most of the areas of the forefront side, no solidus temperature is reached in the crust. In the temperature structure of a cross section crossing almost orthogonally with the volcanic front passing through Mt. Daisetsu, a high temperature area reaches to a shallow portion beneath Mt. Daisetsu, where the depth at which the solidus temperature is reached is 10 km or shallower. The range of area where the solidus depth is shallower than 10 km has a south-west width of about 40 km. This means that a partially melted area with a size of 40 km in the horizontal direction exists at a depth of several kilometers. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana; Orešković, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  9. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Klarica

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  10. Nanoscale steady-state temperature gradients within polymer nanocomposites undergoing continuous-wave photothermal heating from gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph B; Clarke, Laura I; Bochinski, Jason R

    2017-08-17

    Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt. Average temperatures across the entire (mostly solid) sample (referred to as the global temperature) are simultaneously observed using a fluorescence method from randomly dispersed molecular emitters. Comparing these two independent measurements in films having varying concentrations of nanorods reveals the interplay between the local and global temperatures, clearly demonstrating the capability of these material samples to sustain large steady-state spatial temperature gradients when experiencing continuous-wave excitation photothermal heating. These results are discussed quantitatively. Illustrative imaging studies of nanofibers under photothermal heating also support the presence of a large temperature gradient. Photothermal heating in this manner has potential utility in creating unique thermal processing conditions for outcomes such as driving chemical reactions, inducing crystallinity changes, or enhancing degradation processes in a manner unachievable by conventional heating methods.

  11. Rapid temperature increase near the anode and cathode in the afterglow of a pulsed positive streamer discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo

    2018-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature in the afterglow of point-to-plane, pulsed positive streamer discharge was measured near the anode tip and cathode surface using laser-induced predissociation fluorescence of OH radicals. The temperature exhibited a rapid increase and displayed a steep spatial gradient after a discharge pulse. The rate of temperature rise reached 84 K μs‑1 at mm, where z represents the distance from the anode tip. The temperature rise was much faster than in the middle of the gap; it was only 2.8 K μs‑1 at mm. The temperature reached 1700 K near the anode tip at s and 1500 K near the cathode surface at s, where t represents the postdischarge time. The spatial gradient reached 1280 K mm‑1 near the anode tip at s. The mechanism responsible for the rapid temperature increase was discussed, including rapid heating of the gas in the early postdischarge phase (s), and vibration-to-translation energy transfer in the later postdischarge phase (s). The high temperatures near the anode tip and cathode surface are particularly important for the ignition of combustible mixtures and for surface treatments, including solid-surface treatments, water treatments, and plasma medicine using pulsed streamer discharges.

  12. Gradients in Depressive Symptoms by Socioeconomic Position Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the EXPLORE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Basia; Marshall, Brandon D L; Shoveller, Jean A; Chesney, Margaret A; Coates, Thomas J; Koblin, Beryl; Mayer, Kenneth; Mimiaga, Matthew; Operario, Don

    2016-08-01

    This study examines gradients in depressive symptoms by socioeconomic position (SEP; i.e., income, education, employment) in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were used from EXPLORE, a randomized, controlled behavioral HIV prevention trial for HIV-uninfected MSM in six U.S. cities (n = 4,277). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (short form). Multiple linear regressions were fitted with interaction terms to assess additive and multiplicative relationships between SEP and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were more prevalent among MSM with lower income, lower educational attainment, and those in the unemployed/other employment category. Income, education, and employment made significant contributions in additive models after adjustment. The employment-income interaction was statistically significant, indicating a multiplicative effect. This study revealed gradients in depressive symptoms across SEP of MSM, pointing to income and employment status and, to a lesser extent, education as key factors for understanding heterogeneity of depressive symptoms.

  13. Contact angle hysteresis and motion behaviors of a water nano-droplet on suspended graphene under temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Fatemi, S. Mahmood; Esmaeilian, Farshad; Fadaei Naeini, Vahid; Baniassadi, Majid

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the effect of temperature gradient on the behavior of a water nano-droplet resting on a suspended graphene was studied based on a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The acquired results indicate that the applied temperature gradient to the suspended graphene drives the water nano-droplet to the colder region. The droplet accelerates its motion toward the cold reservoir as the temperature gradient is increased. In addition to the translational motion of the nano-droplet, the vortical motion of the water molecules was also observed. Contact angle analysis was also utilized to describe the directional motion of the nano-droplet. The translational motion of the droplet leads to the estimation of contact angle hysteresis through advancing and receding contact angles while the rotational motion resulted in the advancing and receding fronts being switched with one another through the simulation. The average displacement vector of the water molecules shows that parts of the droplet seem to stagnate while other parts rotate around them. The reason behind this particular behavior was studied based on interaction energy contours between a water molecule and the suspended graphene. The obtained data indicate that the rotational motion is in agreement with the migration of the water molecules to low interaction energy regions in order to avoid high interaction energy areas.

  14. Behaviour of a pre-stressed concrete pressure-vessel subjected to a high temperature gradient; Comportement d'un caisson en beton precontraint soumis a un gradient de temperature eleve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bonvalet, Ch; Dawance, G; Marechal, J C [Centre Experimental de Recherches et d' Etudes du Batiment et des Travaux Publics (CEBTP), 76 - Harfleur (France)

    1965-07-01

    After a review of the problems presented by pressure-vessels for atomic reactors (shape of the vessel, pressures, openings, foundations, etc.) the advantages of pre-stressed concrete vessels with respect to steel ones are given. The use of pre-stressed concrete vessels however presents many difficulties connected with the properties of concrete. Thus, because of the absence of an exact knowledge of the material, it is necessary to place a sealed layer of steel against the concrete, to have a thermal insulator or a cooling circuit for limiting the deformations and stresses, etc. It follows that the study of the behaviour of pre-stressed concrete and of the vessel subjected- to a high temperature gradient can yield useful information. A one-tenth scale model of a pre-stressed concrete cylindrical vessel without any side openings and without a base has been built. Before giving a description of the tests the authors consider some theoretical aspects concerning 'scale model-actual structure' similitude conditions and the calculation of the thermal and mechanical effects. The pre-stressed concrete model was heated internally by a 'pyrotenax' element and cooled externally by a very strong air current. The concrete was pre-stressed using horizontal and vertical cables held at 80 kg/cm{sup 2}; the thermal gradient was 160 deg. C. During the various tests, measurements were made of the overall and local deformations, the changes in water content, the elasticity modulus, the stress and creep of the cables and the depths of the cracks. The overall deformations observed are in line with thermal deformation theories and the creep of the cables attained 20 to 30 per cent according to their position relative to the internal surface. The dynamic elasticity modulus decreased by half but the concrete keeps its good mechanical properties. Finally, cracks 8 to 12 cm deep and 2 to 3 mms wide appeared in that part of the concrete which was not pre-stressed. The results obtained make it

  15. Behaviour of a pre-stressed concrete pressure-vessel subjected to a high temperature gradient; Comportement d'un caisson en beton precontraint soumis a un gradient de temperature eleve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bonvalet, Ch.; Dawance, G.; Marechal, J.C. [Centre Experimental de Recherches et d' Etudes du Batiment et des Travaux Publics (CEBTP), 76 - Harfleur (France)

    1965-07-01

    After a review of the problems presented by pressure-vessels for atomic reactors (shape of the vessel, pressures, openings, foundations, etc.) the advantages of pre-stressed concrete vessels with respect to steel ones are given. The use of pre-stressed concrete vessels however presents many difficulties connected with the properties of concrete. Thus, because of the absence of an exact knowledge of the material, it is necessary to place a sealed layer of steel against the concrete, to have a thermal insulator or a cooling circuit for limiting the deformations and stresses, etc. It follows that the study of the behaviour of pre-stressed concrete and of the vessel subjected- to a high temperature gradient can yield useful information. A one-tenth scale model of a pre-stressed concrete cylindrical vessel without any side openings and without a base has been built. Before giving a description of the tests the authors consider some theoretical aspects concerning 'scale model-actual structure' similitude conditions and the calculation of the thermal and mechanical effects. The pre-stressed concrete model was heated internally by a 'pyrotenax' element and cooled externally by a very strong air current. The concrete was pre-stressed using horizontal and vertical cables held at 80 kg/cm{sup 2}; the thermal gradient was 160 deg. C. During the various tests, measurements were made of the overall and local deformations, the changes in water content, the elasticity modulus, the stress and creep of the cables and the depths of the cracks. The overall deformations observed are in line with thermal deformation theories and the creep of the cables attained 20 to 30 per cent according to their position relative to the internal surface. The dynamic elasticity modulus decreased by half but the concrete keeps its good mechanical properties. Finally, cracks 8 to 12 cm deep and 2 to 3 mms wide appeared in that part of the concrete which was not pre-stressed. The

  16. Base flow-driven shifts in tropical stream temperature regimes across a mean annual rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayron M. Strauch; Richard A. MacKenzie; Ralph W. Tingley

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect air temperature and watershed hydrology, but the degree to which these concurrent changes affect stream temperature is not well documented in the tropics. How stream temperature varies over time under changing hydrologic conditions is difficult to isolate from seasonal changes in air temperature. Groundwater and bank storage...

  17. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  18. Growth and demography of the solitary scleractinian coral Leptopsammia pruvoti along a sea surface temperature gradient in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Caroselli

    Full Text Available The demographic traits of the solitary azooxanthellate scleractinian Leptopsammia pruvoti were determined in six populations on a sea surface temperature (SST gradient along the western Italian coasts. This is the first investigation of the growth and demography characteristics of an azooxanthellate scleractinian along a natural SST gradient. Growth rate was homogeneous across all populations, which spanned 7 degrees of latitude. Population age structures differed between populations, but none of the considered demographic parameters correlated with SST, indicating possible effects of local environmental conditions. Compared to another Mediterranean solitary scleractinian, Balanophyllia europaea, zooxanthellate and whose growth, demography and calcification have been studied in the same sites, L. pruvoti seems more tolerant to temperature increase. The higher tolerance of L. pruvoti, relative to B. europaea, may rely on the absence of symbionts, and thus the lack of an inhibition of host physiological processes by the heat-stressed zooxanthellae. However, the comparison between the two species must be taken cautiously, due to the likely temperature differences between the two sampling depths. Increasing research effort on determining the effects of temperature on the poorly studied azooxanthellate scleractinians may shed light on the possible species assemblage shifts that are likely to occur during the current century as a consequence of global climatic change.

  19. Impact of the temperature gradient between twin inclined jets and an oncoming crossflow on their resulting heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhouane, Amina; Mahjoub, Nejla; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, George; Bournot, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the interaction of twin inclined jets in crossflow. The consideration of this particular configuration is of great interest due to its wide presence in various domains and applications and to its dependence in many parameters. These parameters may be geometric like the jets height, the jet nozzles separating distance, the jet nozzles, exit section, etc... It may also be based upon one of the reigning features like the velocity ratio, the temperature gradient, etc...The gradient between the jets and the crossflow temperatures is precisely the parameter we intend to handle in the present work due to its great relevance in several environmental concerns and in technical constraints as well. The evaluation of this parameter will be carried out numerically on the temperature distribution itself. This evaluation is likely to give a thorough idea about the cooling/heating process resulted from the jets interaction with the oncoming crossflow. Such an understanding is likely to give viable solutions to problems raised by this configuration like the acid rain engendered by too hot fumes or the deterioration of the combustors walls by too high temperature jets, etc...The numerically simulated model is based on the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations by means of the finite volume method and the RSM second order turbulent model and is validated by confrontation to experimental data depicted on the same geometric replica

  20. Germination responses to current and future temperatures of four seeder shrubs across a latitudinal gradient in western Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Daniel; Luna, Belén; Moreno, José M

    2017-01-01

    Species differ in their temperature germination niche. Populations of a species may similarly differ across the distribution range of the species. Anticipating the impacts of climate variability and change requires understanding the differential sensitivity to germination temperature among and within species. Here we studied the germination responses of four hard-seeded Cistaceae seeders to a range of current and future temperatures. Seeds were collected at sites across the Iberian Peninsula and exposed or not exposed to a heat shock to break dormancy, then set to germinate under four temperature regimes. Temperatures were varied daily and seasonally, simulating the temperature range across the gradient, plus an increased temperature simulating future climate. Time to germination onset and cumulative germination at the end of each season were analyzed for the effects of temperature treatments, seasons, and local climate (temperature of the germination period, T gp ) at each site. T gp was a significant covariate of germination in all species but Cistus populifolius. Temperature treatments significantly affected Cistus ladanifer, C. salviifolius, and Halimium ocymoides. Germination occurred in simulated autumn conditions, with little germination occurring at later seasons, except in unheated seeds of H. ocymoides. Exposure to a heat shock changed the sensitivity to temperature treatments and the relationships with T gp . Germination responses to temperature differ not only among species but also within species across their latitudinal range. The responses were idiosyncratic and related to the local climate of the population. This germination variability complicates generalizing the impacts of climate variability and climate change. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Interactive Influence on Void Swelling in 300 Series Stainless Steels of Coupled Gradients in Temperature and DPA Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Recently, experimental evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the dependence of swelling in austenitic steels on dpa rate has been strongly underestimated. In development of swelling correlations for both fusion and fission reactor applications the dpa rate is frequently but inadvertently incorporated into the temperature dependence. This inability to separate the separate dependencies of dpa rate and temperature is closely associated with the coupling of gradients in neutron flux-spectra and irradiation temperature along the axial length of components, especially for relatively small cores. In order to demonstrate the separate action of dpa rate and temperature, previously unpublished swelling data are presented from hexagonal ducts, fuel pins and pressurized tubes irradiated in EBR-II, all possessing both axial and radial gradients in dpa rate. Annealed AISI 304 components were chosen to avoid complications of precipitation found in other alloys such as AISI 316 or PCA. Since this steel never develops multiple-peak swelling behavior and experiences very little precipitation at high dpa rates, it use in this effort is ideal for separation of environmental variables. It is demonstrated that the transient regime of void selling is increased by increasing dpa rate and by decreasing temperature. It is also shown that the combined effect of dpa rate and temperature distribution along the length of any given structural component produces a well defined, scatter-free 'swelling loop' vs. dpa that uniquely allows estimation and separation of the separate dependencies of swelling on temperature and dpa rate. One consequence of the derived flux dependence is that components subject to a dpa rate gradient in general suffer much less distortion than predicted by equations that do not explicitly incorporate a dependence on dpa rate. It is also shown that over a wide range of irradiation conditions the terminal steady-state swelling

  2. Effect of a temperature gradient on Sphagnum fallax and its associated living microbial communities: a study under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Gilbert, Daniel; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Chiapusio, Geneviève

    2011-03-01

    Microbial communities living in Sphagnum are known to constitute early indicators of ecosystem disturbances, but little is known about their response (including their trophic relationships) to climate change. A microcosm experiment was designed to test the effects of a temperature gradient (15, 20, and 25°C) on microbial communities including different trophic groups (primary producers, decomposers, and unicellular predators) in Sphagnum segments (0-3 cm and 3-6 cm of the capitulum). Relationships between microbial communities and abiotic factors (pH, conductivity, temperature, and polyphenols) were also studied. The density and the biomass of testate amoebae in Sphagnum upper segments increased and their community structure changed in heated treatments. The biomass of testate amoebae was linked to the biomass of bacteria and to the total biomass of other groups added and, thus, suggests that indirect effects on the food web structure occurred. Redundancy analysis revealed that microbial assemblages differed strongly in Sphagnum upper segments along a temperature gradient in relation to abiotic factors. The sensitivity of these assemblages made them interesting indicators of climate change. Phenolic compounds represented an important explicative factor in microbial assemblages and outlined the potential direct and (or) indirect effects of phenolics on microbial communities.

  3. Limited tolerance by insects to high temperatures across tropical elevational gradients and the implications of global warming for extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Kuprewicz, Erin K; Staines, Charles L; Erwin, Terry L; Kress, W John

    2016-01-19

    The critical thermal maximum (CTmax), the temperature at which motor control is lost in animals, has the potential to determine if species will tolerate global warming. For insects, tolerance to high temperatures decreases with latitude, suggesting that similar patterns may exist along elevational gradients as well. This study explored how CTmax varies among species and populations of a group of diverse tropical insect herbivores, the rolled-leaf beetles, across both broad and narrow elevational gradients. Data from 6,948 field observations and 8,700 museum specimens were used to map the elevational distributions of rolled-leaf beetles on two mountains in Costa Rica. CTmax was determined for 1,252 individual beetles representing all populations across the gradients. Initial morphological identifications suggested a total of 26 species with populations at different elevations displaying contrasting upper thermal limits. However, compared with morphological identifications, DNA barcodes (cytochrome oxidase I) revealed significant cryptic species diversity. DNA barcodes identified 42 species and haplotypes across 11 species complexes. These 42 species displayed much narrower elevational distributions and values of CTmax than the 26 morphologically defined species. In general, species found at middle elevations and on mountaintops are less tolerant to high temperatures than species restricted to lowland habitats. Species with broad elevational distributions display high CTmax throughout their ranges. We found no significant phylogenetic signal in CTmax, geography, or elevational range. The narrow variance in CTmax values for most rolled-leaf beetles, especially high-elevation species, suggests that the risk of extinction of insects may be substantial under some projected rates of global warming.

  4. Toward the existence of ultrafast diffusion paths in Cu with a gradient microstructure: Room temperature diffusion of Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. B.; Lu, K.; Wilde, G.; Divinski, S.

    2008-09-01

    Room temperature diffusion of Ni63 in Cu with a gradient microstructure prepared by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was investigated by applying the radiotracer technique. The results reveal significant penetration of Ni into the nanostructured layer. The relevant diffusivity is higher than that along the conventional high-angle grain boundaries by about six orders of magnitude. This behavior is associated with a higher energy state of internal interfaces produced via plastic deformation. The diffusivity in the top surface layer is somewhat smaller than that in the subsurface layer. This fact is related to nanotwin formation in the former during SMAT.

  5. Nonlinear structure formation in ion-temperature-gradient driven drift waves in pair-ion plasma with nonthermal electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Javaria; Haque, Q.; Khan, Majid; Bhatti, Adnan Mehmood; Kamran, M.; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear structure formation in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven waves is investigated in pair-ion plasma comprising ions and nonthermal electrons (kappa, Cairns). By using the transport equations of the Braginskii model, a new set of nonlinear equations are derived. A linear dispersion relation is obtained and discussed analytically as well as numerically. It is shown that the nonthermal population of electrons affects both the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the ITG mode in pair-ion plasma. This work will be useful in tokamaks and stellarators where non-Maxwellian population of electrons may exist due to resonant frequency heating, electron cyclotron heating, runaway electrons, etc.

  6. The influence of an interfacial heat release on nonlinear convective regimes under the action of an imposed temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovskii, Ilya B, E-mail: cesima@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    The influence of an interfacial heat release on nonlinear convective regimes, developed under the action of an imposed temperature gradient in the 47v2 silicone oil–water system, has been studied. Two types of boundary conditions—periodic boundary conditions and rigid heat-insulated lateral walls—have been considered. Transitions between the flows with different spatial structures have been investigated. It is shown that the presence of an interfacial heat release can change the sequence of bifurcations and can lead to the appearance of new oscillatory regimes. The period-three phase trajectory has been found. (paper)

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope-quartz crystal microbalance study of temperature gradients at an asperity contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Krim, J

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of atomic-scale friction frequently involve setups where a tip and substrate are initially at different temperatures. The temperature of the sliding interface upon contact has thus become a topic of interest. A method for detecting initial tip-sample temperature differences at an asperity contact is described, which consists of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip in contact with the surface electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The technique makes use of the fact that a QCM is extremely sensitive to abrupt changes in temperature. In order to demonstrate the technique's capabilities, QCM frequency shifts were recorded for varying initial tip-substrate temperature differences as an STM tip was brought into and out of contact. The results are interpreted within the context of a recent model for thermal heat conduction at an asperity contact, and it is concluded that the transient frequency response is attributable to small changes in temperature close to the region of contact rather than a change in the overall temperature of the QCM itself. For the assumed model parameters, the results moreover reveal substantial temperature discontinuities at the boundary between the tip and the sample, for example, on the order of 10-15 °C for initial temperature differences of 20 °C.

  8. Numerical simulation of bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling under velocity and temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreini, Mohammad; Ramiar, Abas; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.

  9. Numerical simulation of bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling under velocity and temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreini, Mohammad, E-mail: m.bahreini1990@gmail.com; Ramiar, Abas, E-mail: aramiar@nit.ac.ir; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar, E-mail: ranjbar@nit.ac.ir

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.

  10. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  11. Positive dielectrophoresis used for selective trapping of nanoparticles from flue gas in a gradient field electrodes device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungu, Mihail, E-mail: lmihai@physics.uvt.ro; Neculae, Adrian; Lungu, Antoanetta [West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    This paper investigates the possibility to use positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for selective trapping of nanoparticle dispersed in flue gas in a vertical pDEP-based microfluidic system. The experimental gradient field electrodes device contains as main part a vertical deposition plate with parallel planar electrodes in single connection on an insulating substrate, parallel to the reference electrode—a dielectric plate with a metalized side. The performances of the device were described and analyzed by numerical simulations and experimental tests in terms of two new specific parameters, called Retention rate and Filtration, related to the trapping of nanoparticles in suspension inside the device and the consequent purification of flue gas. It is outlined, both numerically and experimentally, that the concentration of particles trapped inside the device decreases as they are moving away from the inlet zone. The experimental results also highlight the nanoparticle size distribution of the particles collected from the deposition plate, using a nanoparticle tracking analysis method, and their selective capture on the deposition plate, depending on the amplitude and shape of the applied voltage, in a good agreement with the numerical simulations results.

  12. Measurement of the temperature Gradient in air using Talbot effect and Moire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoly, M.T.; Rasouli, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we have exploited the self-imaging or Talbot effect and Moire technique to measure the temperature distribution in the air enclosed between two paral led plates of different temperatures. This study shows that for the plates width of 60 cm a change of 1 d egC in 1 cm can be easily detected

  13. Layout-Driven Post-Placement Techniques for Temperature Reduction and Thermal Gradient Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    With the continuing scaling of CMOS technology, on-chip temperature and thermal-induced variations have become a major design concern. To effectively limit the high temperature in a chip equipped with a cost-effective cooling system, thermal specific approaches, besides low power techniques, are ...

  14. Ultra-high temperature chirped fiber Bragg gratings produced by gradient stretching of viscoelastic silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaorui; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin

    2013-12-15

    By applying a suitable quadratic temperature distribution at a temperature within the viscoelastic softening region for silica, a regenerated chirped grating with bandwidth of 9.8 nm is produced from a uniform grating using post strain-tuning under load. Simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

  15. Thermographic visualization of the superficial vein and extravasation using the temperature gradient produced by the injected materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Terashima, Kotaro; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji; Shinoto, Makoto; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nishie, Akihoro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    There are few effective methods to detect or prevent the extravasation of injected materials such as chemotherapeutic agents and radiographic contrast materials. To investigate whether a thermographic camera could visualize the superficial vein and extravasation using the temperature gradient produced by the injected materials, an infrared thermographic camera with a high resolution of 0.04 °C was used. At the room temperature of 26 °C, thermal images and the time course of the temperature changes of a paraffin phantom embedded with rubber tubes (diameter 3.2 mm, wall thickness 0.8 mm) were evaluated after the tubes were filled with water at 15 °C or 25 °C. The rubber tubes were embedded at depths of 0 mm, 1.5 mm, and 3.0 mm from the surface of the phantom. Temperature changes were visualized in the areas of the phantom where the tubes were embedded. In general, changes were more clearly detected when greater temperature differences between the phantom and the water and shallower tube locations were employed. The temperature changes of the surface of a volunteer's arm were also examined after a bolus injection of physiological saline into the dorsal hand vein or the subcutaneous space. The injection of 5 ml room-temperature (26 °C) saline into the dorsal hand vein enabled the visualization of the vein. When 3 ml of room-temperature saline was injected through the vein into the subcutaneous space, extravasation was detected without any visualization of the vein. The subtraction image before and after the injection clearly showed the temperature changes induced by the saline. Thermography may thus be useful as a monitoring system to detect extravasation of the injected materials.

  16. Temperature effects on interaction of positive ions with plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Anaya, D.

    1992-01-01

    The range of heavy charged particles in matter is dependent mainly on two groups of parameters, one related to the particle characteristics (charge z, mass m, energy E) and the other characterized by the stopping medium (charge z, density ρ). Those two groups are enough to describe the particle energy lost, which is related to the residual range. Research on charge particles registration using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), probe that environmental parameters affect the stabilization and formation of the tracks. One of those, is the temperature detector which shows an important effect during the irradiation on the characteristics of the tracks produced. In order to study the dependence of track geometry as a function of irradiation temperature, some SSNTD (CR 39 type) were irradiated with α particles and fission fragments. Results of this work show the existence of irradiation temperature effect on the track geometry. It is observed a reduction of length and diameters, as temperature increases. For low irradiation temperatures, there is a reduction of the track geometry, as compared with environmental temperature. (Author)

  17. Application of heat pump by using the earth temperature gradient for winter heating and summer cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacevski, Marijan; Tanev, Pepi

    2003-01-01

    Because of the rapid technique development as well as modern human life, in order to satisfy the energy needs it is necessary to use a new apparatus and devices. In this manner, the electric power consumption, especially for heating and cooling, rapidly increases. One of the possible ways to reduce the consumption of electric energy for heating and cooling is that, to use heat pumps. In this paper a heat pump that uses the heat of the earth by a horizontal polyethylene pipe heat exchanger is proposed. Also, all parameters are examined and comparison with already existing ones is done. The heat gradient of the earth in spite of saving electrical energy is analyzed as well. (Original)

  18. Formation of tripolar vortices in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient driven modes in the presence of dust contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Arshad M.; Qamar, Anisa; Khan, M. Yaqub; Ayub, M.

    2007-01-01

    A system of nonlinear equations that governs the dynamics of toroidal-ion-temperature-gradient (TITG) driven modes in the presence of dust contamination is presented. In the linear limit, a local dispersion relation is derived and analyzed for a flat density profile case. In the nonlinear case, and by taking some specific profiles of equilibrium density, ion temperature, magnetic field, and sheared plasma flows, the stationary solutions of the nonlinear system can be represented in the form of a tripolar vortex solution. Numerical results obtained in the present study show that the inclusion of dust modifies the nonlinear vortical structures, and the amplitude of the normalized potential is found to be increased in the presence of negatively charged dust grains. The results of our present investigation would be useful to understand some linear as well as nonlinear properties of TITG modes in a dust-contaminated tokamak plasma

  19. Bending of fuel fast reactor fuel elements under action of non-uniform temperature gradients and radiation-induced swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, I.S.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Karasik, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The bending of rod fuel elements in gas-cooled fast reactors under the action of temperature gradients radiation-induced swelling non-uniform over the perimeter of fuel cans is evaluated. It is pointed out that the radiation-induced swelling gives the main contribution to the bending of fuel elements. Calculated data on the bending of the corner fuel element in the assembly of the fast reactor with dissociating gas coolant are given. With the growth of temperature difference over the perimeter, the bending moment and deformation increase, resulting in the increase of axial stresses. The obtained data give the basis for accounting the stresses connected with thermal and radiation bending when estimating serviceability of fuel elements in gas cooled fast reactors. Fuel element bending must be also taken into account when estimating the thermal hydrualic properties

  20. Electron temperature gradient mode instability and stationary vortices with elliptic and circular boundary conditions in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Q. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zakir, U. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 18800 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of η{sub e}-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.

  1. Electron temperature gradient mode instability and stationary vortices with elliptic and circular boundary conditions in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Q.; Zakir, U.; Qamar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of ηe-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.

  2. Microbiology of Low Temperature Seafloor Deposits Along a Geochemical Gradient in Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    sylvan, J. B.; Sia, T. Y.; Haddad, A.; Briscoe, L. J.; Girguis, P. R.; Edwards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) and Valu Fa Ridge comprise a ridge segment in the southwest Pacific Ocean where rapid transitions in the underlying mantle lenses manifest themselves by gradients in seafloor rock geochemistry. At the spreading center in the north, basaltic host rock extrudes while the influence of subduction in the south creates mainly basaltic andesite host rock. A contuous gradient between these two end members exists along the spreading center. We studied the geology and microbial diversity of three silicate rock samples and three inactive sulfide chimney samples collected along the ELSC and Valu Fa Ridge by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, thin section analysis and construction of bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries. Here, we discuss the geological and biological differences between the collected rocks. We found that the bacterial community composition changed as the host rock mineralogy and chemistry changed from north to south. Also, the bacterial community composition on the silicates is distinct from those on the inactive chimneys, and the interior conduit of an inactive chimney hosts a very different community from the exterior. Basalt from the northern end of the ELSC had high proportions of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These proportions decreased on the silicates collected further south. Epsilonproteobacteria were also present on the basalt, decreased further south and were absent on the basaltic andesite. Conversely, basaltic andesite rocks from the southern end had high proportions of Chloroflexi, which decreased further north and were absent on basalt. The exterior of inactive sulfide structures were dominated by lineages of sulfur oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria and were less diverse than those on the silicates. The interior of one chimney was dominated by sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria and was the least diverse of all samples. These results support the Mantle to Microbe hypothesis in

  3. A dynamic response model for pressure sensors in continuum and high Knudsen number flows with large temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Petersen, Brian J.; Scott, David D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model for pressure sensors in continuum and rarefied flows with longitudinal temperature gradients. The model was developed from the unsteady Navier-Stokes momentum, energy, and continuity equations and was linearized using small perturbations. The energy equation was decoupled from momentum and continuity assuming a polytropic flow process. Rarefied flow conditions were accounted for using a slip flow boundary condition at the tubing wall. The equations were radially averaged and solved assuming gas properties remain constant along a small tubing element. This fundamental solution was used as a building block for arbitrary geometries where fluid properties may also vary longitudinally in the tube. The problem was solved recursively starting at the transducer and working upstream in the tube. Dynamic frequency response tests were performed for continuum flow conditions in the presence of temperature gradients. These tests validated the recursive formulation of the model. Model steady-state behavior was analyzed using the final value theorem. Tests were performed for rarefied flow conditions and compared to the model steady-state response to evaluate the regime of applicability. Model comparisons were excellent for Knudsen numbers up to 0.6. Beyond this point, molecular affects caused model analyses to become inaccurate.

  4. Generation of zonal flows by ion-temperature-gradient and related modes in the presence of neoclassical viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Smolyakov, A.I.; Kovalishen, E.A.; Shirokov, M.S.; Tsypin, V.S.; Galvao, R.M.O.

    2006-01-01

    Generation of zonal flows by primary waves that are more complex than those considered in the standard drift-wave model is studied. The effects of parallel ion velocity and ion perturbed temperature and the part of the nonlinear mode interaction proportional to the ion pressure are taken into account. This generalization of the standard model allows the analysis of generation of zonal flows by a rather wide variety of primary modes, including ion temperature gradients, ion sound, electron drift, and drift-sound modes. All the listed effects, which are present in the slab geometry model, are complemented by effects of neoclassical viscosity inherent to toroidal geometry. We show that the electrostatic potential of secondary small-scale modes is expressed in terms of a nonlinear shift of the mode frequency and interpret this shift in terms of the perpendicular and parallel Doppler, nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH), and nonlinear ion-pressure-gradient effects. A basic assumption of our model is that the primary modes form a nondispersive monochromatic wave packet. The analysis of zonal-flow generation is performed following an approach similar to that of convective-cell theory. Neoclassical zonal-flow instabilities are separated into fast and slow ones, and these are divided into two varieties. The first of them is independent of the nonlinear KH effect, while the second one is sensitive to it

  5. Critical temperature gradient length signatures in heat wave propagation across internal transport barriers in the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, Alessandro; Mantica, P.; Eester, D. van; Hawkes, N.; De Vries, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Marinoni, A.; Ryter, F.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T.

    2007-01-01

    New results on electron heat wave propagation using ion cyclotron resonance heating power modulation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)] plasmas characterized by internal transport barriers (ITBs) are presented. The heat wave generated outside the ITB, and traveling across it, always experiences a strong damping in the ITB layer, demonstrating a low level of transport and loss of stiffness. In some cases, however, the heat wave is strongly inflated in the region just outside the ITB, showing features of convective-like behavior. In other cases, a second maximum in the perturbation amplitude is generated close to the ITB foot. Such peculiar types of behavior can be explained on the basis of the existence of a critical temperature gradient length for the onset of turbulent transport. Convective-like features appear close to the threshold (i.e., just outside the ITB foot) when the value of the threshold is sufficiently high, with a good match with the theoretical predictions for the trapped electron mode threshold. The appearance of a second maximum is due to the oscillation of the temperature profile across the threshold in the case of a weak ITB. Simulations with an empirical critical gradient length model and with the theory based GLF23 [R. E. Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas, 4, 2482 (1997)] model are presented. The difference with respect to previous results of cold pulse propagation across JET ITBs is also discussed

  6. Microzooplankton growth rates examined across a temperature gradient in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzè, Gayantonia; Lavrentyev, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Growth rates (µ) of abundant microzooplankton species were examined in field experiments conducted at ambient sea temperatures (-1.8-9.0°C) in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters (70-78.5°N). The maximum species-specific µ of ciliates and athecate dinoflagellates (0.33-1.67 d(-1) and 0.52-1.14 d(-1), respectively) occurred at temperatures below 5°C and exceeded the µmax predicted by previously published, laboratory culture-derived equations. The opposite trend was found for thecate dinoflagellates, which grew faster in the warmer Atlantic Ocean water. Mixotrophic ciliates and dinoflagellates grew faster than their heterotrophic counterparts. At sub-zero temperatures, microzooplankton µmax matched those predicted for phytoplankton by temperature-dependent growth equations. These results indicate that microzooplankton protists may be as adapted to extreme Arctic conditions as their algal prey.

  7. Study on the temperature gradient evolution of large size nonlinear crystal based on the fluid-solid coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. Z.; Zhang, P.; Liang, Y. C.; Lu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) along the Θ =90° direction, ADP and DKDP crystals which have many advantages, including a large effective nonlinear optical coefficient, a small PM angular sensitivity and non beam walk-off, at the non-critical phase-matching become the competitive candidates in the inertial confinement fusion(ICF) facility, so the reasonable temperature control of crystals has become more and more important .In this paper, the fluid-solid coupling models of ADP crystal and DKDP crystal which both have anisotropic thermal conductivity in the states of vacuum and non-vacuum were established firstly, and then simulated using the fluid analysis software Fluent. The results through the analysis show that the crystal surface temperature distribution is a ring shape, the temperature gradients in the direction of the optical axis both the crystals are 0.02°C and 0.01°C due to the air, the lowest temperature points of the crystals are both at the center of surface, and the temperatures are lower than 0.09°C and 0.05°C compared in the vacuum and non-vacuum environment, then propose two designs for heating apparatus.

  8. Magic angle spinning NMR below 6 K with a computational fluid dynamics analysis of fluid flow and temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Erika L.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W.; Choi, Eric J.; Albert, Brice J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Scott, Faith J.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-01-01

    We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1H saturation recovery experiments show a 1H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells.

  9. Temperature and vegetation effects on soil organic carbon quality along a forested mean annual temperature gradient in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; Gary M. King; Martin F. Jurgensen; Christopher D. Barton; S. Douglas McDowell

    2008-01-01

    Both climate and plant species are hypothesized to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) quality, but accurate prediction of how SOC process rates respond to global change will require an improved understanding of how SOC quality varies with mean annual temperature (MAT) and forest type. We investigated SOC quality in paired hardwood and pine stands growing in coarse...

  10. Effect of pool rotation on three-dimensional flow in a shallow annular pool of silicon melt with bidirectional temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhuang; Peng, Lan; Liu, Jia [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems of Ministry of Education, College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: penglan@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute, Chongqing, 401121 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In order to understand the effect of pool rotation on silicon melt flow with the bidirectional temperature gradients, we conducted a series of unsteady three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations in a shallow annular pool. The bidirectional temperature gradients are produced by the temperature difference between outer and inner walls as well as a constant heat flux at the bottom. Results show that when Marangoni number is small, a 3D steady flow is common without pool rotation. But it bifurcates to a 3D oscillatory flow at a low rotation Reynolds number. Subsequently, the flow becomes steady and axisymmetric at a high rotation Reynolds number. When the Marangoni number is large, pool rotation can effectively suppress the temperature fluctuation on the free surface, meanwhile, it improves the flow stability. The critical heat flux density diagrams are mapped, and the effects of radial and vertical temperature gradients on the flow are discussed. Additionally, the transition process from the flow dominated by the radial temperature gradient to the one dominated by the vertical temperature gradient is presented. (paper)

  11. Thermocapillary migration of liquid droplets in a temperature gradient in a density matched system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidnia, N.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of thermocapillary flow in droplets of a vegetable oil (partially hydrogenated soybean oil) immersed in silicone oil was conducted in a test cell with a heated top wall and a cooled bottom wall. The liquids are nearly immiscible and have equal densities at a temperature below the room temperature, thus providing a simulation of low-gravity conditions by reducing the buoyancy forces. The interfacial tension between the two oils was measured in the temperature range 20 to 50 C using a capillary tube and (d sigma)/(d T) was determined to be negative. Droplets ranging in sizes from 3 mm to 1 cm diameter were injected into the silicone oil. The vertical temperature profile in the bulk liquid (silicone oil) produces temperature variations along the interface which induce variations in the interfacial tension. The flow inside the droplet driven by the resulting interfacial shear stresses was observed using a laser light-sheet flow visualization technique. The flow direction is consistent with the sign of (d sigma)/(d T). The observed maximum surface velocities are compared to the theoretical predictions of Young et al. (1959).

  12. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.

    2017-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.

  13. THE MAXIMUM EFFECT OF DEEP LAKES ON TEMPERATURE PROFILES – DETERMINATION OF THE GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT

    OpenAIRE

    Eppelbaum L. V.; Kutasov I. M.; Balobaev V. T.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the climate change processes on the basis of geothermal observations in boreholes is an important and at the same time high-intricate problem. Many non-climatic effects could cause changes in ground surface temperatures. In this study we investigate the effects of deep lakes on the borehole temperature profilesobserved within or in the vicinity of the lakes. We propose a method based on utilization of Laplace equation with nonuniform boundary conditions. The proposed method make...

  14. Heterotrophic respiration in drained tropical peat temperatures influenced by shading gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Lowland peatlands in Southeast Asia constitute a highly concentrated carbon (C) pool of global significance. These peatlands have formed over periods of several millennia by forest vegetation tolerant to flooding and poor substrates. Uncontrollable drainage and reoccurring wild fires in lack of management after removal of forest cover has impaired the C-storing functions in large reclaimed areas. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reporting sees drained tropical organic soils as one of the largest greenhouse gas emissions releasing terrestrial systems. Vast areas of deforested tropical peatlands do not receive noteworthy shading by vegetation, which increases the amount of solar radiation reaching the peat surface. We studied heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes in tropical peat in conditions, where; (i) peat temperatures were modified by artificial shading (no shade, 28%, 51% and 90% from the full sun exposure), (ii) root respiration was minimized, (iii) nutrient availability for peat decomposer community was changed (NPK fertilization of 0 and 313 kg ha-1). The experiment was repeated at two over 20 years ago drained fallow agricultural- and degraded sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Enhanced shading created a lasting decrease in peat temperatures, and decreased diurnal temperature fluctuations, in comparison to less shaded plots. The largest peat temperature difference was between the unshaded and 90% shaded peat surface, where the average temperatures within the topmost 50-cm peat profile differed 3 °C, and diurnal temperatures at 5 cm depth varied up to 4.2 °C in the unshaded and 0.4 °C in the 90% shaded conditions. Highest impacts on the heterotrophic CO2 fluxes caused by the treatments were on agricultural land, where 90% shading from the full exposure resulted in a 33% lower CO2 emission average on the unfertilised plots and a 66% lower emission average on the fertilised plots. Correlation

  15. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  16. Device for the measurement and recording of the vertical temperature gradient close to the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassany, J. Ph.; Cottignies, S.

    1963-01-01

    The temperature measurement device described in this note is made of 2 series of 15 copper-constantan thermocouples each, disposed along a mast at 5 m and 20 m from the ground, respectively. Thermocouples are protected against direct sunlight and connected to a recorder

  17. The influence of temperature gradient on the Strouhal–Reynoldsnumber relationship for water and air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, T.; Ren, M.; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Maršík, František; Rindt, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, - (2007), s. 751-760 ISSN 0894-1777 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : laminar flow * vortex shedding * effective temperature Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2007

  18. Temperature adaptation of soil bacterial communities along an Antarctic climate gradient: predicting responses to climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Rousk, Johannes; Yergeau, Etienne

    2009-01-01

     °38'W) and the Falkland Islands (51 °76'S 59 °03'W). At each location, experimental plots were subjected to warming by open top chambers (OTCs) and paired with control plots on vegetated and fell-field habitats. The bacterial communities were adapted to the mean annual temperature of their environment...

  19. Ammonia oxidizer populations vary with nitrogen cycling across a tropical montane mean annual temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Pierre; I. Hewson; J. P. Sparks; C. M. Litton; C. Giardina; P. M. Groffman; T. J. Fahey

    2017-01-01

    Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of...

  20. Precipitation and air temperature control the variations of dissolved organic matter along an altitudinal forest gradient, Gongga Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Genxu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contribute significantly to C and N cycling in forest ecosystems. Little information is available on the variations in the DOC and DON concentrations and depositions in bulk and stand precipitation within forests along an altitudinal gradient. To determine the temporal variations in the DOC and DON concentrations and depositions in different forests and the spatial variations along the elevation gradient, the DOC and DON concentrations and depositions were measured in bulk precipitation, throughfall, and stemflow within three forest types, i.e., broadleaf forest (BLF), broadleaf-coniferous forest (BCF), and coniferous forest (CF), during the wet season (May to October) on Gongga Mountain, China, in 2015. The concentrations of bulk precipitation in BLF, BCF, and CF were 3.92, 4.04, and 2.65 mg L -1 , respectively, for DOC and were 0.38, 0.26, and 0.29 mg L -1 , respectively, for DON. BCF had the highest DOC deposition both in bulk precipitation (45.12 kg ha -1 ) and stand precipitation (98.52 kg ha -1 ), whereas the highest DON deposition was in BLF (3.62 kg ha -1 bulk precipitation and 4.11 kg ha -1 stand precipitation) during the study period. The meteorological conditions of precipitation and air temperature significantly influenced the dissolved organic matter (DOM) depositions along the elevation gradient. The leaf area index did not show any correlation with DOM depositions during the growing season.

  1. Coupling of near-field thermal radiative heating and phonon Monte Carlo simulation: Assessment of temperature gradient in n-doped silicon thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Basil T.; Francoeur, Mathieu; Bong, Victor N.-S.; Mengüç, M. Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Near-field thermal radiative exchange between two objects is typically more effective than the far-field thermal radiative exchange as the heat flux can increase up to several orders higher in magnitudes due to tunneling of evanescent waves. Such an interesting phenomenon has started to gain its popularity in nanotechnology, especially in nano-gap thermophotovoltaic systems and near-field radiative cooling of micro-/nano-devices. Here, we explored the existence of thermal gradient within an n-doped silicon thin film when it is subjected to intensive near-field thermal radiative heating. The near-field radiative power density deposited within the film is calculated using the Maxwell equations combined with fluctuational electrodynamics. A phonon Monte Carlo simulation is then used to assess the temperature gradient by treating the near-field radiative power density as the heat source. Results indicated that it is improbable to have temperature gradient with the near-field radiative heating as a continuous source unless the source comprises of ultra-short radiative pulses with a strong power density. - Highlights: • This study investigates temperature distribution in an n-doped silicon thin film. • Near-field radiative heating is treated as a volumetric phenomenon. • The temperature gradient is computed using phonon MC simulation. • Temperature of thin film can be approximated as uniform for radiation calculations. • If heat source is a pulsed radiation, a temperature gradient can be established

  2. Low temperature geomicrobiology follows host rock composition along a geochemical gradient in Lau Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Sylvan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC and Valu Fa Ridge (VFR comprise a ridge segment in the southwest Pacific Ocean where rapid transitions in the underlying mantle chemistry manifest themselves as gradients in seafloor rock geochemistry. We studied the geology and microbial diversity of three silicate rock samples and three inactive sulfide chimney samples collected, from north to south, at the vent fields Kilo Moana, ABE, Tui Malila and Mariner. This is the first study of microbial populations on basaltic andesite, which was sampled at Mariner vent field. Silicate rock geochemistry exhibits clear latitudinal trends that are mirrored by changes in bacterial community composition. α-proteobacteria, ε-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are most common on a silicate collected from Kilo Moana and their proportions decrease linearly on silicates collected further south. Conversely, a silicate from Mariner vent field hosts high proportions of a unique lineage of Chloroflexi unrelated (<90% sequence similarity to previously recovered environmental clones or isolates, which decrease at ABE and are absent at Kilo Moana. The exteriors of inactive sulfide structures are dominated by lineages of sulfur oxidizing α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and ε-proteobacteria while the interior of one chimney is dominated by putative sulfur-reducing δ-proteobacteria. A comparison of bacterial communities on inactive sulfides from this and previous studies reveals the presence of a clade of uncultured Bacteroidetes exclusive to sulfidic environments, and a high degree of heterogeneity in bacterial community composition from one sulfide structure to another. In light of the heterogeneous nature of bacterial communities observed here and in previous studies of both active and inactive hydrothermal sulfide structures, the presence of numerous niches may be detected on these structures in the future by finer scale sampling and analysis.

  3. Influence of Crucible Support Rod on the Growth Rate and Temperature Gradient in a Bridgman Growth of Tin Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    IMASHIMIZU, Yuji; MIURA, Koji; KAMATA, Masaki; WATANABE, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    Bridgman growth of tincrystal was carried out in a graphite crucible that was fixed on a quartz support rod or a copper one. The growth rate and axial temperature distribution were examined by recording the temperature variation with time at each of four prescribed positions in the solid-liquidsystem during solidification, l) Actual growth rate of crystal increased with progress of solidification while the furnace elevated at a constant rate, but the tendency was different depending on the ty...

  4. Coupling of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the presence of impurities in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarong; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, S. F.

    2014-05-01

    The coupling of ion temperature gradient (ITG or ηi) mode and trapped electron mode (TEM) in the presence of impurity ions is numerically investigated in toroidal collisionless plasmas, using the gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation. A framework for excitations of the ITG modes and TEMs with respect to their driving sources is formulated first, and then the roles of impurity ions played in are analyzed comprehensively. In particular, the characteristics of the ITG and TEM instabilities in the presence of impurity ions are emphasized for both strong and weak coupling (hybrid and coexistent) cases. It is found that the impurity ions with inwardly (outwardly) peaked density profiles have stabilizing (destabilizing) effects on the hybrid (namely the TE-ITG) modes in consistence with previous works. A new finding of this work is that the impurity ions have stabilizing effects on TEMs in small ηi (ηi≤1) regime regardless of peaking directions of their density profiles whereas the impurity ions with density gradient Lez=Lne/Lnz>1 (LezTEMs in large ηi (ηi≥1) regime. In addition, the dependences of the growth rate, real frequency, eigenmode structure, and wave spectrum on charge concentration, charge number, and mass of impurity ions are analyzed in detail. The necessity for taking impurity ion effects on the features of turbulence into account in future transport experimental data analyses is also discussed.

  5. MHD flow of Kuvshinski fluid through porous medium with temperature gradient heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Mamta; Banshiwal, Anna

    2014-01-01

    MHD free convection time dependent flow of a viscous, dissipative, incompressible, electrically conducting, non Newtonian fluid name as Kuvshinski fluid past an infinite vertical plate is considered The plate is moving with uniform velocity in the direction of flow. Analytical solutions have been obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration using perturbation technique. The effects of governing parameter on flow quantities are discussed with the help of graphs. (author)

  6. Numerical simulations on the temperature gradient and thermal stress of a thermoelectric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yongjia; Ming, Tingzhen; Li, Xiaohua; Pan, Tao; Peng, Keyuan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An appropriate ceramic plate thickness is effective in alleviating the thermal stress. • A smaller distance between thermo-pins can help prolong lifecycle of the TE module. • Either a thicker or a thinner copper conducting strip effectively reduces thermal stress. • A suitable tin soldering thickness will alleviate thermal stress intensity and increase thermal efficiency. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generator is a device taking advantage of the temperature difference in thermoelectric material to generate electric power, where the higher the temperature difference of the hot-cold ends, the higher the efficiency will be. However, higher temperature or higher heat flux upon the hot end will cause strong thermal stress which will negatively influence the lifecycle of the thermoelectric module. This phenomenon is very common in industrial applications but seldom has research work been reported. In this paper, numerical analysis on the thermodynamics and thermal stress performance of the thermoelectric module has been performed, considering the variation on the thickness of materials; the influence of high heat flux on thermal efficiency, power output, and thermal stress has been examined. It is found that under high heat flux imposing upon the hot end, the thermal stress is so strong that it has a decisive effect on the life expectation of the device. To improve the module’s working condition, different geometrical configurations are tested and the optimum sizes are achieved. Besides, the side effects on the efficiency, power output, and open circuit voltage output of the thermoelectric module are taken into consideration

  7. Non-dissipative kinetic simulation and analytical solution of three-mode equations of ion temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Sato, T.

    1999-12-01

    A non-dissipative drift kinetic simulation scheme, which rigorously satisfies the time-reversibility, is applied to the three-mode coupling problem of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability. It is found from the simulation that the three-mode ITG system repeats growth and decay with a period which shows a logarithmic divergence for infinitesimal initial perturbations. Accordingly, time average of the mode amplitude vanishes, as the initial amplitude approaches to zero. An exact solution is analytically given for a class of initial conditions. An excellent agreement is confirmed between the analytical solution and numerical results. The results obtained here provide a useful reference for basic benchmarking of theories and simulation of the ITG modes. (author)

  8. A map of the large day-night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michael; de Wit, Julien; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bolmont, Emeline; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Lewis, Nikole; Hu, Renyu; Krick, Jessica; Stamenković, Vlada; Benneke, Björn; Kane, Stephen; Queloz, Didier

    2016-04-14

    Over the past decade, observations of giant exoplanets (Jupiter-size) have provided key insights into their atmospheres, but the properties of lower-mass exoplanets (sub-Neptune) remain largely unconstrained because of the challenges of observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe the spectra of super-Earths--exoplanets with masses of one to ten times that of Earth--have so far revealed only featureless spectra. Here we report a longitudinal thermal brightness map of the nearby transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e (refs 4, 5) revealing highly asymmetric dayside thermal emission and a strong day-night temperature contrast. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the infrared revealed a modulation of the thermal flux as 55 Cancri e revolves around its star in a tidally locked configuration. These observations reveal a hot spot that is located 41 ± 12 degrees east of the substellar point (the point at which incident light from the star is perpendicular to the surface of the planet). From the orbital phase curve, we also constrain the nightside brightness temperature of the planet to 1,380 ± 400 kelvin and the temperature of the warmest hemisphere (centred on the hot spot) to be about 1,300 kelvin hotter (2,700 ± 270 kelvin) at a wavelength of 4.5 micrometres, which indicates inefficient heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside. Our observations are consistent with either an optically thick atmosphere with heat recirculation confined to the planetary dayside, or a planet devoid of atmosphere with low-viscosity magma flows at the surface.

  9. Thermo-Acoustic Properties of a Burner with Axial Temperature Gradient: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Kosztin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for thermo-acoustic effects in a gas turbine combustor. A quarter-wavelength burner with rectangular cross-section has been built and studied from an experimental and theoretical perspective. It has a premixed methane-air flame, which is held by a bluff body, and spans the width of the burner. The flame is compact, i.e. its length is much smaller than that of the burner. The fundamental mode of the burner is unstable; its frequency and pressure distribution have been measured. The complex pressure reflection coefficients at the upstream and downstream end of the burner were also measured. For the theoretical considerations, we divide the burner into three regions (the cold pre-combustion chamber, the flame region and the hot outlet region, and assume one-dimensional acoustic wave propagation in each region. The acoustic pressure and velocity are assumed continuous across the interface between the precombustion chamber and flame region, and across the interface between the flame region and outlet region. The burner ends are modelled by the measured pressure reflection coefficients. The mean temperature is assumed to have the following profile: uniformly cold and uniformly hot in the pre-combustion chamber and outlet region, respectively, and rising continuously from cold to hot in the flame region. For comparison, a discontinuous temperature profile, jumping directly from cold to hot, is also considered. The eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the pressure distribution of the fundamental mode is predicted. There is excellent agreement with the experimental results. The exact profile of the mean temperature in the flame region is found to be unimportant. This study gives us an experimentally validated Green's function, which is a very useful tool for further theoretical studies.

  10. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Kubo, Takayuki; Geng, R. L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80 K /m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5 to 20 μ T . We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results support and enforce the previous studies. We then analyze all rf measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. The sensitivity rfl of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of d T /d s dependence of Rfl/Ba are also discussed.

  11. Temperature effect on proximal to distal gradient of quantal release of acetylcholine at frog endplate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samigullin, D.; Bukharaeva, E.; Nikolsky, E.; Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, 3-4 (2003), s. 507-514 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 02/04/48901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : neuromuscular junction * acetylcholine release * temperature Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2003

  12. Comparison of Conductor-Temperature Calculations Based on Different Radial-Position-Temperature Detections for High-Voltage Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calculation of the conductor temperature is related to the temperature sensor position in high-voltage power cables and four thermal circuits—based on the temperatures of insulation shield, the center of waterproof compound, the aluminum sheath, and the jacket surface are established to calculate the conductor temperature. To examine the effectiveness of conductor temperature calculations, simulation models based on flow characteristics of the air gap between the waterproof compound and the aluminum are built up, and thermocouples are placed at the four radial positions in a 110 kV cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cable to measure the temperatures of four positions. In measurements, six cases of current heating test under three laying environments, such as duct, water, and backfilled soil were carried out. Both errors of the conductor temperature calculation and the simulation based on the temperature of insulation shield were significantly smaller than others under all laying environments. It is the uncertainty of the thermal resistivity, together with the difference of the initial temperature of each radial position by the solar radiation, which led to the above results. The thermal capacitance of the air has little impact on errors. The thermal resistance of the air gap is the largest error source. Compromising the temperature-estimation accuracy and the insulation-damage risk, the waterproof compound is the recommended sensor position to improve the accuracy of conductor-temperature calculation. When the thermal resistances were calculated correctly, the aluminum sheath is also the recommended sensor position besides the waterproof compound.

  13. Behaviour of F82H mod. stainless steel in lead-bismuth under temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Briceño, D.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Soler Crespo, L.; Esteban, F.; Torres, C.

    2001-07-01

    Austenitic steels can be used in a hybrid system in contact with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic if the region of operating temperatures is not beyond 400°C. For higher temperatures, martensitic steels are recommended. However, at long times, the interaction between the structural material and the eutectic leads to the dissolution of some elements of the steel (Ni, Cr and Fe, mainly) in the liquid metal. In a non-isothermal lead-bismuth loop, the material dissolution takes place at the hot leg of the circuit and, due to the mass transfer, deposition occurs at the cold leg. One of the possible ways to improve the performance of structural materials in lead-bismuth is the creation of an oxide layer. Tests have been performed in a small natural convection loop built of austenitic steel (316L) that has been operating for 3000 h. This loop contains a test area in which several samples of F82Hmod. martensitic steel have been tested at different times. A gas with an oxygen content of 10 ppm was bubbled in the hot area of the circuit during the operation time. The obtained results show that an oxide layer is formed on the samples introduced in the loop at the beginning of the operation and this layer increases with time. However, the samples introduced at different times during the loop operation, are not protected by oxide layers and present material dissolution in some cases.

  14. Behaviour of F82H mod. stainless steel in lead-bismuth under temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Soler Crespo, L.; Esteban, F.; Torres, C.

    2001-01-01

    Austenitic steels can be used in a hybrid system in contact with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic if the region of operating temperatures is not beyond 400 deg. C. For higher temperatures, martensitic steels are recommended. However, at long times, the interaction between the structural material and the eutectic leads to the dissolution of some elements of the steel (Ni, Cr and Fe, mainly) in the liquid metal. In a non-isothermal lead-bismuth loop, the material dissolution takes place at the hot leg of the circuit and, due to the mass transfer, deposition occurs at the cold leg. One of the possible ways to improve the performance of structural materials in lead-bismuth is the creation of an oxide layer. Tests have been performed in a small natural convection loop built of austenitic steel (316L) that has been operating for 3000 h. This loop contains a test area in which several samples of F82Hmod. martensitic steel have been tested at different times. A gas with an oxygen content of 10 ppm was bubbled in the hot area of the circuit during the operation time. The obtained results show that an oxide layer is formed on the samples introduced in the loop at the beginning of the operation and this layer increases with time. However, the samples introduced at different times during the loop operation, are not protected by oxide layers and present material dissolution in some cases

  15. Absolute and convective instability of a liquid sheet with transverse temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Qing-Fei; Yang, Li-Jun; Tong, Ming-Xi; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The spatial–temporal instability of a liquid sheet with thermal effects was studied. • The flow can transit to absolutely unstable with certain flow parameters. • The effects of non-dimensional parameters on the transition were studied. -- Abstract: The spatial–temporal instability behavior of a viscous liquid sheet with temperature difference between the two surfaces was investigated theoretically. The practical situation motivating this investigation is liquid sheet heated by ambient gas, usually encountered in industrial heat transfer and liquid propellant rocket engines. The existing dispersion relation was used, to explore the spatial–temporal instability of viscous liquid sheets with a nonuniform temperature profile, by setting both the wave number and frequency complex. A parametric study was performed in both sinuous and varicose modes to test the influence of dimensionless numbers on the transition between absolute and convective instability of the flow. For a small value of liquid Weber number, or a great value of gas-to-liquid density ratio, the flow was found to be absolutely unstable. The absolute instability was enhanced by increasing the liquid viscosity. It was found that variation of the Marangoni number hardly influenced the absolute instability of the sinuous mode of oscillations; however it slightly affected the absolute instability in the varicose mode

  16. Phenotypic Plasticity of Leaf Shape along a Temperature Gradient in Acer rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Robertson, Kevin M.; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection to temperature. This gap is critical because these leaf traits are commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimate from fossils, and such studies tacitly assume that traits measured from fossils reflect the environment at the time of their deposition, even during periods of rapid climate change. We measured leaf size and shape in Acer rubrum derived from four seed sources with a broad temperature range and grown for two years in two gardens with contrasting climates (Rhode Island and Florida). Leaves in the Rhode Island garden have more teeth and are more highly dissected than leaves in Florida from the same seed source. Plasticity in these variables accounts for at least 6–19 % of the total variance, while genetic differences among ecotypes probably account for at most 69–87 %. This study highlights the role of phenotypic plasticity in leaf-climate relationships. We suggest that variables related to tooth count and leaf dissection in A. rubrum can respond quickly to climate change, which increases confidence in paleoclimate methods that use these variables. PMID:19893620

  17. Molecular identification of the microbiota of French sourdough using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchichi, Mounir; Valcheva, Rosica; Prévost, Hervé; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The microbiota of four industrial French sourdoughs (BF, GO, VB and RF) was characterized by PCR temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE). The TTGE technique reveals differences in the 16S rDNA V6-V8 regions of these bacteria. DNA was extracted directly from sourdough samples. A specific TTGE fingerprint was determined for 30 bacterial species, including members of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella, all known to be present in sourdough. These sourdoughs contain different species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) depending on ecological conditions prevailing in the different sourdough fermentations. Only a few LAB species were found to be competitive and became dominant. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was observed as the most frequently found species. In sourdough GO, L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus panis and two new species, Lactobacillus nantensis and Lactobacillus hammesii, were detected. Sourdough BF contain L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus spicheri and Lactobacillus pontis. In sourdough VB, which differed in the process temperature, we identified exclusively L. sanfranciscensis and Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes subsp. mesenteroïdes. Lactobacillus frumenti, L. hammesii and Lacobacillus paralimentarius became the predominant species in sourdough RF. Compared with conventional bacteriological methods, the use of this new molecular approach to analyze the sourdough ecosystem should therefore allow a more complete and rapid assessment of its specific microbiota.

  18. MASSIV: Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. III. Evidence for positive metallicity gradients in z ~ 1.2 star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyrel, J.; Contini, T.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Moultaka, J.; Paioro, L.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Perez-Montero, E.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The estimate of radial abundance gradients in high-redshift galaxies allows to constrain their star formation history and their interplay with the surrounding intergalactic medium. Methods: We present VLT/SINFONI integral-field spectroscopy of a first sample of 50 galaxies at z ~ 1.2 in the MASSIV survey. Using the N2 ratio between the [N ii]6584 and Hα rest-frame optical emission lines as a proxy for oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium, we measured the metallicity of the sample galaxies. We developed a tool to extract spectra in annular regions, leading to a spatially resolved estimate of the oxygen abundance in each galaxy. We were able to derive a metallicity gradient for 26 galaxies in our sample and discovered a significant fraction of galaxies with a "positive" gradient. Using a simple chemical evolution model, we derived infall rates of pristine gas onto the disks. Results: Seven galaxies display a positive gradient at a high confidence level. Four out of these are interacting, and one is a chain galaxy. We suggest that interactions might be responsible for shallowing and even inverting the abundance gradient. We also identify two interesting correlations in our sample: a) galaxies with higher gas velocity dispersion have shallower/positive gradients; and b) metal-poor galaxies tend to show a positive gradient, whereas metal-rich ones tend to show a negative one. This last observation can be explained by the infall of metal-poor gas into the center of the disks. We address the question of the origin of this infall under the influence of gas flows triggered by interactions and/or cold gas accretion. All the data published in this paper are publicly available at the time of publication following this link: http://cosmosdb.lambrate.inaf.it/VVDS-SINFONI. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, as part of the Programs 179.A-0823, 78.A-0177, and 75.A-0318. This

  19. Electron-temperature-gradient-induced instability in tokamak scrape-off layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Y.A.; Xu, X.Q.

    1992-08-01

    An electron temperature instability driven by the Kunkel-Guillory sheath impedance, has been applied to the scrape-off layer of tokamaks. The formalism has been generalized to more fully account for parallel wavelength dynamics, to differentiate between electromagnetic and electrostatic perturbations and to account for particle recycling effects. It is conjectured that this conducting wall instability leads to edge fluctuations in tokamaks that produce scrape-off widths of many ion Larmor radii ≅10. The predicted instability characteristics correlate somewhat with DIII-D edge fluctuation data, and the scrape-off layer width in the DIII-D experiment agrees with theoretical estimates that can be derived from mixing lenght theory

  20. Experimental measurement of variation of heat transfer coefficient and temperature gradients in 16'' deep fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacker, P.T.; McLain, D.R.

    1962-04-01

    The object of the experiments was to choose suitable particulate materials for a fluidised bed cooler, to test a deep fluidised bed for uniformity of heat transfer coefficient, and to explore the temperature distribution in a centrally heated annular fluidised bed. This memorandum records the techniques used and some of the practical aspects involved, together with the performance results obtained, for the assistance of other experimenters who may wish to use fluidised beds as a laboratory technique. Mathematical correlation of the results has not been attempted since some of the properties of the bed material were not known and to determine them was beyond the scope of the work programme. Rather, we have compared our results with those of other experimenters. Graphite tubes, for use in steady state thermal stress experiments, are to be heated by a graphite radiant heater situated in the bore and cooled on the outer surface. The tubes are 2 cm. bore, 8 cm. outside diameter and 48 cm. long. The outside temperature of the tubes is to be between 500 deg. C. and 1500 deg. C. It is estimated that the heat transfer rate required for fracture at the outer surface is 30 watts/cm 2 . This could readily be achieved by cooling with liquid metals, water or high velocity gas. However, serious problems of either materials compatibility or mechanical complexity make these undesirable. A water-cooled fluidised bed of compatible solids fluidised with nitrogen gas can overcome most of these problems and give heat transfer coefficients close to that required, vis. about 0.1 w/cm C . A coolant bed about 20'' long would be required and an annulus of about 2'' radial width round the specimen was considered to be practicable

  1. Experimental measurement of variation of heat transfer coefficient and temperature gradients in 16'' deep fluidised beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, P T; McLain, D R [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-04-15

    The object of the experiments was to choose suitable particulate materials for a fluidised bed cooler, to test a deep fluidised bed for uniformity of heat transfer coefficient, and to explore the temperature distribution in a centrally heated annular fluidised bed. This memorandum records the techniques used and some of the practical aspects involved, together with the performance results obtained, for the assistance of other experimenters who may wish to use fluidised beds as a laboratory technique. Mathematical correlation of the results has not been attempted since some of the properties of the bed material were not known and to determine them was beyond the scope of the work programme. Rather, we have compared our results with those of other experimenters. Graphite tubes, for use in steady state thermal stress experiments, are to be heated by a graphite radiant heater situated in the bore and cooled on the outer surface. The tubes are 2 cm. bore, 8 cm. outside diameter and 48 cm. long. The outside temperature of the tubes is to be between 500 deg. C. and 1500 deg. C. It is estimated that the heat transfer rate required for fracture at the outer surface is 30 watts/cm{sup 2}. This could readily be achieved by cooling with liquid metals, water or high velocity gas. However, serious problems of either materials compatibility or mechanical complexity make these undesirable. A water-cooled fluidised bed of compatible solids fluidised with nitrogen gas can overcome most of these problems and give heat transfer coefficients close to that required, vis. about 0.1 w/cm C . A coolant bed about 20'' long would be required and an annulus of about 2'' radial width round the specimen was considered to be practicable.

  2. Studies on preparation and adaptive thermal control performance of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials with controllable Curie temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Yuan, Shuai; Song, Jia-liang

    2014-01-01

    PTC (positive temperature coefficient) material is a kind of thermo-sensitive material. In this study, a series of novel PTC materials adapted to thermal control of electron devices are prepared. By adding different low-melting-point blend matrixes into GP (graphite powder)/LDPE (low density polyethylene) composite, the Curie temperatures are adjusted to 9 °C, 25 °C, 34 °C and 41 °C, and the resistance–temperature coefficients are enhanced to 1.57/°C–2.15/°C. These PTC materials remain solid in the temperature region of PTC effect, which makes it possible to be used as heating element to achieve adaptive temperature control. In addition, the adaptive thermal control performances of this kind of materials are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The result shows that the adaptive effect becomes more significant while the resistance–temperature coefficient increases. A critical heating power defined as the initial heating power which makes the equilibrium temperature reach terminal temperature is presented. The adaptive temperature control will be effective only if the initial power is below this value. The critical heating power is determined by the Curie temperature and resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials, and a higher Curie temperature or resistance–temperature coefficient will lead to a larger critical heating power. - Highlights: • A series of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials were prepared. • The Curie point of PTC material can be adjusted by choosing different blend matrixes. • The resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials is enhanced to 2.15/°C. • The material has good adaptive temperature control ability with no auxiliary method. • A mathematical model is established to analyze the performance and applicability

  3. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  4. [Gradient elevation of temperature startup experiment of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Er-Ming; Wang, Wei; Long, Neng; Li, Huai

    2009-04-15

    Startup experiment was conducted for thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge using the strategy of the step-wise temperature increment: 35 degrees C-->40 degrees C-->47 degrees C-->53 degrees C. The results showed that the first step-increase (from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C) and final step-increase (from 47 degrees C to 53 degrees C) had only a slight effect on the digestion process. The second step-increase (from 40 degrees C to 47 degrees C) resulted in a severe disturbance: the biogas production, methane content, CODeffluent and microorganism all have strong disturbance. At the steady stage of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge, the average daily gas production, methane content, specific methane production (CH4/CODinfluent), TCOD removal rate and SCOD removal rate were 2.038 L/d, 72.0%, 188.8 mL/g, 63.8%, 83.3% respectively. The results of SEM and DGGE indicated that the dominant species are obviously different at early stage and steady stage.

  5. Chemical composition separation of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer by high temperature solvent gradient interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Phiri, Mohau Justice; Ndiripo, Anthony; Pasch, Harald

    2017-11-03

    A propylene-ethylene random copolymer was fractionated by preparative temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF). The structural heterogeneity of the bulk sample and its TREF fractions was studied by high temperature liquid chromatography with a solvent gradient elution from 1-decanol to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. HPLC alone cannot resolve those propylene-ethylene copolymers with high ethylene content in the bulk sample, due to their low weight fractions in the bulk sample and a small response factor of these components in the ELSD detector, as well as their broad chemical composition distribution. These components can only be detected after being separated and enriched by TREF followed by HPLC analysis. Chemical composition separations were achieved for TREF fractions with average ethylene contents between 2.1 and 22.0mol%, showing that copolymers with higher ethylene contents were adsorbed stronger in the Hypercarb column and eluted later. All TREF fractions, except the 40°C fraction, were relatively homogeneous in both molar mass and chemical composition. The 40°C fraction was rather broad in both molar mass and chemical composition distributions. 2D HPLC showed that the molar masses of the components containing more ethylene units were getting lower for the 40°C fraction. HPLC revealed and confirmed that co-crystallization influences the separation in TREF of the studied propylene-ethylene copolymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  7. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sö nke; Banguera Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  8. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Caudill

    Full Text Available Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  9. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry of N-3DPA and DHA from -100 to 10°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is exclusively utilized in fast signal processing tissues such as retinal, neural and cardiac. N-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3DPA, 22:5n-3), with just one less double bond, is also found in the marine food chain yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature R...

  10. Influence of natural temperature gradients on measurements of xylem sap flow with thermal dissipation probes. 1. Field observations and possible remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, F; Rocheteau, A

    2002-06-01

    The thermal dissipation method is simple and widely used for measuring sap flow in large stems. As with several other thermal methods, natural temperature gradients are assumed to be negligible in the sapwood being measured. We studied the magnitude and variability of natural temperature gradients in sapwood of Acacia trees growing in the Sahelian zone of Senegal, analyzed their effects on sap flow measurements, and investigated possible solutions. A new measurement approach employing cyclic heating (45 minutes of heating and 15 minutes of cooling; 45/15) was also tested. Three-day measurement sequences that included 1 day without heating, a second day with continuous heating and a third day with cyclic heating were recorded during a 6.5-month period using probes installed at three azimuths in a tree trunk. Natural temperature gradients between the two probes of the sensor unit, spaced 8 to 10 cm vertically, were rarely negligible (i.e., solar radiation and low sap flow rate. However, for all applications of the thermal dissipation method, it is wise to check regularly for natural temperature gradients by switching off the heater.

  11. Total C and N Pools and fluxes vary with time, soil temperature, and moisture along an elevation, precipitation, and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Craig R. See; James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    The interactions of terrestrial C pools and fluxes with spatial and temporal variation in climate are not well understood. We conducted this study in the southern Appalachian Mountains where complex topography provides variability in temperature, precipitation, and forest communities. In 1990, we established five large plots across an elevation gradient...

  12. Effects of an experimental increase of temperature and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two ericaceous shrub species along a north-south European gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorens, L.; Penuelas, J.; Beier, C.

    2004-01-01

    ericaceous shrubs (Erica multiflora and Calluna vulgaris) along a European gradient of temperature and precipitation (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). At each site, a passive warming treatment was applied during the night throughout the whole year, whereas the drought treatment excluded rain events...

  13. Forest biomass density across large climate gradients in northern South America is related to water availability but not with temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Cayuela, Luis; González-Caro, Sebastián; Aldana, Ana M; Stevenson, Pablo R; Phillips, Oliver; Cogollo, Álvaro; Peñuela, Maria C; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Jiménez, Eliana; Melo, Omar; Londoño-Vega, Ana Catalina; Mendoza, Irina; Velásquez, Oswaldo; Fernández, Fernando; Serna, Marcela; Velázquez-Rua, Cesar; Benítez, Doris; Rey-Benayas, José M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks. Our main objective is to describe the patterns of above ground biomass (AGB) stocks across major tropical forests across climatic gradients in Northwestern South America. We gathered data from 200 plots across the region, at elevations ranging between 0 to 3400 m. We estimated AGB based on allometric equations and values for stem density, basal area, and wood density weighted by basal area at the plot-level. We used two groups of climatic variables, namely mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration as surrogates of environmental energy, and annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, and water availability as surrogates of water availability. We found that AGB is more closely related to water availability variables than to energy variables. In northwest South America, water availability influences carbon stocks principally by determining stand structure, i.e. basal area. When water deficits increase in tropical forests we can expect negative impact on biomass and hence carbon storage.

  14. Experimental observation of transient δ18O interaction between snow and advective airflow under various temperature gradient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Ebner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stable water isotopes (δ18O obtained from snow and ice samples of polar regions are used to reconstruct past climate variability, but heat and mass transport processes can affect the isotopic composition. Here we present an experimental study on the effect of airflow on the snow isotopic composition through a snow pack in controlled laboratory conditions. The influence of isothermal and controlled temperature gradient conditions on the δ18O content in the snow and interstitial water vapour is elucidated. The observed disequilibrium between snow and vapour isotopes led to the exchange of isotopes between snow and vapour under non-equilibrium processes, significantly changing the δ18O content of the snow. The type of metamorphism of the snow had a significant influence on this process. These findings are pertinent to the interpretation of the records of stable isotopes of water from ice cores. These laboratory measurements suggest that a highly resolved climate history is relevant for the interpretation of the snow isotopic composition in the field.

  15. Measuring significant inhomogeneity and anisotropy in indoor convective air turbulence in the presence of 2D temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razi, E Mohammady; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel set up, experimental study of the statistical properties of a light beam propagating horizontally through indoor convective air turbulence in the presence of a 2D temperature gradient (TG) is presented. A laser beam enters a telescope from its back focal point by virtue of an optical fiber and is expanded and recollimated by it and then passes through the turbulent area. Then the beam enters another telescope’s aperture. A mask consisting of four similar widely separated small subapertures was installed in front of the second telescope’s aperture. The subapertures were equidistant from the optical axis of the telescope and located at the corners of a square. A flat plane heater is used to produce a vertical TG in the medium. Due to the limited width of the heater, a horizontal component for the TG appeared. Near the focal plane of the second telescope, four distinct images of the source are formed and recorded by a CCD camera. Due to the turbulence all the images (spots) in the successive frames fluctuate. Using the four spot displacements we have calculated the fluctuations of the angle of arrival (AA) over the subapertures. The statistical properties of the optical turbulence are investigated using variance analysis of the AA component fluctuations at horizontal and vertical directions over the subapertures for different temperatures of the heater at different heights of the beam path from the heater. Experimental results show that when the heater is turned off, the variances of horizontal and vertical components of the AA fluctuations are approximately equal to zero over all the subapertures. When it is turned on, the variance of the horizontal component of the AA fluctuations over all of the subapertures are larger than those from the vertical one. In addition, in this case, we find a significant dependence of the variance of the AA components on the height from the heater. (paper)

  16. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  17. Positive Temperature Coefficient of Breakdown Voltage in 4H-SiC PN Junction Rectifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neudeck, Philip

    1998-01-01

    ...-suited SiC polytype for power device implementation. This paper reports the first experimental measurements of stable positive temperature coefficient behavior observed in 4H-SiC pn junction rectifiers...

  18. Enrichment of magnetic particles using temperature and magnetic field gradients induced by benchtop fabricated micro-electromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Philpott, D N; Soleymani, L

    2017-11-21

    The active transport of analytes inside biosensing systems is important for reducing the response time and enhancing the limit-of-detection of these systems. Due to the ease of functionalization with bio-recognition agents and manipulation with magnetic fields, magnetic particles are widely used for active and directed transport of biological analytes. On-chip active electromagnets are ideally suited for manipulating magnetic particles in an automated and miniaturized fashion inside biosensing systems. Unfortunately, the magnetic force exerted by these devices decays rapidly as we move away from the device edges, and increasing the generated force to the levels necessary for particle manipulation requires a parallel increase in the applied current and the resultant Joule heating. In this paper, we designed a study to understand the combined role of thermal and magnetic forces on the movement of magnetic particles in order to extend the interaction distance of on-chip magnetic devices beyond the device edges. For this purpose, we used a rapid prototyping method to create an active/passive on-chip electromagnet with a micro/nano-structured active layer and a patterned ferromagnetic passive layer. We demonstrated that the measured terminal velocities of particles positioned near the electromagnet edge (∼5.5 μm) closely reflect the values obtained by multi-physics modelling. Interestingly, we observed a two orders of magnitude deviation between the experimental and modelling results for the terminal velocities of particles far from the electromagnet edge (∼55.5 μm). Heat modelling of the system using experimentally-measured thermal gradients indicates that this discrepancy is related to the enhanced fluid movement caused by thermal forces. This study enables the rational design of thermo-magnetic systems for thermally driving and magnetically capturing particles that are positioned at distances tens to hundreds of microns away from the edges of on-chip magnetic

  19. Thermal dependence of sprint performance in the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-meter elevational gradient: Cold-habitat lizards do not perform better at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Camacho, Francisco Javier; Rubiño-Hispán, María Virtudes; Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2015-08-01

    Sprint speed has a capital relevance in most animals' fitness, mainly for fleeing from predators. Sprint performance is maximal within a certain range of body temperatures in ectotherms, whose thermal upkeep relies on exogenous thermal sources. Ectotherms can respond to diverse thermal environments either by shifting their thermal preferences or maintaining them through different adaptive mechanisms. Here, we tested whether maximum sprint speed of a lizard that shows conservative thermal ecology along a 2200-meter elevational gradient differs with body temperature in lizards from different elevations. Lizards ran faster at optimum than at suboptimum body temperature. Notably, high-elevation lizards were not faster than mid- and low-elevation lizards at suboptimum body temperature, despite their low-quality thermal environment. This result suggests that both preferred body temperature and thermal dependence of speed performance are co-adapted along the elevational gradient. High-elevation lizards display a number of thermoregulatory strategies that allow them to achieve high optimum body temperatures in a low thermal-quality habitat and thus maximize speed performance. As for reproductive condition, we did not find any effect of it on sprint speed, or any significant interaction with elevation or body temperature. However, strikingly, gravid females were significantly slower than males and non-gravid females at suboptimum temperature, but performed similarly well at optimal temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the st...

  1. How do two Lupinus species respond to temperature along an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Andes? ¿Cómo responden dos especies de Lupinus a la temperatura en un gradiente altitudinal en los Andes venezolanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERMÍN RADA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature determines plant formations and species distribution along altitudinal gradients. Plants in the tropical high Andes, through different physiological and morphological characteristics, respond to freezing night temperatures and high daytime energy inputs which occur anytime of the year. The main objective of this study was to characterize day and night temperature related responses of two Lupinus species with different altitudinal ranges (L. meridanus, 1,800-3,600 and L. eromonomos, 3,700-4,300 m of altitude. Are there differences in night low temperature resistance mechanisms between the species along the gradient? How do these species respond, in terms of optimum temperature for photosynthesis, to increasing altitude? Lupinus meridanus shows frost avoidance, in contrast to L. eromonomos, which tolerates freezing at higher altitudes. Optimum temperature for photosynthesis decreases along the gradient for both species. Maximum C0(2 assimilation rates were higher in L. meridanus, while L. eromonomos showed decreasing C0(2 assimilation rates at the higher altitude. In most cases, measured daily leaf temperature is always within the 80 % of optimum for photosynthesis. L. meridanus7 upper distribution limit seems to be restricted by cold resistance mechanisms, while L. eromonomos7 to a combination of both cold resistance and to C0(2 assimilation responses at higher altitudes.La temperatura determina las formaciones vegetales y la distribución de especies a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales. Las plantas en los altos Andes tropicales, a través de diferentes características morfológicas y fisiológicas, responden a temperaturas congelantes nocturnas y altas entradas energéticas durante el día en cualquier momento del año. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue caracterizar las respuestas relacionadas con temperaturas diurnas y nocturnas en dos especies de Lupinus con diferente distribución altitudinal (L. meridanus, 1

  2. Using the Weak-Temperature Gradient Approximation to Evaluate Parameterizations: An Example of the Transition From Suppressed to Active Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleu, C. L.; Plant, R. S.; Woolnough, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    Two single-column models are fully coupled via the weak-temperature gradient approach. The coupled-SCM is used to simulate the transition from suppressed to active convection under the influence of an interactive large-scale circulation. The sensitivity of this transition to the value of mixing entrainment within the convective parameterization is explored. The results from these simulations are compared with those from equivalent simulations using coupled cloud-resolving models. Coupled-column simulations over nonuniform surface forcing are used to initialize the simulations of the transition, in which the column with suppressed convection is forced to undergo a transition to active convection by changing the local and/or remote surface forcings. The direct contributions from the changes in surface forcing are to induce a weakening of the large-scale circulation which systematically modulates the transition. In the SCM, the contributions from the large-scale circulation are dominated by the heating effects, while in the CRM the heating and moistening effects are about equally divided. A transition time is defined as the time when the rain rate in the dry column is halfway to the value at equilibrium after the transition. For the control value of entrainment, the order of the transition times is identical to that obtained in the CRM, but the transition times are markedly faster. The locally forced transition is strongly delayed by a higher entrainment. A consequence is that for a 50% higher entrainment the transition times are reordered. The remotely forced transition remains fast while the locally forced transition becomes slow, compared to the CRM.

  3. Study of the effect of temperature on the positioning accuracy of the pneumatic muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Pawel Andrzej; Blasiak, Slawomir; Takosoglu, Jakub Emanuel; Pietrala, Dawid Sebastian; Bracha, Gabriel Filip; Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Nowakowski, Lukasz; Borkowski, Krzysztof; Blasiak, Malgorzata

    The article concerns experimental studies of the effect of temperature on the positioning accuracy of pneumatic muscles. It presents results of experimental studies in the form of thermal images from thermal imaging camera. Pneumatic artificial muscles have unique operational characteristics and because of that they are used in industrial production processes, where classic drives do not work. During operation of muscles with large frequencies above 60 Hz, one can observe a significant increase in temperatures on the bladder surface. The article concerns a study aimed at the determination of the maximum temperature which can be achieved and whether it affects the accuracy of their positioning.

  4. Control rod position and temperature coefficients in HTTR power-rise tests. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takada, Eiji; Saito, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Kokusen, Sigeru

    2001-03-01

    Power-rise tests of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out aiming to achieve 100% power. So far, 50% of power operation and many tests have been carried out. In the HTTR, temperature change in core is so large to achieve the outlet coolant temperature of 950degC. To improve the calculation accuracy of the HTTR reactor physics characteristics, control rod positions at criticality and temperature coefficients were measured at each step to achieve 50% power level. The calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo code and diffusion theory with temperature distributions in the core obtained by reciprocal calculation of thermo-hydraulic code and diffusion theory. Control rod positions and temperature coefficients were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo method. The test results were compared to calculation results. The control rod positions at criticality showed good agreement with calculation results by Monte Carlo method with error of 50 mm. The control position at criticality at 100% was predicted around 2900mm. Temperature coefficients showed good agreement with calculation results by diffusion theory. The improvement of calculation will be carried out comparing the measured results up to 100% power level. (author)

  5. Study of the kinetics of oxygen redistribution in UOsub(2+x) and UCeO2 due to a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducroux, Rene.

    1979-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study out of pile the oxygen redistrbution in UOsub(2+x) in order to explain the O/U+Pu profiles obtained in quenched mixed oxide fuels. The thermal gradient has been obtained by a 'mirror furnace'. The focal spot (0,5 cm 2 area) is maintained at the top of the cylindrical sample; the cold part of the pellet is in contact with the upper side of a molybdenum furnace. This allows to maintain a solid electrolyte probe at fixed temperature (ThO 2 - Y 2 O 3 ) which contains a Fe/FeO chemical reference. This probe gives continuously the oxygen activity at the cold part of the sample. It has been tested in measuring the oxygen potential of several chemical systems. The experiments have been achieved under argon purified by electrochemical pumps. The linear temperature profile was estimated showing a 300 0 C/cm thermal gradient. The hot side temperature did not exceed 1100 0 C in order to avoid the UO 3 evaporation. The EMF was continuously recorded during the anneal under thermal gradient. After quenching, the sample was cut in five or six slices. In each one, the analysis of the O/U ratio was performed. Though the annealing-times were short and the temperature of the hot side relatively low, the observed oxygen redistributions were found important, showing that the oxygen migrates to the hot part of the sample [fr

  6. Spatio-temporal analyses of Symbiodinium physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa along large-scale nutrient and temperature gradients in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R

    2014-01-01

    Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium) of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply). As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e.g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication). To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition) along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of photosynthetic

  7. Spatio-temporal analyses of Symbiodinium physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa along large-scale nutrient and temperature gradients in the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sawall

    Full Text Available Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply. As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e.g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication. To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1 was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analyses of Symbiodinium Physiology of the Coral Pocillopora verrucosa along Large-Scale Nutrient and Temperature Gradients in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-08-19

    Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium) of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply). As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e. g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication). To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition) along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of photosynthetic

  9. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  10. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Early/Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline N.; Sewall, Jacob O.; Noone, David; Huber, Matthew; von der Heydt, Anna; Damsté, Jaap Sinninghe; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-09-01

    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during the Azolla interval in the Early/Middle Eocene, compared to modern. Changes in the hydrological cycle, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be reflected in the isotopic composition of precipitation (δD, δ 18O). The interpretation of water isotopic records to quantitatively reconstruct past precipitation patterns is, however, hampered by a lack of detailed information on changes in their spatial and temporal distribution. Using the isotope-enabled version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) atmospheric general circulation model, Community Atmosphere Model v.3 (isoCAM3), relationships between water isotopes and past climates can be simulated. Here we examine the influence of an imposed reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradient on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its isotopic composition in an Early/Middle Eocene setting. As a result of the applied forcings, the Eocene simulation predicts the occurrence of less depleted high latitude precipitation, with δD values ranging only between 0 and -140‰ (compared to Present-day 0 to -300‰). Comparison with Early/Middle Eocene-age isotopic proxy data shows that the simulation accurately captures the main features of the spatial distribution of the isotopic composition of Early/Middle Eocene precipitation over land in conjunction with the aspects of the modeled Early/Middle Eocene climate. Hence, the included stable isotope module quantitatively supports the existence of a reduced meridional temperature gradient during this interval.

  11. Vapor flux and recrystallization during dry snow metamorphism under a steady temperature gradient as observed by time-lapse micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pinzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m−1, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.

  12. Curious Case of Positive Current Collectors: Corrosion and Passivation at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Farheen N; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Kalaga, Kaushik; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, P M

    2017-12-20

    In the evaluation of compatibility of different components of cell for high-energy and extreme-conditions applications, the highly focused are positive and negative electrodes and their interaction with electrolyte. However, for high-temperature application, the other components are also of significant influence and contribute toward the total health of battery. In present study, we have investigated the behavior of aluminum, the most common current collector for positive electrode materials for its electrochemical and temperature stability. For electrochemical stability, different electrolytes, organic and room temperature ionic liquids with varying Li salts (LiTFSI, LiFSI), are investigated. The combination of electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations reflects the varying mechanism of passivation at room and high temperature, as different compositions of decomposed complexes are found at the surface of metals.

  13. Experimental study on the cracking behavior of reinforced concrete hollow cylinders subjected to temperature gradient and the assessment of decrease in flexural rigidity due to cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yukio; Onuma, Hiroshi; Okazawa, Takao

    1976-01-01

    Altough the consideration of thermal stress constitutes one of the primary factors governing the design of the hollow cylindrical structures made of reinforced concrete and subjected to temperature gradient, such as radiation-shielding walls and reactor containment vessels, the method of rationally evaluating the safety to such stress has not been established so far. The purposes of this study are to investigate the conditions under which cracks initiate in reinforced concrete structures due to temperature gradient, and to evaluate the decreases in the flexural rigidity after cracking, mainly on the basis of experiment. Three hollow cylinders with top and bottom slabs, 120 cm height and 100 cm outside diameter, were tested. The cylinders were externally cooled by being immersed in water, and internally heated by circulating hot water through the cavities. The maximum temperature difference of 65 deg C was attained. The strain was measured, and the crack patterns were observed. A reinforced concrete beam of 3.8 m length was subjected to temperature difference of 65 deg C. Horizontal cracks appeared first at 27 deg C, and vertical cracks followed at 31 deg C difference at the middle of cylindrical walls. It was assumed that the first cracks appear at the tensile strain of 100 x 10 -6 , and the calculated result was agreed fairly well with the observed temperature difference. The rational method for evaluating the decrease in flexural rigidity due to cracking was proposed by the authors. (Kako, I.)

  14. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D. C.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Reichart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during most of the Early Eocene. With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions related to Eocene (global) hydrological cycling facilitating these blooms arose. Changes in hydrological cycling, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be most clearly reflected in the isotopic composition (D, 18O) of precipitation. The interpretation of water isotopic records to quantitatively estimate past precipitation patterns is, however, hampered by the lack of detailed information on changes in their spatial and temporal distribution. Using the isotope-enabled global circulation model, Community Atmosphere Model v.3 (isoCAM3), relationships between water isotopes and past climates can be simulated. Here we examine the influence of a reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradient on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its isotopic composition in an Eocene setting. Overall, our combination of Eocene climate forcings, with superimposed TEX86-derived SST estimates and elevated pCO2 concentrations, produces a climate that agrees well with proxy data in locations around the globe. It shows the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. The Eocene model runs with a significantly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient in a warmer more humid world predict occurrence of less depleted precipitation, with δD values ranging only between 0 and -140‰ (as opposed to the present-day range of 0 to -300‰). Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model calculations, shows that the model not only captures the main features, but reproduces isotopic values

  15. EUROMECH colloquium 377. Stability and control of shear flows with strong temperature or density gradients. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The topics discussed comprise the onset of instability in heated free jets and jets with density gradients, flow past heated/cooled boundaries, atmospheric shear flow, and mathematical modeling of laminar-turbulent transition phenomena. Three contributions have been input to INIS. (P.A.)

  16. Unprecedented quality factors at accelerating gradients up to 45 MVm-1 in niobium superconducting resonators via low temperature nitrogen infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.; Checchin, M.; Martinello, M.; Melnychuk, O. S.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Posen, S.; Crawford, A. C.; Aderhold, S.; Bice, D.

    2017-09-01

    We report the finding of new surface treatments that permits one to manipulate the niobium resonator nitrogen content in the first few nanometers in a controlled way, and the resonator fundamental Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance and residual resistance accordingly. In particular, we find surface ‘infusion’ conditions that systematically (a) increase the quality factor of these 1.3 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) bulk niobium resonators, up to very high gradients; (b) increase the achievable accelerating gradient of the cavity compared to its own baseline with state-of-the-art surface processing. Cavities subject to the new surface process have more than two times the state-of-the-art Q at 2 K for accelerating fields >35 MVm-1. Moreover, very high accelerating gradients ˜45 MVm-1 are repeatedly reached, which correspond to peak magnetic surface fields of 190 mT, among the highest measured for bulk niobium cavities. These findings open the opportunity to tailor the surface impurity content distribution to maximize performance in Q and gradients, and have therefore very important implications on future performance and cost of SRF based accelerators. They also help deepen the understanding of the physics of the RF niobium cavity surface.

  17. A new kind of shape-stabilized PCMs with positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Wu, Wan-fan; Song, Jia-liang; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Shuai; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of shape-stabilized PCMs with PTC effect is first prepared. • It provides a potential means for the thermal control of the electronic devices. • The switching temperature of the materials is about 25 °C. • The most appropriate component of the material is found out by experimental study. • The NTC effect of the new PCMs is eliminated effectively by heat treatment. - Abstract: A new kind of shape-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs) with positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was prepared in this paper. The materials were prepared by adding graphite powder (GP) to the paraffin/low density polyethylene (LDPE) composite and the PTC characteristic was found by adjusting the component ratio of the material. Then the physical structures and thermal properties of the materials were investigated and the effect of various GP mass fractions and paraffin/LDPE mass proportions on the PTC behavior of the materials was studied experimentally. The results showed that the switching temperature of the materials was about 25 °C (room temperature) which approached to the first phase change temperature of paraffin dispersed in the materials. The PTC behavior of the materials was the best when the GP mass fraction and the mass proportion of LDPE/paraffin were 40 wt% and 30:70, respectively. Furthermore, the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect of the materials could be eliminated effectively with heat treatment. This new kind of materials is different from the former PTC materials which the switching temperatures focus on high temperature ranges. It makes up for the defect of previous materials that the switching temperatures only range in high temperature rather than room temperature and provides a potential means for the thermal control of the electronic devices or other room temperature thermal control applications

  18. A positive relationship between spring temperature and productivity in 20 songbird species in the boreal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Kalle; Piha, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming has already affected the population dynamics of numerous species and is predicted to do so also in the future. To predict the effects of climate change, it is important to know whether productivity is linked to temperature, and whether species' traits affect responses to climate change. To address these objectives, we analysed monitoring data from the Finnish constant effort site ringing scheme collected in 1987-2013 for 20 common songbird species together with climatic data. Warm spring temperature had a positive linear relationship with productivity across the community of 20 species independent of species' traits (realized thermal niche or migration behaviour), suggesting that even the warmest spring temperatures remained below the thermal optimum for reproduction, possibly due to our boreal study area being closer to the cold edge of all study species' distributions. The result also suggests a lack of mismatch between the timing of breeding and peak availability of invertebrate food of the study species. Productivity was positively related to annual growth rates in long-distance migrants, but not in short-distance migrants. Across the 27-year study period, temporal trends in productivity were mostly absent. The population sizes of species with colder thermal niches had decreasing trends, which were not related to temperature responses or temporal trends in productivity. The positive connection between spring temperature and productivity suggests that climate warming has potential to increase the productivity in bird species in the boreal zone, at least in the short term.

  19. Investigation of microstructure and V-defect formation inInxGa1-xN/GaN MQW grown using temperature-gradient MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.C.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D.N.; McCready,D.E.; Jorgenson, R.J.; Wu, J.; Shan, W.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2004-11-19

    Temperature-gradient Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition was used to deposit In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN multiple quantum well structures with a concentration gradient of indium across the wafer. These multiple quantum well structures were deposited on low defect density (2 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}) GaN template layers for investigation of microstructural properties and V-defect (pinhole) formation. Room temperature photoluminescence and photomodulated transmission were used for optical characterization which show a systematic decrease in emission energy for a decrease in growth temperature. Triple-axis X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and cross-section transmission electron microscopy were used to obtain microstructural properties of different regions across the wafer. Results show that there is a decrease in crystal quality and an increase in V-defect formation with increasing indium concentration. A direct correlation was found between V-defect density and growth temperature due to increased strain and indium segregation for increasing indium concentration.

  20. The green alga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides biomass and polysaccharides production determined using cultivation in crossed gradients of temperature and light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, D.; Kvíderová, J.; Kaštánek, P.; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2017), s. 1030-1038 ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides * Biomass * Crossed gradients Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Bioproducts (products that are manufactured using biological material as feedstock) biomaterials, bioplastics, biofuels, bioderived bulk and fine chemicals, bio-derived novel materials Impact factor: 1.698, year: 2016

  1. Optical performance of the SO/PHI full disk telescope due to temperature gradients effect on the heat rejection entrance window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garranzo, D.; Núñez, A.; Zuluaga-Ramírez, P.; Barandiarán, J.; Fernández-Medina, A.; Belenguer, T.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Polarimetric Helioseismic Imager for Solar Orbiter (SO/PHI) is an instrument on board in the Solar Orbiter mission. The Full Disk Telescope (FDT) will have the capability of providing images of the solar disk in all orbital faces with an image quality diffraction-limited. The Heat Rejection Entrance Window (HREW) is the first optical element of the instrument. Its function is to protect the instrument by filtering most of the Solar Spectrum radiation. The HREW consists of two parallel-plane plates made from Suprasil and each surface has a coating with a different function: an UV shield coating, a low pass band filter coating, a high pass band filter coating and an IR shield coating, respectively. The temperature gradient on the HREW during the mission produces a distortion of the transmitted wave-front due to the dependence of the refractive index with the temperature (thermo-optic effect) mainly. The purpose of this work is to determine the capability of the PHI/FDT refocusing system to compensate this distortion. A thermal gradient profile has been considered for each surface of the plates and a thermal-elastic analysis has been done by Finite Element Analysis to determine the deformation of the optical elements. The Optical Path Difference (OPD) between the incident and transmitted wavefronts has been calculated as a function of the ray tracing and the thermo-optic effect on the optical properties of Suprasil (at the work wavelength of PHI) by means of mathematical algorithms based on the 3D Snell Law. The resultant wavefronts have been introduced in the optical design of the FDT to evaluate the performance degradation of the image at the scientific focal plane and to estimate the capability of the PHI refocusing system for maintaining the image quality diffraction-limited. The analysis has been carried out considering two different situations: thermal gradients due to on axis attitude of the instrument and thermal gradients due to 1° off pointing attitude

  2. Fast ion stabilization of the ion temperature gradient driven modes in the Joint European Torus hybrid-scenario plasmas: a trigger mechanism for internal transport barrier formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, M; Zocco, A [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F, E-mail: Michele.Romanelli@ccfe.ac.u [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Understanding and modelling turbulent transport in thermonuclear fusion plasmas are crucial for designing and optimizing the operational scenarios of future fusion reactors. In this context, plasmas exhibiting state transitions, such as the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB), are particularly interesting since they can shed light on transport physics and offer the opportunity to test different turbulence suppression models. In this paper, we focus on the modelling of ITB formation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [1] hybrid-scenario plasmas, where, due to the monotonic safety factor profile, magnetic shear stabilization cannot be invoked to explain the transition. The turbulence suppression mechanism investigated here relies on the increase in the plasma pressure gradient in the presence of a minority of energetic ions. Microstability analysis of the ion temperature gradient driven modes (ITG) in the presence of a fast-hydrogen minority shows that energetic ions accelerated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system (hydrogen, n{sub H,fast}/n{sub D,thermal} up to 10%, T{sub H,fast}/T{sub D,thermal} up to 30) can increase the pressure gradient enough to stabilize the ITG modes driven by the gradient of the thermal ions (deuterium). Numerical analysis shows that, by increasing the temperature of the energetic ions, electrostatic ITG modes are gradually replaced by nearly electrostatic modes with tearing parity at progressively longer wavelengths. The growth rate of the microtearing modes is found to be lower than that of the ITG modes and comparable to the local E x B-velocity shearing rate. The above mechanism is proposed as a possible trigger for the formation of ITBs in this type of discharges.

  3. Ceramic/Metal Composites with Positive Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhui; Yu Qi; Sun Wei; Zhang Rui; Wang Ke; Li Jingfeng; Ichigozaki, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Most materials show decreasing thermal conductivity with increasing temperature, but an opposite temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is required for some industrial applications. The present work was conducted with a motivation to develop composite materials with a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. ZrO 2 / stainless steel powders (304L) composite, with 3% stearic acid, was prepared by normal sintering under the protecting of Ar after mixing by mechanical ball milling technique. With the 304L content increasing from 10% to 20%, the thermal conductivity values increased. For all samples, the thermal conductivity in the temperature range of room temperature to 700 °C decreased with temperature below 300 °C, and then began to increase. The increasing thermal conductivity of the composites (within the high temperature range was attributed to the difference of the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient between ZrO 2 ceramic and 304L stainless steel powders. Two simple models were also used to estimate the thermal conductivity of the composites, which were in good agreement with the experiment results.

  4. The emissions and soil concentrations of N2O and CH4 from natural soil temperature gradients in a volcanic area in southwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Moijala, Heli; Leblans, Niki I. W.; De Boeck, Hans J.; Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.

    2016-04-01

    We studied nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions along three natural geothermal soil temperature (Ts) gradients in a volcanic area in southwest Iceland. Two of the gradients (on a grassland and a forest site, respectively) were recently formed (in May 2008). The third gradient, a grassland site, had been subjected to long-term soil warming (over 30 years, and probably centuries). Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured along the temperature gradients using the static chamber method and also soil gas concentrations were studied. With a moderate soil temperature increase (up to +5 °C) there were no significant increase in gas flux rates in any of the sites but an increase of 20 to 45 °C induced an increase in both N2O and CH4 emissions. The measured N2O emissions (up to 2600 μg N2O m-2 h-1) from the warmest plots were about two magnitudes higher compared with the coolest plots (less than 20 μg N2O m-2 h-1). While a net uptake of CH4 was measured in the coolest plots (up to -0.15 mg CH4 m-2 h-1), a net emission of CH4 was measured from the warmest plots (up to 1.3 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Soil CH4 concentrations decreased first with a moderate (up to +5 °C) increase in Ts, but above that threshold increased significantly. The soil N2O concentration at depths from 5 to 20 cm increased with increasing Ts, indicating enhanced N-turnover. Further, there was a clear decrease in soil organic matter (SOM), C- and N concentration with increasing Ts at all sites. One should note, however, that a part of the N2O emitted from the warmest plots may be partly geothermally derived, as was revealed by 15N2O isotope studies. These natural Ts gradients show that the emission of N2O and CH4 can increase significantly when Ts increases considerably. This implies that these geothermally active sites can act as local hot spots for CH4 and N2O emissions.

  5. Modeling the effects of the vertical temperature gradient in the furnace in an edge-defined film-fed growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epure, S.; Braescu, L.; Balint, St.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical model for the growth of cylindrical bars described elsewhere is considered. Using MathCAD 11 Enterprise Edition and mathematical tools, the asymptotically stable steady-states (r*, h*) of the nonlinear system of differential equations which governs the evolution of the bar radius r=r(t) and the meniscus height h=h(t), for different values of the pulling rate v, the melt temperature T 0 at the meniscus basis and the vertical temperature gradient k in the furnace, respectively, are found. For a given k, the range of the stable growth regions in the (v, T 0 ) plane (i.e. those couples (v, T 0 ) for which (r*, h*) has physical sense) are determined. The effects of the changes of the vertical temperature gradient k are investigated and it is shown that if v and T 0 are constant, and k increases, then the bar radius r increases and the meniscus height h decreases. Numerical results are given for the silicon bar grown in an edge-defined film-fed growth (E.F.G.) system with a die radius r 0e =20(cmx10 -2 )

  6. Measurement of gas temperature and OH density in the afterglow of pulsed positive corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    The gas temperature and OH density in the afterglow of pulsed positive corona discharge are measured using the laser-induced predissociation fluorescence (LIPF) of OH radicals. Discharge occurs in a 13 mm point-to-plane gap in an atmospheric-pressure H 2 O(2.8%)/O 2 (2.0%)/N 2 mixture. The temperature measurement shows that (i) the temperature increases after discharge and (ii) the temperature near the anode tip (within 1 mm from the anode tip) is much higher than that of the rest of the discharge volume. Near the anode tip, the temperature increases from 500 K (t = 0 μs) to 1100 K (t = 20 μs), where t is the postdischarge time, while it increases from 400 K (t = 0 μs) to 700 K (t = 100 μs) in the rest of the discharge volume away from the anode tip. This temperature difference between the two volumes (near and far from the anode tip) causes a difference in the decay rate of OH density: OH density near the anode tip decays approximately 10 times slower than that far from the tip. The spatial distribution of OH density shows good agreement with that of the secondary streamer luminous intensity. This shows that OH radicals are mainly produced in the secondary streamer, not in the primary one

  7. Effect of temperature gradient in the solution on spiral growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x bulk single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of Y123 are required to clarify the superconductivity phenomena and develop electronic devices using unique superconductive properties. Only the Solute Rich Liquid endash Crystal Pulling (SRL-CP) method has succeeded in continuous growth of the Y123 single crystal. In this paper, we investigated the growth of Y123 single crystals under different temperature gradients in the solution in order to understand the growth mechanism of Y123. It was revealed that Y123 single crystals grow with a spiral growth mode, which is in good agreement with the BCF theory. copyright 1996 Materials Research Society

  8. Derivation of the threshold condition for the ion temperature gradient mode with an inverted density profile from a simple physics picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun

    2018-05-01

    We show that the threshold condition for the toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode with an inverted density profile can be derived from a simple physics argument. The key in this picture is that the density inversion reduces the ion compression due to the ITG mode and the electron drift motion mitigates the poloidal potential build-up. This condition reproduces the same result that has been reported from a linear gyrokinetic calculation [T. S. Hahm and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1185 (1989)]. The destabilizing role of trapped electrons in toroidal geometry is easily captured in this picture.

  9. Microstructure and high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-Ni gradient coating on TA2 titanium alloy fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fencheng; Mao, Yuqing; Lin, Xin; Zhou, Baosheng; Qian, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of TA2 titanium alloy, a gradient Ni-Ti coating was laser cladded on the surface of the TA2 titanium alloy substrate, and the microstructure and oxidation behavior of the laser cladded coating were investigated experimentally. The gradient coating with a thickness of about 420-490 μm contains two different layers, e.g. a bright layer with coarse equiaxed grain and a dark layer with fine and columnar dendrites, and a transition layer with a thickness of about 10 μm exists between the substrate and the cladded coating. NiTi, NiTi2 and Ni3Ti intermetallic compounds are the main constructive phases of the laser cladded coating. The appearance of these phases enhances the microhardness, and the dense structure of the coating improves its oxidation resistance. The solidification procedure of the gradient coating is analyzed and different kinds of solidification processes occur due to the heat dissipation during the laser cladding process.

  10. Effect of dynamic temperature stimulus to plantar surface of the foot in the standing position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Watanabe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found that a vertical force or tactile sensation occurs when the temperature of a participant's skin changes rapidly. In this illusion, upward motion, pressure or force sensation is elicited when stimulus temperature rises rapidly, whereas in the opposite case, downward motion or pulling sensation is elicited. In this paper, we applied this phenomenon to the sole (plantar surface of the foot to present the sensation of ground slope. To investigate this, we conducted an experiment that measured the correlation between stimulation temperature and front-back direction position of the center of gravity (COG. Participants stood on a thermal stimulator on Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB and they remained standing during 30 s dynamic temperature stimulus. In result of analysis, it was suggested that dynamic thermal change in sole might influence standing position and the effect pattern was anomalous in case of the participants who reported a swaying sensation without a haptic sensation. This behavior might be applied to the diagnosis of the presence of thermoesthesia of the patients who might have disease with absence of thermoesthesia.

  11. Positive effects of temperature and growth conditions on enzymatic and antioxidant status in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Hee-Ock; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Chon, Sang-Uk

    2011-10-01

    The contents of two bioactive compounds (polyphenols and flavonoids) and their antioxidant and enzyme activities were determined in the leaves of six lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) cultivars subjected to 4 different day/night temperatures for 6 weeks. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents and the corresponding antioxidant activities were the highest at 13/10°C and 20/13°C, followed by 25/20°C and 30/25°C. The enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were also the highest at low day/night temperatures, but the peroxidase (POD) activity was decreased at low day/night temperatures and increased at high day/night temperatures. The most significant positive correlation existed between anthocyanin content and PPO activity, total polyphenols and their antioxidant activities. The results showed that at relatively low temperatures, lettuce plants have a high antioxidant and enzymatic status. These results provide additional information for the lettuce growers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  13. Heating/ethanol-response of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with gradient pre-deformation and potential temperature sensor and anti-counterfeit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min; Ge, Yu Chun; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Yong; Wu, Xue Lian; Geng, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the heating/ethanol-response of a commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is investigated. All PMMA samples are pre-deformed by means of impression (surface compression with a mold) to introduce a gradient pre-strain/stress field. Two types of molds are applied in impression. One is a Singaporean coin and the other is a particularly designed mold with a variable protrusive feature on top. Two potential applications—temperature sensors to monitor overheating temperatures and anti-counterfeit labels with a water-mark that appears only upon heating to a particular temperature—are demonstrated. Since the heating-responsive shape memory effect (SME) is an intrinsic feature of almost all polymers, other conventional polymers may be used in such applications as well. (technical note)

  14. Performance of a high-work, low-aspect-ratio turbine stator tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabe, Roy G.; Schwab, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A 0.767-scale model of a turbine stator designed for the core of a high-bypass-ratio aircraft engine was tested with uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The principal measurements were radial and circumferential surveys of stator-exit total temperature, total pressure, and flow angle. The stator-exit flow field was also computed by using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. Other than temperature, there were no apparent differences in performance due to the inlet conditions. The computed results compared quite well with the experimental results.

  15. Continuous epitaxial growth of extremely strong Cu6Sn5 textures at liquid-Sn/(111)Cu interface under temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y.; Zhao, N.; Liu, C. Y.; Dong, W.; Qiao, Y. Y.; Wang, Y. P.; Ma, H. T.

    2017-11-01

    As the diameter of solder interconnects in three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) downsizes to several microns, how to achieve a uniform microstructure with thousands of interconnects on stacking chips becomes a critical issue in 3D IC manufacturing. We report a promising way for fabricating fully intermetallic interconnects with a regular grain morphology and a strong texture feature by soldering single crystal (111) Cu/Sn/polycrystalline Cu interconnects under the temperature gradient. Continuous epitaxial growth of η-Cu6Sn5 at cold end liquid-Sn/(111)Cu interfaces has been demonstrated. The resultant η-Cu6Sn5 grains show faceted prism textures with an intersecting angle of 60° and highly preferred orientation with their ⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩ directions nearly paralleling to the direction of the temperature gradient. These desirable textures are maintained even after soldering for 120 min. The results pave the way for controlling the morphology and orientation of interfacial intermetallics in 3D packaging technologies.

  16. Temperature-assisted solute focusing with sequential trap/release zones in isocratic and gradient capillary liquid chromatography: Simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize the development of a method to enhance temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF) called two-stage TASF. A new instrument was built to implement two-stage TASF consisting of a linear array of three independent, electronically controlled Peltier devices (thermoelectric coolers, TECs). Samples are loaded onto the chromatographic column with the first two TECs, TEC A and TEC B, cold. In the two-stage TASF approach TECs A and B are cooled during injection. TEC A is heated following sample loading. At some time following TEC A’s temperature rise, TEC B’s temperature is increased from the focusing temperature to a temperature matching that of TEC A. Injection bands are focused twice on-column, first on the initial TEC, e.g. single-stage TASF, then refocused on the second, cold TEC. Our goal is to understand the two-stage TASF approach in detail. We have developed a simple yet powerful digital simulation procedure to model the effect of changing temperature in the two focusing zones on retention, band shape and band spreading. The simulation can predict experimental chromatograms resulting from spatial and temporal temperature programs in combination with isocratic and solvent gradient elution. To assess the two-stage TASF method and the accuracy of the simulation well characterized solutes are needed. Thus, retention factors were measured at six temperatures (25–75 °C) at each of twelve mobile phases compositions (0.05–0.60 acetonitrile/water) for homologs of n-alkyl hydroxylbenzoate esters and n-alkyl p-hydroxyphenones. Simulations accurately reflect experimental results in showing that the two-stage approach improves separation quality. For example, two-stage TASF increased sensitivity for a low retention solute by a factor of 2.2 relative to single-stage TASF and 8.8 relative to isothermal conditions using isocratic elution. Gradient elution results for two-stage TASF were more encouraging. Application of two-stage TASF

  17. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry of N-3DPA and DHA from -100 to 10°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F; Nguyen, Julie K; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Aubuchon, Steven R; Kim, Moon S

    2017-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is exclusively utilized in fast signal processing tissues such as retinal, neural and cardiac. N-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3DPA, 22:5n-3), with just one less double bond, is also found in the marine food chain yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS and both conventional and modulated DSC to n-3DPA and DHA from -100 to 20°C. Three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2°C increments and first derivatives allowed complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes. Melting temperatures n-3DPA (-45°C) and DHA (-46°C) are similar and show evidence for solid-state phase transitions not seen in n-6DPA (-27°C melt). The C6H2 site is an elastic marker for temperature perturbation of all three lipids, each of which has a distinct three dimensional structure. N-3 DPA shows the spectroscopic signature of saturated fatty acids from C1 to C6. DHA does not have three aliphatic carbons in sequence; n-6DPA does but they occur at the methyl end, and do not yield the characteristic signal. DHA appears to have uniform twisting from C6H2 to C12H2 to C18H2 whereas n-6DPA bends from C12 to C18, centered at C15H2. For n-3DPA, twisting is centered at C6H2 adjacent to the C2-C3-C4-C5 aliphatic moiety. These molecular sites are the most elastic in the solid phase and during premelting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermoelectric potential in UO2 and (U,Pu)O2 and its influence on oxygen migration in presence of a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Annucci, F.

    1979-09-01

    Measurement of the thermoelectric power have been carried out in sintered pellets of uranium-oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxides up to 1800 K. For the thermal treatment an inducting furnace is used. The temperatures and the thermoelectric potential are measured with two thermocouples wich are contained in two holes in the lower end of the pellet. During the experiments a temperature difference of 80 K is maintained between the two measuring points. The Seebeck coefficients are calculated from the EMF measurements as a function of temperature and of the O/M ratio. The results show that these oxides have the typical electric properties of a classic semiconductor. The conductivity is of p-type up to a defined temperature wich is a function of the stoichiometry. The Seebeck coefficients are characterized by a defined energy of activation wich is independent from the stochiometry in the regions of hypo- and hyperstochiometric oxides. The thermoelectric forces and the lattice forces drive ions along the temperature gradients. Both forces can be described by the heat of transport of oxygen ions wich contains a thermoelectric and a thermal part. The thermoelectric part of the heat of transport is calculated with the values of the Seebeck coefficients and the contribution to the total heat of transport is discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  20. Positive ion mobilities in normal liquid 3He at ultralow temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.W.

    1978-11-01

    The mobility has been measured of positive ions in liquid 3 he in the range 2.5 mK 3 sub(m)/sup(V) 5 sub(m)/sup(V). The effects of 500 p.p.m. 4 He in the 3 He were investigated. It was found that, at low temperatures, several stable ion species could be produced for 3 He pressures of 23 bar and above and, between 25 mK and 60 mK, time dependent conversion from one species of ion to another was observed at all pressures. The creation mechanism, mobility and stability of multiple positive ions were studied. Possible explanations of the phenomena are discussed. The measured drift field dependence of mobility is used to test the quasiparticle scattering model assumed for the liquid. (U.K.)

  1. The sensitivity of tropical leaf litter decomposition to temperature: results from a large-scale leaf translocation experiment along an elevation gradient in Peruvian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, N; Malhi, Y; Meir, P; Silman, M; Roman Cuesta, R; Huaman, J; Salinas, D; Huaman, V; Gibaja, A; Mamani, M; Farfan, F

    2011-03-01

    • We present the results from a litter translocation experiment along a 2800-m elevation gradient in Peruvian tropical forests. The understanding of the environmental factors controlling litter decomposition is important in the description of the carbon and nutrient cycles of tropical ecosystems, and in predicting their response to long-term increases in temperature. • Samples of litter from 15 species were transplanted across all five sites in the study, and decomposition was tracked over 448 d. • Species' type had a large influence on the decomposition rate (k), most probably through its influence on leaf quality and morphology. When samples were pooled across species and elevations, soil temperature explained 95% of the variation in the decomposition rate, but no direct relationship was observed with either soil moisture or rainfall. The sensitivity of the decay rate to temperature (κ(T)) varied seven-fold across species, between 0.024 and 0.169 °C⁻¹, with a mean value of 0.118 ± 0.009 °C⁻¹ (SE). This is equivalent to a temperature sensitivity parameter (Q₁₀) for litter decay of 3.06 ± 0.28, higher than that frequently assumed for heterotrophic processes. • Our results suggest that the warming of approx. 0.9 °C experienced in the region in recent decades may have increased decomposition and nutrient mineralization rates by c. 10%. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. The effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Ulrika; Engström, Maria; Bergstrand, Sara; Ek, Anna-Christina; Fredrikson, Mats; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Lindgren, Margareta

    2015-03-01

    Although repositioning is considered an important intervention to prevent pressure ulcers, tissue response during loading in different lying positions has not been adequately explored. To compare the effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents. From May 2011 to August 2012, interface pressure, skin temperature, and blood flow at three tissue depths were measured for 1 hr over the sacrum in 30° supine tilt and 0° supine positions and over the trochanter major in 30° lateral and 90° lateral positions in 25 residents aged 65 years or older. Measurement of interface pressure was accomplished using a pneumatic pressure transmitter connected to a digital manometer, skin temperature using a temperature sensor, and blood flow using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry. Interface pressure was significantly higher in the 0° supine and 90° lateral positions than in 30° supine tilt and 30° lateral positions. The mean skin temperature increased from baseline in all positions. Blood flow was significantly higher in the 30° supine tilt position compared to the other positions. A hyperemic response in the post pressure period was seen at almost all tissue depths and positions. The 30° supine tilt position generated less interface pressure and allowed greater tissue perfusion, suggesting that this position is the most beneficial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Complex terrain alters temperature and moisture limitations of forest soil respiration across a semiarid to subalpine gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Barnard, H.R.; Adams, H.R.; Burns, M.A.; Gallo, E.; Brooks, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Forest soil respiration is a major carbon (C) flux that is characterized by significant variability in space and time. We quantified growing season soil respiration during both a drought year and a nondrought year across a complex landscape to identify how landscape and climate interact to control soil respiration. We asked the following questions: (1) How does soil respiration vary across the catchments due to terrain-induced variability in moisture availability and temperature? (2) Does the relative importance of moisture versus temperature limitation of respiration vary across space and time? And (3) what terrain elements are important for dictating the pattern of soil respiration and its controls? Moisture superseded temperature in explaining watershed respiration patterns, with wetter yet cooler areas higher up and on north facing slopes yielding greater soil respiration than lower and south facing areas. Wetter subalpine forests had reduced moisture limitation in favor of greater seasonal temperature limitation, and the reverse was true for low-elevation semiarid forests. Coincident climate poorly predicted soil respiration in the montane transition zone; however, antecedent precipitation from the prior 10 days provided additional explanatory power. A seasonal trend in respiration remained after accounting for microclimate effects, suggesting that local climate alone may not adequately predict seasonal variability in soil respiration in montane forests. Soil respiration climate controls were more strongly related to topography during the drought year highlighting the importance of landscape complexity in ecosystem response to drought.

  4. Assessment of the effect of parallel temperature gradients in the JET SOL on Te measured by divertor target Langmuir probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ďuran, I.; Ješko, K.; Fuchs, V.; Groth, M.; Guillemaut, C.; Gunn, J.P.; Horáček, J.; Pitts, R.A.; Tskhakaya, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Higher than expected electron temperatures (Te) are often measured by divertor Langmuir probes (LP) in high recycling and detached regimes in JET and other tokamaks. As a possible mechanism to explain this discrepancy, we investigate the effect of penetration of fast, almost collisionless

  5. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kehoe, M.J.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Visser, R.J.W.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63° N in the northeast Atlantic

  6. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W. H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K. R.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van der Woerd, H. J.; Kehoe, M. J.; Mojica, K. D. A.; Visser, R. J. W.; Rozema, P. D.; Buma, A. G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63 degrees N in the northeast

  7. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF MIXED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND LOW POSITIVE TEMPERATURE ON ANIMALS’ ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovchenko O.L.

    2015-05-01

    change in the activity of catalase and a trend toward an increase in MDA level. Values of lipoprotein profile also did not have reliable changes, but high values of atherogenic index throughout the study showed the negative impact of EMR on lipid metabolism. Reliable changes in liver function tests indicated a disorder of liver detoxification function and possible derangement of protein metabolism. A decrease in creatinine and uric acid in the urine of rats is also evidence of this. The mixed effect of EMR and positive low temperature predetermined deeper violations practically in all components of metabolism, which exhibit low levels of SH-groups and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, an increase in the concentration of ceruloplasmin. The observed increase in VLDL and triglycerides indicated the increase of the processes of atherogenesis. Acid phosphatase activity increased, increased alkaline phosphatase tends to raise the level of serum phosphorus levels in rats of the experimental group. There were more pronounced changes in the functioning of the liver. The level of urea in the blood serum was reliably increased. In the mixed action of EMR and positive low temperature, the level of uric acid in urine reliably increased, indicating that the development of renal failure in this group of animals, which was also indicated by elevated levels of chlorides in the urine. Conclusions. 1. The leading biochemical mechanisms of adverse effects of mixed action of EMR and positive low temperature is a disorder of the antioxidant system of blood, lipid metabolism and renal excretory function. 2. The mixed effect of EMR and positive low temperature on the organs and systems was more pronounced compared to the isolated action of electromagnetic radiation. 3. The above determines the need to consider the increase of biological effect of EMR established in the experiment on laboratory animals in the conditions of cold stress, when substantiating hygienic standards, the

  8. Method for compression molding of thermosetting plastics utilizing a temperature gradient across the plastic to cure the article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for compression molding of thermosetting plastics composition. Heat is applied to the compressed load in a mold cavity and adjusted to hold molding temperature at the interface of the cavity surface and the compressed compound to produce a thermal front. This thermal front advances into the evacuated compound at mean right angles to the compression load and toward a thermal fence formed at the opposite surface of the compressed compound.

  9. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  10. Stability of the hydrogen absorption and desorption plateaux in LaNi[sub 5]-H. Pt. 3. Experimental observations of compositional inhomogeneities due to temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisi, E H [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Gray, E MacA [School of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld. 4111 (Australia)

    1995-01-15

    It has been predicted by Pons and Dantzer that temperature gradients due to the released enthalpy of H absorption-desorption will generate macroscopic inhomogeneities of the [alpha]/[beta] phase proportions in metal hydrides. We used in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ neutron diffraction respectively to study the growth of [beta]-LaNi[sub 5]-H at the free surface, and [beta]-LaNi[sub 5]-D in the bulk of powdered samples. It was found that a macroscopic compositional inhomogeneity does occur, and can be so severe that the free surface of the sample remains pure [alpha] phase while the bulk of the sample is rich in [beta] phase. ((orig.))

  11. Six movements measurement system employed for GAIA secondary mirror positioning system vacuum tests at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Garranzo García-Ibarrola, Daniel; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the optical measurement system employed to evaluate the performance of a 6 degrees of freedom (dof) positioning mechanism under cryogenic conditions is explored. The mechanism, the flight model of three translations and three rotations positioning mechanism, was developed by the Spanish company SENER (for ASTRIUM) to fulfil the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for the positioning of a secondary mirror within the GAIA Astrometric Mission. Its performance has been evaluated under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions (up to a 10-6mbar and 100K) at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA). After the description of the 'alignment tool' developed to compare a fixed reference with the optical signal corresponding to the movement under evaluation, the optical system that allows measuring the displacements and the rotations in the three space directions is reported on. Two similar bread-boards were defined and mounted for the measurements purpose, one containing two distancemeters, in order to measure the displacements through the corresponding axis, and an autocollimator in order to obtain the rotations on the plane whose normal vector is the axis mentioned before, and other one containing one distancemeter and one autocollimator. Both distancemeter and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions.

  12. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through T_{c}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80  K/m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5 to 20  μT. We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results support and enforce the previous studies. We then analyze all rf measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. The sensitivity r_{fl} of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of dT/ds dependence of R_{fl}/B_{a} are also discussed.

  13. Temperature gradient compatibility tests of some refractory metals and alloys in bismuth and bismuth--lithium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Cavin, O.B.

    1976-11-01

    Quartz, T-111, and Mo thermal-convection loop tests were conducted at temperatures up to 700 0 C (100 0 C ΔT) to determine the compatibility of several refractory metals/alloys with bismuth and bismuth-lithium solutions for molten salt breeder reactor applications. Methods of evaluation included weight change measurements, metallographic examination, chemical and electron microprobe analysis, and mechanical properties tests. Molybdenum, T-111, and TA--10 percent W appear to be the most promising containment materials, while niobium and iron-based alloys are unacceptable

  14. Simultaneous multipoint measurements of density gradients and temperature in a flame. Progress report, July 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, R.K.; Chu, B.T.; Long, M.B.

    1983-02-01

    An account is given of recent progress in the development of nonintrusive optical diagnostic techniques and the application of these techniques to turbulent combustion systems. The primary focus of the work over the past year has been in: (1) the use of a broadband rotational CARS technique for the measurement of temperature in flames, and (2) the use of spontaneous Raman scattering to simultaneously map out the fuel gas concentration in a turbulent diffusion flame at 2500 points in a plane intersecting the flow. A summary of new results in each of these areas is given

  15. Constraints on Alpine Fault (New Zealand) Mylonitization Temperatures and Geothermal Gradient from Ti-in-quartz Thermobarometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, Steven; Toy, Virginia; Prior, Dave; Little, Tim; MacRae, Colin

    2018-01-01

    We constrain the thermal state of the central Alpine Fault using approximately 750 Ti-in-quartz SIMS analyses from a suite of variably deformed mylonites. Ti-in-quartz concentrations span more than an order of magnitude from 0.24 to ~5 ppm, suggesting recrystallization of quartz over a 300° range in temperature. Most Ti-in-quartz concentrations in mylonites, protomylonites, and the Alpine Schist protolith are between 2 and 4 ppm and do not vary as a function of grain size or bul...

  16. Effects of non-uniform temperature gradients on surface tension driven two component magneto convection in a porous- fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, N.; Sumithra, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of surface tension driven two component magnetoconvection is investigated in a Porous-Fluid system, consisting of anincompressible two component electrically conducting fluid saturatedporous layer above which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The lower boundary of the porous layeris rigid and the upper boundary of the fluid layer is free with surfacetension effects depending on both temperature and concentration, boththese boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface thevelocity, shear and normal stress, heat and heat flux, mass and mass fluxare assumed to be continuous suitable for Darcy-Brinkman model. Theeigenvalue problem is solved in linear, parabolic and inverted parabolictemperature profiles and the corresponding Thermal Marangoni Numberis obtained for different important physical parameters.

  17. A novel temperature-gradient Na±β-alumina solid electrolyte based SOx gas sensor without gaseous reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Bleek, C.M. Van den; Schoonman, J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical SOx ps sensor with a tubular Na+-beta"-alumina solid electrolyte has been fabricated and tested under non-isothermal conditions. The temperature difference between the reference and working electrode of the sensor cell is about 100-degrees-C, which causes a serious deviation...... of the experimental EMF response from the value as calculated using the Nernst equation for an isothermal system. The experimental results are Consistent with the theoretical prediction for a non-isothermal system. The response time is usually less then 10 min. SEM and EDX have been employed to investigate the sensor...... material before and after use, confirming the formation of a glassy phase of Na2SO4 by an electrochemical reaction at the interface of the platinum electrodes and Na+-beta"-alumina. According to this new theoretical derivation, the sensor design could be simplified by applying the same SO2 ps at the two...

  18. Measurement of moisture motion under a temperature gradient in a concrete for SNR-300 using thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinger, A.

    1975-01-01

    For describing the behavior of the moisture in the concrete of the containment of SNR-300 in a hypothetical accident parameters were determined experimentally. The method is based on transmission of thermal neutrons through a plate of concrete. When a temperature of 170 deg C was applied at one end of the plate migration of moisture and evaporation took place. This could be observed by neutron radiography giving a gross picture of moisture migration. Furthermore the intensity of the transmitted neutron beam was measured with a neutron counter. From these values profiles of the change of moisture concentration could be obtained with a spatial resolution of few millimeters. The method used is entirely different from the conventional moisture meters which use fast neutrons. From the experimental data the mass transfer coefficient of vapour, the diffusion coefficient of vapour in concrete and the porosity of the concrete could be determined

  19. Mapping grain boundary heterogeneity at the nanoscale in a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsgrove, Kristina M.; Kepaptsoglou, Demie M.; Douglas, Alan M.; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Prestat, Eric; Haigh, Sarah J.; Ward, Michael B.; Kumar, Amit; Gregg, J. Marty; Arredondo, Miryam

    2017-06-01

    Despite being of wide commercial use in devices, the orders of magnitude increase in resistance that can be seen in some semiconducting BaTiO3-based ceramics, on heating through the Curie temperature (TC), is far from well understood. Current understanding of the behavior hinges on the role of grain boundary resistance that can be modified by polarization discontinuities which develop in the ferroelectric state. However, direct nanoscale resistance mapping to verify this model has rarely been attempted, and the potential approach to engineer polarization states at the grain boundaries, that could lead to optimized positive temperature coefficient (PTC) behavior, is strongly underdeveloped. Here we present direct visualization and nanoscale mapping in a commercially optimized BaTiO3-PbTiO3-CaTiO3 PTC ceramic using Kelvin probe force microscopy, which shows that, even in the low resistance ferroelectric state, the potential drop at grain boundaries is significantly greater than in grain interiors. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy reveal new evidence of Pb-rich grain boundaries symptomatic of a higher net polarization normal to the grain boundaries compared to the purer grain interiors. These results validate the critical link between optimized PTC performance and higher local polarization at grain boundaries in this specific ceramic system and suggest a novel route towards engineering devices where an interface layer of higher spontaneous polarization could lead to enhanced PTC functionality.

  20. Mapping grain boundary heterogeneity at the nanoscale in a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Holsgrove

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of wide commercial use in devices, the orders of magnitude increase in resistance that can be seen in some semiconducting BaTiO3-based ceramics, on heating through the Curie temperature (TC, is far from well understood. Current understanding of the behavior hinges on the role of grain boundary resistance that can be modified by polarization discontinuities which develop in the ferroelectric state. However, direct nanoscale resistance mapping to verify this model has rarely been attempted, and the potential approach to engineer polarization states at the grain boundaries, that could lead to optimized positive temperature coefficient (PTC behavior, is strongly underdeveloped. Here we present direct visualization and nanoscale mapping in a commercially optimized BaTiO3–PbTiO3–CaTiO3 PTC ceramic using Kelvin probe force microscopy, which shows that, even in the low resistance ferroelectric state, the potential drop at grain boundaries is significantly greater than in grain interiors. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy reveal new evidence of Pb-rich grain boundaries symptomatic of a higher net polarization normal to the grain boundaries compared to the purer grain interiors. These results validate the critical link between optimized PTC performance and higher local polarization at grain boundaries in this specific ceramic system and suggest a novel route towards engineering devices where an interface layer of higher spontaneous polarization could lead to enhanced PTC functionality.

  1. Singularity in the positive Hall coeffcient near pre-onset temperatures in high-Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Moon, B. M.; Safari, A.; Burke, T.; Stanley, W.

    1990-10-01

    Hall measurements using continuous extremely slow cooling and reheating rates as well as employing eqiulibrium point-by-point conventional techniques reveals a clear anomally in RH at pre-onset temperatures near Tc in polycrystalline samples Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. The anomaly has the appearance of a singularity of Dirac-delta function which parallels earlier work on La1-xSrxCuO4. Recent single crystal work on the Bi-containing high-Tc superconductor is in accord with a clearcut anomaly. The singularity is tentatively interpreted to be associated (upon cooling) with initially the removal of positive holes from the hopping conduction system of the normal state such as from the increased concentration of bound virtual excitons due to increased exciton and hole lifetimes at low temperature. Subsequently the formation of Cooper pairs by mediation from these centers (bound-holes) and/or bound excitons) may cause an ionization of these bound virtual excitons thereby re-introducing holes and electrons into the conduction system at Tc.

  2. Computational design and characterization of a temperature-sensitive plasmid replicon for gram positive thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Daniel G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature-sensitive (Ts plasmids are useful tools for genetic engineering, but there are currently none compatible with the gram positive, thermophilic, obligate anaerobe, Clostridium thermocellum. Traditional mutagenesis techniques yield Ts mutants at a low frequency, and therefore requires the development of high-throughput screening protocols, which are also not available for this organism. Recently there has been progress in the development of computer algorithms which can predict Ts mutations. Most plasmids currently used for genetic modification of C. thermocellum are based on the replicon of plasmid pNW33N, which replicates using the RepB replication protein. To address this problem, we set out to create a Ts plasmid by mutating the gene coding for the RepB replication protein using an algorithm designed by Varadarajan et al. (1996 for predicting Ts mutants based on the amino-acid sequence of the protein. Results A library of 34 mutant plasmids was designed, synthesized and screened, resulting in 6 mutants which exhibited a Ts phenotype. Of these 6, the one with the most temperature-sensitive phenotype (M166A was compared with the original plasmid. It exhibited lower stability at 48°C and was completely unable to replicate at 55°C. Conclusions The plasmid described in this work could be useful in future efforts to genetically engineer C. thermocellum, and the method used to generate this plasmid may be useful for others trying to make Ts plasmids.

  3. Analysis of effect of temperature gradients on surface-tension phenomena in gas-tungsten-arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.A.; Chien, P.S.J.

    1982-10-01

    Fluid motion directed by surface tension is considered as a contributor to heat penetration in a weld pool. The potential phenomena at the gas-liquid interface were analyzed, and the dependence of surface motion on temperature in the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welding process was examined. An existing heat-transfer model was used and was able to predict weld size to +- 50% of the actual value. A momentum-transfer equation was derived by considering the contribution of Lorentz force. The momentum boundary condition was developed and was able to predict the Marangoni effect. The magnitude of surface-tension-driven force is comparable to the gravitational force on one gram. An empirical approach was proposed to couple heat-transfer and momentum-transfer phenomena. A dimensional analysis identified the pertinent dimensionless groups as Reynolds, Weber, Froude, Peclet, and Power numbers and a dimensionless velocity. A simplified form of the correction was developed by combining dimensionless groups to yield a correlation with the Bond, Prandtl, and modified power numbers. Future experimental work was proposed to test the functionality of the dimensionless groups

  4. Compact very low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with mechanically driven horizontal linear positioning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderow, H; Guillamon, I; Vieira, S

    2011-03-01

    We describe a scanning tunneling microscope for operation in a dilution refrigerator with a sample stage which can be moved macroscopically in a range up to a cm and with an accuracy down to the tens of nm. The position of the tip over the sample as set at room temperature does not change more than a few micrometers when cooling down. This feature is particularly interesting for work on micrometer sized samples. Nanostructures can be also localized and studied, provided they are repeated over micrometer sized areas. The same stage can be used to approach a hard single crystalline sample to a knife and cleave it, or break it, in situ. In situ positioning is demonstrated with measurements at 0.1 K in nanofabricated samples. Atomic resolution down to 0.1 K and in magnetic fields of 8 T is demonstrated in NbSe(2). No heat dissipation nor an increase in mechanical noise has been observed at 0.1 K when operating the slider.

  5. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  6. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  7. Investigation on low room-temperature resistivity Cr/(Ba0.85Pb0.15)TiO3 positive temperature coefficient composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Ma, J.; Qu, Yuanfang

    2009-01-01

    discussed. Using these special processes, the prepared composite with 20 wt% Cr possessed low room-temperature resistivity (2.96 Ω cm at 25 °C) and exhibited PTC effect (resistivity jump of 10), which is considered as a promising candidate for over-current protector when working at low voltage. The grain......Low room-temperature resistivity positive temperature coefficient (PTC) Cr/(Ba0.85Pb0.15)TiO3 composites were produced via a reducing sintering and a subsequent oxidation treatment. The effects of metallic content and processing conditions on materials resistivity–temperature properties were...

  8. Positive selection in octopus haemocyanin indicates functional links to temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellermann, Michael; Strugnell, Jan M; Lieb, Bernhard; Mark, Felix C

    2015-07-05

    Octopods have successfully colonised the world's oceans from the tropics to the poles. Yet, successful persistence in these habitats has required adaptations of their advanced physiological apparatus to compensate impaired oxygen supply. Their oxygen transporter haemocyanin plays a major role in cold tolerance and accordingly has undergone functional modifications to sustain oxygen release at sub-zero temperatures. However, it remains unknown how molecular properties evolved to explain the observed functional adaptations. We thus aimed to assess whether natural selection affected molecular and structural properties of haemocyanin that explains temperature adaptation in octopods. Analysis of 239 partial sequences of the haemocyanin functional units (FU) f and g of 28 octopod species of polar, temperate, subtropical and tropical origin revealed natural selection was acting primarily on charge properties of surface residues. Polar octopods contained haemocyanins with higher net surface charge due to decreased glutamic acid content and higher numbers of basic amino acids. Within the analysed partial sequences, positive selection was present at site 2545, positioned between the active copper binding centre and the FU g surface. At this site, methionine was the dominant amino acid in polar octopods and leucine was dominant in tropical octopods. Sites directly involved in oxygen binding or quaternary interactions were highly conserved within the analysed sequence. This study has provided the first insight into molecular and structural mechanisms that have enabled octopods to sustain oxygen supply from polar to tropical conditions. Our findings imply modulation of oxygen binding via charge-charge interaction at the protein surface, which stabilize quaternary interactions among functional units to reduce detrimental effects of high pH on venous oxygen release. Of the observed partial haemocyanin sequence, residue 2545 formed a close link between the FU g surface and the

  9. Positron annihilation lifetime study of positive temperature coefficient BaTiO3 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Chen; Mingkang Teng; Guanghou Wang; Xiaoyun Li; Tianchang Lu

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the doped vacancies in BaTiO 3 samples as well as their influence on the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied. Two groups of BaTiO 3 samples with BaO excess were prepared by doping different concentrations of La 2 O 3 and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively in the range from 0.1 to 3 at%. A third group of samples of two Sb-doped PTC BaTiO 3 semiconductors with excess BaO or TiO 2 were studied by the aid of positron technique before and after being reduced. It is shown that the positron lifetime parameters are sensitive to changes in the vacancy concentration in BaTiO 3 ceramics near the 0.1 mol% region. But they are almost unchanged during reduction processing; the resistivity of samples changed by one to two orders of magnitude through the reduction. It can be concluded that the PTC effect is due to oxygen on the grain boundary rather than vacancies, and that the Heywang-Jonker model is more reasonable

  10. The geothermal gradient map of Central Tunisia: Comparison with structural, gravimetric and petroleum data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Hamed Ben

    1987-10-01

    Five hundred and fifty temperature values, initially measured as either bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) or drill-stem tests (DST), from 98 selected petroleum exploration wells form the basis of a geothermal gradient map of central Tunisia. A "global-statistical" method was employed to correct the BHT measurements, using the DST as references. The geothermal gradient ranges from 23° to 49°C/km. Comparison of the geothermal gradient with structural, gravimetric and petroleum data indicates that: (1) the general trend of the geothermal gradient curves reflects the main structural directions of the region, (2) zones of low and high geothermal gradient are correlated with zones of negative and positive Bouguer anomalies and (3) the five most important oil fields of central Tunisia are located near the geothermal gradient curve of 40° C/km. Such associations could have practical importance in petroleum exploration, but their significance must first be established through further investigation and additional data.

  11. Electric field gradients in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)

  12. Quantification of 16S rRNAs in complex bacterial communities by multiple competitive reverse transcription-PCR in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felske, A; Akkermans, A D; De Vos, W M

    1998-11-01

    A novel approach was developed to quantify rRNA sequences in complex bacterial communities. The main bacterial 16S rRNAs in Drentse A grassland soils (The Netherlands) were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with bacterium-specific primers and were separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). The primer pair used (primers U968-GC and L1401) was found to amplify with the same efficiency 16S rRNAs from bacterial cultures containing different taxa and cloned 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from uncultured soil bacteria. The sequence-specific efficiency of amplification was determined by monitoring the amplification kinetics by kinetic PCR. The primer-specific amplification efficiency was assessed by competitive PCR and RT-PCR, and identical input amounts of different 16S rRNAs resulted in identical amplicon yields. The sequence-specific detection system used for competitive amplifications was TGGE, which also has been found to be suitable for simultaneous quantification of more than one sequence. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied to TGGE fingerprints of soil bacteria to estimate the ratios of the bacterial 16S rRNAs.

  13. Electrokinetically driven continuous-flow enrichment of colloidal particles by Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing in a convergent-divergent microfluidic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cunlu; Ge, Zhengwei; Song, Yongxin; Yang, Chun

    2017-09-07

    Enrichment of colloidal particles in continuous flow has not only numerous applications but also poses a great challenge in controlling physical forces that are required for achieving particle enrichment. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate the electrokinetically-driven continuous-flow enrichment of colloidal particles with Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing (TGF) in a microfluidic convergent-divergent structure. We consider four mechanisms of particle transport, i.e., advection due to electroosmosis, electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis and, and further clarify their roles in the particle enrichment. It is experimentally determined and numerically verified that the particle thermophoresis plays dominant roles in enrichment of all particle sizes considered in this study and the combined effect of electroosmosis-induced advection and electrophoresis is mainly to transport particles to the zone of enrichment. Specifically, the enrichment of particles is achieved with combined DC and AC voltages rather than a sole DC or AC voltage. A numerical model is formulated with consideration of the abovementioned four mechanisms, and the model can rationalize the experimental observations. Particularly, our analysis of numerical and experimental results indicates that thermophoresis which is usually an overlooked mechanism of material transport is crucial for the successful electrokinetic enrichment of particles with Joule heating induced TGF.

  14. A selective and sensitive optical sensor for dissolved ammonia detection via agglomeration of fluorescent Ag nanoclusters and temperature gradient headspace single drop microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiang Xue; Gao, Zhong Feng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, a simple sensor platform is presented for highly selective and sensitive detection of dissolved ammonia in aqueous solutions without pretreatment based on temperature gradient headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) technique, and fluorescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry are utilized with the Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) functioned by citrate and glutathione as the probe. The sensing mechanism is based on the volatility of ammonia gas and the active response of Ag NCs to pH change caused by the introduction of ammonia. High pH can make the Ag NCs agglomerate and lead to the obvious decrease of fluorescence intensity and absorbance of Ag NCs solution. Moreover, the presented method exhibits a remarkably high selectivity toward dissolved ammonia over most of inorganic ions and amino acid, and shows a good linear range of 10-350μM (0.14-4.9mgNL -1 ) with a low detection limit of 336nM (4.70μgNL -1 ) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. In addition, the practical applications of the sensor have been successfully demonstrated by detecting dissolved ammonia in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of tool for simulating the effect of radial electric fields on Ion-Temperature-Gradient modes in 3D configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Lars

    2003-03-01

    The heat flux level observed in magnetic plasma confinement experiments such as tokamaks is much higher than what can be explained from neoclassical theory. There is a strong interest in the controlled nuclear fusion community to fully understand this phenomenon, called anomalous transport. One idea is that radial electric fields play a key role in the stabilization process of the electrostatic instabilities called micro instabilities that are considered responsible for the anomalous heat flux. This work studies the effect of a static ad-hoc radial electric field on microinstabilities, especially the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode, within the frame of a global 3D gyrokinetic model. This will make it possible to extend the simulations done in tokamaks and helically symmetric systems to fully 313 magnetic configurations. Technically the work consists of extending the 3D gyrokinetic code Euterpe to also include the effect of the drifts induced by an imposed radial electrostatic potential. Simulations are performed in tokamak and helically symmetric configurations. The results indicate that this modified version of Euterpe can be used in studying more complex 3D fusion devices

  16. Measurement of excitation, ionization, and electron temperatures and positive ion concentrations in a 144 MHz inductively coupled radiofrequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, P.E.; Chester, T.L.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements of 144 MHz radiofrequency inductively coupled plasmas at pressures between 0.5 and 14 Torr have been made. Other variables studied included the gas type (Ar or Ne) and material in plasma (Ti or Tl). Parameters measured included excitation temperatures via the atomic Boltzmann plot and the two-line method, ionization electric probes. Excitation temperatures increased as the pressure of Ar or Ne plasmas decreased and reached a maximum of approx.9000 degreeK in the latter case and approx.6700 degreeK in the former case; Tl in the Ar plasma resulted in in a smaller rate of decrease of excitation temperature with increase of pressure of Ar. The ionization temperatures were lower than the excitation temperatures and were similar for both the Ar and Ne plasmas. Electron temperatures were about 10 times higher than the excitation temperatures indicating non-LTE behavior. Again, the electron temperatures indicating in Ne were considerably higher than in Ar. With the presence of metals, the electron temperatures with a metal in the Ar plasma were higher than in the absence. Positive ion concentrations were also measured for the various plasmas and were found to be similar (approx.10 18 m -3 ) in both the Ar and Ne plasmas. The presence of metals caused significant increase in the positive ion concentrations. From the results obtained, the optimum Ar pressure for Tl electrodeless discharge lamps operated at 144 MHz would be between 2 and 4 Torr

  17. The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air over the range 292 K–1438 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yuta

    2018-05-01

    The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air is measured by comparing atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature discharges with low-pressure, room-temperature discharges at the same air densities n and discharge voltages. Both discharges have the same reduced electric field E/n, so the differences between the two discharges only depend on the temperature, which is varied from 292 K to 1438 K. Temperature affects the discharge pulse energy most significantly; at 1438 K, the energy of an atmospheric-pressure discharge pulse is approximately 30 times larger than that of the corresponding 20.5 kPa, room-temperature discharge. Temperature also affects the shapes of the streamers when K, but no significant effect is observed for K. There is also no significant temperature effect on the spatially integrated intensity of N2(C–B) emission. However, temperature strongly affects the ratio of the integrated emission intensity to the discharge energy. No effect of the temperature is observed on the propagation velocity of the primary streamer or on the length of the secondary streamer.

  18. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Bandouchova, Hana; Berková, Hana; Blažek, Ján; Lučan, Radek; Horáček, Ivan; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Řehák, Zdeněk; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Because body temperature is tightly coupled to physiological function, hibernating animals entering deep torpor are typically immobile. We analysed thermal behaviour and locomotory activity of hibernating greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and found two types of movement behaviour related to body temperature, i.e. movement at high fur temperature and at low fur temperatures (Tflow; body temperature. Distance travelled, flight duration and speed of locomotion during Tflow events was lower than in high fur temperature events. Such behaviour could allow bats to save energy long-term and prolong torpor bouts. Tflow movement in torpid bats significantly changes our understanding of basic hibernation principles and we strongly recommend further studies on the subject. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effect of the relative shift between the electron density and temperature pedestal position on the pedestal stability in JET-ILW and comparison with JET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanikova, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Saarelma, S.; Loarte, A.; Nunes, I.; Garzotti, L.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Drewelow, P.; Kruezi, U.; Lomanowski, B.; de la Luna, E.; Meneses, L.; Peterka, M.; Viola, B.; Giroud, C.; Maggi, C.; contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The electron temperature and density pedestals tend to vary in their relative radial positions, as observed in DIII-D (Beurskens et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056120) and ASDEX Upgrade (Dunne et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 14017). This so-called relative shift has an impact on the pedestal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and hence on the pedestal height (Osborne et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 063018). The present work studies the effect of the relative shift on pedestal stability of JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) baseline low triangularity (δ) unseeded plasmas, and similar JET-C discharges. As shown in this paper, the increase of the pedestal relative shift is correlated with the reduction of the normalized pressure gradient, therefore playing a strong role in pedestal stability. Furthermore, JET-ILW tends to have a larger relative shift compared to JET carbon wall (JET-C), suggesting a possible role of the plasma facing materials in affecting the density profile location. Experimental results are then compared with stability analysis performed in terms of the peeling-ballooning model and with pedestal predictive model EUROPED (Saarelma et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion). Stability analysis is consistent with the experimental findings, showing an improvement of the pedestal stability, when the relative shift is reduced. This has been ascribed mainly to the increase of the edge bootstrap current, and to minor effects related to the increase of the pedestal pressure gradient and narrowing of the pedestal pressure width. Pedestal predictive model EUROPED shows a qualitative agreement with experiment, especially for low values of the relative shift.

  20. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.

    Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  1. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  2. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 1. Theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubczynski, Maciek W; Chavarro-Rincon, Diana; Roy, Jean

    2012-07-01

    Natural temperature gradient (NTG) can be a significant problem in thermal sap flow measurements, particularly in dry environments with sparse vegetation. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel correction method called cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) in its thermal dissipation probe (TDP) application. The CHD method is based on cyclic, switching ON/OFF power schema measurements and a three-exponential model, extrapolating measured signal to steady state thermal equilibrium. The extrapolated signal OFF represents NTG, whereas the extrapolated signal ON represents standard TDP signal, biased by NTG. Therefore, subtraction of the OFF signal from the ON signal allows defining the unbiased TDP signal, finally processed according to standard Granier calibration. The in vivo Kalahari measurements were carried out in three steps on four different tree species, first as NTG, then as standard TDP and finally in CHD mode, each step for ∼1-2 days. Afterwards, each tree was separated from its stem following modified Roberts' (1977) procedure, and CHD verification was applied. The typical NTG varying from ∼0.5 °C during night-time to -1 °C during day-time, after CHD correction, resulted in significant reduction of sap flux densities (J(p)) as compared with the standard TDP, particularly distinct for low J(p). The verification of the CHD method indicated ∼20% agreement with the reference method, largely dependent on the sapwood area estimate. The proposed CHD method offers the following advantages: (i) in contrast to any other NTG correction method, it removes NTG bias from the measured signal by using in situ, extrapolated to thermal equilibrium signal; (ii) it does not need any specific calibration making use of the standard Granier calibration; (iii) it provides a physical background to the proposed NTG correction; (iv) it allows for power savings; (v) it is not tied to TDP, and so can be adapted to other thermal methods. In its current state, the CHD data

  3. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on intraoperative core temperature in patients undergoing posterior spine surgery: prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyungseok; Do Son, Je; Lee, Hyung-Chul; Oh, Hyung-Min; Jung, Chul-Woo; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2018-03-01

    Objective Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) causes carotid baroreceptor unloading, which leads to thermoregulatory peripheral vasoconstriction. However, the effects of PEEP on intraoperative thermoregulation in the prone position remain unknown. Methods Thirty-seven patients undergoing spine surgery in the prone position were assigned at random to receive either 10 cmH 2 O PEEP (Group P) or no PEEP (Group Z). The primary endpoint was core temperature 180 minutes after intubation. Secondary endpoints were delta core temperature (difference in core temperature between 180 minutes and immediately after tracheal intubation), incidence of intraoperative hypothermia (core temperature of peripheral vasoconstriction-related data. Results The median [interquartile range] core temperature 180 minutes after intubation was 36.1°C [35.9°C-36.2°C] and 36.0°C [35.9°C-36.4°C] in Groups Z and P, respectively. The delta core temperature and incidences of intraoperative hypothermia and peripheral vasoconstriction were not significantly different between the two groups. The peripheral vasoconstriction threshold (36.2°C±0.5°C vs. 36.7°C±0.6°C) was lower and the onset of peripheral vasoconstriction (66 [60-129] vs. 38 [28-70] minutes) was slower in Group Z than in Group P. Conclusions Intraoperative PEEP did not reduce the core temperature decrease in the prone position, although it resulted in an earlier onset and higher threshold of peripheral vasoconstriction.

  4. The Merkel coefficient and its dependence on the temperature position of the cooling tower process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenke, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Merkel coefficient, or evaporation coefficient, is still being used as a characteristic factor for the cooling tower process. Its dependence on the cooling range or on the warm water temperature of the process is often considered a disadvantage of the theory of evaporation cooling. This is also the reason for the suggestion to change the theory in such a way that the Merkel coefficient becomes independent of the temperature. The present investigation, however, leads to the result that the dependence of the Merkel coefficient on the temperature must be considered as a remarkable confirmation for the evidence of the theory of heat and mass transfer, as the experimental statements agree fully with the results of the theoretical considerations. (orig.) [de

  5. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartonička, T.; Banďouchová, H.; Berková, Hana; Blažek, J.; Lučan, R.; Horáček, I.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, January (2017), s. 119-123 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Body temperature * Hibernation * Locomotor performance * Chiroptera * Flight Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016

  6. Temperature and pressure effects on the properties of positive streamers in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental results on how the properties of positive, pulsed streamers in air depend on E/n (E is the applied electric field and n is the gas density). Streamers are generated in a wire-cylinder reactor at constant voltage (so constant E). The density is changed either by

  7. Radiometric control of the position of blind holes axes in graphite blocks of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.L.; Bujas, R.; Lemonnier, A.; Tortel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of a radiometric method intended for controlling the positions of blind hole axes are given. A comparison is made between radiometry and radiography and the performances obtained using a thulium 170 source are described. The automation capabilities are discussed [fr

  8. Microbial Metabolism in Soil at Subzero Temperatures: Adaptation Mechanisms Revealed by Position-Specific 13C Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel K. Bore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although biogeochemical models designed to simulate carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems incorporate extracellular parameters, molecular and biochemical adaptations of microorganisms to freezing remain unclear. This knowledge gap hampers estimations of the C balance and ecosystem feedback in high-latitude regions. To analyze microbial metabolism at subzero temperatures, soils were incubated with isotopomers of position-specifically 13C-labeled glucose at three temperatures: +5 (control, -5, and -20°C. 13C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC after 1, 3, and 10 days and also after 30 days for samples at -20°C. Compared to +5°C, CO2 decreased 3- and 10-fold at -5 and -20°C, respectively. High 13C recovery in CO2 from the C-1 position indicates dominance of the pentose phosphate pathway at +5°C. In contrast, increased oxidation of the C-4 position at subzero temperatures implies a switch to glycolysis. A threefold higher 13C recovery in microbial biomass at -5 than +5°C points to synthesis of intracellular compounds such as glycerol and ethanol in response to freezing. Less than 0.4% of 13C was recovered in DOC after 1 day, demonstrating complete glucose uptake by microorganisms even at -20°C. Consequently, we attribute the fivefold higher extracellular 13C in soil than in microbial biomass to secreted antifreeze compounds. This suggests that with decreasing temperature, intracellular antifreeze protection is complemented by extracellular mechanisms to avoid cellular damage by crystallizing water. The knowledge of sustained metabolism at subzero temperatures will not only be useful for modeling global C dynamics in ecosystems with periodically or permanently frozen soils, but will also be important in understanding and controlling the adaptive mechanisms of food spoilage organisms.

  9. Unprecedented quality factors at accelerating gradients up to 45 MVm -1 in niobium superconducting resonators via low temperature nitrogen infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.; Checchin, M.; Martinello, M.; Melnychuk, O. S.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Posen, S.; Crawford, A. C.; Aderhold, S.; Bice, D.

    2017-08-14

    We report the finding of new surface treatments that permit to manipulate the niobium resonator nitrogen content in the first few nanometers in a controlled way, and the resonator fundamental Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance and residual resistance accordingly. In particular, we find surface infusion conditions that systematically a) increase the quality factor of these 1.3 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) bulk niobium resonators, up to very high gradients; b) increase the achievable accelerating gradient of the cavity compared to its own baseline with state-of-the-art surface processing. Cavities subject to the new surface process have larger than two times the state of the art Q at 2K for accelerating fields > 35 MV/m. Moreover, very high accelerating gradients ~ 45 MV/m are repeatedly reached, which correspond to peak magnetic surface fields of 190 mT, among the highest measured for bulk niobium cavities. These findings open the opportunity to tailor the surface impurity content distribution to maximize performance in Q and gradients, and have therefore very important implications on future performance and cost of SRF based accelerators. They also help deepen the understanding of the physics of the RF niobium cavity surface.

  10. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste; Interactions solide/solution et transferts de matiere dans un gradient de temperature. Application au confinement des dechets nucleaires de haute-activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets; [Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Laboratoire de Geologie

    1999-12-31

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the `hot` canisters and the `cold`geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  11. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste; Interactions solide/solution et transferts de matiere dans un gradient de temperature. Application au confinement des dechets nucleaires de haute-activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets]|[Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Laboratoire de Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the `hot` canisters and the `cold`geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  12. Studies of Interactions of Positive Helium Ions with Small Neutrals at Temperatures Below 50K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Martin Michael

    1990-01-01

    Interactions of He^+ ions with small neutrals are important because of their fundamental nature and applicability to other areas of research. In the past, very little work has been done on such systems at very low temperatures (T Boehringer and Arnold (1986) and Johnsen, Chen, and Biondi (1980). A new method of detecting the ions in the trap was also developed and implemented. The Fourier Transform Ion Z-resonance (FTIZR) technique took advantage of an induced coherence in the oscillations of the ions in the trap. This method allowed for measurement of faster ion -neutral reactions. This method was demonstrated by studying the non -resonant charge transfer process ^3He ^+{+}^4He{toatop >=ts}^3He{+}^4He^+. These measurements confirmed that the forward reaction is endothermic by about 1.1 meV.

  13. High-Temperature Creep Behaviour and Positive Effect on Straightening Deformation of Q345c Continuous Casting Slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Zhang, Xingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical and creep properties of Q345c continuous casting slab subjected to uniaxial tensile tests at high temperature were considered in this paper. The minimum creep strain rate and creep rupture life equations whose parameters are calculated by inverse-estimation using the regression analysis were derived based on experimental data. The minimum creep strain rate under constant stress increases with the increase of the temperature from 1000 °C to 1200 °C. A new casting machine curve with the aim of fully using high-temperature creep behaviour is proposed in this paper. The basic arc segment is cancelled in the new curve so that length of the straightening area can be extended and time of creep behaviour can be increased significantly. For the new casting machine curve, the maximum straightening strain rate at the slab surface is less than the minimum creep strain rate. So slab straightening deformation based on the steel creep behaviour at high temperature can be carried out in the process of Q345c steel continuous casting. The effect of creep property at high temperature on slab straightening deformation is positive. It is helpful for the design of new casting machine and improvement of old casting machine.

  14. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snover, Melissa; Adams, Michael J.; Ashton, Donald T.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-gradient growth, where growth per unit temperature increases as temperature decreases, can reduce the variation in ectothermic growth rates across environmental gradients. Understanding how ectothermic species respond to changing temperatures is essential to their conservation and management due to human-altered habitats and changing climates.

  15. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  16. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  17. Development of the temperature measurement device for the positive ion insensitive to the probe contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Shigeyuki; Tsutsumi, Shiro; Takeya, Yoshio

    1978-01-01

    The contamination effect to the d.c. probe in the plasma diagnostics is quite serious in the low density plasma. It causes the distortion or hysterisis curves on the probe characteristics. In order to escape it, for the Langmuir probe measurements, methods of high speed sweeping of probe voltage and using the cleaned probe are reported. In this paper, we dealed with the results of experimental examinations of the possibilities and the limitation of the application of above sweeping to the ion temperature measurement. The essential difficulties of the ion parameter measurements to the d.c. probe of the electrons that very small signal currents and the strong capacitance of the electrodes makes the large time constant, is solved by the use of the neutralization circuits. By this neutralization, high speed voltage sweeping can be possible, and high time resolution of the parameters can be obtained. Using this merits, when the probe is boarded on the space craft, this high space resolution of this probe has additive merits about the possibilities of the aspect measurements of plasma flow and the probe. It is concluded that the high scan rate ion trap is useful of the space craft to the erronious probing by the use of uncleaned probe. (author)

  18. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: → Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. → Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. → A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  19. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  20. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  1. Grape Ripening Is Regulated by Deficit Irrigation/Elevated Temperatures According to Cluster Position in the Canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Olfa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Egipto, Ricardo; Pinheiro, Carla; Genebra, Tânia; Gori, Antonella; Lopes, Carlos M; Tattini, Massimiliano; Chaves, M Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on berry quality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the performance of varieties exposed to a combination of high temperatures/water stress during the growing season and under vineyard conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two irrigation regimes, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 30% ET c ) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, 15% ET c ) and of two cluster positions within the canopy (east- and west-exposed sides) on berry ripening in red Aragonez (Tempranillo) grapevines. The study was undertaken for two successive years in a commercial vineyard in South Portugal, monitoring the following parameters: pre-dawn leaf water potential, berry temperature, sugars, polyphenols, abscisic acid (ABA) and related metabolites. Additionally, expression patterns for different transcripts encoding for enzymes responsible for anthocyanin and ABA biosynthesis ( VviUFGT, VvNCED1, Vv β G1, VviHyd1, VviHyd2 ) were analyzed. In both years anthocyanin concentration was lower in RDI at the west side (RDIW- the hottest one) from véraison onwards, suggesting that the most severe water stress conditions exacerbated the negative impact of high temperature on anthocyanin. The down-regulation of VviUFGT expression revealed a repression of the anthocyanin synthesis in berries of RDIW, at early stages of berry ripening. At full-maturation, anthocyanin degradation products were detected, being highest at RDIW. This suggests that the negative impact of water stress and high temperature on anthocyanins results from the repression of biosynthesis at the onset of ripening and from degradation at later stages. On the other hand, berries grown under SDI displayed a higher content in phenolics than those under RDI, pointing out for the attenuation of the negative temperature effects under SDI. Irrigation regime and berry position had small effect on free

  2. Gyrokinetic particle-in-cell global simulations of ion-temperature-gradient and collisionless-trapped-electron-mode turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolliet, S.

    2009-02-01

    The goal of thermonuclear fusion research is to provide power plants, that will be able to produce one gigawatt of electricity. Among the different ways to achieve fusion, the tokamak, based on magnetic confinement, is the most promising one. A gas is heated up to hundreds of millions of degrees and becomes a plasma, which is maintained - or confined - in a toroidal vessel by helical magnetic field lines. Then, deuterium and tritium are injected and fuse to create an α particle and an energetic neutron. In order to have a favorable power balance, the power produced by fusion reactions must exceed the power needed to heat the plasma and the power losses. This can be cast in a very simple expression which stipulates that the product of the density, the temperature and the energy confinement time must exceed some given value. Unfortunately, present-days tokamaks are not able to reach this condition, mostly due to plasma turbulence. The latter phenomenon enhances the heat losses and degrades the energy confinement time, which cannot be predicted by analytical theories such as the so-called neoclassical theory in which the heat losses are caused by Coulomb collisions. Therefore, numerical simulations are being developed to model plasma turbulence, mainly caused by the Ion and Electron Temperature-Gradient and the Trapped-Electron-Mode (TEM) instabilities. The plasma is described by a distribution function which evolves according to the Vlasov equation. The electromagnetic fields created by the particles are self-consistently obtained through Maxwell’s equations. The resulting Vlasov-Maxwell system is greatly simplified by using the gyrokinetic theory, which consists, through an appropriate ordering, of eliminating the fast gyromotion (compared to the typical frequency of instabilities). Nevertheless, it is still extremely difficult to solve this system numerically due to the large range of time and spatial scales to be resolved. In this thesis, the Vlasov

  3. A theoretical study on the accuracy of the T-history method for enthalpy–temperature curve measurement: analysis of the influence of thermal gradients inside T-history samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo, Javier; Delgado, Mónica; Lázaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Peñalosa, Conchita; Marín, José María; Zalba, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The present work analyses the effect of radial thermal gradients inside T-history samples on the enthalpy temperature curve measurement. A conduction heat transfer model has been utilized for this purpose. Some expressions have been obtained that relate the main dimensionless numbers of the experiments with the deviations in specific heat capacity, phase change enthalpy and phase change temperature estimations. Although these relations can only be strictly applied to solid materials (e.g. measurements of shape stabilized phase change materials), they can provide some useful and conservative bounds for the deviations of the T-history method. Biot numbers emerge as the most relevant dimensionless parameters in the accuracy of the specific heat capacity and phase change enthalpy estimation whereas this model predicts a negligible influence of the temperature levels used for the experiments or the Stefan number. (paper)

  4. Estimation of internal heat transfer coefficients and detection of rib positions in gas turbine blades from transient surface temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidrich, P; Wolfersdorf, J v; Schmidt, S; Schnieder, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive, non-destructive, transient inverse measurement technique that allows one to determine internal heat transfer coefficients and rib positions of real gas turbine blades from outer surface temperature measurements after a sudden flow heating. The determination of internal heat transfer coefficients is important during the design process to adjust local heat transfer to spatial thermal load. The detection of rib positions is important during production to fulfill design and quality requirements. For the analysis the one-dimensional transient heat transfer problem inside of the turbine blade's wall was solved. This solution was combined with the Levenberg-Marquardt method to estimate the unknown boundary condition by an inverse technique. The method was tested with artificial data to determine uncertainties with positive results. Then experimental testing with a reference model was carried out. Based on the results, it is concluded that the presented inverse technique could be used to determine internal heat transfer coefficients and to detect rib positions of real turbine blades.

  5. Presence of a Temperature Gradient Among Genital Tract Portions and the Thermal Changes Within These Portions Over the Estrous Cycle in Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SHEIKH ALI, Hossam; KITAHARA, Go; TAMURA, Youji; KOBAYASHI, Ikuo; HEMMI, Koichiro; TORISU, Shidow; SAMESHIMA, Hiroshi; HORII, Yoichiro; ZAABEL, Samy; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (V...

  6. Distinct positive temperature coefficient effect of polymer-carbon fiber composites evaluated in terms of polymer absorption on fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo

    2016-03-21

    In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect.

  7. Influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal humidification and temperature in a bench model of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hendrik S; Ullrich, Tim L; Bührer, Christoph; Czernik, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    Clinical studies show that non-invasive respiratory support by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) affects gas conditioning in the upper airways, especially in the presence of mouth leaks. Using a new bench model of neonatal CPAP, we investigated the influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity. The model features the insertion of a heated humidifier between an active model lung and an oropharyngeal head model to simulate the recurrent expiration of heated, humidified air. During unsupported breathing, physiological temperature and humidity were attained inside the model oropharynx, and mouth opening had no significant effect on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity. During binasal CPAP, the impact of mouth opening was investigated using three different scenarios: no conditioning in the CPAP circuit, heating only, and heated humidification. Mouth opening had a strong negative impact on oropharyngeal humidification in all tested scenarios, but heated humidification in the CPAP circuit maintained clinically acceptable humidity levels regardless of closed or open mouths. The model can be used to test new equipment for use with CPAP, and to investigate the effects of other methods of non-invasive respiratory support on gas conditioning in the presence of leaks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Presence of a temperature gradient among genital tract portions and the thermal changes within these portions over the estrous cycle in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kitahara, Go; Tamura, Youji; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hemmi, Koichiro; Torisu, Shidow; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Zaabel, Samy; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (VT), cervix (CT), uterine body (UBT) and uterine horns (UHT). Blood samples were collected immediately before temperature recording to assay peripheral levels of progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17β (E(2)). Moreover, transrectal ultrasonography was carried out after temperature recording to monitor the ovulatory follicle and track ovulation. During the experiment, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for further calculation of the temperature humidity index (THI). The temperature within the genital tracts in these cows progressively increased towards the uterine horns from the vagina. The VT, CT, UBT and UHTs were significantly higher in association with peripheral P(4) concentrations greater than 4 ng/ml (mid-luteal phase) when compared with lower peripheral P(4) concentrations. The VT was more significantly (Pfemale genital tract in bovine.

  9. Crystalline maricite NaFePO4 as a positive electrode material for sodium secondary batteries operating at intermediate temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinkwang; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Orikasa, Yuki; Katayama, Misaki; Inada, Yasuhiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2018-02-01

    Maricite NaFePO4 (m-NaFePO4) was investigated as a positive electrode material for intermediate-temperature operation of sodium secondary batteries using ionic liquid electrolytes. Powdered m-NaFePO4 was prepared by a conventional solid-state method at 873 K and subsequently fabricated in two different conditions; one is ball-milled in acetone and the other is re-calcined at 873 K after the ball-milling. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes prepared with the as-synthesized m-NaFePO4, the ball-milled m-NaFePO4, and the re-calcined m-NaFePO4 were investigated in Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+ = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, FSA- = bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquid electrolytes at 298 K and 363 K to assess the effects of temperature and particle size on their electrochemical properties. A reversible charge-discharge capacity of 107 mAh g-1 was achieved with a coulombic efficiency >98% from the 2nd cycle using the ball-milled m-NaFePO4 electrode at a C-rate of 0.1 C and 363 K. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using m-NaFePO4/m-NaFePO4 symmetric cells indicated that inactive m-NaFePO4 becomes an active material through ball-milling treatment and elevation of operating temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline m-NaFePO4 confirmed the lattice contraction and expansion upon charging and discharging, respectively. These results indicate that the desodiation-sodiation process in m-NaFePO4 is reversible in the intermediate-temperature range.

  10. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis H Ziska

    Full Text Available Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013 from -28.6°C (Minnesota to -5.1°C (Louisiana. Although soybean yields (per hectare did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013 indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023 showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  11. Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-06-16

    Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.

  12. Survival and behaviour of juvenile unionid mussels exposed to thermal stress and dewatering in the presence of a sediment temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, L.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) are a highly imperilled faunal group. One critical threat is thermal sensitivity, because global climate change and other anthropogenic activities contribute to increasing stream temperature and altered hydrologic flow that may be detrimental to freshwater mussels.

  13. Application of a gradient diffusion and dissipation time scale ratio model for prediction of mean and fluctuating temperature fields in liquid sodium downstream of a multi-bore jet block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremhorst, K.; Listijono, J.B.H.; Krebs, L.; Mueller, U.

    1989-01-01

    A previously developed diffusivity based based model, for the prediction of mean and fluctuating temperatures in water flow downstream of a multi-bore jet block in which one jet is heated, is applied to a flow of sodium in apparatus of similar geometry. Some measurements not readily possible in sodium or water flows for this geometry are made using air in order to verify assumptions used in the model. The earlier derived mathematical model is modified to remove assumptions relating to turbulence. Reynolds number and turbulence Peclet number in the relationship between velocity and temperature microscales. Spalding's model, relating fluctuating velocity and temperature dissipation rates, is tested. A significant effect on this relationship due to the low Prandtl number of liquid sodium is identified. Measurements performed behind a multi-bore jet block with air as the working fluid have verified the non-isotropic nature of the large-scale flow. Results clearly show that measurements performed in water can be transferred to liquid sodium provided that molecular diffusion is included in the mean temperature equation, allowance is made for the Prandtl number effect on the dissipation time scale ratio and the coefficient of gradient diffusion of mean square temperature fluctuations is assumed equal to the eddy diffusivity of heat. (author)

  14. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs using the experimental values such as densities (ρ and ultrasonic sound velocities (u that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  15. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E) ) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs ) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E) and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  16. Microinstabilities in weak density gradient tokamak systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Chen, L.

    1986-04-01

    A prominent characteristic of auxiliary-heated tokamak discharges which exhibit improved (''H-mode type'') confinement properties is that their density profiles tend to be much flatter over most of the plasma radius. Depsite this favorable trend, it is emphasized here that, even in the limit of zero density gradient, low-frequency microinstabilities can persist due to the nonzero temperature gradient

  17. Low temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. Key Results A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field...... conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M. × giganteus ‘Hornum’. Several genotypes...... returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. Conclusions One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M. × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M. × giganteus or for breeding new...

  18. Analysis of temperature profile and electric field in natural rubber glove due to microwave heating: effects of waveguide position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keangin, P.; Narumitbowonkul, U.; Rattanadecho, P.

    2018-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is the key raw material used in the manufacture of other products such as rubber band, tire and shoes. Recently, the NR is used in natural rubber glove ( NRG) manufacturing in the industrial and medical fields. This research aims to investigate the electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer in NRG due to heating with microwave energy within the microwave oven at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The comparative effects of waveguide position on the electric field and temperature profile in NRG when subjected to microwave energy are discussed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the transient Maxwell’s equation coupled with the transient heat transfer equation. The simulation results with computer programs are validated with experimental results. The placement of waveguides in three cases are left hand side of microwave oven, right hand side of microwave oven and left and right hand sides of microwave oven are investigated. The findings revealed that the placing the waveguide on the right side of the microwave oven gives the highest electric field and temperature profile. The values obtained provide an indication toward understanding the study of heat transfer in NRG during microwave heating in the industry.

  19. Strength gradient enhances fatigue resistance of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongtao; Wei, Yujie; Gao, Huajian

    2016-02-01

    Steels are heavily used in infrastructure and the transportation industry, and enhancing their fatigue resistance is a major challenge in materials engineering. In this study, by introducing a gradient microstructure into 304 austenitic steel, which is one of the most widely used types of stainless steel, we show that a strength gradient substantially enhances the fatigue life of the material. Pre-notched samples with negative strength gradients in front of the notch’s tip endure many more fatigue cycles than do samples with positive strength gradients during the crack initiation stage, and samples with either type of gradient perform better than do gradient-free samples with the same average yield strength. However, as a crack grows, samples with positive strength gradients exhibit better resistance to fatigue crack propagation than do samples with negative gradients or no gradient. This study demonstrates a simple and promising strategy for using gradient structures to enhance the fatigue resistance of materials and complements related studies of strength and ductility.

  20. RESPONSE OF HATCHLING AND YEARLING TURTLES TO THERMAL GRADIENTS: COMPARISON OF CHELYDRA SERPENTINA AND TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In laboratory test, young Chelydra serpentina and Trachemys scripta altered their distribution in the presence of a temperature gradient. Selection of temperatures in the gradient for hatchlings and yearlings showed that body temperature (Tbs) of C. serpentina were lower tha...

  1. The effect of addition of primary positive salts, complex salt, on the ionic strength and rate constant at various temperatures by reaction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurade, S. S.; Ramteke, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have investigated the rate of reaction by using ionic strength at different temperatures. The main goal of this experiment is to determine the relation between ionic strength with reaction rate, reaction time and rate constant with temperature. It is observed that the addition of positive salt indicate the increasing ionic strength with increase in run time at various temperatures. Thus the temperature affects the speed of reaction and mechanism by which chemical reaction occurs and time variable plays vital role in the progress of reaction at different temperatures.

  2. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  3. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant...

  4. Vertically aligned CNT growth on a microfabricated silicon heater with integrated temperature control—determination of the activation energy from a continuous thermal gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engstrøm, Daniel Southcott; Rupesinghe, Nalin L; Teo, Kenneth B K

    2011-01-01

    Silicon microheaters for local growth of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) were fabricated. The microheaters had a four-point-probe structure that measured the silicon conductivity variations in the heated region which is a measure of the temperature. Through FEM simulations the temper...

  5. Differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture drive the carbon balance across a climatic gradient in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; John P. Delong; Andrew M. Fox; Daniel A. Brese; Marcy E. Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of spatio-temporal...

  6. In-situ fabrication of MoSi{sub 2}/SiC–Mo{sub 2}C gradient anti-oxidation coating on Mo substrate and the crucial effect of Mo{sub 2}C barrier layer at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Beijing 100084 (China); Gong, Qianming, E-mail: gongqianming@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao, Yang; Zhuang, Daming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang, Ji [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-07-01

    MoSi{sub 2}/SiC–Mo{sub 2}C gradient coating on molybdenum was in situ prepared with pack cementation process by two steps: (1) carburizing with graphite powder to obtain a Mo{sub 2}C layer on Mo substrate, and (2) siliconizing with Si powder to get a composite MoSi{sub 2}/SiC layer on the upper part of Mo{sub 2}C layer. The microstructure and elemental distribution in the coating were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cyclic oxidation tests (at 500 °C, 1200 °C, 1400 °C and 1600 °C) demonstrated excellent oxidation resistance for the gradient composite coating and the mass loss was only 0.23% in 60 min at 1600 °C. XRD, EPMA, thermal dynamic and phase diagram analyses indicated that the Mo{sub 2}C barrier layer played the key role in slowing down the diffusion of C and Si toward inner Mo substrate at high temperature and principally this contributed to the excellent anti-oxidation for Mo besides the outer MoSi{sub 2}/SiC composite layer.

  7. In-situ fabrication of MoSi2/SiC–Mo2C gradient anti-oxidation coating on Mo substrate and the crucial effect of Mo2C barrier layer at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jun; Gong, Qianming; Shao, Yang; Zhuang, Daming; Liang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    MoSi 2 /SiC–Mo 2 C gradient coating on molybdenum was in situ prepared with pack cementation process by two steps: (1) carburizing with graphite powder to obtain a Mo 2 C layer on Mo substrate, and (2) siliconizing with Si powder to get a composite MoSi 2 /SiC layer on the upper part of Mo 2 C layer. The microstructure and elemental distribution in the coating were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cyclic oxidation tests (at 500 °C, 1200 °C, 1400 °C and 1600 °C) demonstrated excellent oxidation resistance for the gradient composite coating and the mass loss was only 0.23% in 60 min at 1600 °C. XRD, EPMA, thermal dynamic and phase diagram analyses indicated that the Mo 2 C barrier layer played the key role in slowing down the diffusion of C and Si toward inner Mo substrate at high temperature and principally this contributed to the excellent anti-oxidation for Mo besides the outer MoSi 2 /SiC composite layer.

  8. Spatial gradients of temperature, accumulation and δ18O-ice in Greenland over a series of Dansgaard–Oeschger events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guillevic

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Air and water stable isotope measurements from four Greenland deep ice cores (GRIP, GISP2, NGRIP and NEEM are investigated over a series of Dansgaard–Oeschger events (DO 8, 9 and 10, which are representative of glacial millennial scale variability. Combined with firn modeling, air isotope data allow us to quantify abrupt temperature increases for each drill site (1σ = 0.6 °C for NEEM, GRIP and GISP2, 1.5 °C for NGRIP. Our data show that the magnitude of stadial–interstadial temperature increase is up to 2 °C larger in central and North Greenland than in northwest Greenland: i.e., for DO 8, a magnitude of +8.8 °C is inferred, which is significantly smaller than the +11.1 °C inferred at GISP2. The same spatial pattern is seen for accumulation increases. This pattern is coherent with climate simulations in response to reduced sea-ice extent in the Nordic seas. The temporal water isotope (δ18O–temperature relationship varies between 0.3 and 0.6 (±0.08 ‰ °C−1 and is systematically larger at NEEM, possibly due to limited changes in precipitation seasonality compared to GISP2, GRIP or NGRIP. The gas age−ice age difference of warming events represented in water and air isotopes can only be modeled when assuming a 26% (NGRIP to 40% (GRIP lower accumulation than that derived from a Dansgaard–Johnsen ice flow model.

  9. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  10. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Popescu, G.M.; Dobrin, D.N.; Cristescu, T.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.; Tamaian, R.

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  11. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  12. Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients. B. Berg, Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Monte San Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. Studies of several processes, using climatic gradients do provide new information as compared with studies at e.g. a single site. Decomposition of plant litter in such gradients give response in decomposition rates to natural climate conditions. Thus Scots pine needle litter incubated in a climate gradient with annual average temperature (AVGT) ranging from -0.5 to 6.8oC had a highly significant increase in initial mass-loss rate with R2 = 0.591 (p<0.001) and a 5o increase in temperature doubled the mass-loss rate. As a contrast - needle litter of Norway spruce incubated in the same transect had no significant response to climate and for initial litter a 5o increase increased mass-loss rate c. 6%. For more decomposed Scots pine litter we could see that the effect of temperature on mass-loss rate gradually decreased until it disappeared. Long-term decomposition studies revealed differences in litter decomposition patterns along a gradient, even for the same type of litter. This could be followed by using an asymptotic function that gave, (i) a measure a maximum level of decomposition, (ii) the initial decomposition rate. Over a gradient the calculated maximum level of decomposition decreased with increasing AVGT. Other gradient studies revealed an effect of AVGT on litter chemical composition. Pine needle litter from stands under different climate conditions had nutrient concentrations related to AVGT. Thus N, P, K, and S were positively related to AVGT and Mn negatively, all of them significantly. This information may be used to explain the changing pattern in decomposition over the gradient.

  13. Conservation status affects elevational gradient in bird diversity in the Himalaya: A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Paudel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns along altitudinal gradients, and their underlying causes are important for conserving biodiversity. Previous studies have focused on climatic, energetic, and geographic variables (e.g., mid-domain effects, with less attention paid to human-induced habitat modifications. We used published data of bird distributions along an elevational gradient (0–4900 m in the Nepalese Himalaya and interpolated species presence between elevational limits. The relationship between species richness and environmental variables was analyzed using generalized linear models. A low plateau relationship between bird richness and elevation was observed, with a main peak at intermediate elevations (2800 m. Across the total gradient, interpolated bird species richness had a unimodal relationship to maximum monthly precipitation and a linear response to seasonal variation in temperature, proportion of forest cover, and proportion of protected area. In lower elevations (0–2800 m, interpolated species richness had a positive and linear response to the proportion of Ramsar sites and a unimodal response to habitat heterogeneity. At higher elevations (2900–4900 m, interpolated bird richness had a positive linear response to monthly variation in temperature and a negative linear response to proportion forest cover. We conclude that factors related to human management are important drivers of elevational gradients in bird species richness. Keywords: Elevational gradient, Biogeography, Bird species richness, Conservation, Himalaya, Nepal

  14. $L_{0}$ Gradient Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shunsuke

    2017-04-01

    Minimizing L 0 gradient, the number of the non-zero gradients of an image, together with a quadratic data-fidelity to an input image has been recognized as a powerful edge-preserving filtering method. However, the L 0 gradient minimization has an inherent difficulty: a user-given parameter controlling the degree of flatness does not have a physical meaning since the parameter just balances the relative importance of the L 0 gradient term to the quadratic data-fidelity term. As a result, the setting of the parameter is a troublesome work in the L 0 gradient minimization. To circumvent the difficulty, we propose a new edge-preserving filtering method with a novel use of the L 0 gradient. Our method is formulated as the minimization of the quadratic data-fidelity subject to the hard constraint that the L 0 gradient is less than a user-given parameter α . This strategy is much more intuitive than the L 0 gradient minimization because the parameter α has a clear meaning: the L 0 gradient value of the output image itself, so that one can directly impose a desired degree of flatness by α . We also provide an efficient algorithm based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers for computing an approximate solution of the nonconvex problem, where we decompose it into two subproblems and derive closed-form solutions to them. The advantages of our method are demonstrated through extensive experiments.

  15. Elemental gradients in macrophytes from a reactor effluent gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, J.B.; Tilly, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The tissues of submersed macrophtes from along the thermal gradient were analyzed for phosphorus to determine whether any pattern correspondent to standing crop distributions could be detected. Although water concentrations of phosphorus showed no detectable relationship to the thermal effluent, tissue concentrations of this element in submersed macrophytes declined with distance from the effluent entry point. The occurrence of this concentration pattern suggests that phosphorus availability is greater near the discharge. Because phosphorus is the element most often determined to limit aquatic productivity, its greater availability may partially account for the apparent enhancement of macrophte growth near the thermal discharge. A patter of macrophyte abundance which indicated enchancement related to the discharge gradient in the reactor-cooling reservoir, Par Pond is reported. Correlative data tended to implicate light and temperature as important in influencing the differential abundance pattern

  16. Metabolic rates and tissue composition of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa over 12 latitudes in the Red Sea characterized by strong temperature and nutrient gradient, supplement to: Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, A; Hohn, S; Banguera-Hinestroza, E; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin (2015): Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming. Scientific Reports, 5, 8940

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5 degrees N, 21-27 degrees C) and southern (16.5 degrees N, 28-33 degrees C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29 degrees C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals

  17. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherginskaya, S.A.; Cann, I.K.O.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

  18. Destabilization of drift waves due to nonuniform density gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, A.; Ishihara, O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the conventional mode differential equation for low frequency electrostatic waves in a tokamak does not contain full ion dynamics. Both electrons and ions contribute to the ballooning term, which is subject to finite ion Larmor radius effects. Also, both fluid ion approximation and kinetic ion model yield the same correction. Reexamined are the density gradient universal mode and ion temperature gradient instability employing the lowest order Pearlstein-Berk type radial eigenfunctions. No unstable, bounded, energy outgoing eigenfunctions have been found. In particular, a large ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) tends to further stabilize the temperature gradient driven mode

  19. USE OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS TO SIMULATE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN BROILER HOUSES WITH NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE TUNNEL TYPE VENTILATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Saraz, Jairo Alexander; Arêdes Martins, Marcio; Oliveira Rocha, Keller Sullivan; Silva Machado, Neiton; Ciro Velasques, Hector José

    2013-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical countries such as Brazil, temperatures inside agricultural facilities reach values greater than those considered suitable for thermal comfort for both animals and people. To predict the behavior and distribution of temperature in all directions of the structure and make correct decisions about the inside environment, the classic research method would require a significant experimental arrangement. Consequently, classic methodologies do not offer immediate informati...

  20. Elevated CO2-mitigation of high temperature stress associated with maintenance of positive carbon balance and carbohydrate accumulation in Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism.

  1. Room temperature giant positive junction magnetoresistance of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/n-Si heterojunction for spintronics application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, J.; Saha, S.N.; Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-09-01

    Electronic- and magnetic-transport properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NFO)–SiO{sub 2}–Si heterojunction fabricated by depositing NFO thin films on silicon substrates with the intermediate native oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layer have been investigated in details. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics across the junction have been recorded in the temperature range of 10–300 K. All I–V curves show non-linear behavior throughout the temperature range. The dominating current transport mechanism is found to be temperature dependent tunneling assisted by Frenkel–Poole type emission. In this paper, we report the junction magnetoresistance (JMR) properties of this heterojunction in the temperature range of 10–300 K. With increasing temperature, the JMR of the heterojunction increases accordingly. The high positive JMR (∼54%) has been observed at room temperature (RT). The origin of high positive JMR at RT is attributed to efficient spin-polarized carrier transport across the junction.

  2. Regional evapotranspiration from an image-based implementation of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC1.2) model and its validation across an aridity gradient in the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nishan; Mallick, Kaniska; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Sun, Ge; Jain, Meha

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the need for improved characterizations of aerodynamic conductance and temperature (gA and T0) in thermal remote-sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to reduce uncertainties in regional-scale evapotranspiration (ET) mapping. By integrating radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) equation and finding analytical solutions of gA and T0, this need was recently addressed by the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) model. However, previous implementations of STIC were confined to the ecosystem-scale using flux tower observations of infrared temperature. This study demonstrates the first regional-scale implementation of the most recent version of the STIC model (STIC1.2) that integrates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived TR and ancillary land surface variables in conjunction with NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation System) atmospheric variables into a combined structure of the PM and Shuttleworth-Wallace (SW) framework for estimating ET at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. Evaluation of STIC1.2 at 13 core AmeriFlux sites covering a broad spectrum of climates and biomes across an aridity gradient in the conterminous US suggests that STIC1.2 can provide spatially explicit ET maps with reliable accuracies from dry to wet extremes. When observed ET from one wet, one dry, and one normal precipitation year from all sites were combined, STIC1.2 explained 66 % of the variability in observed 8-day cumulative ET with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 7.4 mm/8-day, mean absolute error (MAE) of 5 mm/8-day, and percent bias (PBIAS) of -4 %. These error statistics showed relatively better accuracies than a widely used but previous version of the SEB-based Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model, which utilized a simple NDVI-based parameterization of surface roughness (zOM), and the PM-based MOD16 ET. SEBS was found to overestimate (PBIAS = 28 %) and MOD16 was found

  3. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  4. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of diamond-containing function-gradient materials with a ceramic matrix based on TiB2-TiN and Ti5Si3-TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashov, E.A.; Akulinin, P.V.; Sorokin, M.N.; Sviridova, T.A.; Khosomi, S.; Okh'yanagi, M.; Koizumi, S.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time a study is made into specific features of phase- and structure formation in diamond-bearing functionally gradient materials (FGM) with a ceramic binder on the basis of titanium diboride and nitride TiB 2 -TiN as well as titanium silicide and nitride Ti 5 Si 3 -TiN. For a titanium diboride and nitride base binder the maximum residual strength of diamond grains is 24 N for a specimen with 12.5 vol. % of diamond and 29 N for a specimen with 25 vol. % of diamond in a charge layer when an initial strength of diamond grains is equal to 37 N. For a titanium silicide and nitride base binder the residual strength of diamond in synthesized products is 32.5 and 28.7 N for specimens with 12.5 and 25 vol. % of diamond respectively, the initial strength of diamond grains being the same. A positive effect is shown for a 5% additive of titanium hydride in a charge diamond-bearing layer on the preservation of diamond in a tita nium diboride and nitride binder. Optimal conditions are determined to provide the possibility of obtaining high-quality products with a high degree of preservation and strength of diamond grains [ru

  5. Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaga, H; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Fujita, T [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: takenaga.hidenobu@jaea.go.jp

    2008-07-15

    Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles have been investigated using negative ion based neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U. Strong internal transport barrier (ITB) was maintained in density and ion temperature profiles, when central fuelling was decreased by switching positive ion based neutral beam injection to ECH after the strong ITB formation. Similar density and ion temperature ITBs were formed for the low and high central fuelling cases during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Strong correlation between the density gradient and the ion temperature gradient was observed, indicating that particle transport and ion thermal transport are strongly coupled or the density gradient assists the ion temperature ITB formation through suppression of drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient mode. These results support that the density and ion temperature ITBs can be formed under reactor relevant conditions.

  6. Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, H.; Ide, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujita, T.; JT-60 Team

    2008-07-01

    Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles have been investigated using negative ion based neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U. Strong internal transport barrier (ITB) was maintained in density and ion temperature profiles, when central fuelling was decreased by switching positive ion based neutral beam injection to ECH after the strong ITB formation. Similar density and ion temperature ITBs were formed for the low and high central fuelling cases during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Strong correlation between the density gradient and the ion temperature gradient was observed, indicating that particle transport and ion thermal transport are strongly coupled or the density gradient assists the ion temperature ITB formation through suppression of drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient mode. These results support that the density and ion temperature ITBs can be formed under reactor relevant conditions.

  7. Archaeal and bacterial H-GDGTs are abundant in peat and their relative abundance is positively correlated with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, B. D. A.; McCormick, D.; Inglis, G. N.; Pancost, R. D.; T-GRES Peat Database Collaborators

    2018-04-01

    Glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GMGTs; also called 'H-GDGTs') differ from the more commonly studied glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGTs) in that they have an additional covalent bond that links the two alkyl chains. Six different archaeal isoprenoidal H-GDGTs (H-isoGDGTs) and one branched H-GDGT (H-brGDGT), presumably produced by bacteria, have previously been found. However, the function of H-GDGTs in both domains of life is unknown. It is thought that the formation of this additional covalent bond results in enhanced membrane stability, accounting for the high abundance of H-GDGTs in extreme environments such as geothermal settings, but so far there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we report the distribution of H-GDGTs in a global peat database (n = 471) with a broad range in mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and pH. This is the first finding of H-GDGTs in soils (specifically, peat), highlighting that H-GDGTs are widespread in mesophilic settings. In addition, we report the presence of two new H-brGDGTs with one (H-1034) and two (H-1048) additional methyl groups, respectively. Our results suggest that the relative abundance of both bacterial and archaeal H-GDGTs compared to regular GDGTs is related to temperature with the highest relative abundance of H-GDGTs in tropical peats. Although other factors besides temperature likely also play a role, these results do support the hypothesis that H-GDGTs are an adaptation to temperature to maintain membrane stability. The observation that both bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids respond to temperature indicates the same adaption across the lipid divide between these two domains of life, suggesting parallel or convergent evolution (potentially facilitated by lateral gene transfer).

  8. SPIDER. IV. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED COLOR GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: NEW INSIGHT INTO CORRELATIONS WITH GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Barbera, F.; De Carvalho, R. R.; De La Rosa, I. G.; Gal, R. R.; Swindle, R.; Lopes, P. A. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of stellar population gradients in 4546 early-type galaxies (ETGs) with photometry in grizYHJK along with optical spectroscopy. ETGs were selected as bulge-dominated systems, displaying passive spectra within the SDSS fibers. A new approach is described which utilizes color information to constrain age and metallicity gradients. Defining an effective color gradient, ∇ * , which incorporates all of the available color indices, we investigate how ∇ * varies with galaxy mass proxies, i.e., velocity dispersion, stellar (M * ) and dynamical (M dyn ) masses, as well as age, metallicity, and [α/Fe]. ETGs with M dyn larger than 8.5 x 10 10 M sun have increasing age gradients and decreasing metallicity gradients with respect to mass, metallicity, and enhancement. We find that velocity dispersion and [α/Fe] are the main drivers of these correlations. ETGs with 2.5 x 10 10 M sun ≤ M dyn ≤ 8.5 x 10 10 M sun show no correlation of age, metallicity, and color gradients with respect to mass, although color gradients still correlate with stellar population parameters, and these correlations are independent of each other. In both mass regimes, the striking anti-correlation between color gradient and α-enhancement is significant at ∼5σ and results from the fact that metallicity gradient decreases with [α/Fe]. This anti-correlation may reflect the fact that star formation and metallicity enrichment are regulated by the interplay between the energy input from supernovae, and the temperature and pressure of the hot X-ray gas in ETGs. For all mass ranges, positive age gradients are associated with old galaxies (>5-7 Gyr). For galaxies younger than ∼5 Gyr, mostly at low mass, the age gradient tends to be anti-correlated with the Age parameter, with more positive gradients at younger ages.

  9. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  10. Quaternion Gradient and Hessian

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of real scalar functions of quaternion variables, such as the mean square error or array output power, underpins many practical applications. Solutions typically require the calculation of the gradient and Hessian. However, real functions of quaternion variables are essentially nonanalytic, which are prohibitive to the development of quaternion-valued learning systems. To address this issue, we propose new definitions of quaternion gradient and Hessian, based on the novel gen...

  11. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient...... in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  12. Tail position affects the body temperature of rats during cold exposure in a low-energy state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nakamura, Mayumi; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Nagashima, Kei

    2012-02-01

    Rats place their tails underneath their body trunks when cold (tail-hiding behavior). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this behavior is necessary to maintain body temperature. Male Wistar rats were divided into 'fed' and '42-h fasting' groups. A one-piece tail holder (8.4 cm in length) that prevented the tail-hiding behavior or a three-piece tail holder (2.8 cm in length) that allowed for the tail-hiding behavior was attached to the tails of the rats. The rats were exposed to 27°C for 180 min or to 20°C for 90 min followed by 15°C for 90 min with continuous body temperature and oxygen consumption measurements. Body temperature decreased by -1.0 ± 0.1°C at 15°C only in the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior of the 42-h fasting group, and oxygen consumption increased at 15°C in all animals. Oxygen consumption was not different between the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior and the rats that allowed the behavior in the fed and 42-h fasting groups under ambient conditions. These results show that the tail-hiding behavior is involved in thermoregulation in the cold in fasting rats.

  13. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers

  14. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou Unversity, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 {mu} C m{sup -1} for lead zirconate titanate to 100 {mu} C m{sup -1} for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.

  15. Gradient Alloy for Optical Packaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in additive manufacturing, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), enables the fabrication of compositionally gradient microstructures, i.e. gradient...

  16. The effect of temperature and the control rod position on the spatial neutron flux distribution in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Omar, H.; Ghazi, N.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water and fuel temperature increase and changes in the control rod positions on the spatial neutron flux distribution in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is discussed. The cross sections of all the reactor components at different temperatures are generated using the WIMSD4 code. These group constants are used then in the CITATION code to calculate the special neutron flux distribution using four energy groups. This work shows that water and fuel temperature increase in the reactor during the reactor daily operating time does not affect the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor. Changing the control rod position does not affect as well the spatial neutron flux distribution except in the region around the control rod position. This stability in the spatial neutron flux distribution, especially in the inner and outer irradiation sites, makes MNSR as a good tool for the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique and production of radioisotopes with medium or short half lives during the reactor daily operating time. (author)

  17. An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  19. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a