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Sample records for positive teacher-child relationships

  1. Teacher-child relationships as dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with the quality of the teacher-child relationship from first through fifth grade using data from phases I, II and III of the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1364 children from birth through sixth grade. On average, children evidenced moderately high quality relationships with teachers in fifth grade. However, there was extensive variation in fifth grade relationship quality across children. Children who received more support and stimulation at home and whose parents had higher quality interactions with the school had higher quality relationships. Additionally, children in classrooms with more positive environments and better management had higher quality relationships. Lastly, females, European-American children, children with lower levels of behavior problems and children who had higher quality relationships with their teachers in kindergarten also had higher quality relationships with teachers. On average, children evidenced decreases in the quality of their relationships with teachers from first through fifth grade. Interestingly, children whose parents had more contact with their schools, who were in schools where teachers received higher salaries and in classrooms that had more positive emotional climates and that were better managed evidenced slower rates of decline in relationship quality. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships and Classroom-Learning Behaviours of Children with Developmental Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoad-Drogalis, Anna; Justice, Laura M.; Sawyer, Brook E.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental language disorders (DLDs) often struggle with classroom behaviour. No study has examined whether positive teacher-child relationships may act as a protective factor for children with DLDs in that these serve to enhance children's important classroom-learning behaviours. Aims: To examine the association…

  4. Teacher-child relationships beyond individual competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Nina

    2018-01-01

    and the relationships between them, can be seen as emerging from far more complex grounds than those of the ‘social and emotional competencies’ of the teachers or e.g. the attachment profiles of the students. While acknowledging the great importance of the relationship between teachers and students for the well...

  5. Middle Childhood Teacher-Child Relationships: Insights from an Attachment Perspective and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research points to the significance of teacher-child relationships in shaping children's development. Extending the research literature on early childhood, this review examines the value of an attachment perspective to the study of teacher-child relationships in middle childhood. First, we discuss the conceptualization and…

  6. Sensitivity in Teachers' Interaction Processes Is Central to the Improvement of Teacher-Child Relationships. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Ahnert addresses the Beckh and Becker-Stoll's (2016) paper that characterized positive teacher-child relationships through high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict. Once teacher-child relationships are positively established, the children benefit the most in developmental domains which are considered typically weak…

  7. Perceptions of self, significant others, and teacher-child relationships in indiscriminately friendly children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Eleonora; Bosmans, Guy; Doumen, Sarah; Minnis, Helen; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing research on indiscriminate friendliness in children, almost no research exists on social-cognitive deficits that are supposed to underlie indiscriminately friendly behavior. In this study, we compared indiscriminately friendly children with controls regarding their perceptions of self, reliability trust in significant others, and perceptions of the teacher-child relationship. Children's perceptions were compared in two samples: a sample of 33 likely cases for disinhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD) from special education for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (75.76% boys, Mage=8.52, 96.9% Caucasian, 33.3% and 45.5% of their mothers completed primary or secondary education, respectively) was matched on sex, age, and socio-economic status with a sample of 33 controls from general education. Children participated individually in several interviews assessing global and social self-concept, reliability trust in significant others, teacher-child relationship perceptions, and vocabulary. Parents and teachers completed a screening questionnaire for RAD and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Likely disinhibited RAD-cases showed more indiscriminate friendliness and more problem behavior in general according to their parents and teachers than controls. Furthermore, likely RAD-cases reported a more positive global self-concept, more reliability trust in significant others, and more dependency in the teacher-child relationship than controls. The results are in line with clinical observations of indiscriminately friendly children and findings in clinical samples of maltreated or attachment disrupted children but contrast hypotheses from developmental attachment research. Further research is needed to explain the more positive perceptions of indiscriminately friendly children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Teacher Attachment History on Teacher-Child Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, John E.

    Attachment theory posits that intimate relationships (especially during early childhood) have an influence on future social functioning. Children construct an "internal working model" of a relationship which is influenced by the nature and quality of primary attachment relationships. This model then serves as a foundation for future…

  9. Teacher-Child Relationships in Turkish and United States Schools: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazkurk, Derya; Kesner, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent educational research utilising Bowlby's attachment theory has focused on children's interpersonal relationships with their teachers. Research in this area has indicated that the security of the teacher-child relationship influences children's development in many of the same ways as secure parent-child attachments. The purpose of this study…

  10. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  11. Can teacher-child relationships support human rights to freedom of opinion and expression, education and participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Harrison, Linda J; McLeod, Sharynne; Walker, Sue; Spilt, Jantine L

    2018-02-01

    This study explored how teacher-child relationships change over the early school years, in terms of closeness and conflict, whether these trajectories differ in type and frequency for children with typical development and children with speech and language concern (SLC), and whether the trajectories are associated with school outcomes at 12-13 years. Participants were children, parents and teachers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents identified 2890 children with typical communication and 1442 children with SLC. Teacher-rated teacher-child closeness and conflict were collected biennially over six years. Academic and social-emotional outcomes were reported by teachers and children. Growth mixture modelling was conducted to generate teacher-child relationship trajectories and Wald's chi-square analyses were used to test the association between trajectories and school outcomes at 12-13 years, after controlling for a range of covariates including child's sex, language background, Indigenous status, age and socio-economic position. In both groups, the majority of children had teacher-child relationship trajectories with sustained high closeness and low conflict that predicted positive outcomes at age 12-13, but the SLC group was more at risk of less positive trajectories and poorer school outcomes. Close, less conflicted relationships with teachers may provide a supportive context for later language, literacy and social-emotional development. This study highlights the role of teachers in supporting children in their development of communication and academic skills that will optimise their capacity for freedom of opinions and expression, education and participation, as enshrined in Articles 19, 26 and 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

  12. The Relationship between Internal Teacher Profiles and the Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions in Prekindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker-Woodrow, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between internal teacher profiles and pre-K teacher-child interaction quality in the pre-K classroom. Two questions were addressed: (1) What internal profiles exist for pre-kindergarten (pre-K) teachers? and (2) Do internal profiles relate to observed structural and process quality in the pre-K classroom?…

  13. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) and 2-level hierarchical linear models with site fixed effects, we examined between- and within-child associations between teacher-child relationship closeness and conflict and standardized measures of children's…

  14. A Closer Look at Teacher-Child Relationships and Classroom Emotional Context in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, Christine N.; La Paro, Karen M.; Rouse, Heather L.; Crosby, Danielle A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children's early classroom experiences, particularly their interpersonal interactions with teachers, have implications for their academic achievement and classroom behavior. Teacher-child relationships and classroom interactions are both important aspects of children's early classroom experiences, but they are not typically considered…

  15. Relationships in Early Childhood Education--Beyond the Professional into the Personal within the Teacher-Child Dyad: Relationships "That Ripple in the Pond"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin-Clark, Jo; Shirley, Ian; Webster, Maggie; Woolhouse, Clare

    2018-01-01

    The dyadic nature of the teacher-child relationship is recognized as a significant factor in young children's learning experiences. However understandings about how teachers' own personal and professional identities and experiences influence their construction of teacher-child relationships are under researched. This article extends upon earlier…

  16. Can teacher-child relationships alter the effects of early socioeconomic status on achievement in middle childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; O'Connor, Erin E; Parham Horn, E

    2017-10-01

    Using data from the NICHD SECCYD (N=1053), we used two-level hierarchical linear models with site fixed effects to examine whether teacher-child closeness and conflict moderated associations between two indicators of early socioeconomic status (maternal education and family income) and standardized measures of children's math and reading achievement at 54months, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades. Children whose mothers had lower levels of education and conflictual relationships with teachers exhibited lower reading achievement, on average, across elementary school. At the same time, children with less educated mothers who experienced increases in teacher-child closeness and decreases in teacher-child conflict exhibited improvements in reading achievement across elementary school. Finally, low teacher-child closeness elevated the risk for poor math achievement posed by low family income. Implications for intervention design and development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavior problems in late childhood: the roles of early maternal attachment and teacher-child relationship trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin E; Collins, Brian A; Supplee, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  18. Transactional Links between Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Perceived versus Sociometric Popularity: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Steven; Doumen, Sarah; Vervoort, Eleonora; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how peer relationships (i.e., sociometric and perceived popularity) and teacher--child relationships (i.e., support and conflict) impact one another throughout late childhood. The sample included 586 children (46% boys), followed annually from Grades 4 to 6 (Mage.wave1 = 9.26 years). Autoregressive cross-lagged modeling was…

  19. Trajectories of Classroom Externalizing Behavior: Contributions of Child Characteristics, Family Characteristics, and the Teacher-Child Relationship during the School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R.B.; Measelle, J.R.; Armstrong, J.M.; Essex, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The unique and interactive contributions of past externalizing behavior, negative parenting, and teacher-child relationship quality to externalizing behavior trajectories after the transition to school were examined. In a sample of 283 children, random regression analyses indicated that conflict in the teacher-child relationship during the school…

  20. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  1. Challenging Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Behavior Problems in Urban Low-Income Children: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…

  2. Banking Time in Head Start: Early Efficacy of an Intervention Designed to Promote Supportive Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Katherine C.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This exploratory study encompassed a collaboration to implement and evaluate the early efficacy of Banking Time, a dyadic intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Banking Time is a set of one-on-one meetings between a teacher and a child consisting of child-led play and teacher facilitation…

  3. A person-centred analysis of teacher-child relationships in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Previously, the nature of teacher-child relationships (TCRs) has been explored through dimensions of close, conflicted, and dependent. However, this variable-centred approach is limited, as many relationships can be characterized by more than one characteristic or trait. A person-centred approach would allow for a greater understanding of the types of relationships that are formed and improved interpretation of the students' socio-emotional outcomes associated with that relationship. The primary goal of this study was to examine the socio-emotional functioning of young children who formed distinct types of TCRs. Participants were n = 202 kindergarten children (98 girls, 104 boys, Mage = 64.12 months, SD = 4.86). Multi-source assessment was employed with data collected from parent ratings, teacher reports, child interviews, and naturalistic observations in the classroom. Using quartile cut-offs, we identified children who formed conflicted, dependent, and 'combined' (conflicted and dependent) TCRs. Results indicated distinct patterns of socio-emotional functioning for each TCR group. For example, whereas children in conflicted TCRs evidenced greater externalizing difficulties, children with dependent TCRs had greater internalizing difficulties. Children who evidenced high levels of both conflicted and dependent TCRs displayed the most pervasive socio-emotional difficulties. Children who form TCRs characterized by high levels of both conflict and dependency displayed the most pervasive adjustment difficulties. Further investigation is needed to improve our understanding of this group and to assess the plausibility of early intervention strategies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Depression among Migrant and Left-Behind Children in China in Relation to the Quality of Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Qianyun; Ran, Chun; Wang, Xia; Hu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine rates of depression among migrant children (MC) and left-behind children (LBC) as compared to non-left-behind children (NLBC) and also to examine the relationship between depression among these children and the quality of their parent-child and teacher-child relationships. This study collected data from a large sample of 3,759 children aged from 8 to 17 years, including 824 who had been left behind by one parent (LBCO), 423 who had been left behind by both parents (LBCB), 568 MC and 1944 NLBC. Children’s Depression Inventory–Short Form was used to measure child depression. Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) and Teacher-Child Relationship Scale (TCRS) were used to measure the quality of parent-child and teacher-child relationships, respectively. The results showed that the prevalence of depression was 10.5% among NLBC, 13.1% among LBCO, 16.1% among LBCB, and 20.1% among MC. Depression was related to parent-child relationship quality and teacher-child relationship quality. Negative parent-child relationship was more relevant to depression than negative teacher-child relationship among LBCB, while negative teacher-child relationship was the most correlated with depression among MC. PMID:26719895

  5. Teacher-Child Relationships and the Development of Academic and Behavioral Skills during Elementary School: A within- and between-Child Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent growth in research highlighting the potential of teacher-child relationships to promote children's development during the early years of school, questions remain about the importance of these relationships across elementary school. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364), this study examines between- and…

  6. Young Children's Perceptions of Teacher-Child Relationships: An Evaluation of Two Instruments and the Role of Child Gender in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota Y.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric qualities of two instruments that measure children's perceptions of teacher-child relationships were evaluated in a sample of kindergartners (N = 150): The Young Children's Appraisals of Teacher Support (Y-CATS) and the Kindergartner-Teacher Interaction Computer (KLIC) test. On the Y-CATS, children judged propositions on a…

  7. Temperament in early childhood and peer interactions in third grade: the role of teacher-child relationships in early elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Niehaus, Kate; Buhs, Eric; White, Jamie M

    2013-12-01

    Children's interactions with peers in early childhood have been consistently linked to their academic and social outcomes. Although both child and classroom characteristics have been implicated as contributors to children's success, there has been scant research linking child temperament, teacher-child relationship quality, and peer interactions in the same study. The purpose of this study is to examine children's early temperament, rated at preschool age, as a predictor of interactions with peers (i.e., aggression, relational aggression, victimization, and prosociality) in third grade while considering teacher-child relationship quality in kindergarten through second grades as a moderator and mediator of this association. The sample (N=1364) was drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Results from structural equation models indicated that teacher-child conflict in early elementary grades mediated links between children's temperament and later peer interactions. Findings underscore the importance of considering children's temperament traits and teacher-child relationship quality when examining the mechanisms of the development of peer interactions. © 2013.

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships and Pedagogical Practices : Considering the Teacher's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Jochem T.; Koomen, Helma M.Y.; Leij, Aryan van der

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the link between teachers' reports of their relationships with individual kindergartners and their self-reported pedagogical practices toward these children. Two samples of kindergarten teachers were examined. They were questioned about, respectively, 117 and 167 children

  9. Teacher-child relationships and pedagogical practices: considering the teacher’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; van der Leij, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the link between teachers' reports of their relationships with individual kindergartners and their self-reported pedagogical practices toward these children. Two samples of kindergarten teachers were examined. They were questioned about, respectively, 117 and 167 children

  10. Effect of Short- and Long-Term Play Therapy Services on Teacher-Child Relationship Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.; Henson, Robin K.; Schottelkorb, April A.; Brown, April Garofano; Muro, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of both short- and long term Child-Centered Play Therapy on teacher-student relationship stress. Teachers identified 58 students exhibiting emotional and behavioral difficulties who were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Students in the short-term intensive play therapy…

  11. Teacher-Child Relationships and Pedagogical Practices: Considering the Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem T.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the link between teachers' reports of their relationships with individual kindergartners and their self-reported pedagogical practices toward these children. Two samples of kindergarten teachers were examined. They were questioned about, respectively, 117 and 167 children selected as socially inhibited, hyperactive, or average…

  12. Measuring the influence of stress and burnout in teacher-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giovanna Maria Gastaldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most research finds socio-psychological aspects and the organism-environment relationship crucial in the onset of stress-related phenomena; equally important is the subject’s evaluation of stimuli. The Burnout syndrome is defined as a psychological state perceived as emotive breakdown and sense of depersonalization, featuring decreased effectiveness at work and a lower evaluation of one’s performance. At school, the most significant widespread stressors are issues in managing student behavior. However, in the literature few works treat stress and burnout as a specific function of the teacher-pupil relationship. This research will highlight the significant correlations existing between burnout, self-efficacy, students’ academic performance and the quality of pupil-teacher relationships. 37 primary-school teachers in north-west Italy were involved (age range: 27-57 yrs; M=44.76 yrs; SD=8.38 yrs. Tools used were a specially designed socio-personal questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I. and the Classroom and School Context Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (CSC-TSES, while teachers’ perception of the relationship with their pupils was investigated with STRS (Italian adaptation. Preliminary analysis reveals mutual influence between teachers' self-efficacy levels and degree of burnout; Conflict is the only dimension correlating significantly with burnout levels and self-efficacy in class management ability

  13. Teacher-Child Relationships Narrated by Parents of Children with Difficulties in Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautamies, Erja; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Vähäsantanen, Katja; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the relationships between teachers and children (four to six years old) with difficulties in self-regulation from the parent's point of view. Narratives were constructed in 21 interviews with parents of children who have difficulties in self-regulation. The study focused on two questions: (i) What kinds of teacher-child…

  14. Depression among Migrant and Left-Behind Children in China in Relation to the Quality of Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jing; Ren, Xuezhu; Wang, Xiaohua; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Qianyun; Ran, Chun; Wang, Xia; Hu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine rates of depression among migrant children (MC) and left-behind children (LBC) as compared to non-left-behind children (NLBC) and also to examine the relationship between depression among these children and the quality of their parent-child and teacher-child relationships. This study collected data from a large sample of 3,759 children aged from 8 to 17 years, including 824 who had been left behind by one parent (LBCO), 423 who had been left behind b...

  15. Moderating effects of executive functions and the teacher-child relationship on the development of mathematics ability in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; McKinnon, Rachel D

    2016-02-01

    Academic preparedness, executive function abilities, and positive relationships with teachers have each been shown to be uniquely important for school readiness and success in the early elementary grades. Few studies, however, have examined the joint influence of these readiness variables on early school outcomes. Using data from a prospective longitudinal sample of 1292 children and families in predominantly low-income and rural communities, we found that executive function at child age 48 months and a higher quality relationship with the kindergarten teacher each uniquely moderated the effect of math ability in preschool on math ability at the end of kindergarten. This effect was seen for math ability as measured by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) mathematics assessment battery but not the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement Applied Problems subtest. For children with lower math ability in preschool as assessed by the ECLS-K Math battery, higher executive function abilities and a more positive relationship with the kindergarten teacher were each associated with a higher than expected level of math ability in kindergarten. Conversely, lowest levels of math ability in kindergarten were observed among children with low math ability in preschool and poor executive function or a less positive relationship with the kindergarten teacher.

  16. “Acting Out”: Teacher-Child Attachment Bonds And Their Affect on Adolescent Disobedience Moderated by Students with Low Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer,E'lexis

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes whether teacher-child attachment bonds have an effect on adolescent disobedience and whether adolescents with low self-esteem moderate the effect. In this study, the definition of disobedience is deviance and delinquency. The literature states that the teacher-child relationship demonstrates positive and negative outcomes in academic performance however it does not account for self-esteem or disobedience outside the school. I hypothesize attachment bonds to show a negative...

  17. Promoting High Quality Teacher-Child Interactions: Examining the Role of Teachers' Depression, Perceptions of Children's Peer Relationships, and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The overall goal of this dissertation was to examine teacher characteristics, teachers' beliefs, and contextual factors that may motivate teachers' decisions to engage in high quality teacher-child interactions. I use two complementary studies to meet this goal. These two studies provide insight into several aspects of early childhood teachers'…

  18. The Effects of Child-Teacher Relationships on Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sakire

    2010-01-01

    Early positive relationships between children and adults are critical in the acquisition of children's problem-solving skills. The early teacher-child relationship has an important role in how a child negotiates the conflicts and manages relationships with peers. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the teacher-child relationship at…

  19. Important Evidence Highlights the Meaning of Teacher-Child Relationships for Child Development. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Sagi-Schwartz evaluates the article by Beckh and Becker-Stoll (2016) on attachment relationships with non-parental caregivers and how it may contribute to public child care. Beckh and Becker-Stoll first describe important background about research on early parent-child relationships, and how their nature and quality might…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Child-Centered Beliefs: Direct and Indirect Associations with Work Climate and Job-Related Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eunhye; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers' child-centered beliefs, defined as teachers' attitudes about how children learn, have been associated with teachers' developmentally appropriate practices and positive child outcomes. The predictors of teachers' child-centered beliefs, however, are less frequently explored. Objective: This study tested whether…

  1. “Acting Out”: Teacher-Child Attachment Bonds And Their Affect on Adolescent Disobedience Moderated by Students with Low Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E'lexis Brewer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes whether teacher-child attachment bonds have an effect on adolescent disobedience and whether adolescents with low self-esteem moderate the effect. In this study, the definition of disobedience is deviance and delinquency. The literature states that the teacher-child relationship demonstrates positive and negative outcomes in academic performance however it does not account for self-esteem or disobedience outside the school. I hypothesize attachment bonds to show a negative relationship with students who demonstrate low self-esteem and a positive trend in disobedience. To test my hypotheses, I use various coded questionnaires from Wave I and II of the ADD Health Survey that code for academics/education, delinquency, fighting and violence, drug use, and other deviant or disobedient behavior. In order to test, I would use cross tabulation to compare students’ attachment, self-esteem levels, and disobedience. All three variables require no specific order, as nominal variables, so they can compare against each other without regard for sequence. In summary, if implemented my study will add to the current research literature on the teacher-child relationship and potential evidence-based intervention programs for students.

  2. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Young Children's Perceptions of the Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions and School Engagement in Greek Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Elena; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine young children's perceptions about the quality of their interactions with their teachers and the possible association of teacher-child relationships with children's school engagement. Additionally, gender and ethnicity differences were investigated regarding both teachers' and children's perceptions. Young…

  4. Exploring Pedagogical Relationships in the Context of Free Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Rosborough, Alessandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood advocates agree that positive teacher-child relationships are critical to classroom quality. Much research has emphasized quantifiable teacher characteristics and child outcomes without fully capturing the complexity of these relationships. Drawing on extensive classroom observations, two video-recorded free play sessions and…

  5. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  6. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using a Standardized Task to Assess the Quality of Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jessica E. V.; Williford, Amanda P.; Carter, Lauren M.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the quality of teacher-child interactions within the context of a newly developed standardized task, Teacher-Child Structured Play Task (TC-SPT). A sample of 146 teachers and 345 children participated. Children who displayed the highest disruptive behaviors within each classroom were selected to participate.…

  8. The role of preschool teacher-child interactions in academic adjustment: An intervention study with Playing-2-gether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Verschueren, Karine; Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2017-09-01

    Social relationships can serve as important risk or protective factors for child development in general, and academic adjustment in particular. This study investigated the role of teacher-child interactions in academic adjustment among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour, using a randomized controlled trial study with Playing-2-gether (P2G), a 12-week indicated two-component intervention aimed at improving the affective quality of the teacher-child relationship and teacher behaviour management. In a sample of 175 preschool boys showing signs of externalizing behaviour (M age  = 4 years, 9 months, SD age  = 7 months) and their teachers, we investigated P2G effects on academic engagement as well as on language achievement. Academic engagement was rated by teachers at three occasions within one school year (T1 = pretest, T3 = post-test, and T2 = in-between intervention components). Language achievement was assessed by researchers at pre- and post-test, using a standardized test. Cross-lagged path analyses revealed a direct intervention effect of P2G on academic engagement at Time 2. In addition, a significant indirect intervention effect was found on academic engagement at Time 3 through academic engagement at Time 2. Finally, academic engagement at Time 2 was found to predict language achievement at post-test. A marginally significant indirect intervention effect was found on language achievement at Time 3, through academic engagement at Time 2. This intervention study suggests that teacher-child interactions predict academic engagement over time, which in turn improves language achievement among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  10. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  11. The role of teacher-child interaction in promoting peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova, Natalia S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that communication is the main source and necessity of human development and activity. It promotes social relationships, self-image and a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Preschoolers communicate both with their peers and adults. It is traditionally assumed that peer communication greatly depends on the teacher-child interaction, leading role of the adult, and the child’s own activity, which are the main elements of the Russian preprimary education system. Changes in social situations, reductions in available play time, greater engagement of children in activities and many other factors can affect modern preschoolers’ peer communication. Therefore, the effect of teacher-directed and child-directed teacherchild interactions on preschoolers’ peer communication important to study. The following methods were applied: peer-communication observation, the behavioral tests ‘Magic room’ and ‘Mosaic’, and the sociometric procedure ‘Two houses’. The sample included 49 Moscow preprimary students aged 4 to 6 year old (25 girls and 24 boys. The research proved that preschoolers showed better results in child-directed interactions, such as playing skills, compared with a similar situation in which the children were directed by the teachers. Additionally, the level of proactiveness, communication success, conflict resolution, prosocial behavior and emotional response to peer influence did not differ among children. Thus, the child-directed approach is more beneficial to preschoolers’ communication development than a teacher-directed approach.

  12. Empathy in intimate relationships : The role of positive illusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Van Bruggen, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown empathy to be an important aspect of a high quality intimate relationship. Likewise, positive illusions about a partner's characteristics have been shown to contribute to relationship quality. The present study connects these issues by examining the degree to which

  13. Positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present research examined the existence of positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and its relations to relationship quality. Positive illusions were assumed to exist when individuals rated their partner as more attractive than their partner rated him or herself. In two

  14. Does Professional Development Reduce the Influence of Teacher Stress on Teacher-Child Interactions in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Goble, Priscilla; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which participation in a 14-week professional development course designed to improve teacher-child interactions in the classroom moderated the relation between teacher-reported job stress and gains in observed teacher-child interaction quality from the beginning to the end of the intervention. Participants…

  15. Impacts of Teacher-Child Managed Whole-Group Language and Literacy Instruction on the Depth of Preschoolers' Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura M.; Emery, Alyssa A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the potential impacts of ongoing participation (twice weekly for 30 weeks) in teacher-child managed whole-group language and literacy instruction on prekindergarten children's social interaction with classmates. Teacher-child managed whole-group instruction that provides children with opportunities to engage…

  16. The Relationship Between Depression And Positive Signs In Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaoddini S S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of studies about relationship between depression and positive signs in schizophrenia are controversial and clarifying the nature of this association may be difficult. The aim of present study is to investigate relationship between depressive symptoms and positive signs, in acute phase of patients with chronic schizophrenia, who have been admitted in Roozbeh Hospital. Materials and Methods: Assessments were performed using the Beck depression Inventory for depression (subjectively and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS for psychotic symptoms. Results: The results demonstrated a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and positive signs in these patients. Also, a significant correlation existed between depression and these items: delusions, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, hostility. Conclusion: depressive symptoms and positive signs in schizophrenia may have a common underlying pathophysiological origin.

  17. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Power Position: Interchaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebatollah Morsy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to several studies, power and interdependence play a considerable role in understanding the buyer–supplier relationships, yet, empirical research is still limited. Also, the nature of the buyer-supplier relationship and managing them might vary based on the power position of buyers and suppliers. Few studies focused on the reason behind this interrelation and strong influence of power on the buyer-supplier relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study is to gain better understanding and try to identify how power position and buyer-supplier relationships are interrelated, and whether there are common determinants and/or characteristics behind this strong bond between the two concepts. Both transaction cost analysis theory and social exchange theory were integrated in building the argument. Regarding the methodology, qualitative exploratory research design was employed by using multiple-case study as the main research method, where three multinational Egyptian organizations were selected. Moreover, data was collected using individual in-depth interviews, and analyzed through coding and cross case analysis techniques. The results showed that there are common factors that influence both buyer-supplier relationship characteristics and power position attributes. And according, the findings helped in pointing out a new lens of discussing and investigating the bond between buyer-supplier relationships ad power in research.

  18. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....

  19. Teacher-Child Interactions: Relations with Children's Self-Concept in Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-child interactions characterized by teacher involvement, structure, and autonomy support at the beginning of second grade predicted children's global, academic, social, and behavioural self-concept at the end of second grade. The study was conducted in 30 second grade classrooms with 570 children and their…

  20. Emotional Behavior Problems, Parent Emotion Socialization, and Gender as Determinants of Teacher-Child Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Obradovic´, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a diverse community sample of 89 children, ages 4-6, their primary caregivers and teachers, this study examined the interplay of child emotional behavior problems, parent emotion socialization practices, and gender in predicting teacher-child closeness. Teachers reported on perceptions of closeness with children.…

  1. Relationship between positive mental health and appreciation in Korean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Nan Wang

    Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  3. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N A; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  4. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Developmental links between disobedient behavior and social classroom relationships in boys with psychiatric disorders in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, L D; van Lier, P A C; Wubbels, T; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-05-01

    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  6. Leisure Activity Engagement and Positive Affect Partially Mediate the Relationship Between Positive Views on Aging and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie A; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    To examine leisure activity engagement and positive affect as potential mediators for the relationships between positive views on aging (PVA) and two health outcomes: subjective health and physical limitations. Data from 5,194 participants from the German Ageing Survey (aged 40-91 years) were used to examine relationships between PVA to subjective health (assessed by self-rated health and perceived health change from past) and physical limitations (assessed via self-reported limitations on 10 activities). Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were examined as potential mediators in latent variable path analyses. Age moderation among these relationships was also examined. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect separately and jointly served to partially mediate the relationships between PVA and the health outcomes. When entered as joint mediators, positive affect no longer significantly predicted physical limitations, indicating a shared variance with leisure activity engagement. Age moderated the relationship between PVA and physical limitations; the relationship was stronger among older adults than among middle-aged adults. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were shown to help explain the relationship between PVA and health, but differently for different health constructs and also among middle-aged and older adults. Findings provide further insight into ways in which PVA influence health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Profiles of Teacher-Child Interaction Quality in Preschool Classrooms and Teachers' Professional Competence Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Chen, Liang; Fan, Xitao

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates early childhood education (ECE) teachers' self-reported and observed teacher-child interaction quality (TIQ) and the associated teachers' professional competence features using a latent profile analysis (LPA) approach to identify the variations in the quality of classroom experiences in Chinese preschools. A total of 164…

  8. Does Fidelity of Implementation Account for Changes in Teacher-Child Interactions in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Banking Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Williford, Amanda; Whittaker, Jessica; DeCoster, Jamie; Alamos, Pilar

    2018-01-01

    This study examined fidelity of implementation in a randomized trial of Banking Time, a classroom-based intervention intended to improve children's behavior, specifically for those at risk for developing externalizing behavior problems, through improving the quality of teacher-child interactions. The study sample comes from a randomized controlled…

  9. Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

  10. Positive School Leadership: Building Capacity and Strengthening Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2018-01-01

    This landmark book translates positive and asset-based understandings of organizations to develop a powerful model of school leadership that is grounded in both existing research and the complexities of life in schools. The authors--both senior scholars in educational leadership--apply insights from positive psychology to the role and function of…

  11. Students' Evocative Impact on Teacher Instruction and Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona

    2015-01-01

    Classroom research has typically focused on the role of teaching practices and the quality of instruction in children's academic performance, motivation and adjustment--in other words, classroom interactions initiated by the teacher. The present article presents a model of classroom interactions initiated by the child, that is, the notion that a…

  12. Bringing Boys and Girls Together: Supporting Preschoolers' Positive Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaster, Hillary; Jobe, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Children thrive in inclusive settings where each child is an important part of the community. When differences are celebrated and similarities discovered, children learn to value themselves, appreciate their peers, and develop meaningful and significant relationships with one another. A sizable body of research indicates that promoting positive…

  13. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Obesity and the relationship with positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J; Jacka, Felice N; Brennan, Sharon L; Berk, Michael

    2013-05-01

    To examine the cross-sectional association between overweight and obesity and positive and negative affect. Participants included 273 women, aged 29-84 years, who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Weight and height were measured and overweight and obesity determined from body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) according to WHO criteria. Medical history and lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire. Positive and negative affect scores were derived using the validated 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and categorised into tertiles. A pattern of greater negative affect scores was observed for increasing levels of BMI. Setting normal weight as the referent category, the odds for having a negative affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially increased for women who were overweight (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.72-2.40) and obese (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02-3.73). The association between obesity and increased negative affect was diminished by adjusting for physical illness (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.91-3.42). These associations were not substantially influenced by positive affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between BMI categories and positive affect scores. We report data suggesting that obesity is associated with greater negative affect scores, reflecting emotions such as distress, anger, disgust, fear and shame, and that this association is attenuated by physical illness. Further investigations are now warranted to explore possible mechanistic interplay between pathological, neurobiological and psychosocial factors.

  15. Cognitive Engagement Mediates the Relationship between Positive Life Events and Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Need for Cognition (NFC is conceptualized as an individuals’ tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one’s cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE. Moreover, evidence suggests NFC to be related to an active, problem-focused coping style. We therefore hypothesized NFC to mediate between life events and individual differences in PE and NE. In a sample of N = 202 volunteers from the general population, we observed that the number of past positive and negative life events had direct effects on PE, and NE, respectively, and that for positive life events, a mediating effect on PE via NFC was observed, with a higher number of past positive life events being related to higher NFC that in turn was related to increased PE. Thus, the present results lend support to the notion of NFC as an important factor supporting personal well-being by way of its mediating role between the number of past positive life events and positive affect.

  16. Discordant relationship between Essure microinsert position and tubal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Melody Y

    2016-07-27

    Hysteroscopic sterilisation with Essure requires confirmation of tubal occlusion by hysterosalpingogram or microinsert position by transvaginal sonography 3 months after placement before women can rely on the method for pregnancy prevention. A 39-year-old woman underwent hysteroscopic sterilisation via Essure, with successful bilateral tubal occlusion documented on hysterosalpingogram. She had a subsequent unintended pregnancy and termination, and presented with persistent pelvic pain and other non-specific symptoms. She underwent a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy, with complete resolution of her symptoms. Pathological evaluation demonstrated a perforated Essure microinsert and ipsilateral tubal occlusion, and a correctly placed Essure microinsert with ipsilateral tubal patency. Clinicians should be cautious about the assumption that correctly placed microinserts based on ultrasonography, hysterosalpingogram or laparoscopic evaluation assures occlusion success. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. School Climate, Teacher-Child Closeness, and Low-Income Children’s Academic Skills in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Amy E.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Pess, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children’s language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children’s poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children’s higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children’s academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children’s academic skills during the transition to kindergarten. PMID:26925186

  18. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  20. Applying Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Examine the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale in a Representative Greek Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2018-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships in early childhood are a fundamental prerequisite for children's social, emotional, and academic development. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is one of the most widely accepted and used instruments that evaluate the quality of teacher-child relationships. STRS is a 28-item questionnaire that assess three relational dimensions, Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency. The relevant literature has shown a pattern regarding the difficulty to support the STRS factor structure with CFA, while it is well-documented with EFA. Recently, a new statistical technique was proposed to combine the best of the CFA and EFA namely, the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM). The purpose of this study was (a) to examine the factor structure of the STRS in a Greek national sample. Toward this end, the ESEM framework was applied in order to overcome the limitations of EFA and CFA, (b) to confirm previous findings about the cultural influence in teacher-child relationship patterns, and (c) to examine the invariance of STRS across gender and age. Early educators from a representative Greek sample size of 535 child care and kindergarten centers completed the STRS for 4,158 children. CFA as well as ESEM procedures were implemented. Results showed that ESEM provided better fit to the data than CFA in both groups, supporting the argument that CFA is an overly restrictive approach in comparison to ESEM for the study of STRS. All primary loadings were statistically significant and were associated with their respective latent factors. Contrary to the existing literature conducted in USA and northern Europe, the association between Closeness and Dependency yielded a positive correlation. This finding is in line with previous studies conducted in Greece and confirm the existence of cultural differences in teacher-child relationships. In addition, findings supported the configural, metric, scalar, and variance/covariance equivalence of the STRS

  1. Applying Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Examine the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale in a Representative Greek Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsigilis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teacher-child relationships in early childhood are a fundamental prerequisite for children's social, emotional, and academic development. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS is one of the most widely accepted and used instruments that evaluate the quality of teacher-child relationships. STRS is a 28-item questionnaire that assess three relational dimensions, Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency. The relevant literature has shown a pattern regarding the difficulty to support the STRS factor structure with CFA, while it is well-documented with EFA. Recently, a new statistical technique was proposed to combine the best of the CFA and EFA namely, the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM. The purpose of this study was (a to examine the factor structure of the STRS in a Greek national sample. Toward this end, the ESEM framework was applied in order to overcome the limitations of EFA and CFA, (b to confirm previous findings about the cultural influence in teacher-child relationship patterns, and (c to examine the invariance of STRS across gender and age. Early educators from a representative Greek sample size of 535 child care and kindergarten centers completed the STRS for 4,158 children. CFA as well as ESEM procedures were implemented. Results showed that ESEM provided better fit to the data than CFA in both groups, supporting the argument that CFA is an overly restrictive approach in comparison to ESEM for the study of STRS. All primary loadings were statistically significant and were associated with their respective latent factors. Contrary to the existing literature conducted in USA and northern Europe, the association between Closeness and Dependency yielded a positive correlation. This finding is in line with previous studies conducted in Greece and confirm the existence of cultural differences in teacher-child relationships. In addition, findings supported the configural, metric, scalar, and variance/covariance equivalence of

  2. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  3. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  4. 77 FR 45282 - NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability AGENCY... relationship between the general design criteria (GDC) for nuclear power plants and technical specification... Communications Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop: OWFN-12-D...

  5. Positive Illusions in Adolescents: The Relationship between Academic Self-Enhancement and Depressive Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rick N.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions,…

  6. Distress Severity Following a Romantic Breakup is Associated with Positive Relationship Memories among Emerging Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    symptoms has received little attention. We examined links between breakup-specific distress, depressive symptoms, and relationship memories of different valence. Ninety-one emerging adults (Mage = 20.13) who had experienced a recent romantic breakup recorded the frequency of positive and negative......Romantic relationship loss is associated with significant psychological distress for emerging adults. Intrusive memories of stressful events are typically associated with symptom severity; however, whether spontaneous positive memories of a relationship breakup may also be related to psychological...... spontaneous relationship memories in a four-day online memory diary. Control memories were also recorded. Positive memories were specifically related to breakup distress, whereas negative memories were related to both breakup distress and depression. No such associations were found for the control memories...

  7. Buffering effect of positive parent-child relationships on adolescent risk taking: A longitudinal neuroimaging investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Galvan, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is marked by a steep increase in risk-taking behavior. The serious consequences of such heightened risk taking raise the importance of identifying protective factors. Despite its dynamic change during adolescence, family relationships remain a key source of influence for teenagers. Using a longitudinal fMRI approach, we scanned 23 adolescents twice across a 1.5-year period to examine how changes in parent-child relationships contribute to changes in adolescent risk taking over time via changes in adolescents’ neural reactivity to rewards. Results indicate that although parent-child relationships are not associated with adolescent risk taking concurrently, increases in positive parent-child relationships contribute to declines in adolescent risk taking. This process is mediated by longitudinal decreases in ventral striatum activation to rewards during risk taking. Findings highlight the neural pathways through which improvements in positive parent-child relationships serve to buffer longitudinal increases in adolescent risk taking. PMID:26342184

  8. Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basińska Beata Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

  9. Using nurse managers' perceptions to guide new graduates toward positive nurse relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda Weaver; Sublett, Cynthia; Leahy, Cathy; Bradley, Jennifer M

    One of the greatest challenges new graduates confront when transitioning to practice is establishing positive relationships with experienced nurses. Nursing faculty must prepare graduates for this challenge. However, nursing faculty are often removed from everyday practice and must rely on the perceptions of those entrenched in practice in order to ground teaching endeavors in authenticity. Nurse managers are well positioned to provide knowledgeable insights to nursing faculty regarding nurse relationships. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions regarding new graduates' relationships with more experienced nurses. Researcher-participant audiotaped interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers. A content analysis revealed that all participants believed nurse relationships were significant, that factors such as perceived inequities and stressful occurrences triggered poor relationships, that new graduates were often targeted for negative relationships, and that reasons for targeting of new graduates included prolonged dependence on experienced nurses and either over or under confidence of the new graduate. Providing a supportive, protective environment and hiring practices that promote team unity were posed as strategies that could help to prevent targeting of new graduates. Findings provide real-life, practice based information that can underpin nurse educators' teaching regarding nurse relationships and relationship building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Personal and Environmental Resources Mediate the Positivity-Emotional Dysfunction Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Janus, Katherine C; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the relationships among positivity, perceived personal and environmental resources, and emotional dysfunction in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that perceived resources would mediate the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. Participants (N = 510) attending an all-girls public school completed a survey assessing emotional dysfunction (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), positivity (positive/negative emotions), and personal/ environmental resources (resilience, hope, percent adaptive coping, community connectedness, social support, and school connectedness). Perceived resources were combined into one latent variable, and structural equation modeling tested the mediating effect of perceived resources on the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. The model accounted for 63% of the variance in emotional dysfunction. Positivity exerted a significant direct effect on emotional dysfunction (β = -.14, p emotional dysfunction is primarily but not entirely mediated by perceived personal and environmental resources. Schools should consider strategies to enhance experiences of positive emotions and/or decrease experiences of negative emotions, in conjunction with encouraging student awareness and development of personal and environmental resources.

  11. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  12. Autonomy, positive relationships, and IL-6: evidence for gender-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Segerstrom, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research centre for blood draws. In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that moderate autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men. In the US national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, moderate autonomy was again associated with higher IL-6 in men only. Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. What is already known on this subject? A host of previous work indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women. Further, there is some evidence suggesting that well-being consistent with gender-linked values is more health protective, such that relationships are more protective for women than for men, while

  13. Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T; Bernardo, Allan B I

    2013-06-01

    Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models, particularly with negative emotions. The study tested the hypotheses: (1) self-regulation and the positive academic emotions of enjoyment and pride are positive predictors of achievement; and (2) enjoyment and pride both moderate the relationship between self-regulation and achievement. Participants were 1,345 students enrolled in various trigonometry classes in one university. Participants answered the Academic Emotions Questionnaire-Math (Pekrun, Goetz, & Frenzel, 2005) and a self-regulation scale (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) halfway through their trigonometry class. The students' final grades in the course were regressed to self-regulation, positive emotions, and the interaction terms to test the moderation effects. Enjoyment and pride were both positive predictors of grades; more importantly, both moderated the relationship between self-regulation and grades. For students who report higher levels of both positive emotions, self-regulation was positively associated with grades. However, for those who report lower levels of pride, self-regulation was not related to grades; and, for those who reported lower levels of enjoyment, self-regulation was negatively related to grades. The results are discussed in terms of how positive emotions indicate positive appraisals of task/outcome value, and thus enhance the positive links between cognitive/motivational variables and learning. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Applying the Nominal Response Model within a Longitudinal Framework to Construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…

  16. Effects of Parent-Child Relationship on the Primary School Children's Non-Violence Position Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…

  17. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipour, Mohammad; Rashid, Sabariah Md; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Thai, Yap Ngee

    2018-01-01

    Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling…

  18. Positive teacher–student relationships go beyond the classroom, problematic ones stay inside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. A. Claessens, Luce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357401530; van Tartwijk, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; C. van der Want, Anna; Pennings, Heleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242588; Verloop, Nico; J. den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361

    2017-01-01

    The authors voice teachers' perceptions of their interpersonal experiences with students in both positive and problematic relationships. Interview data from 28 teachers were examined by coding utterances on teacher and student interactions. Results indicate that teachers defined the quality of the

  19. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  20. Analyzing the Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…

  1. The Relationships between Positive Thinking Skills, Academic Locus of Control and Grit in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ismail; Sariçam, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the possible relationships between academic locus of control, positive thinking skills and grit in high school students. The participants of the research are composed of 288 adolescents continuing their high school education from 4 different schools in Agri, Turkey, which were selected with convenient…

  2. Testing Theoretical Relationships: Factors Influencing Positive Health Practices (PHP) in Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…

  3. Researcher-researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.

  4. Relationship between Cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans and cerebral microbleeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatani, F; Kuriyama, N; Watanabe, I; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsui, D; Ozaki, E; Koyama, T; Nishigaki, M; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, T; Tamura, A; Akazawa, K; Takada, A; Takeda, K; Yamada, K; Nakagawa, M; Ihara, M; Kanamura, N; Friedland, R P; Watanabe, Y

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to occur in animals experimentally infected with Streptococcus mutans carrying the collagen-binding Cnm gene. However, the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and oral hygiene, with a focus on Cnm gene-positive S. mutans infection, remains unclear. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated. The presence or absence of Cnm-positive S. mutans and its collagen-binding activity were investigated using saliva samples, and relationship with cerebral microbleeds detected on MRI investigated, including clinical information and oral parameters. Fifty-one subjects were identified as Cnm-positive S. mutans carriers (36.7%), with cerebral microbleeds being detected in 43 (30.9%). A significantly larger number of subjects carried Cnm-positive S. mutans in the cerebral microbleeds (+) group. S. mutans with Cnm collagen-binding ability was detected in 39 (28.1%) of all subjects, and the adjusted odds ratio for cerebral microbleeds in the Cnm-positive group was 14.4. Regarding the presence of cerebral microbleeds, no significant differences were noted in the number of remaining teeth, dental caries, or in classic arteriosclerosis risk factors. The occurrence of cerebral microbleeds was higher in subjects carrying Cnm-positive S. mutans, indicating that the presence of Cnm-positive S. mutans increases cerebral microbleeds, and is an independent risk for the development of cerebrovascular disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relationships matter: contraceptive choices among HIV-positive women in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-07-01

    Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women's spousal relationships; personal beliefs and the relationship of these in understanding her disease; the influence of the social demands on the woman and her relationships; and the importance of a woman's relationship with her healthcare provider/healthcare system. Being the bearers of bad news (HIV-positive status) the pregnant women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient-healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated. Therefore, the results suggest that healthcare providers should ensure patient-focused education and provide support that encompasses the importance of their relationships. Additional research is required to elucidate the functional association between contraceptive choices and personal and social relationships.

  6. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  8. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite convincing evidence supporting the association between exercise and positive affect, this complex relationship requires further theoretical and person-centered explanation. The nature of one’s motivation for exercise, as postulated by Self-Determination Theory (SDT, may supply a missing and understudied link. The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control, and changes in positive affect. Forty-one active women attended two sessions to engage in (a a 30-min moderate-intensity self-paced treadmill run and (b a 30-min quiet activity (i.e., newspaper reading. Participants with high introjection versus those with low introjection reported a greater increase in positive affect from pre- to postrunning and a greater decrease in positive affect from pre- to postcontrol. A “relief from guilt” effect was postulated to explain these results. Motivational variables accounted for 7% of variance in postrun positive affect. Consistent with SDT, running because one values this behavior and its benefits (i.e., identified regulation was significantly associated with postrun positive affect.

  9. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  10. Relationship of maxillary 3-dimensional posterior occlusal plane to mandibular spatial position and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coro, Jorge C; Velasquez, Roberto L; Coro, Ivette M; Wheeler, Timothy T; McGorray, Susan P; Sato, Sadao

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the 3-dimensional (3D) posterior occlusal plane (POP) and the mandibular 3D spatial position. The relationship of the POP to mandibular morphology was also investigated. Retrospective data from a convenience sample of pretreatment diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography scans were rendered using InVivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). The sample consisted of 111 subjects (51 male, 60 female) and included growing and nongrowing subjects of different races and ethnicities. The 3D maxillary POP was defined by selecting the cusp tips of the second premolars and the second molars on the rendered images of the subjects. The angles made by this plane, in reference to the Frankfort horizontal plane, were measured against variables that described the mandibular position in the coronal, sagittal, and axial views. The POP was also compared with bilateral variables that described mandibular morphology. There were significant differences of the POP among the different skeletal malocclusions (P <0.0001). The POP showed significant correlations with mandibular position in the sagittal (P <0.0001), coronal (P <0.05), and axial (P <0.05) planes. The POP also showed a significant correlation with mandibular morphology (P <0.0001). These findings suggest that there is a distinct and significant relationship between the 3D POP and the mandibular spatial position and its morphology. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure-activity relationship studies of the aromatic positions in cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungalpara, Jignesh; Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    , and autoimmune diseases. While the structure-activity relationships for Arg(1), Arg(2), and Gly(4) are well established, less is understood about the roles of the aromatic residues 2-Nal(3) and D-Tyr(5). Here we report further structure-activity relationship studies of these two positions, which showed that (i......) the distal aromatic ring of the 2-Nal(3) side chain is required in order to maintain high potency and (ii) replacement of D-Tyr(5) with conformationally constrained analogues results in significantly reduced activity. However, a simplified analogue that contained Gly instead of D-Tyr(5) was only 13-fold less...

  12. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  14. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  15. Positive and Negative Aspects of Relationship Quality and Unprotected Sex among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gruber, Sandra K.; Wolfson, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine both positive and negative aspects of relationship quality in relation to condom use. Sexually active young women aged 14-18 years (n = 111; 34% non-white) were recruited from community clinics and schools in the Midwest USA and provided data via an online survey. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past…

  16. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez; Gloria Esthela González Quirarte; Rosario del Carmén Realpozo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A...

  17. Military Personnel: Improvements Needed to Increase Effectiveness of DOD's Programs to Promote Positive Working Relationships between Reservists and Their Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S; Schmitt, David; Anderson, Bonita; Brown, Renee; Cantin, Janine; Chatlos, Rudy; Harms, Nicole; McMurdie, Tobin; Richardson, Terry; Wallace, Shana; Williams, Tracy; Young, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    .... As demobilized reservists return to civilian life and their civilian employment, the difficulties some face in maintaining positive working relationships with their employers is an area of interest...

  18. Negative relationship behavior is more important than positive: Correlates of outcomes during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Alannah Shelby; Sanford, Keith

    2018-04-01

    When people who are married or cohabiting face stressful life situations, their ability to cope may be associated with two separate dimensions of interpersonal behavior: positive and negative. These behaviors can be assessed with the Couple Resilience Inventory (CRI). It was expected that scales on this instrument would correlate with outcome variables regarding life well-being, stress, and relationship satisfaction. It was also expected that effects for negative behavior would be larger than effects for positive and that the effects might be curvilinear. Study 1 included 325 married or cohabiting people currently experiencing nonmedical major life stressors and Study 2 included 154 married or cohabiting people with current, serious medical conditions. All participants completed an online questionnaire including the CRI along with an alternate measure of couple behavior (to confirm scale validity), a measure of general coping style (to serve as a covariate), and measures of outcome variables regarding well-being, quality of life, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. The effects for negative behavior were larger than effects for positive in predicting most outcomes, and many effects were curvilinear. Notably, results remained significant after controlling for general coping style, and scales measuring positive and negative behavior demonstrated comparable levels of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Relationship between gluteal muscle activation and upper extremity kinematics and kinetics in softball position players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-03-01

    As the biomechanical literature concerning softball pitching is evolving, there are no data to support the mechanics of softball position players. Pitching literature supports the whole kinetic chain approach including the lower extremity in proper throwing mechanics. The purpose of this project was to examine the gluteal muscle group activation patterns and their relationship with shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics during the overhead throwing motion of softball position players. Eighteen Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association softball players (19.2 ± 1.0 years; 68.9 ± 8.7 kg; 168.6 ± 6.6 cm) who were listed on the active playing roster volunteered. Electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data were collected while players caught a simulated hit or pitched ball and perform their position throw. Pearson correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between non-throwing gluteus maximus during the phase of maximum external rotation to maximum internal rotation (MIR) and elbow moments at ball release (r = -0.52). While at ball release, trunk flexion and rotation both had a positive relationship with shoulder moments at MIR (r = 0.69, r = 0.82, respectively) suggesting that the kinematic actions of the pelvis and trunk are strongly related to the actions of the shoulder during throwing.

  20. Understanding the relationship between religiousness, spirituality, and underage drinking: the role of positive alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Burris, Jessica L; Carlson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    Research has consistently found that religiousness and spirituality are negatively associated with underage drinking. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the mechanisms by which these variables influence this important outcome. With 344 underage young adults (ages 18-20; 61 % women), we investigated positive alcohol expectancies as a mediator between religiousness and spirituality (measured separately) and underage alcohol use. Participants completed the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, and Drinking Styles Questionnaire. Results indicate less positive alcohol expectancies partially mediate the relationship between both religiousness and spirituality and underage alcohol use. This suggests religiousness and spirituality's protective influence on underage drinking is partly due to their influence on expectations about alcohol's positive effects. Since underage drinking predicts problem drinking later in life and places one at risk for serious physical and mental health problems, it is important to identify specific points of intervention, including expectations about alcohol that rise from religious and spiritual factors.

  1. Relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.

  2. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling from 5 public universities in Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected through two sets of questionnaires: (a Oxford's (1990 Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, and (b Fredrickson's (2009 modified Differential Emotional Scale (mDES. The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. With regard to the quantitative data analysis, a series of t-tests and correlational analyses were used. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitatively. A positive significant correlation was found between positive emotions and overall language learning strategy use. Also, the qualitative results of the study indicated that the learners who experienced more positive emotions tended to use a greater variety of language learning strategies. The findings of the study emphasise the importance of students’ positive emotions in their use of language learning strategies. It might be suggested that teachers by designing the classroom settings and instructions which promote positive emotions can inspire learners to use language learning strategies more frequently and with a greater variety which in sequence relate to learners’ language learning proficiency.

  3. Positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela; Mildon, Barbara; Price, Sheri; Godfrey, Christina; Robinson, Sandra; Ross-White, Amanda; Mercado-Mallari, Sheile

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Engaging in teamwork requires a clear understanding of positive and negative behaviours that act as facilitators and barriers to collegial workplace relationships. Identifying and correcting underlying barriers, while promoting facilitators, is fundamental to improving care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. Despite a considerable amount of literature in this area, there is a lack of clarity of the different behaviours as several parallel literatures address similar questions about antecedents, processes and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the current state of literature reporting on behaviours in workplace relationships. Using a scoping review methodology, the following research question will be addressed: “What is known about positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships?” Methods and analysis We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search strategy will include numerous electronic databases, grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists from 1990 to present with a limit to English language. Search strategies will be developed using controlled vocabulary and keyword terms related to various components of workplace relationships. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potential articles to determine final inclusion. A descriptive numerical analysis will describe characteristics of included studies. A thematic analysis will provide an overview of the literature, including definitions, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, outcomes and interventions. Dissemination In reviewing a wide range of positive and negative behaviours, then integrating into a manageable, meaningful whole, this study is a critical step in helping policymakers, leaders and healthcare professionals effectively use what is known thus far. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout

  4. Relationship between foramen magnum position and locomotion in extant and extinct hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Daver, Guillaume; Sansalone, Gabriele; Ledogar, Justin A; Rae, Todd C; Wroe, Stephen; Brunet, Michel

    2017-12-01

    From the Miocene Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, hominins are characterized by a derived anterior position of the foramen magnum relative to basicranial structures. It has been previously suggested that the anterior position of the foramen magnum in hominins is related to bipedal locomotor behavior. Yet, the functional relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion remains unclear. Recent studies, using ratios based on cranial linear measurements, have found a link between the anterior position of the foramen magnum and bipedalism in several mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents, and primates. In the present study, we compute these ratios in a sample including a more comprehensive dataset of extant hominoids and fossil hominins. First, we verify if the values of ratios can distinguish extant humans from apes. Then, we test whether extinct hominins can be distinguished from non-bipedal extant hominoids. Finally, we assess if the studied ratios are effective predictors of bipedal behavior by testing if they mainly relate to variation in foramen magnum position rather than changes in other cranial structures. Our results confirm that the ratios discriminate between extant bipeds and non-bipeds. However, the only ratio clearly discriminating between fossil hominins and other extant apes is that which only includes basicranial structures. We show that a large proportion of the interspecific variation in the other ratios relates to changes in facial, rather than basicranial, structures. In this context, we advocate the use of measurements based only on basicranial structures when assessing the relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedalism in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  6. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  7. The relationship between skin manifestations and CD4 counts among hiv positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, F.; Ghaderi, E.; Moradi, G.; Mafakheri, L.

    2008-01-01

    Skin manifestations are common clinical features among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document skin manifestations and their relationships with CD4 cell counts among HIV positive patients in Sanandaj. This was a descriptive study. The patients were examined for skin disorders by a dermatologist and CD4 counts were obtained from the patient's medical records. Independent samples T test were used for data analysis. In this study 66 (94.3%) patients had at least one skin problem. Fungal infections were the most common cause. The eight most common types of mucocutaneous problems were gingivitis, pallor, itching, photosensitivity, seborrheic dermatitis, candidiasis, folliculitis and tinea versicolor. The most common manifestation was gingivitis. Mean CD4 cell counts were lower in individuals with viral and bacterial skin diseases (P <0.05). The results of this study indicated that skin problems were common among HIV positive patients. Patients with advanced stages of skin disorders had relatively lower CD4 counts. Therefore examination of skin is recommended for all HIV positive patients for early detection of skin disorders, as early diagnosis and management of dermatologic problems will improve the quality of life in HIV positive patients. (author)

  8. Reducing Child Problem Behaviors and Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Relationships: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Best in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Algina, James; Ladwig, Crystal; Jesse, Gabriel; Gyure, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic…

  9. Behavioral Adjustment of Pre-primary School Children in Tanzania : The Role of the Teacher-Child Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shavega, T.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-primary education in Tanzania prepares young children from 5 to 6 years of age for formal schooling (primary education). Children at this stage are in transition from home to school contexts. For many children the transition stage may cause challenges to them because school context is new to

  10. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources. PMID:29324823

  11. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.

  12. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Shen

    Full Text Available Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38 and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55. In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38 in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  13. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Biying; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  14. Religiousness, well-being and ageing – selected explanations of positive relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to research that have been conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and health status/ well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence aging process and health status? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1 religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses (2 religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3 provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations. Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by - among others - active engagement in life.

  15. Positive Institutions and their relationship with transformational leadership, empathy and team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Solares Menegazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study tests the relationship between transformational leadership, empathy and excellent team performance, based on the HEalthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO Model (Salanova, Llorens, Cifre & Martínez, 2012 in positive institutions, the third pillar of positive psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000. The study of empathy and its role in companies is important because it is not yet widely known the benefits that can provide to any institution. The study attempt to show a full mediating role of empathy in this relationship. The sample consist on  69 work teams, from 7 Small -and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs including 4 educational institutions and 3 institutions of medical services from Spain. The Interclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC1 and ICC2 and the Average Deviation Index (ADM(J supports data aggregation at the team level. The results using SEM, through work teams, supported the hypothesis, that is, the empathy plays a full mediating role between transformational leadership and excellent team performance. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Parent-child relationships and offspring's positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus

    2016-05-03

    We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13-15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60-64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control ( p  < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother's neuroticism and study member's personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother-child and father-child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being.

  17. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  18. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  19. The Relationships Between Positive-Negative Affectivity and Individual-Organizational Level Aggressiveness: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZDEVECİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to find out the relationships between, positive and negative affectivity, physical activity, personal level aggressiveness - organization level aggressiveness and mediation effect of physical activity. The universe of the research is employees of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone businesses in which physical activity is done. The size of the research is 273. According to the results, there is a significant and negative oriented relationship between positive affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between positive affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between negative affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between physical activity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between individual level aggressiveness and organization level aggressiveness. Separately physical activity has a significant mediation role between positive-negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness.

  20. Relationship between the position of upper and lower incisors and the internal structure of symphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kayou; Nishide, Masashi; Ishii, Yasumasa; Enomoto, Yutaka; Kawamura, Akira; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the position of the upper and lower incisors and cortical bone thickness and CT value of mandibular symphysis obtained by CT images and cephalograms. The specimens were 24 dry skulls of mordern Japanese males (mean age 29 years) without marked crowding and missing tooth, which had been preserved in the Tokyou University Museum. The data were transferred to a workstation, and CT value and thickness of cortical bone were measured. The dentofacial morphology was investigated with a lateral cephalogram. The results were as follows; The thickness of cortal bone was more thicker in order of basal, lingual and labial cortical bone. The CT value showed the same tendency as cortical bone thickness. Significant correlation coefficients were found between cortical bone thickness and CT value in 30, 60, 90, 120 degree areas. The inclination of upper incisors was negatively related to the CT value in basal and lingual region of symphysis. The inclination of lower incisors was positively related to the CT value in basal and lingual region of symphysis. The interincisor angle was positively related to the CT value in basal region of symphysis. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that the labio-lingual inclination of the upper and lower incisors was associated with the CT value of basal region of sysphysis. It is suggested that the internal structures of symphysis which relate to the occlusion types of incisors are affected by function of masticatory muscles. (author)

  1. A positive relationship between spring temperature and productivity in 20 songbird species in the boreal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Kalle; Piha, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming has already affected the population dynamics of numerous species and is predicted to do so also in the future. To predict the effects of climate change, it is important to know whether productivity is linked to temperature, and whether species' traits affect responses to climate change. To address these objectives, we analysed monitoring data from the Finnish constant effort site ringing scheme collected in 1987-2013 for 20 common songbird species together with climatic data. Warm spring temperature had a positive linear relationship with productivity across the community of 20 species independent of species' traits (realized thermal niche or migration behaviour), suggesting that even the warmest spring temperatures remained below the thermal optimum for reproduction, possibly due to our boreal study area being closer to the cold edge of all study species' distributions. The result also suggests a lack of mismatch between the timing of breeding and peak availability of invertebrate food of the study species. Productivity was positively related to annual growth rates in long-distance migrants, but not in short-distance migrants. Across the 27-year study period, temporal trends in productivity were mostly absent. The population sizes of species with colder thermal niches had decreasing trends, which were not related to temperature responses or temporal trends in productivity. The positive connection between spring temperature and productivity suggests that climate warming has potential to increase the productivity in bird species in the boreal zone, at least in the short term.

  2. [Relationship between the prone position and achieving head control at 3 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Machado, J L; Rodríguez-Fuentes, G

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the significant increase of mild motor delays and the strong intolerance of infants to be placed on prone position observed in the Physiotherapy Unit of the Maternal and Children's University Hospital of the Canaries (HUMIC), a study was conducted to determine whether positioning infants in the prone position while awake affected the achievement and quality of head control at three months. A prospective comparative practice-based study of a representative sample of 67 healthy infants born in the HUMIC, and divided into an experimental group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and a parent questionnaire were used as measurement tools. The intervention consisted of regular home visits to the experimental group (from the first to the third month). The two groups were evaluated in their homes at the end of 3 months. The differences in mean raw score of the AIMS at 3 months were, 16.26 in the experimental group and 10.38 in control group (P<.001). The percentile mean was 94 in the experimental group, and less than 50 (42) in the control group. All of the experimental group babies achieved the head control, with only 8 in the control group (25%). The significant findings suggest a direct relationship between the time spent in the prone position when the baby is awake and the achievement of head control at three months. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Circle Solutions, a philosophy and pedagogy for learning positive relationships: What promotes and inhibits sustainable outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence McCarthy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Educators are increasingly aware that the efficacy of social and emotional learning (SEL is dependent on implementation factors, not just program content. These include the philosophy underpinning an intervention, the beliefs as well as the skills of facilitators, and the classroom/whole school context in which the intervention takes place. This article outlines the philosophy and pedagogy of Circle Solutions and presents findings from research where 18 undergraduate students supported and developed ‘Circle Time’ in 8 Greater Western Sydney primary schools for a university module on community service. The study indicates that when there is full teacher participation within the principles of the Circle philosophy, together with activeschool support that promotes relational values, the learning outcomes for positive relationship building are more sustainable.

  4. Beginning and experienced secondary school teachers' self- and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Luce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357401530; van Tartwijk, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; Pennings, Heleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242588; van der Want, Anna; Verloop, Nico; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361

    2016-01-01

    The quality of teacher-student relationships is important for teachers' well-being in schools. In this interview study we investigated which cognitions comprise secondary school teachers' self- and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships. Frequency analyses of these

  5. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  6. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Patient-provider relationship predicts mental and physical health indicators for HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; McCullough, Mary B; Pantalone, David W

    2013-06-01

    We used secondary data analysis to examine associations among aspects of patient-provider relationships and mental and physical health indicators. Positive patient perceptions of patient-provider relationships were associated with fewer mental health symptoms in this outpatient sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (N = 171). Regression analyses revealed the role of anxiety and depression in explaining associations between two aspects of patient-provider relationships (i.e. quality of information offered and provider interactional style) and health-related quality of life. The findings demonstrated the importance of patient-provider relationships to improving physical health and functioning and maintaining engagement in care, among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  8. Fathers make a difference: positive relationships with mother and baby in relation to infant colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C P; Zhu, J; Paul, I M; Kjerulff, K H

    2017-09-01

    Maternal psychological factors like depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with infant fussiness or colic. However, little research exists on whether positive factors such as social support and the happiness of the mother-partner relationship are associated with lower rates of infant fussiness or colic. We investigated the association between infant colic and three types of maternal support: general maternal social support (during pregnancy and post partum), the happiness of the mother-partner relationship (during pregnancy and post partum) and partner involvement in caring for the newborn. Participants were 3006 women in the First Baby Study, a prospective study of the effect of mode of first delivery on subsequent childbearing. Women were interviewed by telephone during pregnancy and 1 month after first childbirth and asked about social support and if their baby had a variety of problems since birth, including 'Colic - crying or fussiness three or more hours a day'. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to model the association between maternal support and infant colic, controlling for confounders, including maternal race or ethnicity, insurance, marital status, smoking, mode of delivery, maternal post-partum depression, breastfeeding, other neonatal illnesses and newborn gestational age. Infant colic was reported by 11.6% of new mothers. High general maternal social support (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy, was associated with lower reported infant colic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.75) and measured post partum (AOR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.39-0.67); high relationship happiness (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy (AOR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), and measured post partum (AOR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.40); and high partner involvement with newborn care (in comparison with low) (AOR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.44-0.81). Higher levels of maternal social support during pregnancy and post

  9. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V., E-mail: rodionova@magn.ru [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kudinov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180 Degree-Sign . When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  10. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  11. Examining the relationship between local extinction risk and position in range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Isaac, Nicholas J B; Fuller, Richard A; Mace, Georgina M; McGowan, Philip J K

    2018-02-01

    Over half of globally threatened animal species have experienced rapid geographic range loss. Identifying the parts of species' distributions most vulnerable to local extinction would benefit conservation planning. However, previous studies give little consensus on whether ranges decline to the core or edge. We built on previous work by using empirical data to examine the position of recent local extinctions within species' geographic ranges, address range position as a continuum, and explore the influence of environmental factors. We aggregated point-locality data for 125 Galliform species from across the Palearctic and Indo-Malaya into equal-area half-degree grid cells and used a multispecies dynamic Bayesian occupancy model to estimate rates of local extinctions. Our model provides a novel approach to identify loss of populations from within species ranges. We investigated the relationship between extinction rates and distance from range edge by examining whether patterns were consistent across biogeographic realm and different categories of land use. In the Palearctic, local extinctions occurred closer to the range edge than range core in both unconverted and human-dominated landscapes. In Indo-Malaya, no pattern was found for unconverted landscapes, but in human-dominated landscapes extinctions tended to occur closer to the core than the edge. Our results suggest that local and regional factors override general spatial patterns of recent local extinction within species' ranges and highlight the difficulty of predicting the parts of a species' distribution most vulnerable to threat. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Teacher and observer views on student-teacher relationships: convergence across kindergarten and relations with student engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Doumen, S.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Buyse, E.; Wouters, S.; Verschueren, K.

    2012-01-01

    Most studies regarding the role of teacher-child relationships for children's early school adjustment use only teacher ratings of relationship quality. The current study examines (a) the agreement between teacher and observer ratings, (b) whether similar patterns of relations with behavioral

  13. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identified Phases in the Building and Maintaining of Positive Teacher-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-student relationships are accepted as influential but the dynamics of those relationships are not well understood, especially with difficult students. A series of interviews were combined with classroom observations and written reflections to understand in what ways a teacher negotiated her relationship with a behaviorally challenging…

  15. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y.; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2018-01-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e. positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e. secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in Previously Institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving. PMID:28401841

  16. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Michelle R; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-05-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.

  18. How the negative and positive aspects of partner relationships affect the mental health of young married people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, A V; McLaughlin, J; White, H R

    1998-06-01

    The relationship between marriage and positive mental health is one of the most established findings in the stress literature. Few studies, however, examine the problematic as well as the supportive impacts of marriage on mental health. This paper uses a cohort of young adults who were sampled at 18, 21, or 24 years of age and resampled seven years later when they were married at 25, 28, or 31. It examines what factors are associated with the quality of marital relationships, the relative impact of and balance between negative and positive partner relationships on mental health, and sex differences in the determinants and outcomes of marital quality. The results indicate that the structural strains of parenthood and financial need and their interaction predict problematic and supportive spousal relationships and the difference in the levels of these two relationships. Problematic relationships with spouses have considerably stronger impacts than supportive relationships on depression. However, the difference between the amounts of supportive and problematic relationships with spouses has a greater impact on mental health than levels of either considered separately. Finally, relational quality has a greater impact on the mental health of wives than husbands. These findings indicate the importance of considering how marriage affects mental health in complex, rather than in straightforward, ways.

  19. Is the Relationship between Race and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence Mediated by Sleep Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E.; Rosen, Carol L.; Wang, Rui; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2013-01-01

    ://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME; Rosen CL; Wang R; Auckley D; Benca R; Foldvary-Schaefer N; Iber C; Zee P; Redline S; Kapur VK. Is the relationship between race and continuous positive airway pressure adherence mediated by sleep duration? SLEEP 2013;36(2):221-227. PMID:23372269

  20. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  1. Expressions of positive emotion in women's college yearbook pictures and their relationship to personality and life outcomes across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, L; Keltner, D

    2001-01-01

    To test hypotheses about positive emotion, the authors examined the relationship of positive emotional expression in women's college pictures to personality, observer ratings, and life outcomes. Consistent with the notion that positive emotions help build personal resources, positive emotional expression correlated with the self-reported personality traits of affiliation, competence, and low negative emotionality across adulthood and predicted changes in competence and negative emotionality. Observers rated women displaying more positive emotion more favorably on several personality dimensions and expected interactions with them to be more rewarding; thus, demonstrating the beneficial social consequences of positive emotions. Finally, positive emotional expression predicted favorable outcomes in marriage and personal well-being up to 30 years later. Controlling for physical attractiveness and social desirability had little impact on these findings.

  2. Positive relationship between p42.3 gene and inflammation in chronic non-atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Cui, Yun; Fu, Qing Yan; Lu, You Yong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Chen, Xiao Yu

    2015-10-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a typical type of inflammation-related tumor. The p42.3 gene is shown to be highly expressed in GC, but its association with gastritis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the relationship between gastric inflammation and p42.3 gene in vitro and in vivo. Normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were treated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Total cell mRNA and protein were extracted and collected, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to determine the relative expression of p42.3 gene. In total, 291 biopsy samples from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis were collected and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the p42.3 protein expression. The association between p42.3 protein expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Both H. pylori and TNF-α significantly enhanced the p42.3 protein expression in GES-1 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, p42.3 gene expression was positively associated with the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation and H. pylori infection (P = 0.000). Its expression was significantly more common in severe gastric inflammation and in H. pylori-infected cases. p42.3 gene expression is associated with gastric mucosal inflammation that can be upregulated by TNF-α and H. pylori infection. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Wubbels, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, N.T.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both

  4. Language Development in the Early School Years: The Importance of Close Relationships with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…

  5. Language development in the early school years: The importance of close relationships with teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Harrison, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children’s receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral

  6. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self-other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Christian E; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2006-04-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300-319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feelings of self-other overlap in the beginning of a new relationship. In a prospective study of first-year college students, we found that, after 1 week in college, positive emotions predicted increased self-other overlap with new roommates, which in turn predicted a more complex understanding of the roommate. In addition, participants who experienced a high ratio of positive to negative emotions throughout the first month of college reported a greater increase in self-other overlap and complex understanding than participants with a low positivity ratio. Implications for the role of positive emotions in the formation of new relationships are discussed.

  7. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self–other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAUGH, CHRISTIAN E.; FREDRICKSON, BARBARA L.

    2007-01-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feelings of self–other overlap in the beginning of a new relationship. In a prospective study of first-year college students, we found that, after 1 week in college, positive emotions predicted increased self–other overlap with new roommates, which in turn predicted a more complex understanding of the roommate. In addition, participants who experienced a high ratio of positive to negative emotions throughout the first month of college reported a greater increase in self–other overlap and complex understanding than participants with a low positivity ratio. Implications for the role of positive emotions in the formation of new relationships are discussed. PMID:21691460

  8. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15914700

  9. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  10. Differentiating Three Conceptualisations of the Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose; Frydenberg, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by both great potential for positive change and a relatively high incidence of problem outcomes. A multidimensional model of positive development during the transition to adulthood (at 19-20 years) has recently been proposed. However, an unresolved question regarding the nature of positive development…

  11. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Social Relationships and Health: Is Feeling Positive, Negative, or Both (Ambivalent) about your Social Ties Related to Telomeres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Light, Kathleen C.; McKenzie, Justin; Carlisle, McKenzie; Gunn, Heather; Birmingham, Wendy; Bowen, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been linked to morbidity and mortality across different diseases. As a result, it is important to examine more integrative mechanisms that might link relationships across diverse physical health outcomes. In this study, we examine associations between relationships and telomeres which predict general disease risk. These questions are pursued in the context of a more comprehensive model of relationships that highlights the importance of jointly considering positive and negative aspects of social ties. Method 136 individuals from a community sample (ages 48 to 77) completed the social relationships index which allows a determination of relationships that differ in their positive and negative substrates (i.e., ambivalent, supportive, aversive, indifferent). Telomere length was determined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via quantitative PCR. Results Participants who had a higher number of ambivalent ties in their social networks evidenced shorter telomeres. These results were independent of other relationships types (e.g., supportive), as well as standard control variables (e.g., age, health behaviors, medication use). Gender moderated the links between ambivalent ties and telomere length with these associations seen primarily in women. Follow-up analyses revealed that the links between ambivalent ties and telomeres were primarily due to friendships, parents, and social acquaintances. Conclusions Consistent with epidemiological findings, these data highlight a novel and integrative biological mechanism by which social ties may impact health across diseases, and further suggests the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of specific relationships and physical health. PMID:22229928

  13. [Relationship between serum level of uric acid and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junliang; Chen, Yili; Chen, Yudan; Niu, Shiqin; Li, Shujuan; Dong, Qian; Hu, Wenli

    2015-02-03

    To confirm the possible relationships between serum level of uric acid (UA) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). A total of 87 patients with BPPV and 36 age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited from our hospital between July 1, 2013 and July 1, 2014. All patients underwent a complete audio-vestibular test battery, such as Dix-Hallpike maneuver for posterior semicircular canal and supine roll test for horizontal semicircular canal. All risk factors such as the histories of heart and cerebral vascular diseases, and routine hematological and biochemical analyses were analyzed between two groups. No significant inter-group differences existed in age, gender, histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, smoking or drinking (P > 0.05). No significant differences existed between systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, ejection fraction, whole blood count, lipid profile, homocysteine, prealbumin and blood urea nitrogen in patients with BPPV compared with controls (P >0. 05). However, the values of UA (267 ± 86 vs 325 ± 75) µmol/L, hemoglobin ale (5.6 ± 1. 4 vs 6.5 ± 1. 0)%, albumin (36 ± 4 vs 40 ± 4) g/L and creatinine (72 ± 20 vs 81 ± 22) µmol/L were much lower in patients with BPPV versus controls (P < 0. 05). According to multiple Logistic regression model, the lower levels of hemoglobin ale and albumin were independently associated with BPPV (P <0. 05) with the odds ratio of 1. 473 (95% CI 1. 066 - 2. 037) and 1. 162 (95% CI 1. 025 - 1. 318), respectively. However, the level of UA was not independently correlated with the occurrence of BPPV [OR = 1. 005 (95% CI 1. 000 - 1. 011), P =0. 063]. The lower levels of hemoglobin alc and albumin are independently associated with BPPV. Although the value of UA is lower in patients with BPPV versus controls, it is not an independent risk factor for BPPV. Due to limited patient data, further studies are needed to clarify the association in a

  14. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: relationship with prostate cancer outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo L. R. Felts de La Roca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Positive surgical margins (PSMs are an adverse factor that may predict a worse outcome in patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP. However, not all of these cases will evolve to biochemical (BCR or clinical (CR recurrence, therefore relationship between PSMs and these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinical and pathologic findings to indicate complementary treatment for selected patients. Materials and Methods Of 1250 patients submitted to open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, between March 1991 and June 2008, the outcome of 161 patients with PSMs and of 67 without PSMs as a control group, comprising a total of 228 cases were retrospectively reviewed. A minimum follow-up time of 2 years after surgery was considered. BCR was determined when PSA ≥ 0.2ng/mL. CR was determined whenever there was clinical evidence of tumor. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. Time interval to biochemical recurrence was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit analysis using the log-rank test for comparison between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox stepwise logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of risk of shorter intervals to BCR. Results Prostate circumference margin was the most common site with 78 cases (48.44%. Regarding the outcome of 228 cases from both groups, BCR occurred in 68 patients (29.82%, and CR in 10 (4.38%. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant associations (p < 0.001 between presence of PSMs with BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.05. At follow-up of the 161 patients with PSMs, only 61(37.8% presented BCR, while 100 (62.8% did not. BCR correlated with pathologic stage; Gleason score; preoperative PSA; tumor volume in the specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. CR correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analysis of clinical and

  15. Relationship between vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz Server, Ela; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Yiğit, Özgür; Yasak, Ahmet Görkem; Erdim, Çağrı

    2018-01-01

    To identify the vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions in patients with positional vertigo with no specific diagnosis. Patients with history of vestibular symptoms associated with changes in head position were enrolled into the study. Healthy volunteers were evaluated as control group. Doppler ultrasonography examination of the cervical segment of the vertebral arteries was performed under three different head positions: (i) supine position, (ii) head hyperextended and rotated to the right side and (iii) head hyperextended and rotated to the left side. In the study group, right and left vertebral artery blood flow was significantly lower in the ipsilateral hyperextended position compared to standard supine position (respectively p = .014; p = .001), but did not differ significantly when compared between the standard supine and contralateral hyperextended positions (respectively = .959; p = .669). In the control group, left and right vertebral artery blood flow did not differ significantly when the head was hyperextended to the right or left sides compared to standard supine position (p > .05). Our data demonstrated that the etiology of vestibular complaints in patients with undiagnosed positional vertigo might be related to impairment in vertebral artery blood flow according to head positions.

  16. Leading from the Centre: A Comprehensive Examination of the Relationship between Central Playing Positions and Leadership in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Research aims The present article provides a comprehensive examination of the relationship between playing position and leadership in sport. More particularly, it explores links between leadership and a player’s interactional centrality—defined as the degree to which their playing position provides opportunities for interaction with other team members. This article examines this relationship across different leadership roles, team sex, and performance levels. Results Study 1 (N = 4443) shows that athlete leaders (and the task and motivational leader in particular) are more likely than other team members to occupy interactionally central positions in a team. Players with high interactional centrality were also perceived to be better leaders than those with low interactional centrality. Study 2 (N = 308) established this link for leadership in general, while Study 3 (N = 267) and Study 4 (N = 776) revealed that the same was true for task, motivational, and external leadership. This relationship is attenuated in sports where an interactionally central position confers limited interactional advantages. In other words, the observed patterns were strongest in sports that are played on a large field with relatively fixed positions (e.g., soccer), while being weaker in sports that are played on a smaller field where players switch positions dynamically (e.g., basketball, ice hockey). Beyond this, the pattern is broadly consistent across different sports, different sexes, and different levels of skill. Conclusions The observed patterns are consistent with the idea that positions that are interactionally central afford players greater opportunities to do leadership—either through communication or through action. Significantly too, they also provide a basis for them to be seen to do leadership by others on their team. Thus while it is often stated that “leadership is an action, not a position,” it is nevertheless the case that, when it comes to performing that

  17. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  18. The Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Olsson, Craig; Frydenberg, Erica; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose

    2012-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by potential for both positive development and problem outcomes such as psychopathology, yet little is known about relationships between the two. Given the diversity of pathways observed during this transition period, there is likely to be significant heterogeneity in young people's experiences of these…

  19. Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Necla Acun

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…

  20. The Association Between Positive Relationships with Adults and Suicide-Attempt Resilience in American Indian Youth in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Courtney A; Fullerton, Lynne; Green, Dan; Hall, Meryn; Peñaloza, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.

  1. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo A.; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervent......Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child...

  2. Paradoxical Relationship between the Amount of Negative eWOM Messages and Positive Consumer Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono

    2013-01-01

    Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...

  3. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; M age =23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Positive Well-Being and Academic Assessment: Results from a Prospective Study on Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Presumably, the academic stress that builds throughout the academic year has a negative effect on dental students’ psychological well-being and may have a relationship with academic performance. This research aimed to analyse the variation of positive well-being in second-year dental students, across the academic semester, in relation to consecutive examinations as part of academic assessment system (1 and to observe the relationship between academic performance during semester evaluation period and dental students’ positive well-being (2. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on second-year dental students, data on positive well-being being collected with WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5, at the beginning of the semester and after three consecutive mandatory examinations. Results. One hundred and forty-six dental students were included (77% response rate. Repeated ANOVA showed a significant progressive decline of positive well-being over the semester, which was clinically significant for an important part of them. Students who performed better in the semester evaluation period registered higher well-being levels at the beginning of the semester but a more pronounced decline of it until the semester evaluation period. Conclusion. Based on this research, a relationship between positive well-being, academic assessments, and academic performance is suggested, when evaluating them in a prospective frame.

  5. Authors' financial relationships with the food and beverage industry and their published positions on the fat substitute olestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the association between authors' published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P <.0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Because authors' published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests.

  6. Authors’ Financial Relationships With the Food and Beverage Industry and Their Published Positions on the Fat Substitute Olestra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between authors’ published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Methods. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Results. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P < .0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Conclusions. Because authors’ published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests. PMID:12660215

  7. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  8. Positive and negative affect mediate the bidirectional relationship between emotional processing and symptom severity and impact in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibelli, Alice; Chalder, Trudie; Everitt, Hazel; Chilcot, Joseph; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with IBS report higher levels of psychological distress compared to healthy controls. Distress has been associated with emotional processing difficulties but studies have not explored how the relationship between distress and emotional processing affects IBS. There is little research on the role of positive affect (PA) in IBS. (a) If difficulties in self-reported emotional processing are associated with affect and IBS measures (i.e., symptom severity, interference in life roles) (b1) If affect mediates the relationship between emotional processing and IBS measures (b2) Alternative model: if affect mediates the relationship between IBS and emotional processing (c) If PA moderates the relationship between distress and IBS. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of IBS (n=558) completed a questionnaire including measures of emotional processing (i.e., unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions, impoverished emotional experience), distress, PA, and IBS symptoms/interference. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted with Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Distress and PA mediated or partly mediated the relationship between unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions/impoverished emotional experience and both IBS measures. The alternative models were also valid, suggesting a two-way relationship between emotional processing and IBS through affect. PA did not moderate the relationship between distress and IBS. Future interventions in IBS may benefit from not only targeting the management of physical symptoms and their daily impact but also aspects related to the experience of both negative and positive affect, and the acceptance and expression of negative emotions. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm causal relationships within the explored models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Children’s perceptions of the relationship with the teacher: Associations with appraisals and internalizing problems in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Zee, M.; Koomen, H.M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the associations between child-perceived teacher-child relationships, children's appraisals of interactions with their teacher, and internalizing problems. Five hundred third- to sixth-graders reported about their experiences of closeness, conflict, and negative

  10. Effects of Positioning Aids on Understanding the Relationship Between a Mobile Map and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technologies such as GPS enable mobile map applications to display a symbol representing an estimation of a user’s location on a mobile map, therefore acting as a positioning aid. Previous research on the cognitive processes involved in map reading suggests that map readers need at least two map–environment points (objects that are visualized on the map and perceived in the environment for determining their location on a map. Hence, the positioning aid alone does not provide enough information for self-location. Using a field experiment, we assessed the effect of representing the user’s location on a map on the cognitive processes involved in self-location. The results show that positioning aids guide the search for map–environment points and narrow the area on the map that must be scanned for self-location.

  11. Relationship between head posture and lumbar curve in a sitting position: a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilene Maria Cota Aroeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The sitting position routinely used for a wide variety of tasks increases the potential of developing forward head posture, which can seriously compromise the health of different systems in the human body. Objective: A static equilibrium analysis was conducted, comparing the position of the head with the lumbar curve in three different sitting positions. Methods: The approximate force and flexion moment of the head extensor muscles in static equilibrium was calculated in each of the following positions: (A without a backrest; (B using a backrest with a 100° tilt angle; (C using a 100° tilted backrest associated with a cylindrical lumbar support cushion at the level of the L3 vertebra. Results: The C7-tragus angles were 43°, 50° and 52°; Frankfort horizontal plane (FH angles were 5°, 9° and 9°; force of the head extensor muscles was 53.0N, 59.7N and 43.5N and flexion moments were 2.60Nm, 2.05Nm and 1.78Nm, in positions A, B and C, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that the sitting position using a 100° tilted backrest and lumbar support with the smallest L3-tragus horizontal distance required less effort by the head and neck extensor muscles to retain the head in equilibrium. This study demonstrated the need to preserve the physiology of the lumbar spine, characterized by the position of the L3 vertebra, in order to ensure good head position.

  12. Psychological need fulfillment as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and positive job attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetland, J.; Hetland, H.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Andreassen, C.S.; Pallesen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee job attitudes (job satisfaction and dedication). Design/methodology/approach – The two samples include both cross-sectional and diary

  13. Positive Academic Emotions Moderate the Relationship between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models,…

  14. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction questionnaires, the research hypotheses have been tested through Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling. The results show that there were significant relationships between meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. Results of structure equation modeling reveal that during two chain models, at first meaning and spirituality at work are linked to job happiness and positive effect. Then job happiness and positive effect cause reinforcement of job satisfaction. The results of this study showed that meaning and spirituality at work cause positive affective spillover from job happiness and positive affect to job satisfaction.

  15. The analysis of spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space in different arm positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yuefen; Wang Dehang; Wang Xiaoning; Li Shener

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the distance between the acromion and the humerus head at different arm abduction to observe whether it changes or not, to determine at which position the distance is smallest, and to evaluate the relationship between the subacromial space and the rotator cuff. Methods: Fifteen normal volunteers were examined with MRI in six arm positions, and the coronal thin images were obtained with a spin echo sequence. Using a special positioning device, the arm was placed at 0 degree, 30 degree, 60 degree, 90 degree, 120 degree and 150 degree arm abduction, respectively. Of them, 0 degree-90 degree positions were not rotated, while 120 degree and 150 degree positions were slight internal rotated. The minimal distance of acromion-humerus (A-H) and clavicle-humerus (C-H), and the spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space were measured and observed. Results: The values of A-H and C-H at 60 degree - 150 degree arm abduction were obviously smaller than those at 0 degree-30 degree arm abduction (P 0.05). The rotator cuff (mainly supraspinatus tendon) just went through between the acromion and the humerus at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions but not at 0 degree, 30 degree and 150 degree arm positions. So at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions, rotator cuff between the humerus and the acromion was often impinged. Conclusion: The closest contact between the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial space occurs at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction. The findings testify that the patients with impingement syndrome have shoulder pain at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction in clinic from etiology and pathology. In the future, MRI-based analyses should allow investigating the morphological basis of the impingement syndrome, choosing the appropriate therapy, and minimizing failure rates of surgery

  16. The Effectiveness Of The Intelligence E-CRM Application In Enhancing Positive Customer Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractE-CRM electronic customer relationship management is a derivation from CRM techniques which influenced direct marketing technology and call Centre to promote massively created products and services to small sub-segments of market. When CRM techniques are incorporated in e-commerce environment it becomes E-CRM which involves building a strong and sustainable customer relationship by using Internet. It is a strategy which is purely based on Internet and software development it requires to create essential integrated software suite to deal with all kinds of customer related issues like customer services sales and marketing field support. The essential parts of E-CRM are to focus on building new customer base segmentation of high valued customers enhancing the profitability of existing customer and maximize the value and life of profitable customers.

  17. Is there a positive relationship between naturalness and genetic diversity in forest tree communities?

    OpenAIRE

    Wehenkel, C.; Corral-Rivas, J. J.; Castellanos-Bocaz, H. A.; Pinedo-Alvarez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of genetic diversity and naturalness are well known as measures of conservation values and as descriptors of state or condition. A lack of research evaluating the relationship between genetic diversity and naturalness in biological communities, along with the possible implications in terms of evolutionary aspects and conservation management, make this subject particularly important as regards forest tree communities.We therefore examined the following hypothesis: the genetic dive...

  18. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    I Brage finner du siste tekst-versjon av artikkelen, og den kan inneholde ubetydelige forskjeller fra forlagets pdf-versjon. Forlagets pdf-versjon finner du på humankinetics.com / In Brage you'll find the final text version of the article, and it may contain insignificant differences from the journal's pdf version. The definitive version is available at humankinetics.com Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and moto...

  19. The relationship between positive or negative phrasing and patients' coping with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Oh; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that phrases with negative content can affect patients' response to medical procedures and how they cope with medical illnesses. We hypothesized that patients with lateral epicondylitis who describe their condition in positive phrases cope better than those who do not. We prospectively followed up 91 patients with lateral epicondylitis for 12 months. The patients indicated their baseline coping status based on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and were discharged with a wait-and-see policy. During follow-up interviews, the patients described the nature of their condition in their own words and were then categorized into either positive or negative phrasing groups. We compared these two groups regarding current coping status and whether they had sought additional treatment. We also analyzed for the factors associated with these outcomes. There were no significant differences in baseline PCS scores between the two groups. At follow-up, patients in the positive phrasing group (n = 62) had significantly lower PCS scores and were less likely to seek additional treatment than those in the negative phrasing group (n = 29). Multivariable analyses showed that positive phrasing and low pain levels were independently associated with improvement in PCS scores and that negative phrasing and depression were independently associated with patients' seeking additional treatment. Patients' positive phrasing about their condition are associated with improvement in their coping status and with less use of medical resources in the case of lateral epicondylitis. This study suggests that patients with more positive attitudes toward their illness cope and comply better when a wait-and-see treatment is recommended by their physicians. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    OpenAIRE

    CRAFT, SHONDA M.; SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...

  1. The Relationship between Identity-Related Constructs and Positive Mental Health in Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushonga, Dawnsha R.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study examined positive mental health (PMH) in 156 Black college students, ages 18-25, attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). In addition, identity-related constructs such as spirituality, self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, racial…

  2. Positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hwa; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT). CBCTs from 127 subjects were analysed. A total of 134 maxillary first molars were classified according to their vertical and horizontal positional relationship to the maxillary sinus floor and measured according to the distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary first molar. Type III (The root projected laterally on the sinus cavity but its apex is outside the sinus boundaries) was dominated between 10 and 19 years and type I (The root apex was not in contact with the cortical borders of the sinus) was dominated (P<0.05) between 20 and 72 years on the vertical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. The maxillary sinus floor was located more at the apex (78.2%) than at the furcation (21.3%) for the palatal root. The distance from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor confined to type I was increased according to the ages (P<0.05). Type M (The maxillary sinus floor was located between the buccal and the palatal root) was most common (72.4%) on the horizontal relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. CBCT can provide highly qualified images for the maxillary sinus floor and the root apex of the maxillary first molar.

  3. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  4. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. ...

  5. Explaining effervescence: Investigating the relationship between shared social identity and positive experience in crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Reicher, Stephen D; Khan, Sammyh S; Tewari, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Stevenson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the intensely positive emotional experiences arising from participation in a large-scale collective event. We predicted such experiences arise when those attending a collective event are (1) able to enact their valued collective identity and (2) experience close relations with other participants. In turn, we predicted both of these to be more likely when participants perceived crowd members to share a common collective identity. We investigated these predictions in a survey of pilgrims (N = 416) attending a month-long Hindu pilgrimage festival in north India. We found participants' perceptions of a shared identity amongst crowd members had an indirect effect on their positive experience at the event through (1) increasing participants' sense that they were able to enact their collective identity and (2) increasing the sense of intimacy with other crowd members. We discuss the implications of these data for how crowd emotion should be conceptualised.

  6. Relationship between the pitch of modulation collimators and the determination accuracy of source positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    The celestial positions of X-ray bursters and gamma-ray burst sources can be accurately determined with rotating modulation collimators which possess wide fields of view and also high angular resolutions. Since the determination accuracy is dependent on the signal to noise ratio of incident photons, the distribution of signal power is analysed and the optimum pitch of the modulation collimator for a burst of a given size is discussed. (author)

  7. Assessment of Isometric Trunk Strength - The Relevance of Body Position and Relationship between Planes of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences in maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion strength during standing, sitting and kneeling. Additionally, we were interested in correlations between the maximal strength in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane, measured in the sitting position. Sixty healthy subjects (24 male, 36 female; age 41.3 ± 15.1 yrs; body height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 72.7 ± 13.3 kg) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles in standing, sitting and kneeling position. The subjects also performed lateral flexions and rotations in the sitting position. Each task was repeated three times and average of maximal forces was used for data analysis. RANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. The level of statistical significance was set to p strength showed the strongest correlation, followed by frontal-transverse and sagittal-frontal plane correlation pairs (R(2) = 0.830, 0.712 and 0.657). The baseline trunk isometric strength data provided by this study should help further strength diagnostics, more precisely, the prevention of low back disorders. Key pointsMaximal voluntary isometric force of the trunk extensors increased with the angle at the hips (highest in sitting, medium in kneeling and lowest in upright standing).The opposite trend was true for isometric MVC force of trunk flexors (both genders together and men only).In the sitting position, the strongest correlation between MVC forces was found between sagittal (average flexion/extension) and transverse plane (average left/right rotation).IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALIDITY OF TRUNK STRENGTH TESTING THE LETTER SHOULD INCLUDE: specific warm-up, good pelvic fixation and visual feedback.

  8. Relationship between lower limb position and pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography activity in menopausal women: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halski T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Halski,1 Kuba Ptaszkowski,2 Lucyna Słupska,1 Robert Dymarek,3 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz2 1Department of Physiotherapy, Opole Medical School, Opole, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objectives: In physiotherapeutic practice, special attention is being given to the reciprocal anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical relationship of the pelvis and the structures connected to it. However, the scientific literature shows mainly the theoretical information about their mutual connections. The lack of information about these relations from a practical aspect coupled with the paucity of scientific papers on the impact of posture changes on the pelvic floor led the authors to conduct this study. The primary aim of this study was to compare the resting and functional bioelectrical activities of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs depending on three different positions of the lower limbs (positions A, B, and C in the supine position.Materials and methods: This was a prospective observational study evaluating resting and functional activities of the PFM depending on the position of the lower limbs. The study was carried out at the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland and the target group were women in the menopausal period. Bioelectrical activity of PFM was recorded using a surface electromyographic instrument in the supine position. Results of the values obtained in A, B, and C positions were compared using a one-way analysis of variance.Results: In position A, the average resting surface electromyography (sEMG activity of PFM was 6.9±2.6 µV; in position B, the result was 6.9±2.5 µV and in position C, the resting sEMG activity was 5.7±1.8 µV (P=0.0102. The results of the functional bioelectrical activity of PFM were as follows: position A – 20.3

  9. Age-Related Decline of Wrist Position Sense and its Relationship to Specific Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van de Winckel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of limb and body positions is known as proprioception. Sensory feedback, especially from proprioceptive receptors, is essential for motor control. Aging is associated with a decline in position sense at proximal joints, but there is inconclusive evidence of distal joints being equally affected by aging. In addition, there is initial evidence that physical activity attenuates age-related decline in proprioception. Our objectives were, first, to establish wrist proprioceptive acuity in a large group of seniors and compare their perception to young adults, and second, to determine if specific types of training or regular physical activity are associated with preserved wrist proprioception. We recruited community-dwelling seniors (n = 107, mean age, 70 ± 5 years, range, 65–84 years without cognitive decline (Mini Mental State Examination-brief version ≥13/16 and young adult students (n = 51, mean age, 20 ± 1 years, range, 19–26 years. Participants performed contralateral and ipsilateral wrist position sense matching tasks with a bimanual wrist manipulandum to a 15° flexion reference position. Systematic error or proprioceptive bias was computed as the mean difference between matched and reference position. The respective standard deviation over five trials constituted a measure of random error or proprioceptive precision. Current levels of physical activity and previous sport, musical, or dance training were obtained through a questionnaire. We employed longitudinal mixed effects linear models to calculate the effects of trial number, sex, type of matching task and age on wrist proprioceptive bias and precision. The main results were that relative proprioceptive bias was greater in older when compared to young adults (mean difference: 36% ipsilateral, 88% contralateral, p < 0.01. Proprioceptive precision for contralateral but not for ipsilateral matching was smaller in older than in young adults (mean difference: 38

  10. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  11. Public green spaces and positive mental health - investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Hooper, Paula; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Associations between parks and mental health have typically been investigated in relation to the presence or absence of mental illness. This study uses a validated measure of positive mental health and data from RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Project to investigate the association between the presence, amount and attributes of public green space in new greenfield neighbourhood developments and the mental health of local residents (n = 492). Both the overall number and total area of public green spaces were significantly associated with greater mental wellbeing, and findings support a dose-response relationship. Positive mental health was not only associated with parks with a nature focus, but also with green spaces characterised by recreational and sporting activity. The study demonstrates that adequate provision of public green space in local neighbourhoods and within walking distance is important for positive mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Position of the Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiography and Its Relationship to Age in a Selected Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The position of the mental foramen is critical for surgery and local anesthesia. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the position of the mental foramen and its relationship to age in a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred panoramic radiographs were assessed. Three variables were assessed for each radiograph: anterior-posterior position, superior-inferior position, and radiographic appearance. The position and appearance of the mental foramen were recorded according to gender and age. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Considering the anterior-posterior position, the mental foramina were located in the following positions: between premolars (41.5%, at the apex of the second premolars (31.7%, in the posterior area of the second premolars (19.2%, in the anterior area of the first premolars (4.3%, and at the apex of the first premolars (3.3%.The superior-inferior position of the mental foramina were below, above, and at the level of the apices of the premolars in 78.8%, 2.5%, and 18.7% of cases, respectively. The appearance of the mental foramen was continuous in relation to the mandibular canal in 55.9% of cases, while it was separated, diffuse, and unidentified in 29.5%, 9.7%, and 5% of cases, respectively. Age was found to affect the position and appearance of mental foramen. Conclusions The mental foramina were most commonly located between the first and second premolars and below the apex. A continuous appearance was the most common appearance for the mental foramen, which was similar in males and females.

  13. The Relationship between Oral Hygiene Index and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Önder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori (HP is a bacterial patho­gen that leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, gastric and duodenal ulcer and atrophic gastritis. Colonization of bacteria can be shown by using rapid-urease test during endoscopy. There are conflicting data about the route of transmission and reservoir. It’s thought to be transmitted primarily by oral route. Many studies showed results sup­porting that the presence of bacteria in dental plaques has effects on gastric colonization and eradication. There are data about the potential inhibitory effect of oral flora on HP. We aimed to analyze the association of simplified oral hygiene index -a possible representation of a healthy oral flora- with HP positivity. Methods: Patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy for symptoms of dyspepsia were as­sessed by a dentist for the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI. Patients were classified as good, poor and bad groups based on oral hygiene index scale. Pre-pyloric biopsy materials were assessed using rapid-urease test. Oral hygiene indexes were analyzed retrospectively, groups were compared for HP positivity. Results: 66 patients (30 females, 45.5% were included. Mean age of patients was 34.17±14.7 years. 11 (16.7%, 29 (43.9% and 26 (39.4% patients were classified as in good, poor and bad hygiene index groups, respectively. In patients with good OHI gastric HP positivity was less frequent. Conclusion: Decreased frequency in gastric HP may be observed with maintaining an ideal oral hygiene.

  14. Relationship between pre-extubation positive endexpiratory pressure and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijane Oliveira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction After removal of endotracheal tube and artificial ventilation, ventilatory support should be continued, offering oxygen supply to ensure an arterial oxygen saturation close to physiological. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure before extubation on the oxygenation indices of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with seventy-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting divided into three groups and ventilated with different positive-end expiratory pressure levels prior to extubation: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=32; Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=26; and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=20. Oxygenation index data were obtained from arterial blood gas samples collected at 1, 3, and 6 h after extubation. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease and those who underwent off-pump, emergency, or combined surgeries were excluded. For statistical analysis, we used Shapiro-Wilk, G, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests and set the level of significance at P<0.05. Results Groups were homogenous with regard to demographic, clinical, and surgical variables. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the first 6 h after extubation with regard to oxygenation indices and oxygen therapy utilization. Conclusion: In this sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of different positive-end expiratory pressure levels before extubation did not affect gas exchange or oxygen therapy utilization in the first 6 h after endotracheal tube removal.

  15. Vaginal position and length in the bitch: relationship to spaying and urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, S.P.; Holt, P.E.; Parkinson, T.J.; Wathes, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the vagina might be a suitable site for the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure during cystometry in the bitch, The position of the cranial vagina and vaginal length were measured radiographically and the effects of spaying and urinary Incontinence on these variables were evaluated in 30 continent and 30 incontinent bitches. The study used retrograde vaginourethrograms which had been obtained from animals used in a previous study, The cranial vagina was intra-abdominal on 36 of the vaginourethrograms, being least commonly intra-abdominal in incontinent bitches (11/30), Vaginal position was related linearly to vaginal length and continence status (P<0.01), while its length was related to bodyweight(P<0.01). Allowing for bodyweight, neutered animals had significantly shorter vaginas than entire bitches (P<0.01). Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with concomitant measurement of intravesical pressure is essential if accurate assessment of detrusor pressure is to be determined during cystometry, The vagina is unlikely to be a useful location from which to measure intra-abdominal pressure since any pressure-measuring catheter inserted into it may fall outside the abdominal pressure zone. This is particularly true of neutered and/or incontinent bitches, the groups in which urodynamic investigations of urinary incontinence are most frequently indicated

  16. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (Pborn early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (Ptalent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  17. Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and Christianity's positive relationship to the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2003-01-01

    This essay addresses the problem of communication between Christianity and the secular world in an area where the latter tends to oppose the moral norms endorsed by the former. How, in the interest of missionary outreach (and with which understandings of what such outreach involves) can the language barriers be bridged? Whereas the Roman Catholic natural law tradition posits a neutral common ground of (traditional or hermeneutical) rationality between Christianity and the world, an Ebeling- and Barth-modified Lutheranism engages in an argument ad hominem by seizing upon an admitted deficiency within that world, and by recommending Christianity for mending that deficiency. Both positions differ from the Evangelical claim that since that which the world politically values is derived from Christianity, it must remain subject to Christianity's moral legislation. An entirely different approach to the communication- and outreach-problem is taken by Orthodox Christianity: The gulf which separates it from the world is acknowledged, and the possibility of trans-gulf-traffic is referred to God's grace. It is only this latter model, however, which preserves Christianity's theological terms (such as "Scripture", "law", and "holiness") from common-ground-securing, deficiency-mending, or authority-imposing secularizing, and thus from compromising that very theological context into which communicative outreach endeavors were to invite.

  18. Young children's perceptions of teacher‐child relationships: an evaluation of two instruments and the role of child gender in kindergarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Mantzicopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric qualities of two instruments that measure children's perceptions of teacher-child relationships were evaluated in a sample of kindergartners (N = 150): The Young Children's Appraisals of Teacher Support (Y-CATS) and the Kindergartner-Teacher Interaction Computer (KLIC) test. On the

  19. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  20. The effects of positive cognitions on the relationship between alienation and resourcefulness in nursing students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; ElGuenidi, Mervat; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-01-01

    Alienation is a subjective state, a feeling of being a stranger, as if one were not one's normal self. It is also a sense of homelessness; a feeling of uneasiness or discomfort, which signifies the person's exclusion from social or cultural participation. Alienation can adversely affect healthy functioning of nursing students. Nursing students are the adolescents of today and the nurses of tomorrow who will deal with human behavior, and their psychological well-being will be important in managing their clients' conditions. Healthy nursing students are likely to become healthy nurses who can then model and promote healthy lifestyles for their patients. This study looked at whether the effects of alienation on adolescents' resourcefulness are influenced by positive cognitions. Zauszniewski's theory of resourcefulness, which is based on the conceptualization of two forms of resourcefulness: personal (self-help) and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness, served as the theoretical framework for the study. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to examine hypothesized relationships among the study variables in a convenience sample of 170 first-year nursing students aged 17 to 20 years. Results showed that positive cognitions had a moderating and a partial mediating effect on the relationship between alienation and resourcefulness. It is imperative for nurse educators to generate interventions to enhance positive cognitions among nursing students.

  1. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  2. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29755381

  3. Relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Cognitive theory assumes a pivotal role of negative core beliefs about the self in dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. Meanwhile, the role of positive core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerability to depression is unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life.Methods: The subjects were 311 Japanese volunteers. Core beliefs of negative-self and positive-self were evaluated by the corresponding subscales of the Brief Core Schema Scales. Dysfunctional attitudes in the areas of achievement, dependency and self-control were measured by the corresponding subscales of the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale.Results: The negative-self subscale was correlated with the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. The positive-self subscale was correlated with the achievement and self-control subscales.Conclusion: The present study suggests that negative core beliefs about the self underlie all types of dysfunctional attitudes, while positive core beliefs about the self have some connections with dysfunctional attitudes related to achievement and self-control. Keywords: negative-self, achievement, dependency, self-control, depression

  4. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  5. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  6. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  7. The prognostic significance and relationship with body composition of CCR7-positive cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Knight, Stella C; Moorghen, Morgan; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Jenkins, John T

    2015-07-01

    The host local immune response (LIR) to cancer is a determinant of cancer outcome. Regulation of this local response is largely achieved through chemokine synthesis from the tumor microenvironment such as C-Chemokine-Receptor-7 (CCR7). We examined the LIR measured as CCR7 expression, in colorectal cancers (CRC) and explored relationships with body composition (BC) and survival. A study of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens was carried out in 116 patients with non-metastatic CRC. CCR7 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of computer tomography scans was used to calculate BC parameters. Survival analyses and multivariate regression models were used. High CCR7(+) cell density within the tumor stroma and at the margin was significantly associated with increased age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, higher tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, high Klintrup-Makinen immune score, and myosteatosis. High CCR7(+) cell density in the tumor margin was significantly associated with shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). This was also significantly associated with shorter survival in multivariate analysis (HR = 8.87; 95%CI [2.51-31.3]; P < 0.01 for OS and HR = 4.72; 95%CI (1.24-12.9); P = 0.02 for DFS). Our results suggest that a specific immune microenvironment may be associated with altered host's BC and tumor behavior, and that CCR7 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Investigation of the relationship between chronic diseases and residual symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjie; Fu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Ye; Ge, Ying

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prognosis-related influence factors of the residual symptoms after the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the second affiliated hospital of dalian medical university. Among patients who were diagnosed with BPPV and treated by CRP, the one that still show residual symptoms were enrolled in our study, then make a follow-up irregularly about the tendency of their residual symptoms' self-healing,and respectively record in their gender, age and chronic diseases and so on. Single-factor analysis and multi-factors analysis was utilized to investigate the residual symptoms' related influencing factors. In this study, 149 cases of patients were in record, for the residual symptoms, 71 patients can go to self-healing, 78 patients can not; age is 23-88, 30 cases in the young group, 46 cases in the middle aged group, 47 cases in the young elderly group, 26 cases in the elderly group; patients suffering from high blood pressure are 76 cases, 76 cases had diabetes, 47 cases had hyperlipidemia, 110 cases had heart disease, 43 cases had ischemic encephalopathy. The residual symptoms in the elderly females patients and patients suffering from the hypertension, diabetes, heart disease patients and ischemic encephalopathy are not easy to heal by itself, in which, the older and the fact suffering from the hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors influencing the prognosis of the residual symptoms.

  9. Narrating spiritual well-being in relationship to positive psychology and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Rooyen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, “spiritual well-being” is a signifier with a (hisstory in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (deconstructive narrative. The construction of “spiritual + well-being” could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be nar-rated as a “spiritualisation” of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.

  10. Interspecific neighbor interactions promote the positive diversity-productivity relationship in experimental grassland communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Because the frequency of heterospecific interactions inevitably increases with species richness in a community, biodiversity effects must be expressed by such interactions. However, little is understood how heterospecific interactions affect ecosystem productivity because rarely are biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiments spatially explicitly manipulated. To test the effect of heterospecific interactions on productivity, direct evidence of heterospecific neighborhood interaction is needed. In this study we conducted experiments with a detailed spatial design to investigate whether and how heterospecific neighborhood interactions promote primary productivity in a grassland community. The results showed that increasing the heterospecific: conspecific contact ratio significantly increased productivity. We found there was a significant difference in the variation in plant height between monoculture and mixture communities, suggesting that height-asymmetric competition for light plays a central role in promoting productivity. Heterospecific interactions make tall plants grow taller and short plants become smaller in mixtures compared to monocultures, thereby increasing the efficiency of light interception and utilization. Overyielding in the mixture communities arises from the fact that the loss in the growth of short plants is compensated by the increased growth of tall plants. The positive correlation between species richness and primary production was strengthened by increasing the frequency of heterospecific interactions. We conclude that species richness significantly promotes primary ecosystem production through heterospecific neighborhood interactions.

  11. Interspecific neighbor interactions promote the positive diversity-productivity relationship in experimental grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Yongfan; Yu, Shixiao

    2014-01-01

    Because the frequency of heterospecific interactions inevitably increases with species richness in a community, biodiversity effects must be expressed by such interactions. However, little is understood how heterospecific interactions affect ecosystem productivity because rarely are biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiments spatially explicitly manipulated. To test the effect of heterospecific interactions on productivity, direct evidence of heterospecific neighborhood interaction is needed. In this study we conducted experiments with a detailed spatial design to investigate whether and how heterospecific neighborhood interactions promote primary productivity in a grassland community. The results showed that increasing the heterospecific: conspecific contact ratio significantly increased productivity. We found there was a significant difference in the variation in plant height between monoculture and mixture communities, suggesting that height-asymmetric competition for light plays a central role in promoting productivity. Heterospecific interactions make tall plants grow taller and short plants become smaller in mixtures compared to monocultures, thereby increasing the efficiency of light interception and utilization. Overyielding in the mixture communities arises from the fact that the loss in the growth of short plants is compensated by the increased growth of tall plants. The positive correlation between species richness and primary production was strengthened by increasing the frequency of heterospecific interactions. We conclude that species richness significantly promotes primary ecosystem production through heterospecific neighborhood interactions.

  12. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  13. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM): an interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; Jones, Christian; Muscat, Melody; Crawford, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviors in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  14. Significant positive relationship between serum magnesium and muscle quality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hisanori; Ishimura, Eiji; Okuno, Senji; Norimine, Kyoko; Yamakawa, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Serum magnesium (Mg) levels have been associated with muscle performance in the general population. We hypothesized that serum Mg would be associated with muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. A total of 310 patients were examined (age: 58 ± 12 years, hemodialysis duration: 6.4 ± 6.0 years, 60.6% men, and 36.1% diabetics). Arm lean mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the dominant side. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of the handgrip strength to the arm lean mass of the same side (kg/kg). Serum Mg was 1.15 ± 0.16 mmol/L (2.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL), being higher than the reference range of normal subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between muscle quality and age (r = -0.326, p<0.0001) and duration of hemodialysis (r = -0.253, p<0.0001). The muscle quality of the diabetics was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetics (p<0.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between muscle quality and serum Mg (r = 0.118, p<0.05), but not serum calcium or phosphate. In multiple regression analysis, age, gender, hemodialysis duration, diabetes, and serum Mg (β = 0.129, p<0.05) were significantly and independently associated with muscle quality (R(2) = 0.298, p<0.0001). These results demonstrated that a lower serum Mg concentration was significantly associated with poor muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism by which lower serum Mg affects muscle quality.

  15. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  16. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  17. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.

  18. The data on health locus of control and its relationship with quality of life in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mostafavian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Locus of control is a concept defined based on social learning theory, and focuses on individuals' beliefs regarding factors that influence their health status. Health Locus of Control (HLC and its relationship with Quality of Life (QOL in HIV positive patients in local population were studied. This was a cross-sectional study on 80 HIV-positive patients. Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC Scale and Medical Outcome Study Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36 used to measure patients' HLC and QOL, respectively. Internal, external, and chance HLC mean ± SD scores were 30.31±3.87, 24.17±5.03, and 32.01±4.49, respectively. Positive correlation was found between internal HLC scores and both physical (p <0.001, r = 0.53 and mental quality of life (p <0.001, r = 0.48. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC was the only significant predictor of quality of life. HIV-positive patients who believe their health is mostly influenced by individual's actions and behaviors (internal HLC showed a higher quality of life. These findings suggest that modifying health locus of control beliefs, hypothetically could influence patients' quality of life. Keywords: HIV, Health locus of control, Quality of life, Medicine

  19. [The relationship of empathic-affective responses toward others' positive affect with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shigeo; Hayama, Daichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurazumi, Tomoe; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Miyuki; Ohuchi, Akiko; Chizuko, Oikawa

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

  20. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  1. Positive self-beliefs as a mediator of the relationship between adolescents' sports participation and health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F

    2009-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an organized sport during adolescence was associated with higher levels of physical activity and better subjective health during young adulthood after controlling for participation in general physical activities (e.g., jogging, biking, skateboarding) during adolescence. Participation in sports during adolescence was associated with more positive self-beliefs 1 year later that, in turn, were associated with higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and better subjective health 6 years later. Results suggest that positive self-beliefs partially mediate the relationship between adolescents' participation in sports and two health outcomes in young adulthood: moderate to vigorous physical activity and subjective health. Findings highlight the utility of youths' participation in organized sports for promoting healthy outcomes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  2. [Relationships of positive and negative affectivity to sleep quality in Japanese civil servants: 3-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Urara; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Sekine, Michikazu; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2008-11-01

    We conducted this longitudinal study to evaluate the relationships of positive and negative affectivity (Affect Balance Scale) to sleep quality among civil servants. For this study we evaluated 827 civil servants of T city in Toyama prefecture in the springs of 2001 (Baseline) and 2004 with complete information in both phases of the study. Based on the median score at each phase, we divided Affect Balance Scale (ABS) scores into high and low groups. We conducted logistic regression analysis to determine the odds ratios (OR) of 3-yr follow-up sleep quality by baseline and follow-up ABS scores. After adjusting for baseline sleep quality scores, age, sex, employment, job strain, and exercise habits, participants who had high ABS scores were more likely (OR: 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-5.53) to have better sleep quality than those with low ABS scores at both phases. In addition, participants with low ABS scores at baseline and high ABS scores 3 yr later had better sleep quality (OR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.02-3.20) than those with low ABS scores at both phases. These findings substantiate the relationships of positive and negative affectivity to sleep quality. Improving the affect balance condition as well as maintaining good affect balance condition may be important determinants of sleep quality in civil servants.

  3. Relationship between Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, and Muscle Strength and the Impact of Gymnastic Training on Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Niespodziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS and force sense (FS and muscle strength (MS and (2 to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR and passive reproduction (PR task and a force reproduction (FR task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated. While there was no difference in AR or PR between groups, absolute error in the control group was higher during the PR task (7.15 ± 2.72° than during the AR task (3.1 ± 1.93°. Mean relative error in the control group was 61% higher in the elbow extensors than in the elbow flexors during 50% FR, while the gymnast group had similar results in both reciprocal muscles. There was no linear correlation between JPS and FS in either group; however, FR was negatively correlated with antagonist MS. In conclusion, this study found no evidence for a relationship between the accuracy of FS and JPS at the elbow joint. Long-term gymnastic training improves the JPS and FS of the elbow extensors.

  4. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents' Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents' daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents' self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents' positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents' social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  5. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:29187827

  6. Positive relationship between dietary fat, ethanol intake, triglycerides, and hypothalamic peptides: counteraction by lipid-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Jessica R; Karatayev, Olga; Chang, Guo-Qing; Johnson, Deanne F; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2009-09-01

    Studies in both humans and animals suggest a positive relationship between the intake of ethanol and intake of fat, which may contribute to alcohol abuse. This relationship may be mediated, in part, by hypothalamic orexigenic peptides such as orexin (OX), which stimulate both consumption of ethanol and fat, and circulating triglycerides (TGs), which stimulate these peptides and promote consummatory behavior. The present study investigated this vicious cycle between ethanol and fat, to further characterize its relation to TGs and to test the effects of lowering TG levels. In Experiment 1, the behavioral relationship between fat intake and ethanol was confirmed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, chronically injected intraperitoneally with ethanol (1g/kg) and tested in terms of their preference for a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with low-fat diet (LFD), showed a significant increase in their fat preference, compared with rats injected with saline, in measures of 2h and 24h intake. Experiment 2 tested the relationship of circulating TGs in this positive association between ethanol and fat, in rats chronically consuming 9% ethanol versus water and given acute meal tests (25kcal) of a HFD versus LFD. Levels of TGs were elevated in response to both chronic drinking of ethanol versus water and acute eating of a high-fat versus low-fat meal. Most importantly, ethanol and a HFD showed an interaction effect, whereby their combination produced a considerably larger increase in TG levels (+172%) compared to ethanol with a LFD (+111%). In Experiment 3, a direct manipulation of TG levels was found to affect ethanol intake. After intragastric administration of gemfibrozil (50mg/kg) compared with vehicle, TG levels were lowered by 37%, and ethanol intake was significantly reduced. In Experiment 4, the TG-lowering drug gemfibrozil also caused a significant reduction in the expression of the orexigenic peptide, OX, in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus. These results support the

  7. The frequency of hypothyroidism and its relationship with HCV positivity in patients with thalassemia major in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Jelodari, Shohreh; Karamifar, Hammdollah; Saki, Forough; Rahimi, Rahil; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Karimi, Mehran

    2018-03-27

    Hypothyroidism is one the most complication due to iron overload in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM). On the other hand these patients are prone to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that can cause  thyroid dysfunction by itself or as the side effect of treatment with interferon (INF) or IFN plus ribavirin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of hypothyroidism with HCV positivity and serum ferritin levels in patients with TM. In this cross-sectional study, 201 randomly selected patients with TM who were registered at the Thalassemia Clinic of a tertiary hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran were investigated. Thyroid function tests and serologic screening assays for HCV seropositivity (HCV Ab and HCV-RNA) were conducted for all patients. Frequency of hypothyroidism was 22.9% including 19.9% subclinical hypothyroidism, 2% primary overt hypothyroidism and 1% central hypothyroidism. Eighty six patients (42.8%) were HCV Ab positive and 60 patients (29.9%) were HCV RNA positive. No significant relationship was found between hypothyroidism and HCV positivity or receiving IFN-α (P>0.05). Hypothyroidism showed a borderline significant association with high serum ferritin levels in TM patients (P=0.055). Our results showed no significant association between hypothyroidism and HCV infection in TM patients. It seems that the main mechanism of hypothyroidism in our patients is iron overload; however, for better evaluation a larger multicenter study is recommended.  Also due to the importance of consequences of HCV infection, more careful pre-transfusional screening of blood should be considered in TM patients.

  8. Reactive Aggression and Peer Victimization from Pre-Kindergarten to First Grade: Accounting for Hyperactivity and Teacher-Child Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runions, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers.…

  9. The relationship of C-reactive protein levels and positive culture with quality of life in acute rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalek P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petr Schalek, Zuzana Hornáčková, Aleš Hahn Ear, Nose and Throat department, 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS has been shown to significantly reduce patient quality of life (QoL. While the QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade, studies measuring the impact of ARS on patient QoL have remained relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the QoL and parameters suggestive of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (C-reactive protein [CRP] levels and positive culture and to see if measurement of the QoL could be used as an indicator for antibiotic treatment in ARS.Methods: Eighty patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. A novel QoL instrument for patients with ARS, called Measurement of Acute Rhinosinusitis (MARS questionnaire, was given to patients at the time of diagnosis. We assessed patient QoL, obtained endoscopically guided cultures from the middle meatus, and measured levels of CRP. The relationship between QoL MARS scores (QoL-Mscores and CRP was determined using a correlation coefficient. To compare QoL-Mscores, relative to culture-positive and culture-negative patients, the Student’s t-test was used.Results: No correlation between the QoL, assessed using the MARS questionnaire, and positive middle meatus culture was demonstrated (P=0.332. A weak correlation was found between QoL-Mscores and CRP values, with a correlation coefficient of 0.221 and P=0.0498.Conclusion: No correlation between the QoL in ARS patients and positive culture was found in this study. The clinical significance of the correlation between QoL-Mscores and CRP values in the antibiotic decision making process needs further research. Keywords: endoscopy, quality of life, questionnaires, anti-bacterial agents

  10. As long as you've got your health: Longitudinal relationships between positive affect and functional health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Saada, Yaël; Broc, Guillaume; Quintard, Bruno; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Reciprocal relationships between positive affect (PA) and health are now subject of a heuristic debate in psychology and behavioral medicine. Two radically opposed approaches address the link between subjective well being (SWB) and physical health: top-down (i.e., psychosomatic hypothesis) and bottom-up (i.e., disability/ability hypothesis) approaches. The aim of the present study was to test these two approaches by investigating thirteen-year longitudinal relationships between PA, as an affective dimension of SWB, and functional health in older people. The study included 3754 participants aged 62-101 years assessed 6 times over a thirteen-year period. PA was measured by the mean of the positive affect subscale of the CES-D scale. Functional health was assessed by four composite items: a single-item self-rating of hearing impairment, a single-item self-rating of vision impairment, the number of medically prescribed drugs, and a single-item self-rating of dyspnoea. We used cross-lagged modeling with latent variables, which is appropriate for testing specific theories. Mean arterial pressure, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia status, sequelae of stroke, gender, level of education, and age at baseline were use as control variables in the models. Results indicated that good health significantly predicted subsequent levels of PA (average β = -0.58, p got your health". Limitations of this finding are reviewed and discussed. Models including longitudinal mediators, such as biomarkers and life style patterns, are needed to clarify the nature of the link between these constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using high resolution aridity and drainage position data to better predict rainfall-runoff relationships in complex upland topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, D.; Sheridan, G. J.; Benyon, R. G.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In topographically complex terrain, the interaction of aspect-dependent solar exposure and drainage-position-dependent flow accumulation results in energy and water partitioning that is highly spatially variable. Catchment scale rainfall-runoff relationships are dependent on these smaller scale spatial patterns. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to how to represent this smaller scale variability within lumped parameter, catchment scale rainfall-runoff models. In this study we aim to measure and represent the key interactions between aridity and drainage position in complex terrain to inform the development of simple catchment-scale hydrologic model parameters. Six measurement plots were setup on opposing slopes in an east-west facing eucalypt forest headwater catchment. The field sites are spanning three drainage positions with two contrasting aridity indices each, while minimizing variations in other factors, e.g. geology and weather patterns. Sapflow, soil water content (SWC) and throughfall were continuously monitored on two convergent hillslopes with similar size (1.3 and 1.6ha) but contrasting aspects (north and south). Soil depth varied from 0.6m at the topslope to >2m at the bottomslope positions. Maximum tree heights ranged from 16.2m to 36.9m on the equator-facing slope and from 30.1m to 45.5m on the pole-facing slope, with height decreasing upslope on both aspects. Two evapotranspiration (ET) patterns emerged in relation to aridity and drainage position. On the equator-facing slope (AI~ 2.1), seasonal understorey and overstorey ET patterns were in sync, whereas on the pole-facing slope (AI~1.5) understorey ET showed larger seasonal fluctuations than overstorey ET. Seasonal ET patterns and competition between soil evaporation and root water uptake lead to distinct differences in profile SWC across the sites, likely caused by depletion from different depths. Topsoil water content on equator-facing slopes was generally lower and responded

  12. Feasibility of Using Ultrasonography to Establish Relationships Among Sacral Base Position, Sacral Sulcus Depth, Body Mass Index, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Kondrashova, Tatyana; Johnson, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    Identifying relationships among anatomical structures is key in diagnosing somatic dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to visualize anatomical structures, identify sacroiliac landmarks, and validate anatomical findings and measurements in relation to somatic dysfunction. As part of the osteopathic manipulative medicine course at A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, first-year students are trained to use ultrasonography to establish relationships among musculoskeletal structures. To determine the ability of first-year osteopathic medical students to establish sacral base position (SBP) and sacral sulcus depth (SSD) using ultrasonography and to identify the relationship of SBP and SSD to body mass index (BMI) and sex. Students used ultrasonography to obtain the distance between the skin and the sacral base (the SBP) and the distance between the skin and the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine bilaterally. Next, students calculated the SSD (the distance between the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine and the SBP). Data were analyzed with respect to side of the body, BMI, sex, and age. The BMI data were subdivided into normal (18-25 mg/kg) and overweight (25-30 mg/kg) groups. Ultrasound images of 211 students were included in the study. The SBP was not significantly different between the left and right sides (36.5 mm vs 36.5 mm; P=.95) but was significantly different between normal and overweight BMI categories (33.0 mm vs 40.0 mm; Psex may point to more soft tissue overlaying the sacrum in these groups. Further research is needed on the use of ultrasonography to establish criteria for somatic dysfunction.

  13. Moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving in the relationship between depression in persons with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Zhai, Junwei; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng; Yu, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Improving caregivers' positive perception of their role may be important in reducing their subjective burden when caring for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with depression. The purpose of present study was to explore the moderating role of the positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) on the subjective burden on family caregivers when managing depressive behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 200 pairs of patients with mild AD and their caregivers from three communities and two hospitals in Taiyuan, China in October 2014. The latent variable interaction model based on a two stage least squares (2SLS) regression was fitted. A significant moderating effect of the PAC was found on the relationship between depression in patients with AD and the caregiver burden they cause. Caregivers dealing with patients with low levels of depression but with high levels of the PAC had significantly lower levels of caregiver burden compared to those caregivers with the low levels of PAC. Continuously detecting the patient's mental state combined with caregivers having an optimistic attitude towards life may improve the quality of life for both patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adole...

  15. The Impact of School-Based Child Centered Play Therapy on Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, and Teacher-Child Relationship Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pedro J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) with academically at-risk 1st graders. In this quasi-experimental design, twenty-one 1st grade students were assigned to the experimental group and 20 students were assigned to the no treatment control group. The children in the experimental group received two 30 minute…

  16. Equal opportunities? : The effects of negative stereotypes and teacher-child relationship quality on the school adjustment of ethnic minority students in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.M.

    2018-01-01

    School achievement of non-Western ethnic minority students in the Netherlands often lags behind the achievement of their native Dutch peers. Non-Western ethnic minority students also often seem to show relatively more problematic behavior. In this dissertation, two possible explanations for these

  17. Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K A; Keefe, R S; Lieberman, J A; Calikoglu, A S; Lansing, K M; Perkins, D O

    2015-10-01

    Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or associated problems among those with schizophrenia. Stored plasma from 20 recent onset schizophrenia subjects and 20 matched healthy comparison subjects were analysed for 25 OH vitamin D, and related to measures of symptom severity and neurocognition. There was no significant difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the schizophrenia and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2 standard deviation (SD) 12.6 ng mL(-1) vs. 29.9 SD 14.3 ng mL(-1) ), and about half the subjects in each group had insufficient levels (vitamin D status (r = -0.55, P = 0.012); the correlations of overall symptom severity and positive symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels approached significance (r = -0.42, P = 0.07 and r = -0.36, P = 0.12, respectively). There was no relationship of vitamin D with depressive symptoms. Among the schizophrenia subjects, lower 25 OH vitamin D levels were associated with more severe overall cognitive deficits (r = 0.56, P = 0.019). This study found that lower vitamin D levels in schizophrenia subjects were associated with more severe negative symptoms and overall cognitive deficits. However, the cross-sectional design precludes any conclusions about whether low vitamin D status in fact causes more severe negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. No relationship was found between lower vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Atmospheric Heat Transport and the Position of the ITCZ in NASA NEWS products, CMIP5 GCMs, and Multiple Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, R.; Dong, X.; Su, H.; Xi, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    In the past few years, studies have found a strong connection between atmospheric heat transport across the equator (AHTEQ) and the position of the ITCZ. This study investigates the seasonal, annual-mean and interannual variability of the ITCZ position and explores the relationships between the ITCZ position and inter-hemispheric energy transport in NASA NEWS products, multiple reanalyses datasets, and CMIP5 simulations. We find large discrepancies exist in the ITCZ-AHTEQ relationships in these datasets and model simulations. The components of energy fluxes are examined to identify the primary sources for the discrepancies among the datasets and models results.

  19. Examination of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor structure and longitudinal relationships with functioning in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Grossman, Michael; Oyewumi, L Kola; Bowie, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in early-episode psychosis and its relationships with functioning at baseline and follow-up. A total of 240 consecutive admissions to an early intervention in psychosis clinic were assessed at intake to the program with the PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Seventy individuals were reassessed at follow-up. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on baseline PANSS scores and the ability of each factor to predict baseline and follow-up GAF and SOFAS was examined. A five-factor model with varimax rotation was the best fit to our data and was largely congruent with factors found previously. The negative symptom factor was the best predictor of GAF and SOFAS at baseline and follow-up. Negative symptoms are the best symptomatic predictor of functioning in individuals with early psychosis and are an important treatment target to improve recovery. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm 2 plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments delivered by linear accelerators.

  1. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self–other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship

    OpenAIRE

    WAUGH, CHRISTIAN E.; FREDRICKSON, BARBARA L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feeling...

  3. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  4. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Metzler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a positive self-presentation, (b number of friends, and (c the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  5. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  6. Optimising the benefits of community health workers' unique position between communities and the health sector: A comparative analysis of factors shaping relationships in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Ormel, Hermen; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kane, Sumit; Namakhoma, Ireen; Otiso, Lilian; Sidat, Moshin; Kea, Aschenaki Z; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2017-11-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) have a unique position between communities and the health sector. The strength of CHWs' relationships with both sides influences their motivation and performance. This qualitative comparative study aimed at understanding similarities and differences in how relationships between CHWs, communities and the health sector were shaped in different Sub-Saharan African settings. The study demonstrates a complex interplay of influences on trust and CHWs' relationships with their communities and actors in the health sector. Mechanisms influencing relationships were feelings of (dis)connectedness, (un)familiarity and serving the same goals, and perceptions of received support, respect, competence, honesty, fairness and recognition. Sometimes, constrained relationships between CHWs and the health sector resulted in weaker relationships between CHWs and communities. The broader context (such as the socio-economic situation) and programme context (related to, for example, task-shifting, volunteering and supervision) in which these mechanisms took place were identified. Policy-makers and programme managers should take into account the broader context and could adjust CHW programmes so that they trigger mechanisms that generate trusting relationships between CHWs, communities and other actors in the health system. This can contribute to enabling CHWs to perform well and responding to the opportunities offered by their unique intermediary position.

  7. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  8. Parent-Child Positivity and Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Congruence, Compensation, and the Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…

  9. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  10. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  11. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  12. Is there a relationship between positive affect and other dimensions of quality of life in colorectal cancer patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cardoso Louro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It can be stated from the previous research that positive emotions should allow to better health outcomes in sick populations. The aim of the present work is to know the state-of-the-art of how positive affect (PA relates with quality of life in colorectal cancer (CRC patients, as well as to give some guidelines to develop more efficacious psychological interventions in CRC patients to enhance positive affect. This review describes a search of published literature from January 2001 to March of 2012 on the Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Psycho Inf and Cochrane databases using publications that contain positive emotions, positive affect, health outcomes, quality of life, CRC and cancer. These articles were classified into two groups: a "descriptive papers" b "interventional studies". Results from "descriptive papers" suggest that positive affect (PA was significantly associated with greater levels of general health, better social functioning, benefit finding, positive changes, low depression, less anxiety and greather psychological well-being. PA also increases when different activities are developed. The overall results from interventional studies suggest that the interventions described can be recommended for improving patient's levels of positive affect. The present review offers some suggestions which could be useful for CRC patients.

  13. Differential relationships in the association of the Big Five personality traits with positive mental health and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Kovács, Viktòria; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2012-01-01

    According to the two continua model of mental health, psychopathology and positive mental health (emotional, psychological, and social well-being) are related but distinct continua. This study investigates the two continua model by examining whether psychopathology and positive mental health show

  14. Positive Psychology in Context: Effects of Expressing Gratitude in Ongoing Relationships Depend on Perceptions of Enactor Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Zhaoyang, Ruixue

    2016-01-01

    Recent correlational evidence implicates gratitude in personal and relational growth, for both members of ongoing relationships. From these observations, it would be tempting to prescribe interpersonal gratitude exercises to improve relationships. In this experiment, couples were randomly assigned to express gratitude over a month, or to a relationally-active control condition. Results showed modest effects of condition on personal and relational well-being. However, those whose partners were perceived as being particularly responsive when expressing gratitude at the initial lab session showed greater well-being across a range of outcomes, whereas this was not so for people in the control condition. Notably, evidence raises concerns about the effectiveness of artificial injections of gratitude when the partner is perceived to be low in responsiveness. Given the importance of close relationships, this work highlights the need for more theory-driven basic research tested in context before assuming what appears to work naturally will also work artificially.

  15. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  16. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B

    2013-05-01

    A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. Fourth-grade children (N = 465) from Columbia, SC, were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 4 days per child. Researchers measured children's weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  17. Relationship between the serum TGA, TMA positiveness and development of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hui; Xu Xiaohong; Yu Hui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the likelihood of development of hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy in patients with Graves' disease as related to the serum positiveness of TGA and TMA before treatment. Methods: Altogether, 176 patients with Graves' disease were treated with 131 I and followed for 3 years of these patients, serum TGA and TMA were positive in 70 and were negative in 106. Results: In the 70 patients with positive TGA and TMA, development of hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment occurred in 22 subjects three years later (31.4%). However, only 4 of the 106 patients with negative TGA and TMA developed hypothyroidism 3 years after 131 I therapy (3.8%). Difference in the incidence of hypothyroidism was significant (P 131 I be administered to patients with Graves' disease and positive serum TGA, TMA. (authors)

  18. Positive and negative affect in the future teacher: relationships with their academic achievement, mental health and satisfaction with life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Pinedo González

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affects are composed of two key dimensions: the positive affect (PA and negative affect (NA. Both dimensions are related to psychological adjustment of the person and life satisfaction. This study is exploratory in nature and aims to make a first correlational analysis between different constructs: emotional disposition, academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction in a sample of 143 student teachers. We have used the following scales adapted to the culture: The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS. Among the most interesting results it was found that positive affect was associated with academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction. Positive and negative affects and satisfaction with life were formed as predictors of future teachers’ mental health. Extensive analysis and discussion of the results is included in the document.

  19. Positive and negative affect in the future teacher: relationships with their academic achievement, mental health and satisfaction with life

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Pinedo González; María José Arroyo González; César Caballero San José

    2017-01-01

    Affects are composed of two key dimensions: the positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Both dimensions are related to psychological adjustment of the person and life satisfaction. This study is exploratory in nature and aims to make a first correlational analysis between different constructs: emotional disposition, academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction in a sample of 143 student teachers. We have used the following scales adapted to the culture: The Positive and Ne...

  20. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Golparvar; Hassan Abedini

    2014-01-01

    Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job h...

  1. Positive and negative meanings are simultaneously ascribed to colorectal cancer: relationship to quality of life and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Aldo Aguirre; Garland, Sheila N; Martopullo, Celestina; Pelletier, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Experiencing cancer can give rise to existential concerns causing great distress, and consequently drive individuals to make sense of what cancer may mean to their lives. To date, meaning-based research in the context of cancer has largely focused on one possible outcome of this process, the emergence of positive meanings (e.g. post-traumatic growth). However, negative meanings may also be ascribed to cancer, simultaneously with positive meanings. This study focused on the nature of the co-existence of positive and negative meanings in a sample of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer to find out whether negative meaning had an impact on quality of life and psychosocial adjustment above and beyond positive meaning. Participants were given questionnaires measuring meaning-made, quality of life, and psychological distress. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a subgroup from the original sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that negative meaning-made (i.e. helplessness) was a significant predictor of poor quality of life and increased levels of depression/anxiety above and beyond positive meaning-made (i.e. life meaningfulness, acceptance, and perceived benefits). Correlational analyses and interview data revealed that negative meaning-made was mainly associated with physical and functional disability, while positive meaning-made was mostly related to emotional and psychological well-being. Meanings of varying valence may simultaneously be ascribed to cancer as it impacts different life dimensions, and they may independently influence quality of life and psychosocial adjustment. The presence of positive meaning was not enough to prevent the detrimental effects of negative meaning on psychosocial adjustment and quality of life among individuals taking part in this study. Future attention to negative meaning is warranted, as it may be at least as important as positive meaning in predicting psychosocial adjustment and quality of

  2. Building Assets Reducing Risks: Academic Success for All Students through Positive Relationships and Use of Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Maryann; Sharma, Anu; Jerabek, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) is a social emotional model that achieves academic outcomes through combining use of real-time student data with proven relationship-building strategies and intensive teacher collaboration to prevent course failure. BARR is a recipient of US Department of Education "Investing in Innovation (i3)"…

  3. Fostering Positive Classroom Environments: The Relationship between Teacher Qualifications, Facility Management, and Perceptions of Leadership on Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bryan Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of schools that have highly qualified teachers, along with a well managed facility, and the administration's perception of the leadership role as an instructional specialist on the outcomes that students displayed. Also, the relationship between two instruments used to determine the quality of…

  4. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions.

  5. The relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis MGIT time to positivity and cfu in sputum samples demonstrates changing bacterial phenotypes potentially reflecting the impact of chemotherapy on critical sub-populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowness, R.; Boeree, M.J.; Aarnoutse, R.; Dawson, R.; Diacon, A.; Mangu, C.; Heinrich, N.; Ntinginya, N.E.; Kohlenberg, A.; Mtafya, B.; Phillips, P.P.; Rachow, A.; Plemper van Balen, G.; Gillespie, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relationship between cfu and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) time to positivity (TTP) is uncertain. We attempted to understand this relationship and create a mathematical model to relate these two methods of determining mycobacterial load. METHODS: Sequential

  6. Positive Relationship Between Individuality and Social Identity in Virtual Communities: Self-Categorization and Social Identification as Distinct Forms of Social Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Chao; Li, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship between individuality and social identity, indicating this area requires further examination. This study constructed a research model to help understand the positive role of individualized behavior and social identity in virtual communities. The results of an online survey conducted to assess our theoretical research model indicated that social identity can be expressed in two ways: self-categorization and social identification. Furthermore, we found individualized behavior was positively related to social identification, while self-categorization was directly derived from social identification.

  7. Gambling: the Iniquity of a Voluntary Tax. The relationship between socio-economic position and propensity of gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Sarti Simone; Triventi Moris

    2012-01-01

    Italian sociology has largely overlooked gambling, even if it is a widespreadphenomenon with important socio-economic redistributive consequences. Inthis paper, we aim to fill this gap exploring the relationship between socio-economicposition and propensity to gamble among Italian households in the last decade. Inthe first part, we describe the main features of legal gambling in Italy and its importancefor the State's revenues. In the second part, we review the main researchfindings from othe...

  8. Homogamy in Masculinity-Femininity Is Positively Linked to Relationship Quality in Gay Male Couples from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella

    2017-07-01

    The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.

  9. Marriage, Family and Gender Inequality : An historical exploration of the relationship between family systems, the position of women and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the historical underpinnings of current day gender inequalities at a global scale, with a focus on female agency (the degree of control people have over their own lives). To do so it brings together different explorations of the position of women both historically and

  10. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  11. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Some of the key issues in pedagogy are the way of students' peer learning, collaboration, and team work at school. Friendship quality is essential for academic achievement by peer learning and team work. In line with that, the aim of the present study is to examine the associations between variables that are positive perception, deliberative…

  12. Rugby Union on-field position and its relationship to shoulder injury leading to anterior reconstruction for instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Abayasankar; Bokor, Desmond J; Davidson, Andrew S

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique demands of each position on the Rugby Union field, the likelihood of an athlete sustaining a dislocation of their shoulder joint that requires surgical reconstruction may be affected by their position on the field. 166 patients with 184 involved shoulders requiring anterior reconstruction following an on-field Rugby Union injury between January 1996 and September 2008 were analysed. The mean age at time of injury was 18 years with the mean age at time of surgery being 20 years. The most prevalent mechanism of injury was a tackle in 66.3% of players. Players were more likely to suffer injury to their non-dominant shoulder than their dominant side (McNemar's Test, prisk of injury for all player positions. Positions with significantly different risk of injury were five-eighth (increased risk) and wing (reduced risk). Although we observed an increased risk in flankers and fullbacks, and a lower risk in second row, these results did not reach statistical significance after application of the Bonferroni correction. This information can be utilized by team staff to assist in pre-season conditioning as well as the development of improved muscle co-ordination programmes for the non-dominant shoulder, and planning a graduated return to sport by the player recovering from surgical reconstruction of the shoulder for instability. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Bivalent Fear of Evaluation Model of Social Anxiety: The Relationship between Fear of Positive Evaluation, Social Anxiety, and Perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keong; Gibbs, Amy L; Francis, Andrew J P; Schuster, Sharynn E

    2016-01-01

    The Bivalent Fear of Evaluation (BFOE) model of social anxiety proposes that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) play distinct roles in social anxiety. Research is however lacking in terms of how FPE is related to perfectionism and how these constructs interact to predict social anxiety. Participants were 382 individuals from the general community and included an oversampling of individuals with social anxiety. Measures of FPE, FNE, perfectionism, and social anxiety were administered. Results were mostly consistent with the predictions made by the BFOE model and showed that accounting for confounding variables, FPE correlated negatively with high standards but positively with maladaptive perfectionism. FNE was also positively correlated with maladaptive perfectionism, but there was no significant relationship between FNE and high standards. Also consistent with BFOE model, both FNE and FPE significantly moderated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and social anxiety with the relationship strengthened at high levels of FPE and FNE. These findings provide additional support for the BFOE model and implications are discussed.

  14. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  15. Longitudinal Relationships Between Positive Affect, Loneliness, and Suicide Ideation: Age-Specific Factors in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennardi, Marco; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Lara, Elvira; Arensman, Ella; Cabello, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The aims of this study were to analyze whether positive and negative affect, social support, and loneliness are factors longitudinally related to suicide ideation in the general population in different age groups. A total of 2,392 individuals from a nationally representative sample of the Spanish general population were evaluated in 2011-2012 and in 2014-2015. After including relevant control variables in the analyses, lower positive affect was prospectively related to ideation in 18- to 59-year-old individuals, whereas feelings of loneliness were related to ideation in 60-year-and-older individuals. Social support was not associated with suicide ideation in any age group. These results are in line with the need for age-tailored suicide prevention programs. The present findings might also suggest that health care professionals should consider feelings of loneliness rather than social support to assess the presence of suicide ideation in older people. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Modeling the Relationship Between Trauma and Psychological Distress Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  18. Optimism, Positive and Negative Affect, and Goal Adjustment Strategies: Their Relationship to Activity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Esteve

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activity patterns are the product of pain and of the self-regulation of current goals in the context of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between goal management strategies and activity patterns while taking into account the role of optimism/pessimism and positive/negative affect. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain filled out questionnaires on optimism, positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and the activity patterns they employed in dealing with their pain. Questionnaires were also administered to assess their general goal management strategies: goal persistence, flexible goal adjustment, and disengagement and reengagement with goals. Results. Structural equation modelling showed that higher levels of optimism were related to persistence, flexible goal management, and commitment to new goals. These strategies were associated with higher positive affect, persistence in finishing tasks despite pain, and infrequent avoidance behaviour in the presence or anticipation of pain. Conclusions. The strategies used by the patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain to manage their life goals are related to their activity patterns.

  19. Optimism, Positive and Negative Affect, and Goal Adjustment Strategies: Their Relationship to Activity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Activity patterns are the product of pain and of the self-regulation of current goals in the context of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between goal management strategies and activity patterns while taking into account the role of optimism/pessimism and positive/negative affect. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain filled out questionnaires on optimism, positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and the activity patterns they employed in dealing with their pain. Questionnaires were also administered to assess their general goal management strategies: goal persistence, flexible goal adjustment, and disengagement and reengagement with goals. Structural equation modelling showed that higher levels of optimism were related to persistence, flexible goal management, and commitment to new goals. These strategies were associated with higher positive affect, persistence in finishing tasks despite pain, and infrequent avoidance behaviour in the presence or anticipation of pain. The strategies used by the patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain to manage their life goals are related to their activity patterns.

  20. HIV Positive Diagnosis During Pregnancy Increases Risk of IPV Postpartum Among Women with No History of IPV in Their Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-07-24

    There has been limited study of whether and for whom physical intimate partner violence (IPV) is a consequence of an HIV-positive diagnosis. Per the diathesis stress model, the consequences of HIV infection may be worse for women with a history of IPV. We hypothesize that the positive association between HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and postpartum IPV will be exacerbated for women with a history of IPV. Data come from a prospective cohort study with 1015 participants who completed a baseline antenatal and 9-month postpartum visit. Using logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significant interaction between HIV diagnosis, history of IPV and postpartum IPV (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). The findings were in the opposite direction as expected: HIV-diagnosis was not associated with IPV for women with a history of IPV (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). However, HIV-positive women without a history of IPV faced more than two times the risk of incident postpartum IPV than HIV-negative women (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). Interventions to reduce incident and ongoing IPV during the perinatal period are needed.

  1. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  2. Revisiting the Housing-Health Relationship for HIV-Positive Persons: Qualitative Evidence From the Lower Manya Krobo District, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kau, Mabel; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Adjei, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between housing and HIV infection is complex. On one hand, poor housing arrangements may affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). On the other hand, PLWHAs may be more likely to live in substandard homes because of their health. We used qualitative in-depth individual interviews of 38 PLWHAs attending voluntary counseling services at two government hospitals in the Lower Manya Krobo District (LMKD) in the Eastern region of Ghana to examine their housing and health outcomes. Results show that the majority of PLWHAs lived in homes that lacked basic amenities, were overcrowded, had structural deficiencies, and were noisy and dirty. They suffered from poor housing conditions mainly because of their HIV serostatus, as this affected their ability to finance adequate homes, while HIV-related stigmatization led to eviction from either family homes or rented facilities.

  3. Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García, Angela; García-Zapico, Pedro; Pérez-Landaluce, Javier; Patterson, Angeles M; García-Rovés, Pablo Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Many authors have proposed the necessity of the design and implementation of dietary and nutrition education programs for soccer players, although little information is available about the determinants of food selection and nutrient intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional intake and eating patterns of soccer players according to their playing position in the team. Eighty-seven young male soccer players (aged 16-21 years) were recruited from the junior teams of a Spanish First Division Soccer League Club and divided into 6 positional categories (goalkeepers, full-backs, centre-backs, midfielders, wingers, and forwards). Body composition (height, weight, and body fat), performance in soccer-specific tests (jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) were assessed. A spontaneous higher carbohydrate intake was observed for full-backs, midfielders, and wingers (g·kg(-1) body mass: 4.9 ± 1.0, 4.9 ± 1.3, 4.9 ± 0.8; % of energy intake: 47 ± 5, 46 ± 6, 46 ± 4), compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (g·kg(-1) of body mass: 3.9 ± 1.0, 4.3 ± 1.1; % of energy intake: 44 ± 3, 42 ± 4). These differences were related to food selection patterns, and a higher contribution to daily energy intake of cereals, derivatives, and potatoes was observed between full-backs compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (33% vs. 27% and 25%). The magnitude of these differences is limited considering the whole diet, and an inadequate nutrient intake were observed in most individuals of every group. The design and implementation of nutrition intervention programs, taking into consideration positional differences in nutritional intake, would be useful for these players.

  4. "There's no chasing involved": cis/trans relationships, "tranny chasers," and the future of a sex-positive trans politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Avery Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to a small, but growing, body of work on trans sexualities and partnerships, and provides a much-needed inquiry into the complex and contested politics of desire when we take trans identities, bodies, and sexualities into account. Using digital ethnographic data from YouTube videos along with in-person observational data from LGBTQ and trans conferences in the U.S., Tompkins argues that a sex-positive trans politics cannot emerge in trans and trans-allied communities if the rhetoric of the "tranny chaser" continues to inform discourses of desire and attraction to trans people.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of daptomycin analogues with substitution at (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Du'an; Lam, Hiu Yung; Han, Wenbo; Cotroneo, Nicole; Pandya, Bhaumik A; Li, Xuechen

    2017-02-01

    Daptomycin is a highly effective lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens. The presence of (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid (mGlu) in daptomycin has been found to be important to the antibacterial activity. However the role of (2S, 3R) mGlu is yet to be revealed. Herein, we reported the syntheses of three daptomycin analogues with (2S, 3R) mGlu substituted by (2S, 3R) methyl glutamine (mGln), dimethyl glutamic acid and (2S, 3R) ethyl glutamic acid (eGlu), respectively, and their antibacterial activities. The detailed synthesis of dimethyl glutamic acid was also reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p children's mental health.

  7. Culture-positive Pediatric Tuberculosis in Toronto, Ontario: Sources of Infection and Relationship of Birthplace and Mycobacterial Lineage to Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayment, Jonathan H; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Frances B; Kitai, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Few data relate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage and disease phenotype in the pediatric population or examine the contribution of travel to the tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country in North America. We examined clinical, demographic and Mtb genotype data from patients with TB who were treated in Toronto between 2002 and 2012. Consecutive Mtb culture-positive, pediatric patients were included. Clinical data were collected from a prospectively populated clinical database. Mtb case isolate genotypes were identified using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping and were categorized into phylogeographic lineages for analysis. The 77 patients included 30.4% of all culture-positive pediatric TB cases in Ontario from 2002 to 2012. Seventy-six (99%) patients were first or second generation Canadians. Foreign-born patients were more likely to have extrathoracic disease [odds ratios (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-8.71; P < 0.05] and less likely to have a genotype match in the Public Health Ontario Laboratories database [OR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11-0.90); P < 0.05] than Canadian-born patients. For those without a known TB contact, Canadian-born patients were more likely to have travelled to a TB-endemic country [OR = 13.0 (95% CI: 2.5-78.5); P < 0.001]. Extrathoracic disease was less likely in patients infected with the East Asian Mtb lineage [OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.9); P < 0.05] and more likely in those infected with the Indo-Oceanic Mtb lineage [OR = 5.4 (95% CI: 1.5-19.2); P < 0.05]. Travel to TB-endemic countries likely plays an important part in the etiology of pediatric TB infection and disease, especially in Canadian-born children. Mtb lineage seems to contribute to disease phenotype in children as it has been described in adults.

  8. More than Resisting Temptation: Beneficial Habits Mediate the Relationship between Self-Control and Positive Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across six studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a five-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits three months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and two objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits--perhaps more so than effortful inhibition--are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. PMID:25643222

  9. More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M; Duckworth, Angela L

    2015-09-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across 6 studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a 5-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits 3 months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and 2 objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits-perhaps more so than effortful inhibition-are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Silvia L; Santos, Adriana N; Oliveira, Ana B; Rocha, Nelci A C F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position) and dynamic postural control (during STS movement) in both groups. The center of pressure (CoP) behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II) was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  11. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Pavão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with cerebral palsy (CP during the sit-to-stand (STS movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position and dynamic postural control (during STS movement in both groups. METHOD: The center of pressure (CoP behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. RESULTS: According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  12. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Babbitt, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. c2002 The Willi Hennig Society.

  13. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  14. Relationship between positive self-recognition of maternal role and psychosocial factors in Japanese mothers with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Rie; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2011-10-01

    Mothers with mental illness have positive self-recognition of maternal role (PM), and it is important for parenting. The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial factors related to the PM. We recruited a total of 74 women diagnosed as having schizophrenia or mood disorders according to the DSM-IV-TR and who had minor children. Participant completed devaluation-discrimination measure, The social support questionnaire, self-efficacy for community life scale (SECL), parenting stress-short form scale (PS-SF), and Acceptance of maternal role scale. To identify factors predicting the PM, we utilized hierarchical regression analysis. The variables in all blocks explained 53% of the variance in the PM. In the final model, 'hard' living conditions (β = -0.31, P < 0.05), SECL (β = 0.34, P < 0.01) and PS-SF (β = -0.45, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of the PM. Our result indicates that psychosocial approach could enhance the PM.

  15. The relationship between BMI and insulin resistance and progression from single to multiple autoantibody positivity and type 1 diabetes among TrialNet Pathway to Prevention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meah, Farah A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Blum, Janice S; Sosenko, Jay M; Pugliese, Alberto; Geyer, Susan; Xu, Ping; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing at a rate of 3-5% per year. Genetics cannot fully account for this trend, suggesting an influence of environmental factors. The accelerator hypothesis proposes an effect of metabolic factors on type 1 diabetes risk. To test this in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort, we analysed the influence of BMI, weight status and insulin resistance on progression from single to multiple islet autoantibodies (Aab) and progression from normoglycaemia to diabetes. HOMA1-IR was used to estimate insulin resistance in Aab-positive PTP participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effects of BMI, BMI percentile (BMI%), weight status and HOMA1-IR on the progression of autoimmunity or the development of diabetes. Data from 1,310 single and 1,897 multiple Aab-positive PTP participants were included. We found no significant relationships between BMI, BMI%, weight status or HOMA1-IR and the progression from one to multiple Aabs. Similarly, among all Aab-positive participants, no significant relationships were found between BMI, weight status or HOMA1-IR and progression to diabetes. Diabetes risk was modestly increased with increasing BMI% among the entire cohort, in obese participants 13-20 years of age and with increasing HOMA1-IR in adult Aab-positive participants. Analysis of the accelerator hypothesis in the TrialNet PTP cohort does not suggest a broad influence of metabolic variables on diabetes risk. Efforts to identify other potentially modifiable environmental factors should continue.

  16. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  17. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  18. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  19. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Peh, Chao Xu; Poon, Lye Yin; Rao, Sujatha; Verma, Swapna; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP) and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period. Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling. Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory) were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders. The results confirm that the symptoms trajectories among

  20. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Abdin

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period.Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling.Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders.The results confirm that the symptoms

  1. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  2. Untangling the Relationship Between Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Incident Pregnancy: A Marginal Structural Model Analysis Using Data From 47,313 HIV-Positive Women in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elul, Batya; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K; Wu, Yingfeng; Musick, Beverly S; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Nash, Denis; Ayaya, Samuel; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Okong, Pius; Otieno, Juliana; Wabwire, Deo; Kambugu, Andrew; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2016-07-01

    Scale-up of triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa has transformed the context of childbearing for HIV-positive women and may impact pregnancy incidence in HIV programs. Using observational data from 47,313 HIV-positive women enrolled at 26 HIV clinics in Kenya and Uganda between 2001 and 2009, we calculated the crude cumulative incidence of pregnancy for the pre-ART and on-ART periods. The causal effect of ART use on incident pregnancy was assessed using inverse probability weighted marginal structural models, and the relationship was further explored in multivariable Cox models. Crude cumulative pregnancy incidence at 1 year after enrollment/ART initiation was 4.0% and 3.9% during the pre-ART and on-ART periods, respectively. In marginal structural models, ART use was not significantly associated with incident pregnancy [hazard ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99 to 1.12]. Similarly, in Cox models, there was no significant relationship between ART use and incident pregnancy (cause-specific hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.05), but effect modification was observed. Specifically, women who were pregnant at enrollment and on ART had an increased risk of incident pregnancy compared to those not pregnant at enrollment and not on ART (cause-specific hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23). In this large cohort, ART initiation was not associated with incident pregnancy in the general population of women enrolling in HIV care but rather only among those pregnant at enrollment. This finding further highlights the importance of scaling up access to lifelong treatment for pregnant women.

  3. [Relationship between HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers and regulatory T cells in neonates and its influence on HBV intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H Y; Yang, Z Q; Xu, X X; Wang, X F; Wang, B; Shi, X H; Fu, Z D; Wang, B; Wang, S P

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the relationship between HBeAg in HBsAg positive mothers and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Foxp3 (+)regulatory T cells (Treg) in newborns, as well as how they would influence the increasing risk on HBV intrauterine transmission. Methods: We collected information on general demographic characteristics and delivery on 270 HBsAg positive mothers and their newborns from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) were used to detect HBV DNA and HBV serological markers in peripheral blood from both mothers and neonates. The expression of Treg and other immune cells in peripheral blood of neonates were detected with flow cytometry (FCM). Results: Maternal HBeAg positive rates were associated with an increased risk of intrauterine transmission ( OR =4.08, 95 %CI : 1.89-8.82). Rates of Treg in newborns born to HBsAg-positive mothers were higher than that of the negative group ( Z =2.29, P =0.022). Each pair of the subjects was assigned to five different groups according to the HBeAg titers of mothers. Frequencies of both Treg and HBeAg in newborns and HBV DNA in mothers between the above said 5 groups showed similar trends of changing patterns and the differences between groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=18.73, P mother's HBeAg titers were positively related to the percentage of Treg in their newborns ( r(s) =0.19, P =0.039). In addition, the frequencies of Treg were negatively correlated with pDC and CD(4)(+) T cell in their newborns ( r(s) =-0.21, P =0.017; r(s) =-0.23, P =0.009). Conclusion: HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers might have inhibited the function of neonatal DC cells and T cells to reduce the immune response to HBV by up-regulating the proportion of Treg and finally increased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission.

  4. Social support among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents in Umlazi, South Africa: changes in family and partner relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2015-05-17

    Pregnancy is common among adolescents in South Africa, yet the social experiences of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum period remain understudied in this context. We aimed to explore how adolescent women's discovery and disclosure of both their pregnancy and HIV status affected their relationships with family members and sexual partners, with a particular focus on whether and how support changed throughout this time period. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescent women who were either pregnant or had delivered in the last 18 months from one urban clinic in Umlazi, South Africa. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. Young women described stress and instability in their relationships with family and partners during pregnancy and the postpartum period, though prior to and during HIV-status disclosure women generally experienced less stress than in disclosing their pregnancy to family members and partners. After a destabilizing period immediately following pregnancy disclosure, families became and remained the primary source of material and emotional support for the young women. Women discussed heightened closeness with their partners during pregnancy, but few women had close relationships with their partners postpartum. Support experiences did not differ by HIV status. Programs should be aware of the relative importance of pregnancy-related concerns over HIV-related concerns in this population of young women. Engaging family members is critical in ensuring social support for this population of young pregnant women, and in encouraging timely initiation of antenatal care.

  5. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  6. Relationships Between Simple Toe Elevation Angle in the Standing Position and Dynamic Balance and Fall Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Katsuhiko; Matsumoto, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationships between toe elevation ability in the standing position and dynamic balance and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional survey. General community. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 287). Toe elevation angles in the standing position. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements of the toe elevation angle was high (internal coefficient of correlation [ICC] (1,2) = 0.94 for the former and ICC (2,1) = 0.90 for the latter). Significant correlations were found between the toe elevation angle and age (r = -0.20, P fall in the previous 6 months had a significantly lower toe elevation angle compared with subjects who did not experience a fall (t = 2.19, P balance ability and appears to be a simple screening test for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Myeloperoxidase-Related Chlorination Activity Is Positively Associated with Circulating Ceruloplasmin in Chronic Heart Failure Patients: Relationship with Neurohormonal, Inflammatory, and Nutritional Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderville Cabassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Heart failure (HF is accompanied by the development of an imbalance between oxygen- and nitric oxide-derived free radical production leading to protein nitration. Both chlorinating and peroxidase cycle of Myeloperoxidase (MPO contribute to oxidative and nitrosative stress and are involved in tyrosine nitration of protein. Ceruloplasmin (Cp has antioxidant function through its ferroxidase I (FeOxI activity and has recently been proposed as a physiological defense mechanism against MPO inappropriate actions. Objective. We investigated the relationship between plasma MPO-related chlorinating activity, Cp and FeOxI, and nitrosative stress, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nutritional biomarkers in HF patients. Methods and Results. In chronic HF patients (n=81, 76 ± 9 years, NYHA Class II (26; Class III (29; Class IV (26 and age-matched controls (n=17, 75 ± 11 years, CTR, plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, FeOxI, nitrated protein, free Malondialdehyde, BNP, norepinephrine, hsCRP, albumin, and prealbumin were measured. Plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, BNP, norepinephrine, and hsCRP were increased in HF versus CTR. FeOxI, albumin, and prealbumin were decreased in HF. MPO-related chlorinating activity was positively related to Cp (r= 0.363, P<0.001, nitrated protein, hsCRP, and BNP and inversely to albumin. Conclusions. Plasma MPO chlorinated activity is increased in elderly chronic HF patients and positively associated with Cp, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nitrosative parameters suggesting a role in HF progression.

  8. Health enhancing coping as a mediator in relationships of positive emotionality and cognitive curiosity with quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalka Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes has been growing recently. This chronic disease is connected with lower perceived quality of life and experiencing a lot of stressful situations. Some of these situations can be anticipated. Thus, it is possible to prepare oneself for future difficult situations by using proactive coping strategies. The aim of this research was to verify the level of satisfaction with various areas of life, the frequency of use of proactive coping strategies in the case of type 2 diabetes patients and healthy individuals, as well as mediation role of these strategies in the relationship between positive emotionality, cognitive curiosity and perceived quality of life. One hundred and seventy four persons took part in the research: 85 persons with diabetes and 89 healthy individuals. We used instruments with recognized psychometric properties: The Proactive Coping Inventory, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-BREF, PANAS Questionnaire and State-Trait Personality Inventory. The analysis of the results showed, among other things, that people suffering from type 2 diabetes are the least satisfied with their health, and the most with their treatment and knowledge about the disease. Healthy individuals are the most satisfied with the physical domain and one’s present life, whereas the least satisfied with the environmental domain. Both groups differ in terms of using proactive coping strategies. People with diabetes most often adopt a preventive strategy, whereas healthy individuals a reflective one. Two strategies turned out to be able to mediate in the relationship of positive emotionality and life satisfaction in the diabetes group. It was a strictly proactive and preventive coping strategy. No mediation effect was found in the group of healthy people. The results show that in the face of anticipated difficulties, people with type 2 diabetes try to protect their current resources by

  9. Self-in-love versus self-in-stigma: implications of relationship quality and love attitudes on self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Mak, Winnie W S; Ho, Connie Y Y; Chidgey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effect of love attitude on the associations between relationship quality with self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Participants included 211 HIV-positive MSM (M age  = 41.77 years, SD = 11.10) and they were assessed on their relationship quality, love attitudes, HIV-positive self-stigma, and mental health. Structural equation modeling showed that the model fit the data well, χ 2 (50) = 152.80, p love attitude. The indirect effect of love attitude on mental health was significant through reduced self-stigma. The outcomes differed by the number of partners, partner's knowledge of HIV-positive status, relationship nature, and marital status. Implications for developing a positive self-in-love to diminish self-stigma were discussed.

  10. The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2014-08-12

    To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation--a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people--from various levels of deprivation--around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The electron trap parameter extraction-based investigation of the relationship between charge trapping and activation energy in IGZO TFTs under positive bias temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jihyun; Choi, Sungju; Kang, Hara; Kim, Jae-Young; Ko, Daehyun; Ahn, Geumho; Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sung-Jin; Myong Kim, Dong; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Experimental extraction of the electron trap parameters which are associated with charge trapping into gate insulators under the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors. This was done by combining the PBTS/recovery time-evolution of the experimentally decomposed threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) and the technology computer-aided design (TCAD)-based charge trapping simulation. The extracted parameters were the trap density (NOT) = 2.6 × 1018 cm-3, the trap energy level (ΔET) = 0.6 eV, and the capture cross section (σ0) = 3 × 10-19 cm2. Furthermore, based on the established TCAD framework, the relationship between the electron trap parameters and the activation energy (Ea) is comprehensively investigated. It is found that Ea increases with an increase in σ0, whereas Ea is independent of NOT. In addition, as ΔET increases, Ea decreases in the electron trapping-dominant regime (low ΔET) and increases again in the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission/hopping-dominant regime (high ΔET). Moreover, our results suggest that the cross-over ΔET point originates from the complicated temperature-dependent competition between the capture rate and the emission rate. The PBTS bias dependence of the relationship between Ea and ΔET suggests that the electric field dependence of the PF emission-based electron hopping is stronger than that of the thermionic field emission-based electron trapping.

  12. Females engage in stronger relationships: positive and negative effects of shrubs are more intense for Poa ligularis females than for males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Pamela; Aguiar, Martin R; Almeida, Rocio J

    2018-05-22

    Dioecious plants are of particular concern in view of global environmental changes because reproductive females are more sensitive to abiotic stresses, thus compromising population viability. Positive interactions with other plants may counteract the direct effects of any abiotic environmental stress, allowing them to thrive and maintain a viable population in suboptimal habitats, although this process has not been tested for dioecious species. Furthermore, almost no data are available on the outcome of such species interactions and their link with local spatial patterns and sex ratios. We set up a field experiment with Poa ligularis, a dioecious native grass from the arid grasslands of South America. We studied the interaction of male and female plants with cushion shrubs of contrasting ecological strategies. We experimentally limited direct shrub-grass competition for soil moisture and transplanted plants to evaluate the amelioration of abiotic stress by shrub canopies (i.e. sun and wind) on grasses. We also studied the distribution of naturally established female and male plants to infer process-pattern relationships. Positive canopy effects as well as negative below-ground effects were more intense for females than for males. Deep-rooted Mulinum spinosum shrubs strongly facilitated survival, growth and reproduction of P. ligularis females. Naturally established female plants tended to distribute more closely to Mulinum than co-occurring males. Female growth suffered intensive negative root competition from the shallow-rooted Senecio filaginoides shrub. Interactions with other plants may reduce or enhance the effect of abiotic stresses on the seemingly maladapted sex to arid environments. We found that these biased interactions are evident in the current organization of sexes in the field, confirming our experimental findings. Therefore, indirect effects of climate change on population sex ratios may be expected if benefactor species abundances are

  13. The Indirect Effect of Positive Parenting on the Relationship Between Parent and Sibling Bereavement Outcomes After the Death of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam T; Gabert-Quillen, Crystal; Friebert, Sarah; Carst, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    Families are referred to pediatric palliative care (PPC) programs when a child is diagnosed with a medical condition associated with less than a full life expectancy. When a child dies, PPC programs typically offer a range of bereavement interventions to these families, often focusing on parents. Currently, it is unclear which factors increase the likelihood that bereaved siblings will experience negative outcomes, limiting the development of empirically supported interventions that can be delivered in PPC programs. The present study explored the relationship between parents' and surviving sibling's mental health symptoms (i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], prolonged grief disorder (PGD), and depression symptoms) after a child's death. Additionally, the extent to which parent functioning indirectly impacted sibling functioning through parenting behaviors (i.e., positive parenting and parent involvement) was also examined, with a specific focus on differences based on parent gender. Sixty bereaved parents and siblings (aged 8-18) who enrolled in a PPC program from 2008 to 2013 completed measures of PTSD, PGD, and depression related to the loss of a child/sibling. Siblings also completed a measure of general parenting behaviors. Maternal, but not paternal, symptoms of PTSD and PGD were directly associated with sibling outcomes. Paternal symptoms were associated with sibling symptoms indirectly, through parenting behaviors (i.e., via decreasing positive parenting). These results underscore the importance of examining both maternal and paternal influences after the death of a child, demonstrate differential impact of maternal vs. paternal symptoms on siblings, and stress the importance of addressing postloss symptoms from a family systems perspective. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  15. The Enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: Assessing the relationship between internalising symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eKennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalising symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven Year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS - a universal school-based program targeting internalising symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-month follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalising symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as nine years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalising symptomology.

  16. Positive inotropic and vasodilator actions of milrinone in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Dose-response relationships and comparison to nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, B E; Fifer, M A; Wright, R F; Braunwald, E; Colucci, W S

    1985-01-01

    Milrinone is a potent positive inotropic and vascular smooth muscle-relaxing agent in vitro, and therefore, it is not known to what extent each of these actions contributes to the drug's hemodynamic effects in patients with heart failure. In 11 patients with New York Heart Association class III or IV congestive heart failure, incremental intravenous doses of milrinone were administered to determine the dose-response relationships for heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, and inotropic state, the latter measured by peak positive left ventricular derivative of pressure with respect to time (dP/dt). To clarify further the role of a positive inotropic action, the relative effects of milrinone and nitroprusside on left ventricular stroke work and dP/dt were compared in each patient at doses matched to cause equivalent reductions in mean arterial pressure or systemic vascular resistance, indices of left ventricular afterload. Milrinone caused heart rate, stroke volume, and dP/dt to increase, and systemic vascular resistance to decrease in a concentration-related manner. At the two lowest milrinone doses resulting in serum concentrations of 63 +/- 4 and 156 +/- 5 ng/ml, respectively, milrinone caused significant increases in stroke volume and dP/dt, but no changes in systemic vascular resistance or heart rate. At the maximum milrinone dose administered (mean serum concentration, 427 +/- 11 ng/ml), heart rate increased from 92 +/- 4 to 99 +/- 4 bpm (P less than 0.01), mean aortic pressure fell from 82 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than 0.01), right atrial pressure fell from 15 +/- 2 to 7 +/- 1 mmHg (P less than 0.005), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure fell from 26 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 3 (P less than 0.005), stroke volume index increased from 20 +/- 2 to 30 +/- 2 ml/m2 (P less than 0.005), stroke work index increased from 14 +/- 2 to 21 +/- 2 g X m/m2 (P less than 0.01), and dP/dt increased from 858 +/- 54 to 1,130 +/- 108 mmHg/s (P less than 0.005). When compared

  17. A narrative analysis positioning HIV relative to personal (sexual) relationship challenges in an agony aunt column in the Western Cape, South Africa - Aunty Mona's "love advice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions.

  18. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  19. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  20. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  1. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  2. A Closer Look at the Camp Experience: Examining Relationships between Life Skills, Elements of Positive Youth Development, and Antecedents of Change among Camp Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garst, Barry A.; Gagnon, Ryan J.; Whittington, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding program components that contribute to positive youth outcomes following camp experiences can help program providers bring a greater level of intentionality to their efforts. The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to develop reliable and valid measures of life skill development, elements of positive youth development (PYD), and…

  3. Relationship between presence of cows with milk positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Chuchaisangrat, Ruj; Nielen, Mirjam; Koets, Ad P

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive dairy farms studied the relationship between the number of cows with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody-positive milk and the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in settled-dust samples, including their temporal relationship. Milk and dust samples were collected in parallel monthly for 2 years. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in milk were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. Settled-dust samples were collected by using electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) at six locations in housing for dairy cattle and young stock. The presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified by liquid culture and PCR. The results showed a positive relationship (odds ratio [OR], 1.2) between the number of cows with ELISA-positive milk and the odds of having positive EDCs in the same airspace as the adult dairy cattle. Moreover, the total number of lactating cows also showed an OR slightly above 1. This relationship remained the same for settled-dust samples collected up to 2 months before or after the time of milk sampling. The results suggest that removal of adult cows with milk positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by ELISA might result in a decrease in the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust and therefore in the environment. However, this decrease is likely delayed by several weeks at least. In addition, the data support the notion that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposure of young stock is reduced by separate housing.

  4. Synthesis, in-vitro cytotoxicity of 1H-benzo[f]chromene derivatives and structure-activity relationships of the 1-aryl group and 9-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hany M; Fouda, Ahmed M; Khattab, Essam S A E H; Agrody, Ahmed M El-; Afifi, Tarek H

    2017-05-01

    A series of 1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitriles was synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 cancer cells. The SAR studies reported that the substitution in the phenyl ring at 1-position of 1H-benzo[f]chromene nucleus with the specific group, H atom, or methoxy group at 9-position increases the ability of the molecule against the different cell lines.

  5. Engaging Students in Constructive Youth-Adult Relationships: A Case Study of Urban School-Based Agriculture Students and Positive Adult Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, William A.; Martin, Michael J.; Tummons, John D.; Ball, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore the day-to-day functioning of a successful urban school-based agriculture veterinary program. Findings indicated student success was a product of multiple youth-adult relationships created through communal environments. Adults served as mentors with whom students felt constant, caring…

  6. An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…

  7. An Exploratory Path Model of the Relationships between Positive and Negative Adaptation to Cancer on Quality of Life among non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K.; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M.; Bailey, Donald E.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. Methods This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross sectional sample of NHL survivors (N=750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, at least two years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Results 68% of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (−0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately three times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; adaptation compared to those ≥65. Of the disease characteristics, comorbidity score had the strongest direct effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL. PMID:25751114

  8. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K

    1979-10-01

    Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.

  9. An exploratory path model of the relationships between positive and negative adaptation to cancer on quality of life among non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Smith, Sophia K; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M; Bailey, Donald E; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross-sectional sample of NHL survivors (N = 750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥ 18 years, at least 2 years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Sixty-eight percent of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (-0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately 3 times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL.

  10. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  11. On the spatial relationship between auroral emissions and magnetic signatures of plasma convection in the midday polar cusp and cap ionospheres during negative and positive IMF Bsub(z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.

    1986-03-01

    The dynamics of midday auroras, including polar cusp and cap emissions, and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been investigated with optical ground-based observations from Svalbard, Norway and IMF data from spacecraft ISEE-2. One case is presented showing the spatial relationship, along the magnetic meridian in the midday sector, between the cusp aurora and IMF Bγ-related convection currets (the DPY signature) for negative and positive values of IMF Bsub(z)

  12. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  13. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among extinct and extant turtles: the position of Pleurodira and the effects of the fossils on rooting crown-group turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterli, J.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the crown-group of turtles (Cryptodira + Pleurodira) is one of the most interesting topics in turtle evolution, second perhaps only to the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. The present contribution focuses on the former problem, exploring the phylogenetic

  15. In Search for H.E.R.O among Filipino Teachers: The Relationship of Positive Psychological Capital and Work-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Yeung, Susanna S.; Beguina, Leonora A.; Villarosa, Jonalyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent positive psychology literature has consistently demonstrated the link between PsyCap (composite score of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism--HERO) and employee productivity. However, most of these studies were conducted in industrial or organizational settings and have mostly examined the independent effect of hope, efficacy,…

  16. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantana, J.; Minemoto, T.; Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V OC before solar cell fabrication

  17. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho,Vera Regina Rodrigues; Silveira,Themis Reverbel da; Oliveira,Jarbas Rodrigues de; Barros,Sérgio Gabriel Silva de; Cerski,Carlos Thadeu Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP) and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated ...

  18. Is there a relationship between preferred posture and positioning in early life and the direction of subsequent asymmetrical postural deformity in non ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David; Michael, Shona; Kirkwood, Craig

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that asymmetrical positioning of an infant with reduced mobility may lead to postural deformity becoming established over time. However, evidence to support or question this line of thinking is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to test the association between asymmetrical positioning in the first 12 months of life and the subsequent direction of postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy. The direction of scoliosis, pelvic obliquity and windswept hip pattern and also the side of unilateral hip subluxation/dislocation were determined for 246 young people ranging in age from 1 year and 2 months to 19 years (median age 10 years and 3 months). Parents/carers of the participants were interviewed to establish holding and feeding positions and preferred lying posture adopted in early life. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. The study provided evidence of an association between asymmetrical lying posture adopted in the first year of life and the direction of the subsequent pattern of postural deformity. If the child's head had been rotated to the right during supine lying, it was more likely that the scoliosis would be convex to the left, pelvic obliquity would be lower on the left, windswept hip pattern would be to the right and hip subluxation/dislocation would occur on the left. The likelihood of the deformities occurring in the same direction was also increased if consistent side lying on the right had been preferred. Clinicians should be aware of positioning for children with severe disabilities particularly those who prefer supine lying with their head rotated to the side and those who prefer consistent side lying.

  19. Is there a relationship between foetal position and both preferred lying posture after birth and pattern of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D; Michael, S; Kirkwood, C

    2010-09-01

    A pattern of postural deformity was observed in a previous study that included an association between direction of spinal curvature and direction of windsweeping with more windswept deformities occurring to the right and lateral spinal curvatures occurring convex to the left. The direction of this pattern was found to be associated with preferred lying posture in early life. The aim of this study was to test the association between foetal position and both the preferred lying posture after birth, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective cohort study was carried out involving 60 participants at level five on the gross motor function classification for CP. Foetal position during the last month of pregnancy was taken from antenatal records and parents were interviewed to identify preferred lying posture in the first year of life. At the time of the physical assessment ages ranged from 1 year and 1 month to 19 years with a median age of 13 years and 1 month. Foetal presentation was found to be associated with the preferred lying posture with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral position more likely to adopt a supine head right lying posture, and vice versa. An association was also observed between the foetal position and asymmetrical postural deformity occurring later in life with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral presentation more likely to have a convex left spinal curve, a lower left pelvic obliquity, and a windswept hip pattern to the right. Clinicians should be aware of the association between foetal presentation, asymmetrical lying posture, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity for severely disabled children. A hypothesis is described that might help to explain these findings.

  20. Relationship between intratumoral expression of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen in estrogen receptor alpha-positive postmenopausal breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bièche, Ivan; Girault, Igor; Urbain, Estelle; Tozlu, Sengül; Lidereau, Rosette

    2004-01-01

    Little is known of the function and clinical significance of intratumoral dysregulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme expression in breast cancer. One molecular mechanism proposed to explain tamoxifen resistance is altered tamoxifen metabolism and bioavailability. To test this hypothesis, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of a large panel of genes coding for the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (12 phase I enzymes, 12 phase II enzymes and three members of the ABC transporter family) in a small series of normal breast (and liver) tissues, and in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-negative and ERα-positive breast tumors. Relevant genes were further investigated in a well-defined cohort of 97 ERα-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with primary surgery followed by adjuvant tamoxifen alone. Seven of the 27 genes showed very weak or undetectable expression in both normal and tumoral breast tissues. Among the 20 remaining genes, seven genes (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO5, NAT1, SULT2B1, GSTM3 and ABCC11) showed significantly higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in normal breast tissue, or showed higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in ERα-negative breast tumors. In the 97 ERα-positive breast tumor series, most alterations of these seven genes corresponded to upregulations as compared with normal breast tissue, with an incidence ranging from 25% (CYP2A6) to 79% (NAT1). Downregulation was rare. CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO5 and NAT1 emerged as new putative ERα-responsive genes in human breast cancer. Relapse-free survival was longer among patients with FMO5-overexpressing tumors or NAT1-overexpressing tumors (P = 0.0066 and P = 0.000052, respectively), but only NAT1 status retained prognostic significance in Cox multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.0013). Taken together, these data point to a role of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in breast tumorigenesis, NAT1 being an

  1. Relación entre el virus humano herpes 8 y el sarcoma de Kaposi en pacientes positivos y negativos para el VIH Relationship between human herpes virus 8 and Kaposi sarcomain HIV positive and negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ OROZCO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Parece existir una relación de causalidad entre la infección por el virus humano herpes 8 ( human Herpesvirus 8, HHV-8 y el desarrollo de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente en la población positiva para virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Objetivo. Fue determinar la relación entre los resultados serológicos positivos para HHV-8 y el sarcoma de Kaposi en pacientes positivos y negativos para VIH de Medellín, buscando la relación con distintas variables. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo, de cohorte, prospectivo, del suero de 98 pacientes de diferentes instituciones de salud de Medellín, los cuales se dividieron en cuatro grupos para determinar por inmunofluorescencia su seropositividad frente a HHV-8 y poder asociar en forma univariada y bivariada con diferentes variables. Resultados. Se estudiaron 98 sueros. En el grupo de pacientes con sarcoma de Kaposi y VIH, 83,3% fueron positivos para HHV- 8, en el grupo sin sarcoma de Kaposi pero con sífilis, 20,8% fueron positivos para HHV-8, en el grupo sin sarcoma de Kaposi pero VIH positivos, 8% fueron positivos para HHV-8 y en el grupo de sueros de banco de sangre, 4% fueron positivos para HHV-8. La presencia de sarcoma de Kaposi no tuvo relación con la evolución de la enfermedad por VIH ni con el recuento de CD4/ml. Conclusiones. El HHV-8 circula en nuestro medio y existe una relación entre la infección por este virus y el desarrollo de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente en pacientes con enfermedades de transmisión sexual y VIH positivos.Background: Apparently, there is a relationship between human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection and Kaposi´ sarcoma, especially in HIV-positive population. Objectives: To define the relationship between seropositivity against HHV- 8 and Kaposi´ sarcoma in an HIV positive and negative population from Medellín, looking for its relationship with different variables. Methods: It is a descriptive, cohort, prospective study which

  2. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  3. Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) at the mouse melanocortin receptors. 1. Modifications at the His position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jerry Ryan; Bauzo, Rayna M; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2002-06-20

    The melanocortin pathway is an important participant in obesity and energy homeostasis. The centrally located melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC3R, MC4R) are involved in the metabolic and food intake aspects of energy homeostasis and are stimulated by melanocortin agonists such as alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone (alpha-MSH). The melanocortin agonists contain the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp", and it has been well documented that inversion of chirality of the Phe to DPhe results in a dramatic increase in melanocortin receptor potency. Herein, we report a tetrapeptide library based on the template Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2), consisting of 17 members that have been modified at the His(6) position (alpha-MSH numbering) and pharmacologically characterized for agonist activity at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. These studies provide further experimental evidence that the His(6) position can determine MC4R versus MC3R agonist selectivity and that chemically nonreactive side chains may be substituted for the imidazole ring (generally needs to be side chain protected in synthetic schemes) in the design of MC4R-selective, small-molecule, non-peptide agonists. Specifically, the tetrapeptide containing the amino-2-naphthylcarboxylic acid (Anc) amino acid at the His position resulted in a potent agonist at the mMC4R (EC(50) = 21 nM), was a weak mMC3R micromolar antagonist (pA(2) = 5.6, K(i) = 2.5 microM), and possessed >4700-fold agonist selectivity for the MC4R versus the MC3R. Substitution of the His(6) amino acid in the tetrapeptide template by the Phe, Anc, 3-(2-thienyl)alanine (2Thi), and 3-(4-pyridinyl)alanine (4-Pal) resulted in equipotency or only up to a 7-fold decrease in potency, compared to the His(6)-containing tetrapeptide at the mMC4R, demonstrating that these amino acid side chains may be substituted for the imidazole in the design of MC4R-selective non-peptide molecules.

  4. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the form-function interface in African apes: Relationships between principal moments of area and positional behaviors in femoral and humeral diaphyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2005-07-01

    Investigations of cross-sectional geometry in nonhuman primate limb bones typically attribute shape ratios to qualitative behavioral characterizations, e.g., leaper, slow climber, brachiator, or terrestrial vs. arboreal quadruped. Quantitative positional behavioral data, however, have yet to be used in a rigorous evaluation of such shape-behavior connections. African apes represent an ideal population for such an investigation because their relatedness minimizes phylogenetic inertia, they exhibit diverse behavioral repertoires, and their locomotor behaviors are known from multiple studies. Cross-sectional data from femoral and humeral diaphyses were collected for 222 wild-shot specimens, encompassing Pan paniscus and all commonly recognized African ape subspecies. Digital representations of diaphyseal cross sections were acquired via computed tomography at three locations per diaphysis. Locomotor behaviors were pooled broadly into arboreal and terrestrial categories, then partitioned into quadrupedal walking, quadrumanous climbing, scrambling, and suspensory categories. Sex-specific taxonomic differences in ratios of principal moments of area (PMA) were statistically significant more often in the femoral diaphysis than the humeral diaphysis. While it appears difficult to relate a measure of shape (e.g., PMA ratio) to individual locomotor modes, general locomotor differences (e.g., percentage arboreal vs. terrestrial locomotion) are discerned more easily. As percentage of arboreal locomotion for a group increases, average cross sections appear more circular. Associations between PMA ratio and specific locomotor behaviors are less straightforward. Individual behaviors that integrate eccentric limb positions (e.g., arboreal scrambling) may not engender more circular cross sections than behaviors that incorporate repetitive sagittal movements (e.g., quadrupedal walking) in a straightforward manner. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  6. Relationship between Forest Color Characteristics and Scenic Beauty: Case Study Analyzing Pictures of Mountainous Forests at Sloped Positions in Jiuzhai Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important place for outdoor recreation and scenery appreciation. So in order to better meet the needs of the public, forest appreciation has received increasing attention from foresters in recent years. However, related research is still limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between forest colors (measured by specific elements and spatial indices of color and Scenic Beauty Estimation values. We researched Jiuzhai Valley in China by selecting 104 pictures to determine the scenic beauty estimation values of forests in a mountainous region. Quantitative color elements were extracted by programming on Matlab, and spatial indices of color patches were extracted by ArcGIS and FRAGSTATS. A total of 23 indices were obtained to explain the color characteristics of each forest picture. The results showed that the yellow and red colors were the main mutable colors of Jiuzhai Valley in autumn, but the color patches index had no significant change over time in that season. After partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis, we found that 14 color elements, eight color patch factors and six particular indices had an effect on the SBE values, which can then be used to efficiently measure and enhance the forest color beauty of Jiuzhai Valley.

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships of New Natural Product-Based Diaryloxazoles with Selective Activity against Androgen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Andrew J; McCowen, Shelby; Cai, Shengxin; Glassman, Michaels; Ruiz, Francisco; Cichewicz, Robert H; McHardy, Stanton F; Mooberry, Susan L

    2017-11-22

    Targeted therapies for ER+/PR+ and HER2-amplified breast cancers have improved patient survival, but there are no therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) that lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), or amplification or overexpression of HER2. Gene expression profiling of TNBC has identified molecular subtypes and representative cell lines. An extract of the Texas native plant Amyris texana was found to have selective activity against MDA-MB-453 cells, a model of the luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype of TNBC. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two oxazole natural products with selective activity against this cell line. Conducted analog synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies provided analogs with more potent and selective activity against two LAR subtype cell line models, culminating in the discovery of compound 30 (CIDD-0067106). Lead compounds discovered have potent and selective antiproliferative activities, and mechanisms of action studies show they inhibit the activity of the mTORC1 pathway.

  8. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  9. The death of recency: Relationship between end-state comfort and serial position effects in serial recall: Logan and Fischman (2011) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Fischman, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamic interaction between cognitive resources in short-term memory and bimanual object manipulation by extending recent research by Logan and Fischman (2011). In Experiment 1, 16 participants completed a bimanual end-state comfort task and a memory task requiring serial recall of 12 words or pictures. The end-state comfort task involved moving two glasses between two shelves. Participants viewed the items, performed the end-state comfort task, and then serially recalled the items. Recall was evaluated by the presence or absence of primacy and recency effects. The end-state comfort effect (ESCE) was assessed by the percentage of initial hand positions that allowed the hands to end comfortably. The main findings indicated that the ESCE was disrupted; the primacy effect remained intact; and the recency effect disappeared regardless of the type of memory item recalled. In Experiment 2, 16 participants viewed six items, performed an end-state comfort task, viewed another six items, and then serially recalled all 12 items. Results were essentially the same as in Experiment 1. Findings suggest that executing a bimanual end-state comfort task, regardless of when it is completed during a memory task, diminishes the recency effect irrespective of the type of memory item. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 at the mouse melanocortin receptors. Part 3: modifications at the Arg position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jerry Ryan; Xiang, Zhimin; Bauzo, Rayna M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2003-01-01

    The melanocortin pathway is involved in the regulation of several physiological functions including skin pigmentation, steroidogenesis, obesity, energy homeostasis, and exocrine gland function. This melanocortin pathway consists of five known G-protein coupled receptors, endogenous agonists derived from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcript, the endogenous antagonists Agouti and the Agouti-related protein (AGRP) and signals through the intracellular cAMP signal transduction pathway. The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) located in the brain are implicated as participating in the metabolic and food intake aspects of energy homeostasis and are stimulated by melanocortin agonists such as alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone (alpha-MSH). All the endogenous (POMC-derived) melanocortin agonists contain the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp." Herein, we report 12 tetrapeptides, based upon the template Ac-His(6)-DPhe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-NH(2) (alpha-MSH numbering) that have been modified at the Arg(8) position by neutral, basic, or acidic amino acid side chains. These peptides have been pharmacologically characterized for agonist activity at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. The most notable results of this study include the observation that removal of the guanidinyl side chain moiety results in decreased melanocortin receptor potency, but that this Arg(8) side chain is not critical for melanocortin receptor agonist activity. Additionally, incorporation of the homoArg(8) residue results in 56-fold MC4R versus MC3R selectivity, and the Orn(8) residue results in 123-fold MC4R versus MC5R and 63-fold MC5R versus MC3R selectivity. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) at the mouse melanocortin receptors: part 2 modifications at the Phe position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jerry Ryan; Bauzo, Rayna M; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2002-07-04

    The melanocortin pathway is an important participant in skin pigmentation, steroidogenesis, obesity, energy homeostasis and exocrine gland function. The centrally located melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC3R, MC4R) are involved in the metabolic and food intake aspects of energy homeostasis and are stimulated by melanocortin agonists such as alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone (alpha-MSH). The melanocortin agonists contain the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp," and it has been well-documented that inversion of chirality of the Phe to DPhe results in a dramatic increase in melanocortin receptor potency. Herein, we report a tetrapeptide library, based upon the template Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2), consisting of 26 members that have been modified at the DPhe(7) position (alpha-MSH numbering) and pharmacologically characterized for agonist and antagonist activity at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. The most notable results of this study include the identification of the tetrapeptide Ac-His-(pI)DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) that is a full nanomolar agonist at the mMC1 and mMC5 receptors, a mMC3R partial agonist with potent antagonist activity (pA(2) = 7.25, K(i) = 56 nM) and, but unexpectedly, is a potent agonist at the mMC4R (EC(50) = 25 nM). This ligand possesses novel melanocortin receptor pharmacology, as compared to previously reported peptides, and is potentially useful for in vivo studies to differentiate MC3R vs MC4R physiological roles in animal models, such as primates, where "knockout" animals are not viable options. The DNal(2') substitution for DPhe resulted in a mMC3R partial agonist with antagonist activity (pA(2) = 6.5, K(i) = 295 nM) and a mMC4R (pA(2) = 7.8, K(i) = 17 nM) antagonist possessing 60- and 425-fold decreased potency, respectively, as compared with SHU9119 at these receptors. Examination of this DNal(2')-containing tetrapeptide at the F254S and F259S mutant mMC4Rs resulted in agonist activity of this m

  12. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed.......The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...

  13. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  14. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  15. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  16. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...... women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated...

  17. Relationship between Widening and Position of the Tunnels and Clinical Results of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction to Knee Osteoarthritis: 30 Patients at a Minimum Follow-Up of 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Mejias, Juan Diego; Garcia-Gonzalez, Benjamin; Alcocer-Perez-España, Luis; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Berjano, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between tunnel position and widening and long-term clinical results in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, a retrospective cohort of 30 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with double semitendinous plus double gracilis (SAC technique) with longer than 10-year follow-up was selected. CT scans in the first 3 months and at final follow-up was evaluated. Position, angle, and widening of tunnels including Nebelung criteria were recorded in all CT scans. Physical, KT-1000, and clinical evaluation were performed at final follow-up. Outcomes and knee arthritis severity were evaluated at final follow-up. Mean follow-up was 11.2 ± 1.2. At final follow-up, 85 and 57% of tibial and femoral tunnels, respectively, developed some degree of enlargement. Frontal tibial angle (mean) was 72°, sagittal tibial angle 63°, frontal femoral angle 47°, sagittal femoral angle 20°, and tunnels divergence angle 36°. Preoperatively, KT-1000 30L and Lachman test scores were 5.52 and 5.79 respectively. In the last follow-up, 30L and manual Lachman test scores were 0.97 and 1.13, respectively ( p  verticalization. Tibial tunnel dilation was associated with long-term degenerative changes but not with final knee instability. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  19. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  20. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  1. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  2. Early mother-child attachment and behavior problems in middle childhood: the role of the subsequent caregiving environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin E; Scott, Marc A; McCormick, Meghan P; Weinberg, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated associations between early mother-child attachment, as well as mother-child and teacher-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in middle childhood. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Findings from a series of individual growth curve analyses revealed that attachment security was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors, while insecure/other and avoidant attachment were positively related to internalizing behaviors. In addition, longitudinal associations were found between mother-child and teacher-child relationships and internalizing and externalizing behaviors across middle childhood. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  3. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  4. Comparative Functional Alanine Positional Scanning of the α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and NDP-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Demonstrates Differential Structure-Activity Relationships at the Mouse Melanocortin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Aleksandar; Ericson, Mark D; Palusak, Ryan D; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Wood, Michael S; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2016-07-20

    The melanocortin system has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions including melanogenesis, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, and feeding behavior. Five melanocortin receptors have been identified to date and belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Post-translational modification of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) prohormone leads to the biosynthesis of the endogenous melanocortin agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, γ-MSH, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). All the melanocortin agonists derived from the POMC prohormone contain a His-Phe-Arg-Trp tetrapeptide sequence that has been implicated in eliciting the pharmacological responses at the melanocortin receptors. Herein, an alanine (Ala) positional scan is reported for the endogenous α-MSH ligand and the synthetic, more potent, NDP-MSH peptide (Ac-Ser(1)-Tyr(2)-Ser(3)-Nle(4)-Glu(5)-His(6)-DPhe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Gly(10)-Lys(11)-Pro(12)-Val(13)-NH2) at the cloned mouse melanocortin receptors to test the assumption that the structure-activity relationships of one ligand would apply to the other. Several residues outside of the postulated pharmacophore altered potency at the melanocortin receptors, most notably the 1560-, 37-, and 15-fold potency loss when the Glu(5) position of α-MSH was substituted with Ala at the mMC1R, mMC3R, and mMC4R, respectively. Importantly, the altered potencies due to Ala substitutions in α-MSH did not necessarily correlate with equivalent Ala substitutions in NDP-MSH, indicating that structural modifications and corresponding biological activities in one of these melanocortin ligands may not be predictive for the other agonist.

  5. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  6. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Results Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB(controls or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 ± 0.021 %·min-1 and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 ± 0.029 %·min-1. In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: fluxglycogen = 72.543(fluxATP + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Conclusion Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i a net glycogen synthesis, (ii the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin

  8. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet-Blanco, Laurence; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent; Gallis, Jean-Louis

    2005-11-21

    There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB)(controls) or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 +/- 0.021 % x min(-1) and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 +/- 0.029 % x min(-1). In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: flux(glycogen) = 72.543(fluxATP) + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i) a net glycogen synthesis, (ii) the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin resistance due to the action of substrates

  9. The strategic research positioning:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    to provide new insights into ‘immigrant’ parents’ perspective on home/school partnership in Denmark. The majority of the immigrant parents came from non-Western countries, and they had already been ‘labelled’ difficult in terms of home/school partnership. This calls for what I call ‘strategic research...... positioning’, meaning critical reflections about the relationship and power balance between the researcher and the researched. The paper focus' on challenges and dilemmas linked to this position....

  10. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  11. FRANCHISOR-FRANCHISEE RELATIONSHIP QUALITY: TIME OF RELATIONSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Varotto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchise literature disputes how the relationship between franchisors and franchisees develops over time. Traditional lifecycle theory views relationships following an ascendant curve, in which relationship quality and performance strengthen over time. Another perspective better reflects the peculiarities of the franchisor-franchisee relationship, indicating that relationship quality in franchise systems follows a U-shaped curve. There is also limited research on the moderating effect of time on the relationship between relational variables and outcomes. This study sheds light on the influence of relationship duration on relationship quality and financial performance in the franchisee-franchisor relationship. Using a self-report survey from a sample of 342 franchisees, mean and regression analyses are conducted to test relationships. Results confirm the time effect on franchisor-franchisee relationship quality and performance, but the hypothesized shape of relationship phases is only partially confirmed. Moreover, time has a positive moderating effect on the impact of relationship quality on financial performance.

  12. The Value of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of positive interpersonal relationships in developing an effective leadership style. It provides recommendations for developing effective relations with subordinates, vendors and suppliers, and bosses. Advice for dealing with low self-esteem concludes the article. (GR)

  13. Building Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaj, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Communicating with parents may seem like one more task on top of an overwhelming workload, but creating a positive relationship with parents has many benefits for all involved. The author discusses the steps to creating these relationships and communicating with families.

  14. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  15. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  16. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  17. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantana, J., E-mail: jakapan@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Minemoto, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K. [Environment and Energy Research Center, Nitto Denko Corporation, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-25

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V{sub OC} before solar cell fabrication.

  18. Remembering the Good Times: The Influence of Relationship Nostalgia on Relationship Satisfaction Across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Allen B; Spencer, Chelsea M; Kimmes, Jonathan G; Pollitt, Amanda M

    2018-02-11

    We conducted two studies to understand if reminiscing about early parts of a romantic relationship can increase positive affect and relationship satisfaction. In Study 1, we examined the psychometrics of an adapted relationship nostalgia measure, if relationship nostalgia changes positive affect, and if relationship nostalgia and relationship satisfaction are associated. In Study 2, we tested the longitudinal link between relationship nostalgia and relationship satisfaction. Rather than increasing positive affect, relationship nostalgia is associated with a movement toward emotional homeostasis. Additionally, relationship nostalgia is positively associated with relationship satisfaction at the same time point but in the short term, the association is negative-long term, this association disappears. Implications for using a relationship history in therapy are discussed. © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  20. Forming the Mentor-Mentee Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A positive mentor-mentee relationship is essential for the mentee's development of teaching practices. As mentors can hold the balance of power in the relationship with preservice teachers, how do mentors develop positive mentor-mentee relationships? This multi-case study involved: (a) written responses from over 200 teachers involved in a…

  1. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  2. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Older Sibling in the Context of Other Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Examined 11th graders' perceived relationships with older sibling in the context of adolescent-parent and adolescent-peer relationships. Found that relationships with older siblings were similar to relationships with parents and peers. Positive sibling relationships contributed to emotional and school-related support beyond the contribution of…

  3. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  4. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND SLEEP QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert G.; Uchino, Bert N.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Bowen, Kimberly; Smith, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The quality of social relationships and social support appears to be associated with physical health outcomes and sleep quality. Almost all previous research in this area focuses on positive aspects of relationships. Purpose The present study thus intended to examine the links between supportive, aversive, ambivalent, and indifferent network ties and sleep quality. Methods Relationship data, PSQI-assessed sleep quality, and depression were examined in 175 middle-aged and older adults. Results Consistent with hypotheses, supportive ties were positively related to sleep quality, while aversive ties predicted worse sleep quality; associations that were primarily seen for close relationships. Ambivalent and indifferent ties were not significant predictors of sleep quality. Importantly, depression was found to mediate the link between relationship quality and sleep quality. Conclusions These data suggest the more specific types of social relationships that may be linked to poor sleep quality, and that depression appears to underlie these associations. PMID:25976874

  5. Relationship of Perceived Stress, Perfectionism and Social Support with Students’ Academic Burnout and -Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourseyyed SM

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.

  6. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  7. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  8. Scientific habits of mind: A reform of structure and relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Linda Beth

    celebrated by both parents. The time has come to include scientific habits of mind in science education reform. The time has come for science education reform to espouse fun and playfulness, large blocks of unstructured time, responsibility and trust, emotional support, and caring teacher-child relationships. The time has come to listen to the voices of our young scientists.

  9. Commentary: Positive Youth Development Goes Mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A

    2017-07-01

    Evidence has accumulated that confirms the success of a positive youth development (PYD) approach. Importantly, a positive development approach is just that-an approach. It is not a particular program or curriculum but a set of practices designed to achieve one or more positive outcomes. As such, PYD practices can be added onto other programs to make positive outcomes more likely. For example, a tutoring program can work hard to hire and train staff to work with students in a trusting, respectful relationship. Camp counselors can be encouraged to build rapport and positive bonds among the campers. © 2017 The Author. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Minding the close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J H; Omarzu, J

    1997-01-01

    In this theoretical analysis, we argue that a process referred to as minding is essential for a couple to feel mutually close and satisfied in a close relationship over a long period Minding represents a package of mutual self-disclosure, other forms of goal-oriented behavior aimed at facilitating the relationship, and attributions about self's and other's motivations, intentions, and Mort in the relationship. Self-disclosure and attribution activities in minding are aimed at getting to know the other, trying to understand the other's motivations and deeper disposition as they pertain to the relationship, and showing respect and acceptance for knowledge gained about other. We link the concept of minding to other major ideas and literatures about how couples achieve closeness: self-disclosure and social penetration, intimacy, empathy and empathic accuracy, and love and self-expansion. We argue that the minding process articulated here has not previously been delineated and that it is a useful composite notion about essential steps in bonding among humans. We also argue that the minding concept stretches our understanding of the interface of attribution and close relationships. We present research possibilities and implications and consider possible alternative positions and counter arguments about the merits of the minding idea for close relationship satisfaction.

  11. Internet mediated adolescent relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute towards the comprehension of the adhesion of adolescent to digital technologies and their usage in the search for or consolidation of relationships with their peers. The objective was to analyze the role of blogs in the maintenance and establishment of relationships among adolescents from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Three boys’ blogs and three girls’ blogs were selected, and five pages of each blog were selected, in a total of 30 pages. Categories were elaborated from reading the posts left at the 30 pages and subsequently used to classify and quantify the posts. Messages and comments left at the blogs had a positive affective connotation, in search for approximation and contact with the blog owner. Messages were also noted for gender differences. It was concluded that some determined patterns of offline interaction guided the establishment of online relationships.

  12. Abundance-range size relationships in stream vegetation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    thecultivated lowlands of Denmark, we examined the overall relationship betweenlocal abundance and geographical range size of the vascular flora. We found asignificant positive relationship for all species at all stream localities andan even stronger relationship for ecologically similar species...

  13. Interpersonal relationships in education : an overview of contemporary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubbels, Th.; Brok, den P.J.; Tartwijk, van J.W.F.; Levy, J.

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together recent research on interpersonal relationships in education. Clearly, positive teacher-student relationships strongly contribute to student learning. Problematic relationships on the other hand can be detrimental to student outcomes and development. Productive learning

  14. Relationships matter: contraceptive choices among HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended ...

  15. Positive Parenting: Building Healthy Relationships with Your Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crnic KA. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2014;43(5):751-764. doi:10.1080/ ... Information Act No Fear Act Office of Inspector General USA.gov – Government Made Easy NIH…Turning Discovery ...

  16. Relationship Marketing in Retail Companies: Positive and Negative Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cléria Donizete da Silva Lourenço; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE LAVRAS; Ricardo de Souza Sette; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE LAVRAS

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender as relações de trocas comerciais sob a ótica dos clientes, funcionários e proprietários de empresas varejistas. A pesquisa, de natureza qualitativa, foi feita utilizando-se como método a etnografia. Os dados foram coletados em cinco empresas varejistas de um município de pequeno porte no Sul de Minas Gerais – um supermercado, uma farmácia, uma panificadora, um posto de combustív...

  17. The positive relationship between ocean acidification and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-02-15

    Ocean acidification and pollution coexist to exert combined effects on the functions and services of marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification can increase the biotoxicity of heavy metals by altering their speciation and bioavailability. Marine pollutants, such as heavy metals and oils, could decrease the photosynthesis rate and increase the respiration rate of marine organisms as a result of biotoxicity and eutrophication, facilitating ocean acidification to varying degrees. Here we review the complex interactions between ocean acidification and pollution in the context of linkage of multiple stressors to marine ecosystems. The synthesized information shows that pollution-affected respiration acidifies coastal oceans more than the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Coastal regions are more vulnerable to the negative impact of ocean acidification due to large influxes of pollutants from terrestrial ecosystems. Ocean acidification and pollution facilitate each other, and thus coastal environmental protection from pollution has a large potential for mitigating acidification risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insight in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Positive, Negative and Neurocognitive Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Boban; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of insight is considered as the hallmark of schizophrenia. Substantial proportion of patients with schizophrenia has either poor or absent insight. Insight is a multidimensional and dynamic construct which appears to have intricate links with other symptom dimensions of the psychotic illness. A better appreciation of the association that insight shares with other symptom clusters in psychosis could help us in gaining knowledge about aetiology, prognosis and treatment-related facets of the disorder. This is likely to have critical implications in the understanding and therapeutics of schizophrenia. PMID:25722504

  19. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  20. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  1. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine

    2016-01-01

    -scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). RESULTS...

  2. The evolutionary position of nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojobori Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans, an insect (Drosophila melanogaster, and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens. Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion We conclude that insects (arthropods are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.

  3. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.

  4. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  5. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little…

  6. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  7. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  8. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  9. Occupying the Principal Position: Examining Relationships between Transformational Leadership, Social Network Position, and Schools' Innovative Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, educational policy makers, practitioners, and scholars have acknowledged the importance of principal leadership in the generation and implementation of innovations. In many studies, transformational leadership has emerged as a promising approach in response to increasing demands to develop and implement innovations in…

  10. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed.

  11. Positive criminology in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Motivating students through positive learning experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students’ emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students’ reports on the experiential qualities...... of three different learning designs, their respective influence on students’ motivation for learning is discussed with the purpose of exploring the relationship between positive emotions, engagement and intrinsic motivation for learning. Our study thus aims at evaluating the motivational elements...

  13. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities following disclosure of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, C Aramburu

    2010-12-01

    • Transsexual persons are increasing their visibility in society, and health care providers and others (such as social workers) will be called upon to help with issues that transsexual persons face. Challenges that face transsexual persons often include issues involving relationships. Psychiatric and mental health nurses and other caregivers can increase their therapeutic skills in working with couples that include transsexual persons by becoming aware of these challenges and subsequent activities that can help with them. • This research study looks at couple relationships in which one partner reveals male-to-female transsexual identity. These are relationships that were established as man-woman and now will transition into relationships that include a male-to-female person and a female partner. • Common challenges for these couples include issues related to: (1) sexual identity and relationship uncertainty; (2) male-to-female transition decision making; and (3) presenting in public. • Relationship maintenance activities that helped the couples in the study maintain and strengthen their relationships through these challenges include: (1) communication; (2) self-talk (for example, putting the situation in perspective); (3) social networks; (4) positive interactions; (5) impression management (for example, managing displays of affection in public); and (6) social activism. This qualitative study describes the relational dynamics that help sustain relationships of couples that include male-to-female transsexual persons (MTF) and their natal female partners (NF) following disclosure of transsexualism. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities are identified. Each partner in 17 MTF-NF couples participated in individual surveys and interviews. The data were coded for themes related to relationship challenges and activities. MTF-NF couples experience challenges within the contexts of their relationships and of society. These challenges

  14. Teachers as Therapeutic Agents: Perceptions of a School-Based Mental Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Natalya A.; Taylor, Dalena Dillman; Meany-Walen, Kristin K.; Purswell, Katherine; Jayne, Kimberly; Gonzales, Terri; Jones, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Teacher-child relationship building (TCRB) is a play-based professional development programme adapted from kinder training and filial therapy. Intended for early education teachers and students, TCRB is designed to strengthen the teacher-child relationship, improve student behaviour, enhance academic involvement and develop teachers' classroom…

  15. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper......-­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... for the same reasons – that the growing amount of digitized communication “out there” represents data waiting to be sifted, analyzed and decoded. In this paper “Facebook behavior” refers to a particular behavior characterized by presenting your self and representations of selected self in the hope of getting...

  16. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    “The common good” is a contested concept both presently and historically. The contestation takes place both through definitions and concrete practices of gift-giving at the messy and blurred intersection between state, marked and civil society. From the Danish constitution of 1849 until today......-giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... to trace the networks of concepts and practices of the “common good” in a historical perspective. Second, it presents an empirical analysis of how a corporate philanthropic foundation, the Egmont Foundation from Denmark, through concrete gift-giving practices and concepts plays an important role in shaping...

  17. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Mørck, Line Lerche; Nissen, Poul Erik

    En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi.......En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi....

  18. Modern management positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze contemporary managerial positions such as program manager, project portfolio manager, crisis manager and others. The idea is to promote managerial positions in Serbia, which is quite unjustifiably undervalued, primarily because of the lack of knowledge in the field of management and other issues related to management education.

  19. Positioning and locking apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  20. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  1. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Review of Positional Nystagmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio BENITO-OREJAS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Any change of position of the head (dynamic or static can trigger a nystagmus or increase the spontaneous. This nystagmus we call it positional. We intend to review in this chapter its definition, clinical features, etiology and the way of exploring it. Method: narrative review. Results: Positional vertigo is the most frequent vestibular disorder, and most of the times of peripheral cause. Characteristics of nystagmus or its association with other neurological symptoms are sufficient grounds to request a magnetic resonance, which will provide additional information on very few occasions. Discussion: The study of the positional nystagmus as a procedure to rule out central pathology has lost much of its relevance. Signs that Nylén defined mixed findings peripheral and central, making complex classification. Conclusion: Regardless of how to bring the patient change position (very slow or fast, if it appears an atypical nystagmus should rule out a central origin.

  3. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  4. PEER INTERACTIONS AND POSITIVE STUDENT-LECTURER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to interrogate the role played by peer interactions in the teaching and learning of College Algebra in a classroom setting. It also explores the impact of positive student-lecturer relationship on teaching and learning of College Algebra at the university level and the general improvement of student ...

  5. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  6. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  7. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen introducerer til de mange metoder, som anvendes i positiv psykologi. dette sker ud fra en reflekteret tilgang, der ligeledes rummer bidrag fra kritisk psykologi med det formål at nuancere den positive psykologis forståelser...

  8. Clinical Positioning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Lars Peter Hedegaard; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Rytter, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of residents’ clinical experiences and communication in outpatient oncology consultations. We apply positioning theory, a dynamic alternative to role theory, to investigate how oncology residents and patients situate themselves as persons with rights...... and duties. Drawing from seven qualitative interviews and six days of observation, we investigate the residents’ social positioning and their conversations with patients or supervisors. Our focus is on how (a) relational shifts in authority depend on each situation and its participants; (b) storylines...... establish acts and positions and narratively frame what participants can expect from a medical consultation viewed as a social episode; and (c) the positioning of rights and duties can lead to misunderstandings and frustrations. We conclude that residents and patients locate themselves in outpatient...

  9. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  10. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-01-01

    The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in...

  11. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  12. Position measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Shuichi; Maruyama, Mayumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device capable of measuring accurate position and distance easily even at places where operator can not easily access, such as cell facilities for vitrifying radioactive wastes. Referring to a case of the vitrifying cell, an objective equipment settled in the cell is photographed by a photographing device. The image is stored in a position measuring device by way of an image input device. After several years, when the objective equipment is exchanged, a new objective equipment is photographed by a photographing device. The image is also stored in the position measuring device. The position measuring device compares the data of both of the images on the basis of pixel unit. Based on the image of the equipment before the exchange as a reference, extent of the displacement of the installation position of the equipment on the image after the exchange caused by installation error and manufacturing error is determined to decide the position of the equipment after exchange relative to the equipment before exchange. (I.S.)

  13. The role of social network sites in romantic relationships: Effects on jealousy and relationship happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship

  14. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  15. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  17. Position indication apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T

    1964-02-24

    A plurality of magnetically operated switches are spaced equally in the hollow tube of a control rod actuating mechanism. One side of each switch is connected, via a low resistance, to a corresponding tap of a low resistance voltage divider network consisting of an equivalent number of low resistance sections with the opposite side of each switch connected to a common conducting wire A. To both ends of the voltage dividing network are connected, respectively, conducting wires B and C. Wires A, B, and C are further coupled to a fuel rod position indicator comprising a voltmeter and power source external to the control rod actuating member. The control rod actuating member is adapted to slide in the hollow tube so that switches passing a position facing a magnet secured to the lower end of the actuating member are rendered closed. Hence, the position of the control rod may be read by reading the voltage off the meter.

  18. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  19. Positioning and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowski Jerzy B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents national report of Poland for IAG on positioning and applications. The selected research presented was carried out at leading Polish research institutions and concern precise multi-GNSS satellite positioning - relative and absolute - and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research resulted in noticeable advancements in these subjects confirmed by the development of new algorithms and methods. New and improved methods of precise GNSS positioning were developed, and also GNSS metrology was studied. New advanced troposphere models were presented and tested. In particular, these models allowed testing IPW variability on regional and global scales. Also, new regional ionosphere monitoring web-based services were developed and launched.

  20. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  1. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  2. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  4. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions...... the relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...

  5. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  6. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  7. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  8. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  9. Positionality at the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vanner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a Western feminist supporting and researching gender equality in education in postcolonial contexts, I often wonder: Am I doing more harm than good? The privilege of my social location means that my efforts to support education in postcolonial contexts risk being patronizing, insulting, threatening, imperialist, and recolonizing. Yet neglecting and ignoring postcolonial contexts similarly reflects and reproduces a privileged position. I provide a tentative framework designed to address positionality, power, and privilege while creating an ethical research process for working in a postcolonial context. Beginning with an identification of positionality, the objectives of research, and guiding theoretical frameworks to situate the research in relation to the participants and context, I proceed to establish a methodology designed to minimize the negative effects of power and maximize participants’ empowerment. I position myself as a bricoleur, layering feminist standpoint theory and postcolonial theory, and propose the collaborative data collection and analysis techniques, with particular attention to ethical and cultural sensitivity, using a social constructivist approach to grounded theory. This article highlights the need for Western researchers to reflect upon the power dynamics of their research in postcolonial contexts and develop a strategy for conducting empowering research that prevents the misrepresentation and exploitation of participants. Observations from my doctoral thesis data collection provide examples of how these concepts were operationalized in practice as well as reflections on the disconnect between theorizing and conducting ethical research in postcolonial contexts.

  10. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  11. Managing creativity in business market relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The guest editors' introduction to the Special Issue on managing creativity in business market relationships positions the topic at the intersection between interorganizational research and creativity research. It introduces three paradoxes that managers of such processes face: a) the tension...

  12. Positive affect and markers of inflammation: discrete positive emotions predict lower levels of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; John-Henderson, Neha; Anderson, Craig L; Gordon, Amie M; McNeil, Galen D; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Negative emotions are reliably associated with poorer health (e.g., Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002), but only recently has research begun to acknowledge the important role of positive emotions for our physical health (Fredrickson, 2003). We examine the link between dispositional positive affect and one potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health-proinflammatory cytokines, specifically levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We hypothesized that greater trait positive affect would be associated with lower levels of IL-6 in a healthy sample. We found support for this hypothesis across two studies. We also explored the relationship between discrete positive emotions and IL-6 levels, finding that awe, measured in two different ways, was the strongest predictor of lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines. These effects held when controlling for relevant personality and health variables. This work suggests a potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health through proinflammatory cytokines. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Does group efficacy increase group identification? Resolving their paradoxical relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Although group identification and group efficacy are both important predictors of collective action against collective disadvantage, there is mixed evidence for their (causal) relationship. Meta-analytic and correlational evidence suggests an overall positive relationship that has been interpreted

  14. Couples with dementia: Positioning the 'we'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, Lars-Christer; Nilsson, Elin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how spouses in couples with dementia position themselves in relation to each other by analysing their use of pronouns, especially the we. The study uses joint interviews with 11 couples. Based on a quantitative analysis of pronoun use, it is argued that the pronoun we is used by all the spouses; however, it is used less frequently by the spouses with dementia in comparison with healthy spouses. A qualitative analysis of the use of the pronoun we shows that the spouses position, experience and consider themselves as a couple and that they position and experience themselves as individuals in relation to the couple. One of the challenges for couples with dementia is to be able to retain a we in face of the progression of the dementia disease. By positioning themselves in various ways, the spouses establish and negotiate quite a complex and emotionally charged web of relationships. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  16. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  17. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  18. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  19. Spatial Search, Position Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB

    2014-01-01

    The Spatial Search specialist meeting in Santa Barbara (December 2014) brought together 35 academic and industry representatives from computational, geospatial, and cognitive sciences with interest in focused discussions on the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda to advance spatial search from scientific and engineering viewpoints. The position papers from participants represent the shared expertise that guided discussions and the formulation of research questions about proces...

  20. Barebacking and sexual position

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy-Bowers, M.; Hardy, S.; McKeown, E.

    2015-01-01

    Bareback sex continues to fuel the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men but despite the fact that much academic attention has been focused on the sexual behaviour of this population few authors have considered the significance of sexual position. In order to explore this relatively under-examined factor, interviews were conducted with 13 HIV-negative and unknown status gay men who had recently engaged in bareback sex. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and through the lens...

  1. Review of HRP Positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  2. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  3. Improving Music Teaching through Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships are fundamental to learning and human development. To develop a positive and safe classroom environment with student motivation and learning, music educators need to learn to relate and connect effectively with others. This article looks at the importance of the interpersonal relationships in the classroom environment…

  4. Perceived Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Lempers, Jacques D.

    2004-01-01

    Utilizing longitudinal, 3-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, and target children) in 374 families, the potential effects of sibling relationships on adolescent development across early and middle adolescence were investigated. Adolescents who perceived their sibling relationships more positively at Time 1 tended to…

  5. Putting Relationship Maintenance into Proper Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Carlos G.

    Noting that scholars often agree that varying investigations of relationship maintenance are only different mappings of the same territory, this paper organizes and criticizes the literature on relationship change from a position that defines maintenance as behavior that functions to sustain interpersonal bonds towards future interaction. The…

  6. Winning relationships through customer service: initial contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R P

    1994-08-01

    First impressions last, and can have an impact on all future contact with a new patient. By using each initial contact with a new patient to begin building a strong relationship, a practice can be positioned for success. This article explores relationship building techniques.

  7. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivinen, Jussi; Grapputo, Alessandro; Kaitala, Veijo; Komonen, Atte; Kotiaho, Janne S; Saarinen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2005-03-01

    Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals), we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  8. Position indicating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellchenfeld, M.M.; Connors, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a position indicating device for producing an indication of the position of a displaceable structure comprising: a position representing member mounted for movement in response to displacement of the structure; sensing elements spaced apart along the defined path such that each element is associated with a respective location along the defined path; means operatively coupling the elements into respective pairs of elements, having, for each pair of elements, an output producing a signal only when a single element of its respective pair is responding to the presence of the member; signal producing members each operative for producing a signal representing a predetermined logic state in response to a predetermined input signal, the number of the signal producing members being smaller than the number of the sensing elements; and circuit means operatively connecting the outputs to the signal producing members for causing a signal at each output to produce a predetermined input signal at a corresponding signal producing member and for causing a predetermined input signal to be produced at least one the signal producing member whenever a signal is present at either one of at least two of the outputs

  9. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  10. Beam Position Monitor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1996-07-01

    The design of beam position monitors often involves challenging system design choices. Position transducers must be robust, accurate, and generate adequate position signal without unduly disturbing the beam. Electronics must be reliable and affordable, usually while meeting tough requirements on precision. accuracy, and dynamic range. These requirements may be difficult to achieve simultaneously, leading the designer into interesting opportunities for optimization or compromise. Some useful techniques and tools are shown. Both finite element analysis and analytic techniques will be used to investigate quasi-static aspects of electromagnetic fields such as the impedance of and the coupling of beam to striplines or buttons. Finite-element tools will be used to understand dynamic aspects of the electromagnetic fields of beams, such as wake-fields and transmission-line and cavity effects in vacuum-to-air feed through. Mathematical modeling of electrical signals through a processing chain will be demonstrated, in particular to illuminate areas where neither a pure time-domain nor a pure frequency-domain analysis is obviously advantageous. Emphasis will be on calculational techniques, in particular on using both time-domain and frequency domain approaches to the applicable parts of interesting problems

  11. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  12. Brand positioning through banking services' offer: Serbian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Novčić Branka; Damnjanović Vesna; Filipović Vinka

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this paper relates to the determination of interdependent relationship of the key elements necessary for the positioning of brands in the banking market in Serbia. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the way in which managers of banks in Serbia perceived brand positioning of banks in which they work, and the value of the customer service offer - corporate clients. Research focuses on identifying and comparing the dependent relationships between the key elements of offers'...

  13. Ancestral Relationships Using Metafounders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarra, Andres; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2015-01-01

    Recent use of genomic (marker-based) relationships shows that relationships exist within and across base population (breeds or lines). However, current treatment of pedigree relationships is unable to consider relationships within or across base populations, although such relationships must exist...

  14. Position paper on digital communication in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication offers advantages and challenges to dental practice. As dentistry becomes comfortable with this technology, it is essential that commercial and other values not be accepted on a par with professional ones and that the traditional dentist-patient relationship not be compromised by inserting third parties that introduce nonprofessional standards. The Officers and Regents of the American College of Dentist have prepared this background and position paper as a guide to the ethical use of digital communication in dental practice.

  15. The positionality of Localhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop an explanatory framework to understand the dynamic relationships between tourism mobilities, urban gentrification and the collaborative (peer) economy. The rapid growth of peer accommodation rental in European cities is reshaping the spatial patterns...... of urban tourism, resulting in a wider dispersion of visitors and the emergence of new nodes (Dredge et al. 2016). Although the highest densities of peer accommodation rental are located in the city centres and around major attractions (Arias Sans & Quaglieri Domínguez, 2016; Gutiérrez et al. 2017......), there is also some indication of Airbnb’s “beaten track” extending to residential areas. New tourism nodes are clustered around “localhoods” and reframe tourism consumption around mundane activities, leading to the commodification of everyday life (Richards, 2017). While there is considerable discussion...

  16. Developmental Links Between Disobedient Behavior and Social Classroom Relationships in Boys With Psychiatric Disorders in Special Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, N.T.

    2015-01-01

    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream

  17. Developmental Links Between Disobedient Behavior and Social Classroom Relationships in Boys With Psychiatric Disorders in Special Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D. Breeman; P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); T. Wubbels; F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Maras (Athanasios); J.A.B. Hopman; N.T. Tick (Nouchka Tamar)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from

  18. Developmental links between disobedient behavior and social classroom relationships in boys with psychiatric disorders in special education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka

    2015-01-01

    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream

  19. Positively deflected anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the so-called 'deflected anomaly mediation' scenario to the case where threshold corrections of heavy messengers to the sparticle squared masses are positive. A concrete model realizing this scenario is also presented. The tachyonic slepton problem can be fixed with only a pair of messengers. The resultant sparticle mass spectrum is quite different from that in the conventional deflected anomaly mediation scenario, but is similar to the one in the gauge mediation scenario. The lightest sparticle is mostly B-ino

  20. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.